284 SYSTEMS OF TREATING STAMMERING principal gets the credit. The "professor'' would in- deed be an unlucky mortal if none of his pupils should be undergoing this fortunate transition. — And lastly, most stammering-schools do effect an exiguous pro- portion of cures. But when one reflects that some institutions have treated thousands of cases, he will not be unduly impressed if two dozen pupils should testify to their permanent relief. (And he will par- don the fact if these few pupils should be staunch supporters of an unconscionable charlatan.) And while the "professor" is waiting for these tes- timonials, he can treat cases "in strict confidence."1 Or if he is more resourceful, he can buy his testi- monials from a dumb man or a professional recom- mender; or he may save part of the money, and spend the rest on paper, pen, and ink. So much for testimonials. Some "speech specialists" impress "prospectives" by their seeming erudition. They contrive to read papers before medical societies/associations of elocu- English, specialist treats neurasthenia, constipation, liver trouble, skin disorders, obesity, stammering, etc., for five and a half guineas. He gives testimonials concerning some ailments, but treats stammerers confidentially. In reply to a request for references to former pupils, he writes : "I have received your letter dated the isth ult. ... I cannot, however, accede to your request because I think you will understand as I undertake to treat all cases in strict confidence I cannot send you the address of any of my patients."