" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 269 mering," —the subject's inability to speak, his physical effort in making the attempt, his bewilder- ment and fear, his emotive respiratory disturbances, and a dozen other secondary causes and symptoms. And this "stammering" they assail as a unitary speech-defect. Failure is naturally inevitable.1 It does not necessarily follow, of course, from the nature of past experience, that stammering is usually an incurable defect; ,but it does follow that the remedial systems commonly employed are grossly inadequate. The reader may now inquire: How is it that most of the "world's greatest" "speech specialists" guaran- tee to cure stammering? The answer is, of course, that they do not. When the man in the picture points his finger at you and says, "I guarantee to cure stammering," he is lying. What "speech specialists" represent as a guarantee to cure is merely a promise to refund the fees in case of failure: *( I hereby agree to return at any time all tuition fees paid by you, should my treatment fail to cure you of your impedi- ment of speech; provided that you have in all particulars strictly followed my instructions." 2 1 It is so inevitable that many "specialists" reveal practically their entire systems in "free trial lessons" intended to attract prospec- tive pupils to their respective institutions. a Form of an English guarantee.