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Full text of "Stories of Indian Saints - Justin E Abbot vol 1"

JUSTIN E, ABBOTT 



Stories of 

Saints 



N,R. GODBOLE 



STORIES OF 

INDIAN 
SAINTS 




STORIES OF INDIAN SAINTS 



STORIES OF INDIAN SAINTS 

Translation of Mahipati's Marathi 
BHAKTAVIJATA 



by 

Dr. JUSTIN E ABBOTT 

and 

PANDIT NARHAR R. GODBOLE 



An Introduction by 
Dr. G. V. TAGARE 



Vols. I & II 
(Bound in one) 



MOTILAL BANARSIDASS 
D0lhi Vanmssi Patna 
^' BangtOM Mmdras 



Fourth Edition: Poona, 1933 
Reprint: Delhi, 1982, 1988 

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS 
Bungalow Road, Jawahar Nagar. Delhi 110007 

Branches 

Chowk, Varanasi 221 001 

Ashok Rajpath, Patna 800004 

24 Race Course Road, Bangalore 560001 

1 20 Royapettah High Road, Mylapore, Madras 600004 



ISBN: 81-208-0469-4 

M :: J -1- s^ 

THE ASIATIC SUGIEl ) 

CALCUTTA 70001 a 



W 



r 



PRINTED IN INDIA 
APRAKASHJAIN FOR MOTILAL BANARSIDASS. DELHI 110007 



F»>VR.T J 



CONTENTS 

Pago 

Foreword : By J. F. Edwards ... v 

Chief Author's Preface : By Dr. J. E. Abbott ... xviii 

Pandit's Preface : By Pandit N. R. Godbole ... ixi 
Introduction : Mahipati The Biographer 

of the Poet Saints ... xxiil 
Introduction : Mahipati — A General Survey 

By Dr. G. V. Tagare ... xxix 

Chapter 

1. Invocation ... 1 

2. Jayadev ... 11 

3. Life of Tulsidas ... 31 

4. Life of Namdev ... 57 

5. Kabir's Biography ... 78 

6. Kabir and His Son Kamal ... 92 

7. Kabir Chooses Ramanand As His Guru ... 109 

8. Dnyandev and His Grandparents ... 123 

9. Life of Dnyandev ( continued ) ... 140 

10. Life of Dnyandev ( continued ) ... 158 

11. Namdev, Kabir and Dnyandev (con/muei) ... 177 

12. Nariadev and Dnyandev {continued) ... 187 

13. Namdev's Pilgrimage Ends ... 204 

14. Namdev's Life (con/traued) ... 222 

15. Namdev's Life ( continued ) ... 242 

16. Kurmadas the Cripple ... 260 

17. Raka and Gora the Potters ... 278 

18. Life of Namdev ( con/mued ) ... 295 

19. Jagamitra Naga : God Protects His Own ... 311 

20. Joga Paramanand, Narahari the Goldsmith 

and Namdev ... 320 

21. Namdev and Janabai ... 338 
2@. Matsyendranath, Gorakhnath and Cbangdev 358 



IV 

23. Chokhamela, Namdev, Jiva and Tatva ... 377 

24. Padmanabh and Kabir ... 390 

25. Hobidas the Shoemaker ... 401 

26. King Pipaji of Gademandal ... 406 

27. NarsiMehefca ... 415 

28. Mafriage of Narsi Meheta's Son ... 429 

29. Nafsi Meheta's Cheque In God's Name ... 443 

30. Maturity Ceremony of Narsi's Daughter ... 457 
Appendix: 103 Extra Verses ... 465 
Index .„ 490 



FOREWORD 

BY 
J. F. Edwxrds 

How the Bhaktaoijaya was Translated 

This book contains the first published English transla- 
tion of Mahipati'a Bhaklavijaya which consists of forty- 
thousand lines of beautiful Maratbi poatry and is rightly 
regarded as one of the classics of a language spoken hy 
over twenty-one million people in prasant-day India. Who 
Mahipati was will be found on another page and each of 
his joint-translators spaaks for himself in his own separate 
Preface. Since one of these joint-authors is no more, and 
the other is a self-effacing Indian Pandit, our first task in 
this Foreword is to introduce their work to English readers 
by indicating some of the limitations under which this 
work has been prepared. This English translation of one 
of the great Marathi classics is published under the pro- 
visions of the last will and testament of the late Dr. 
Justin E. Abbott who passed away at Summit, New Jersey, 
United States, on June 19, 1933, Bjrn at Rahuri in the 
Ahmednagar District on Ch' istmas Day 1853, it was as a 
loyal son of Maharashtra that he took in hand the trans- 
lating into English of important sections of the lives and 
writings of the Poet Saints of Maharashtra. Eight volumes 
had been published when he died, and the ninth volume 
entited Eamdas we published a year ago. The present work 
is planned to appear in two volumes, the second being al- 
ready in the Press. The foundation for these two volumes 
had been well and truly laid in the completion of the first 
draft translation by Dr. Abbott before the final stages of 
bis physical weakness. On this task the patient scholar 
spent about eighteen months of the last two years of his 



VI 

life. His method of work during those last months was to 
follow the Marathi text from a volume placed on a movable 
book-rest attached to his couch or bed, while he dictated 
his translation into a dictaphone whenever he felt fit for 
work, a lady attendant ( see page xi ) afterwards typing 
off the translation as repeated by the dictaphone. Though 
kept to his bed continuously for saveral wepks during this 
period, sometimes in a serious condition, he nevertheless 
pursued his task with his usual cheerfulness. When we 
stayed with him in New Jersey for a month in early 1930 
it was quite clear that daily fellowship with the Poet Saints 
■was a great comfort in his loneliness. And as we have 
worked over this translation which was produced under 
such conditions of physical disability, we have done so 
with the feeling that we were permitted to gaze upon a 
monument of heroic industry and endurance. 

