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"STAMMERING-SCHOOLS"                 263

Inhale through the mouth (but breathe through the nose

when silent).
Know that you know how to speak when you observe the

given rules.

Articulate clearly, but exaggerate movements of the mouth.
Know what you are going to say and how you are going to

say it.

Avoid excitement and emotion.   Always be calm.
Be especially careful if with stammerers or persons that

speak rapidly,
Be able to look any man in the eye.

Exercises:

Breathing-exercises; vocal exercises; reading; mirror-prac-
tice ; etc.

8, A Representative Russian System

Observe the initial inspiration.

Employ indirect attack.

Prefix short e (if) to difficult words.

Articulate consonants lightly.

Lengthen the vowels, making them dear and loud.

Employ a free movement of the articulative organs.

Study the physiological production of the speech-elements.

Exercises:l

Respiratory exercises.

Vocal exercises*

Articulatory exercises.

Reading.

Speaking in a whisper*

Speaking rhythmically and gesticulating.

1A period of silence is observed at the beginning of treatment