" STAMMERING-SCHOOLS" 285 tionists, etc., and make these facts of great avail in their proclamations. But the facts imply no indorse- ment of the "professor" or his system; the "pro- fessor," indeed, may be virtually annihilated when Ms paper comes under discussion. Many ignorant quacks have their names on the title-pages of ponderous (but worthless) volumes on the subject of stammering. A large proportion of these works are, of course, written by literary "ghosts." The writer has in mind a "specialist" that has written books on stammering comprising together over a thousand pages. This gentleman cannot spell the word "off." —The less illiterate "specialists" frequently plagiarize or paraphrase from recognized authors. One conversant with the literature on stammering is constantly meeting old friends in unexpected places, The writer recently read a newly published and seemingly respectable English work on stammering in which numerous pages and paragraphs could be identified as literal translations from the German. The writings of the "specialists" usually contain a revelation of ignorance. Naturally, the ignorance is most in evidence when the authors attempt a dis- play of knowledge. One writer tells us that — " In mental operations we evolve thought, which causes a slight elevation of temperature, a rearrangement of the brain cells involved and necessarily an expenditure of energy,"