The Editor's Task 

Let us emphasize at the outset that our own share in 
this undertaking has been strictly editorial. It need hardly 
be said that this editorial task has been no sinecure. Know- 
ing Dr. Abbott's passion for exactitude, and knowing also 
that his translation had been committed to paper under the 
peculiar conditions just now indicated, which included the 
important factor that the typist neither knew Marathi, nor 
how to spell or pronounce Marathi proper names, nor 
could her copy be corrected by the translator-in view of 
these and similar facts we felt there was no alternative but 
to compare the entire translation with Mahipati's original 
of ten thousand Marathi verses of four lines each. This 
■we began during the last hot weather at Mahableshwar 
and completed in the weeks following under the competent 
guidance of Pandit N. R. Godbole who is rightly given his 
place on the title-page as joint-author of the book ( see page 
XX ). Dr. Abbott's punctilious care even In his growing 



vu 

weakness is shown by the fact ttiat no more than a hun- 
dred lines had been OTerlooked by him in translating the 
forty thousand lines of Mahipati's entire work, the major 
portion of the alterations that were necessary having arisen 
from the confusion caused by the three stages of sound 
in the typing of the manuscript, viz-, the voice of the per- 
son dictating, the sound as emitted by the dictaphone, and 
the word-sound as understood and typed by the non-Marathi 
typist. For all errors of proof -correction we must bear 
final responsibility. Following on two proofs read by 
the Pandit, ours was the task of reading the third or fourth 
proof of every page throughout the book, sometimes a fifth 
being necessary. In this connection we owe a heavy debt 
of gratitude to the man ger and workmen at the Aryabhu- 
shan Press for their uniform patience and courtesy. 

Dr. Abbott's English Style 

A word seems necessary about Dr. Abbott's English 
style in his translation, in view of a stray opinion that 
has mingled here and there with the high praise bestowed 
on preceding volumes. His aim throughout the series has 
been to let the Marathi Poet Saints speak for themselves as 
far as that is possible through the medium of a translation. 
This is the answer to an observation made by one review- 
er, a well known Englishman, that the translation is 
' painfully literal, jerky, disjointed. ' That Dr. Abbott's 
translation is ' literal ' may be regarded as one measure of 
its success, for this was one of his chief aims in order to 
let English readers see what the Poet Saints themselves 
actually say. That it is also ' jerky ' and ' disjointed ' is 
due to the attempt to turn oriental poetry, and that Mahi- 
pati's difficult ovi poetry, into occidental prose. Ab Dr. 
Abbott himself remarked to the present writer in a per- 
sonal letter dated 1926 regarding this series: ' Ahyone 
wishing to make a further study of th^e Marathi Poet 



viil 

Saints will know where to turn for material. By trans- 
lating Mabipati, I kill two birds with one stone. I make 
Mahipati known, as a graphic interesting writer; and I 
show bis characters, his heroes and heroines, not in my 
language, or from my point of view, but through the 
Indian eye.' That Dr. Abbott has succeeded in this worthy 
aim is shown by the appreciative remarks made by the 
same reviewer referred to above. See also a later reference 
by the same pen on this subject given below, 

Mahipati's Place in Literature 

What claim on our time and study has this Mahipati, 
one of whose masterpieces is translated in this book ? 
Unquestionably his first claim arises from the rare 
quality of the Marathi literature he has given us. For evi- 
dence on this point turn to two of Mahipati's students in the 
ranks of the Indian Civil Service. Mr.L.J. Sedgwick, I. C. S., 
who when he passed away a few years ago had just completed 
his able survey as 1921 Indian Census Superintendent for 
the Bombay Grovernment, wrote in Tlie Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, Bombaij Brajich { 1910, volume 23, No. 6?, 
pp. 109-110 ): ' Viewed from any standpoint of criticism 
the ovi poems of Mahipati, and the abhangs of Namdev, 
Eknath, Tukaram and Eamdas must be placed among the 
finest of the poetic productions of the world.' Another 
acknowledged authority on Marathi literature among the 
ranks of the Indian Civil Service is the Hon. C. A. Kincaid, 
I. C. S., joint author with Rao Bahadur D. B. Parasnis of a 
three-volume History of the Maratha People and who in his 
interesting Tales of the Saints of Pandharpur { pp. 3-4 ) 
affirms: ' Had Mahipati used a linguistic medium more 
widely known than Marathi, he would have ranked high 
among the world's poets. Even a foreigner can appreciat e 
the easy flow of his stanzas; his musical rhymes and above 
all his unrivalled imagery.' No one can work steadily 



IX 

througli the Bhaklavijaya of Mahipati without being driven 
to the same conclusion. It is one of the most fascinating 
of religious story-books. By the title Bhaklavijaya is 
meant Triumphs of the Saints, and concerning Mahipati's 
entrancing poetical narratives of the saints the late Nara- 
yan Vaman Tilak once said he was ' reminded of Fore's 
Book of Martyrs' Though a critical estimate compels the 
conclusion that the Bfiaktavijaya conveys an * atmos- 
phere rather than exact history,' supplying rich ' biogra- 
phical material rather than biography,' and though many 
of Mahipati's embellishments can only be viewed as beau- 
tiful ' legends, ' yet he has so thoroughly succeeded in in- 
vesting witb the true bhakti ( devotional ) spirit the daily 
life of rich and poor, high caste, low caste and out-oaste 
alike, among the Marathi-speaking people, that ever since he 
died in 1790 this work has rightly been regarded as one of 
the source-books concerning the M-rathi Saints who lived 
from the 13th to the l7th centuries. On his trustworthi- 
ness see pp. xxiii-ixviii. 

How To Understand the Indian Heart 

A translation such as this is, of one of the incompara- 
ble portions of India's religious literature, enables all 
who wish to understand the heart of India to do so without 
the laborious task of acquiring a strange language. If this 
applies to all across the seas who desire to acquaint them- 
selves with India's religious point of view, it applies with 
double force to all those from other lands who come to 
India for whatever purpose. In a recent speech H. H. The 
Maharajah of Mysore observed : ' There are diverse reli- 
gions in this land of ours and frequently there exists a 
most irreligious bcstility between them. This being so, the 
creed and custom of each religion among us is surely 
worthy of reverent study by the followers of every other.* 
If such an attitude is desirable on the part of all foreigners 



in India, it is nothiiig less than a sacred duty on the part 
of those foreigners who come to India for the purpose of 
helping its people religiously. Surely one of th«5 first 
duties of a missionary should be to become acquainted with 
the religious point of view of the people of the land, and a 
book such as this enables this to be done even before the 
language has been acquired. As the Chaplain of Simla, 
the Rev. P. N. F. Young M. A., said in a thoughtful address 
before the Simla Y. M. C, A. recently : ' I think the 
Christian should be keen to learn about and understand 
other religions, firstly because they are worthy of study, 
and because they are the result of a sincere search after 
God. Secondly, because we can best commend our own 
faith if we appreciate sympathetically those who differ 
from us. And thirdly, because there is a real bond between 
all those who in these secularised days hold to a spiritual 
interpretation of the Universe.' 

