" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS " 273 of in the course he should take exception to irregularities, he is expeditiously gagged with another "silence period." If he fails to observe silence, he is expelled as unruly.1 He has practically no alternative but to submit to the imposture and hope that the burlesque treatment will prove effective. — The average student avoids friction and ultimately signs the statement of satisfaction (for there is no alternative; and he has, moreoever, usually improved). He then continues to perform the prescribed exercises, and finds months after leaving the institution that he has been hope- lessly defrauded. At this juncture he can secure a refundment of the fees only with the greatest diffi- culty. The "iron-dad" guarantee is worthless, and he can obtain redress only by resort to litigation, A few years ago the writer followed a case in which an ex-pupil of an American institution undertook to enforce a return of the fees paid for a guaranteed cure of his impediment, A formal application for refundment educed the following reply from the " specialist": "Dear Sir; "Answering your letter received this morning my contract with you was fulfilled when you left my institution. I owe you nothing. Your signature of entire satisfaction together 1 All of the foregoing remarks do not apply to all institutions that **guarantee" to cure stammering. The writer is merely citing the typical case.