India's Insurrection Against Religion 

Mahipati's matchless stories make a distinctive con- 
tribution in the direction indicated by H. H. The Maha- 
rajah Gaikwar of Baroda at the conclusion of his eloquent 
address at the opening of the Second World Parliament of 
Religions at Chicago in September this year when he said: 
' Let us humbly and in the spirit of partnership combine 
against the common enemies : ignorance, selfishness and 
materis^lism.' In the second chapter of his wonderful 
MaratWi poem entitled Okristayan, Narayan Vaman Tiiak 
ascribes to India the glowing phrase, ' enthroned as guru 
of the earth.' If this high place is to be won and retained 
by India, her educated people need to guard against the 
growing tendency to leave the heart's throne empty after 
having dethroned whatever false gods may have occupied 
Ik hitherto. Every one of us must welcome every sign of 
insurrection against any form of religion that maybe 



false and unworthy, and no doubi; much of the religious 
rebellion in India to-day is against degrading and un- 
worthy ideas of God. But some aspects of India's insurrec- 
tion against religion are against religion in any form both 
false and true. They are like that South Indian paper 
called Revolt: they revolt ' against both heaven and hell, 
both God and Satan.' That the shrine in the soul of young 
India to-day is too often an empty shrine was shown by 
Gandhiji not long ago when he said he was * inun- 
dated with letters from young men. ..about the void that 
their unbelief has made in their lives.' As an able Indian 
barrister remarked some time ago: ' The kirk i stay away 
from is Hinduism.' An Indian Christian educational 
leader of Bengal, the Rev. S. K. Chatterji of Bishnupur, 
stated some two years ago: ' The rising generation in 
India is inclined to throw over religion altogether. In its 
place they want to put Secularism. They seem to think 
that it is religion and faith in God which has made India 
effeminate and weak, and that no independence and pro- 
gress are possible so long as there is religion in this land. 
These secularists are not mere materialists, in the sense 
that they believe only in wealth and power; no, a greit 
many of them believe in social reform, in the emanoipn- 
tion of women, and iri education. What they do not seem 
to believe in, is God. They do not seem to have any use 
for religion or religious practices. We shudder to think 
of a god-less India; yet we find her on the very brink cf it.* 

Why do we call attention to this state of things ? 
Because Mahipati and his hliakti saints had just the very 
opposite ideal of life to the secular ideal which shuts God 
out. Also because there is so much in them calculated to 
call back those who are drifting into the anti-religious 
attitude. Though from our stanr'point to-day these poet- 
saints may have had a defective ideal, yet we need to 



ZIl 

retnind ourselves of the state of things that prevailed la 
their days. In an age when the worship of the Unseea 
was almost entirely through stocks and stones, iheae 
bliaktas in Mahipati's pages urged upon their bearers the 
total inefficaoy of the customary modes of purification and 
of the attainment of God, suoh as pilgrimages, vows, fasts, 
penances and sacrifices. These bhakti poets also incul- 
cated upon their readers ' the omnipresence of God, and 
His being neither stock nor stone.' In their teachings they 
further placed ' a special emphasis upon purity of heart, 
humility, self-surrender, forgiveness, and the love of God 
they severely condemned religious practices which con- 
cerned the body only, and all mechanical rites and oer- 
raonies; and thej; strongly enforced the absolute necessity 
of striving for the attainment of pure devotion to God.* 

The Nationalizing and Democratizing Value of Bhakti 

There is another reason why Maharashtra in these 
days may wc 11 turn its mind from being anti-religious to 
Mahipati anu his bliaktas, and the reason is that these pro- 
vide a unifying, nationalizing and democratizing, and 
larger parifying, influence in these days of national 
aspiration. Justice Eanade in his Rise of the Maratha 
Power shows how ' the bhakti movement tended to unite the 
hearts of the Marathas in the cause of establishing the 
independence of their motherland, and how the Maha- 
rashtra mystics were a source of living moral inspiration 
and influence over the people r.iid how they by their ex- 
ample, preachings and writings, through the medium of 
the spoken language of the country, kindled the warlike 
fire in the heroic race of the Maratha people and infused 
and awakened the long slumbering sense of the patriotic 

spirit in them The political revolution was in fact to 

some extent caused by a religious and social upheaval 
which moved the entire population.' 



XIU 

Untouchability Still In Vithoba Worship 

We wish we could get all the oitizens of the Mabara- 
ahtia of ti'day to see with clearness that these things have 
a practical application to India's great Tight against Un- 
touchability, a fight in which some of India's greatest and 
noblest have dedicated themselves. One of these incompar- 
able stories of Mahipati tells of how the untouchable 
Mahar poet Chokhamela was turned out of the temple of 
Vithoba because lie was a Mahar. See the story in full on 
pages 377-384, and remember that one of the chief boasts 
in connection with Vithoba worship has been Its democra- 
tic character and that all castes have been welcomed by it. 
But even yet, in this enlightened 20fch century, Vithoba 
worship has not become democratic enough to welcome the 
OMf-caste. For the benefit of any who may be inclined tc 
doubt this we will quote a moving appeal made in that 
Brahmin newspaper, the Kesari, whose Marathi editorial 
of October 14, 1932 we translated as follows in our 
DnyanofZoz/a English columns of a few days later on Octo- 
ber 27:- 

More than 500 years ago there lived a simple Maharashtrian 
saint named ChokhSmelS who it seems was not allowed to take the 
vision of Vithoba. After him were hundreds and thousands of 
Mahars, Mangs and Chambhars who became Varkaris, the chief 
devotees of Vithoba at Pandharpur. They played their instruments, 
lifted bigh their banners, founded their guilds, and in the very vicin- 
ity of the tiod built even their schools. But these were all compelled 
to satisfy their hungering hearts by bathing in the sacred rivet 
Chandrabbaga near by and by gazing from a distance at the spires 
of Vithoba's temple. Why should not this three hundred years* 
penance of gazing at the temple spires now have its due reward? 
Why should they not now be permitted to look Into the holy of holies 
'H'here the god abides in serene contemplation, standing on the 
sacred brick with band on hip, beneath those spires on which they 
I'ave feasted their eyes for generations past ? May not Vithoba 
himself lie weary with the long vigil as he beholds their distresi ? 



XIV 

Why should not these aatouchables now be reckoned to hare 
completed their loug probation ? 

India's Yearning For a Personal God 

But there is more than tha dsmocratizing influence of 
bhakti to be learned from Mahipati's Bhaktavijaya stories. 
They show how wide and deep has been India's revolt 
against the deadening philosophy of the Hindu Vedanta. 
Many of these stories illustrate the truth that while 
Vedantism may fascinate and enthral the metaphysical 
type of mind, it is not a religion by which common people 
may live. These stories in the Bhaktacljaija disclose how 
passionately India wants a personal God, that she will re- 
refuse to be satisfied until she finds such a God, or is found 
by Him, as the New Testament affirms ; and that for a 
thousand years past India ' has been driven by the inner 
urge of the heart to a conception of a Personal Lord or 
Ishwar which the most strenuous efforts have not been able 
to reconcile with the older philosophy. No more convin- 
cing demonstration of the inability of the human mind and 
heart to be content with non-psrsonality as Supreme, has 
been given the world, than by India. The Vedanta still 
gets lip-service ; but it is the Personal God as pictured by 
the Ramayam of Tulsi Das, the Hymng of Tamil and 
Maratha saints, and the school of Raraanuja, etc., that 
receives the heart's devotion of India. The " God " of 
which Gandhiji and other educated modern Hindus speak 
is not by any means the " Brahma " of the Upanishads, 
but a Personal Being toward whom many Hindus feel the 
deepest love and devotion.' It is because all these import- 
ant matters receive impressive illustration on every page 
of Mahipati's Bhaktadjay i that such practical value 
attaches to the translation appearing in the present work, 
especially for missionaries and for all who would under- 
stand the yearnings of the Indian heart and do something 
to satisfy those yearnings. That distinguished Hindu 



XV 

editors recognize the existence of deep religious yearnings 
in present-dsy India is impressively illustrsted conoarn- 
ing another part of India in The Indian Renew for Decem- 
ber 1933. An Indian writer is there quoted as referring to 
the Tamil Saint Thayumanavar whose date largely 
synchronized with that of Mahipati. The article states : 

The great realities of religion called for his zealous pursuit of 
them. He began to ask seriously : . . . . What is sin ? What is th« 
way to freedom ? How am I to get knowledge which will free m» 
from fear both in this life and the next ? When I think of birth and 
death my heart is terrified. Both my eyes become sleepless. My 
body melts day and night like gold in fire. What is the cause of all 
these ? If Thou dost not grant me the blessed stage of nishta, be- 
cause of my soul's thirst, I will be destroyed. If I die before realis- 
ing this, what shall I do, O Ood ? He gives expression to his restless 
mind thus : 

When I, the way of love not knowing, 

Was moTed and stirred to love by Thee, 

My spirit with love-languor fainted. 

Thy doing all, for whom love-longing 

I pine, and pining gain no rest. 
Thou comest not, I cry for comfort; 

Unpitied and alone I live. 

Mysticism In Maharashtra 

Literature dealing with Marathi bhakti has been 
greatly enriched during the present year ( 1933 ) by the 
appearance of a substantial volume of 500 pages on Mysti- 
cism in Maharashtra, the seventh volume in the History 
Of Indian Philosophy. This new volume on Maharashtra 
Mysticism is by Professor R. D. Ranade, Professor of 
Philosophy in the University of Allahabad, and was pre- 
ceded by four ' source-books ' giving selections illustra- 
ting the main theme of the larger work. To enter upon a 
discussion of Professor Ranade's great effort would take 
us far beyond the purpose of this Foreword, and happily 
this has been rendered unnecessary Uy an able review from 
the competent pen of the Rev Alexander Robertson, 



XVI 

fonnerly of loona and now of Nagpur, in the N. C. C. 
Review for October this year. Professor Ranade expresses 
warm appreciation of ' the panorama of Marathi Litera- 
ture' exhibited by Dr. Abbott in this series on the 'Poet 
Saints of Maharashtra. ' In one of the December Indian 
magazines to hand just as this Foreword goes to press, 
Professor Ranade's book on Mysticism is reviewed, though 
not with equal competence, by the English reviewer we 
have mentioned above who repeats his earlier criticism by 
observing : ' Dr. Abbott's translations must rank among 
the worst-in style and langusge-of any translations ever 
published; ' adding also : ' His industry in execution was 
not paralleled by felicity of expression.' We have already 
given reasons for showing that to have aimed at ' felicity 
of expression ' from the English language point of view 
would have been to rob the Poet Saints of the opportunity 
of largely speaking for themselves, uncouth though they 
may be from the standpoint of our later day. As for the 
first remark, its last five words (' of any translations ever 
published ') are rich indeed. For the real question is : How 
many translations of the Poet Saints of Maharashtra have 
been ' published ' with which to institute such a compari- 
son 7 The BhaJx/avijaya for example, translated in the 
present work, has never appeared before as a whole in an 
English dress. If the comparison is with certain poetical 
versions of Marathi that have appeared in English, the 
answer is that it is widely accepted that very much more 
has occasionally been put into such translations than 
appears in the Marathi original, resulting in religious 
interpretations rejected by certain schools of Marathi 
scholarship. In view of this state of the case it is encourag- 
ing to note that the same critical reviewer in another place 
can say of this Poet Saints series : 'which I have found 
very useful.' As for the departed scholar whose latest 
woik is found in this book, he himself would say of 



XVII 

any critic : 'Of course my translation is very imperfect; 
please do not argue in its defence ; whatever merits it may 
have, let them speak for it.' And let it be remembered that 
the Mystics of Maharashtra differ as much among them- 
selves as do their present-day interpreters and critics. 

The Heart A Safer Guide Than the Head 

As we are desirous of avoiding anything of the 
nature of Controversy we cannot better conclude this 
Foreword than by quoting something Dr. Abbott wrote to 
us in a personal letter a few years ago as follows :— 
' Oh ! that the eye3 of good man, who want to help this 
sad world, could be opened to see that the path of contro- 
versy is ttie wrong path. The head, however well or logi- 
cally directed, however historically correct, however true 
to doctrines traditional or new, has nevrr mado the heart 
better, nobler, Christlike. Emphasis therefore should be 
on the heart, to move it to love and kindness and gentle- 
ness, unselfishness, tolerance and all the virtues idealized 
in Christ. Controversy stirs anger, unkind thoughts, divi- 
sions. Controversy has been the curse of Christendom 
through all its histcry, and the great cause of putting back 
the Kingdom of Christ in India and other lands. The 
battle about Christ, the contentions on doctrines rdaling to 
Him, are as far away from Him as are the horrors of war 
from the peace of a home where the Christ -spirit lives.' 



United Theological College 

of Western India, I t e» nj j 

7 Sholapur Road, Poona, ' ''• '^- ^<^^rds 

December 7, 1933 



} 



CHIEF AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

Mahipati was born in the little village of Taharabad, 
in the Ahmednagar district, in the year 1715, and died in 
the year 1790. He was a Brahman by birth, and the first 
we hear of him is that he was employed as the town-scribe 
of Taharabad. The story told of him is that one day he 
was summoned by an official of the town to come at once. 
When the messenger arrived he was sittinp; performing 
the worship of God. He replied to the messenger that he 
was ' busy with his worship and could not come now, but 
would come -later.' The messenger, however, would not 
take ' No ' for an answer and insisted that he should come 
with him. Mahipati finally agreed to go, but mentally re- 
solved to give up his secular employment and devote him- 
self wholly to the religious life. He went with the mes- 
senger, performed his duty, and returned vowing never 
again to use his pen in secular employment. He resigned 
from his office and devoted himself solely to religion. 

Naturally he became interested in the lives of those who 
bad given up their secular lives, because they had become 
indifferent to its attractions. He then began to write the 
stories connected with the lives of the bhaktas ( those who 
with love and devotion worshipped God ) who were known 
in Maharashtra ( the great nation, meaning the Marathi 
country included in the Bombay Presidency). 

He evidently began at once to accumulate the books 
that told of the lives of those saints. He mentions some of 
them, such as the work of Nabhaji and Ohidghan. He pos- 
sessed the Gathas ( poems ) of one Naraa Vishnudas. For if 
we compare the stories told by that Nama we find indispu- 
table evidence that Mahipati used them in writing his own 
account. It is to be presumed that other books were avail- 



XIX 

able, but are now non-existent, through time, rats, white 
ants and other enemies of manuscripts Whether the sto- 
ries of the different saints are real or legendary, matters 
little, but from them we learn what was popularly consi- 
dered their conception of God, and their way of approach to 
Him. That they considered an image of an avatw like 
Rama or Krishna a way of approach cannot be doubted. 
Tukaram's enthusiasm before the image at Pandharpur and 
the devotion of Ramdas to images of Rama give abun- 
dant evidence. But it should felso be remembered that the 
approach by way of the idol was not their only way. They 
practised and taught what is called manas puja, that is, 
worship with the mind alone. It was their way of going 
as it were into their inner chamber and closing the door 
to pray in secret to God, whom they called Mother and 
Father. If Hindus of the present day would follow the 
ideas of their saints, they need not seek approach to God 
through an idol but can use the method of manas puja 
( mental worship ), 

Not all the bhaldas in these stories held to the ideal of 
bhakti and Vairagya ( renunciation ) as did Tukaram and 
Ramdas. Many were sincere bhaktas while carrying on 
their worldly business, but they had the spirit of Vcdragt/a; 
that is, their indifference to worldly things ( or their 
Vairagya ) was one of spirit. It meant that they did not 
look upon their riches as acquired for their own happi- 
ness, but to help the needy. They understood that they 
should not lay up the temporary riches of this world, but 
those supreme spiritual riches that are eternal. 

Saints like Eknath, Tukaram and Ramdas tried to live 
the life of complete indifference to worldly things. They 
obeyed literally the precepts, ' Give to him who asketh of 
thee,* ' Take no thought for the morrow; what ye shall est 
ot drink, nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on.' 



XX 

They trusted God for everything. But as I have elsewhere 
intimated they did not press this upon others unless others 
BO chose it. Others were to continue in the business of life, 
doing their respective duties, but always with the unsel- 
fish spirit of Vaxragya or of indifference to worldly things. 

As will be noticed on the title-page, Pandit Narahar R. 
(Jodbole will appear as a collaborator with me in the pro- 
duction of the remaining books of the ' poet saints of 
Maharashtra * series. He has translated a portion of this 
book and will help me in that same manner in completing 
the remaining three. The knowledge he has acquired of 
the language and style of the ancient writings he is mak- 
ing available for me in the laborious work of translating 
such large books as the Bhaklaviiaya and the BhaktalUamrit. 

As on former occasions my thanks are due to the Rev 
J. F. Edwards for reading the final proofs of this book. 

Included in my physical weakness is my inability to 
use a pen. Ai.yone who has helped me in typing my trans- 
lation deserves special thanks and a public acknowledg- 
ment of it. My nurse, Miss Joan Maree, has learned the 
art of typing in order to help me, and to her I owe a debt 
of gratitude. 

Pandit N. R. Godbole has been fortunate in obtaining 
for comparision a rare manuscript of the Bhaktavijayn. 
He has discovered that the printed versions have omitted 
several passages that are found in this manuscript. It 
has seemed to me therefore worth while to publish these 
passages, and so give the book the form that possibly it 
originally had. 

Summit, N. J., U. S. A. . ,. „ ,„ 

October I9?t Juatm E. Abbott 



PANDIT'S PREFACE 

The Preface to this book has already been written by 
the Late Dr. Abbott, for the Manuscript of the translation 
of the Bhaklavijaya was just completed in his lifetime. On 
the title-page the learned Doctor has put my name under 
his as the second author. Nobody need remind me that I 
do not deserve this high honour, for I know bettef than 
anyone else my inability and unworthiness. But he treated 
me all along with a motherly indulgence, and my joint 
authorship with him is one consequence of it. I had the 
boldness to request him to drop ray name from the title- 
page but in reply he commanded me to accept his decision. 

While working for Dr. 'Abbott I was often impressed by 
the meagreness of my knowledge of Marathi, and I have 
often found that his English translation has enabled me 
to elucidate the meaning of the Marathi text. This fact I 
told several Marathi scholars whose comparisons of his 
English translation with the original text often filled them 
with admiration. Some of them therefore urged me to 
make known to the public the learned doctor's masterly 
knowledge of Marathi, which I would have done very 
readily had it not seemed like trumpeting the fame of ray 
master whose salt I was eating. I am still eating his salt 
but as he is not living I cannot now be accused of flattery. 
Many times have I asked him in letters if the Husband of 
Rukraini had given him the correct interpretation of some 
difficult Marathi sentence in a dream. On one occasion I 
wrote a letter to him in the form of Marathi verse and to 
ray great astonishment he sent his reply to me in Marathi 
verse. In May 1928 I presented copies of Dr. Abbott's 
first and second publications to the learned Shri 
Shankaracharya, Dr. Kurtakoti, who was so delighted with 



xxu 

them that he was pleased to confer on their author the high 
title of Bhashabhushan ( ' an ornament to the language ' ). 
Great, however, as was his scholarship and learning, his 
character was greater still. Mahipati says that ,' Saints 
conquer their opponents by the strength of peace and 
forgiveness' and Dr. Abbott has stri'-ingly exemplified 
this in the case of some harsh critics. By nature unassum - 
ing and unpedantic, Dr. Abbott was a very thorough and 
God-fearing Cliristian, and higher praise than that I feel I 
cannot bestow. 

627 Sadashiv Peth, Pcona S N. R. Goclbde 



INTRODUCTION 

MAHIPATI -.THE BIOGRAPHER OF THE 
POET SAINTS 

Birth and Early Influences 

Mahipafci's father Dadopattt is said to have been in the 
service of the Mughals, but where, when and in what 
capacity is not known. A.t the age of forty he retired from 
service, and came to live in Taharabad, his native place in 
the Ahmed nagar District. He was a regular icarkari pil- 
grim of Pandharpur and the hereditary village accountant 
of Taharabad. This state of things continued until he was 
sixty-four years old, but being without an issue he felt 
naturally anxious lest the regular visits to Pandharpur 
would be discontinued after bis own death. He there- 
fore prayed to God to grant him a son, and a son was born 
to him in 1715 A. D. ( Shaka era 1637 ). This son he named 
Mahipati, who was destined to become the biographer of 
saints. Mahipati was handsome and of a sharp intellect. 
In his very boyhood he was devoted to God and he went 
as a pilgrim to Pandharpur at the age of sixteen. It 
seems Mahipati was well educated. His handwriting was 
good. That he had a good knowledge of Sanskrit is proved 
by his translations into Marathi. Besides Marathi, his 
mother tongue, he knew Hindi. At the age of sixteen Mahi- 
pati's father died and the burden of supporting the family 
fell on him at that early age. Aside from his household 
responsibilities, he had to work as village accountant, an 
office hereditary in the family. Taharabad was then a 
part of a jaghir of a Muhammadan to whose court Mahipati 
had to go in his official capacity. Well substantiated is 
the story to which Dr. Abbott has alluded in bis Preface* 
that once after bathing Mahipati was performing the 



XXIV 

•worship of his household gods when a messenger from the 
Muhammadan came to summon him to coitrt on business 
Mahipati sent word in return that he would be at his ser- 
vice afttir he was through his daily devotion. Nevertheless 
there was another and a very peremptory call to appear in 
court at once. Reluctantly he went, but on his return he 
took his pen from behind his ear and laying it before the 
god he vowed never to use it agaia in any official capacity. 
This vow was adhered to rigidly by his descendents and is 
to continue until the seventh generation. 

Mahipati's Literary Sources and Methods 

Mahipati had two sons, Vitthal and Narayan. Mahi- 
pati's gm'u was Tukaram from whom he received the mys- 
tic mantra in a dream. It is said Tukaram at the same 
time commanded Mahipati to write the lives of saints. 
Like most of the great writers, Mahipati is very modest, 
quotes some of his sources, and admits without reserve 
that he derived information from Nabhaji of North India 
and Uddhav Chidghan of Mandesh, both biographers of the 
saints. In Chapter 1.37-39 of the present work Mahipati 
says : 37, ' Perhaps you may say that I myself have com- 
posed this book, founding it on my own imagination and 
according to ray own fancy, but sirs, that is truly not so. 
Have no doubts regarding this. 38. In the country to the 
North there was one by the name of Nabhaji, an avatar 
ofBrahmadev. He wrote a great book containing the 
stories of saints. He wrote it in the Gwalior language. 
39. And in Mandesh there was one Uddhavchidghan, He 
also wrote the stories of the saints. Uniting the stories 
of both, I have begun this book, the Bhaktavijaya.' Mahi- 
pati wrote the following biographical works : The 5awfa- 
lilamrit in 1757, the Bhaktavijaya in 1762, the Kathamra- 
mrita in 1765, the BhaktaiUamrit in 1774, and finally the 
Santavijaya. Until recently the Savtcuijaya was supposed 



XXV 

to have been incomplete with 26 chapters only but it is now- 
found in a complete form (27 chapters) and is in the poss- 
ession of the Bharat Ilihas Sanshodhak Mandal, Poona. 
Besides his biographical works Mahipati also wrote 
several minor works. He died in 1790 at the age of 
seventy-five 

Mahipati An Honest Author 

Writing under this heading in his own Life and 
Teaching of Ttikaram ( pp. 70-72 ) in 1921, the editor of this 
present work (the Rev. J. F. Edwards) quoted the following 
statement which Dr. Abbott had drawn up at his request 
regarding Mahipati's trustworthiness. Dr. Abbott stated : — 
' Is Mahipati's account true to facts ? Tukaram died 
in 1649 ( traditional date ) and Mahipati wrote his account 
in 1774, or 125 years after Tukarara's death. Not very 
long, but long enough for legends to grow. I regard 
Mahipati as an honest writer, that he used honestly the 
material at his disposal. He was not a " higher critic ", 
but used as truth whatever came to him in the form of 
MSS or oral traditions. I think I can produce convincing 
evidence of this honesty. He had evidently a good library 
of manuscripts. I have the names of some he possessed^ 
or was more or less familiar with. I find this 
list in his own writings. But as a poet he avows 
the principle of expanding the facts at his disposal, 
" as a seed expands into a tree." This is indeed 
a habit of Indian poets. What MSS or what oral 
tradition did Mahipati use ? Th^s is as yet an unsolved 
problem, with this exception, that a few sources are known. 
Among the MSS he uses are the Ahhangs by Tukaram's 
brother Kanhoba ( see Bhaktdilamrita ch. 40.198 and 
following ) and Abhangs of Bameshwar ( Bhaktalilamrita 
cb. 40.209 ). There is also now published Niloba's Oatha. 
Niloba was a ( posthumous ) disciple of Tukaram's. Ha 



XXVI 

gives some account of Tukaram, and Mahipati knew of 
Niloba, so probably knew of his Abhangs { Shakialilamrita, 
ch. 40.238. ) The last part of Mahipati's chapter 40, which 
describes Tukaram's " ascension," mentions naany indi- 
viduals who must have passed on to the next generation 
their knowledge of Tukaram. It still remains true that 
ail modern accounts of Tukaram's life are to be traced to 
Mahipati as the practically sole source of information. 
Perhaps some time Mahipati's sources \vill be better 
known. This being so we cannot now know what are 
facts and what are fiction in Mahipati's account. It will 
not do merely to deduct the manifestly legendary, and call 
the balance facts, as seems to be the general practice. The 
only honest way for any modern writer is to give Mahi- 
pati credit for the account the writer gives, and give it as 
Mahipati gives it, legend and all, leaving it to the futiTe, 
for possible discoveries to settle what are the real facts. 
Much of Mahipati's account may be facts, but I think 
events in Tukaram's life should not be recorded as /ads, 
until they can be substantiated from other and clear 
sources.' 

Mahipati's Historical Material 

(b) ' As I have before remarked I regard Mahipati 
as an honest historian. He wrote from books before him, 
and from oral tradition. He anticipated the charge that 
he drew from his own imagination and says in Saiitalila- 
mrita { 1.67-69 ) : " You will raise this doubt in your mind 
and say: You have drawn on your own imagination. 
This is not so. Listen, Qreat poet-saints have written 
books in many languages. It is on their authority that I 
vrsiiQihiB SanldilanirUa, If I wrote on my own authori- 
ty my statements would not be respected. The Husband 
of Rukmini is witness to this, who knows all {hearts." In 
5AaA/avya2/a ( 1.37 ) he says: "You will say I have 



xxvu 

compiled this book on my own authority. This indeed is 
not so. Hold no doubts in your minds." He then quotes 
Nabhaji anl Uddhav Chidghan as authorities : " Joining 
these two together, Bhaktavijaija was bagun " ( 1.39 ). For 
a list of saints with whose names and books Mahipafci was 
familiar see Bhaktavijaya ( 1.19 ), Bhaktavijaya (57,169-201) 
and Bhaktadlamrila, chap. 51, where there are 127 saints 
mentioned by name. His story of Dnyaneshwar in 
Bhaktavijaya ( chap. 8 ) he took from Dnyandevachi Adi 
i Dnyandev's Origin ) by Namdev, His story of Mirabai 
in BhaUadjaya (chap. 38 ) he took from Miraboiche Chari- 
tni ( Life of Mirabai ) by Namdev. His story of Gora 
Kumbhar in Bliaklavijaya ( chap. 17 ) he took from Goroba 
Kiimbharache Churitra ( Life of Goroba Kumbhar ) by 
Nanidev. So far as evidence goes he conscientiously used 
his sources, as an honest recorder of what he believed to be 
true. If he expanded meagre statements into fuller detail 
it was not to add facts but to give a fuller undfrsbanding 
of them. To usa hii own words he '• expaadtid facts just as 
a tree is tiie expansion of a seed." By this I understand that 
he embellished but did not add imaginary accounts, that 
what be wrote he felt he had good authority for. The 
faithfulne.ss of Mahipati in recording the traditions re- 
ceived by him, either through books or oral sources, does 
not ensure the truth of these traditions, which must be 
established on other grounds, bat it is satisfaction that one 
can depond with good assurance ou his honesty as a writer, 
and that l.e did not draw ou his imagination more than he 
felt necessary for poetic reasons.* 

Mahipati's Trustworthiness 

( c ) Following on the above, Mr. Edwards concludes 
as follows in page 72 of The Life and leaching of Tukaram-.- 
' In addition to the above from Dr. Abbott on the honesty 
and trustworthiness of our chief authority, Mahipati, we 



xxvni 

fibsll do well to note a striking illustration of Mahipatis' 
candour as provided by his faithful account of the attitude 
adopted towards caste by one of his Brahman saints. Dr. 
Sir R. G. Bhandarkar has pointed out that Mahipatl makes 
" one of his Brahman saints declare that there is no caste 
among devotees of God and represents him to have drunk 
the holy water given to him by a chambhar or leather- 
worker." That Mahipati, a " Rigvedi Vasistha Gotri 
Deshasth Brahman," should have faithfully recorded that 
another Brahman winked at caste in relation to religious 
matters and should have portrayed hi.ii as recoiving water 
at the bands of one of the lowest of India's out-castes 
is a remarkable illustration of Mahipati's honesty as an 
author. He sometimes even revises an earlier account of 
his own.' An interssting example of this is found in 
Mahipati's story in his earlier Bhaktamjaya that a poor old 
Brahman woman came to Tukaram and begged of him 
some cIotheF, whereas in telling the same story in his 
later Bhaktalilamrif Mahipati corrects himself by saying 
it was Rukbumai the goddess who came in the 'guise of a 
Maharani. 



MAHIPATI— A GENERAL SURVEY 
By Dr. G. V. Tagare 

Here is Mahipati's magmtm opus, The Bhakta-Vijaya (Vic- 
tory of the devotees of the Lord), so excellently rendered into 
English as Stories ef Indian Saints by Abbot and Godbole. 
Since its last edition in 1933, a great deal of research has been 
done both about the Bhakti-movement and the woi^ and 
biographies of the saints described by Mahipati. Although 
Mahipati had a second-hand knowledge of Nabhaji's Bhdita- 
mSl, (a work in dialectal Braj) in depicting the legends about 
saints in northern India, he had painstakingly studied the works 
of the saints c^ Maharashtra, vbited their places, c(«tacted 
their descendants and culled together the legoidary stories 
firom different sources before presenting them poetically in his 
work. Mahipati is not a historian in the strict sense <^the 
term, as his motivation was spiritual. He believed in the 
Advaita (n<Mi-difference) between God and His devotees and 
thought that glorification of the saints or devotees of God is 
equally meritorious like singing the glories of the Lord. His 
paunion for describing the spiritual exploits of saints was so 
strong that even at the fag-end of his life he undertook another 
work Santa-LilSn^ta. 

It is now generally accepted that the Bhakti movement in 
mediaeval India was a powerful integrating force which 
brought together Hindus (including Harijans) and Muslims 
as brothers on. the same spiritual platform, engendered tsprit 
dt corps among the masses irrespective of castes and c<Mmnu- 
nities and inspired hope and confidence in the hearts of the 
downtrodden and the sufferers fr<»n foreign invasions as well 
as fir(Mn intolerant (»rthodoiximt. A reference to this vrntk 
will show how Mahipati treats with equal veneration Muslim 
saints like Kabir, Kamal, Shaikh Mohammad, Har\jan saints 
like Caufthl MeUt, Baak&, Rdudis and Sent, non-Brahmin 



XXX 

saints like Namadeva, Tukarama and Brahmin saints like 
Jflanadeva, Ekanatha and Ramadasa. Mahipati was aware 
that under the physical, mental and temperamental differences 
of these saints, there is absolutely no distinction among the 
saints in the quality of their mystical or intuitive realization 
of God. And this awareness of the internal oneness of all 
saints is the sine qua non of the Vi^fhala cult. "Though saints 
appear different (outwardly), they are one (internally) due 
to their oneness with God," remarks R&mad&sa. And Rama- 
dasa does not belong to the Vitfhala cult technically. In 
chapter 47 of this work, Mahipati records the legend that when 
Ramadasa, the staunch devotee of Rama, visited Pandharpur, 
god Vitthal manifested himself as Rama to him. There had 
been no conflicts between Saivites and Vaisnavites in Maha- 
rashtra as in the South and there were no distinct currents 
(DhdrSs) of the devotees of Rama and of Krsna as in the North 
India. Namadeva, Eknatha, Tukarama — in fact all saints who 
followed the Vitthala cult — glorified the importance of the 
name of Rama along with that of Kfsna or Vijthala. 

This synthesis of Vaisnavism and Saivism is symbolised in 
the idol of Vitfhala. Though regarded as Vi?nu, the icon is 
not a four-handed deity but pastoral Kr?na with his two arms 
placed on his waist and a SivaliAga on its head as its crest. Ico- 
nographically this icon is still a puzzle. Though saints in 
Maharashtra regard Vifthal as the Buddha, the ninth incar- 
nation ofVisnu, the image is positively not that of the Buddha 
or of AvalokiteSvara as is believed by some. Curiously enough 
its erect pose with both of its hands on the waist resembles 
BirkuSr, the god-let of Ahirs (Abhiras) of western Bihar. The 
Ahirs regard Birkuir as a form of Kr^^a as we do in the case 
of Vi^hala. 5fr*t«Ir-type idols are found in some parts of 
Maharashtra and Karnataka. Ahirs or Abhiras settled in 
ancient Maharashtra and their speech Ahirapi, a dialect of 
Marathi, is still current in northern Maharashtra. "Abhira", 
according to Sanskrit lexicons, means a cow-herd. It means 
that the majority of Abhiras followed that pastoral profession 



XXXI 

in ancient times. According to the X Skandha of the Shiga- 
vata Purdria, Kr$iia, in his boyhood, was brought up in a cow- 
herd community and all saints of the Vi||hala cult sing of this 
part of Kr^^a's life prominently. This Kri^a opposed the 
tradition of offering a sacrifice to the Brahmanical god Indra 
then in vogue in his cow-herd commimity. He advocated 
instead the worship of cows and Govardhana hill that offered 
fodder to the cows (Bhagavata Pur&^a X.34. 13-30). 

Pandharpui , the centre of the Vit^hala cult, devoutly re- 
vered as BhU-Vaiku^}ha (the residence of god Vi^u on the 
earth), is in the Sholapur district of Maharashtra. It is, how- 
ever, menticHied as "PaQd^^nge" u^ the famous "Cauryaim- 
Sca Siialekha" — a stone-inscription dated I^aka 1195 (A.D. 
1223) in the Vitthala Temple at Pandharpur and as "Pa^du- 
ranga-palli" (a small village called Pa^duianga) in the 
Copperplate of Ra^tr^u^a Avidheya of A.D. 516. Both 
the names show Dravidian influence in the area. The names 
however, do not shed any light on this cult. The fact that the 
most important Titrd of this cult is on the eleventh day of the 
bright half of A$&dha (July-August) — a period of rainy season 
in this part of the country when farmers should be busy with 
their farming operations suggests that this traditional Mtld 
should be dated to the era of food-gathering economy. It has 
survived down to the period of food-growing economy just as 
pagan festivals survived in Christian Europe. But this infor- 
mation merely shovra that Pandharpur was a place where the 
mass-ffw/d of Indo-Aryan and Dravidian speakers traditionally 
met on that occasion since times immemorial. 

The traditional founder of the deity is Pu^dalika who is 
said to be a Ko^i, a descendent of pre-Aryan KoUa settlers of 
Maharashtra. This traditional founder is reported to have 
been visited by god Vifthala not due to his merits of Brahma- 
nical rituals but due to his devotional service to his parents. 
Pu^dalika is credited to have thrown a brick to the God to 
stand upon as he was then busy serving his parents. And 
the God stood waiting, with both of his hands on his waist. 



XXXII 



Such b the popular etymology of the name VitJhala which is 
traced to vifa "a brick" in Marathi. As a matter of fact, 
Vitthala, Vithu, Vitthu— Vi?nu is due to the tendency of pro- 
nouncing Sk. — $n — as-tth — current in Karnataka and Maha- 
rashtra at least since the 8th Century A.D. The other name 
of the deity, next in popularity to Vijhu or Vi((hala is Pandu- 
rahga (whitc-complexioncd one). The name is most inappro- 
priate to the idol of Vitthala, which is made of black stone. 
But as Hemacandra (12th Cent. A.D.) records in the DeSi- 
tOma-mdid (6.23) Pa^durahga is the epithet of Siva. The 
application of the names of Visnu and Siva to one and the saune 
deity is not surprising as iconographically the image repre- 
sents both the deities as seen above. The prevalence of the 
Hari-Hara cult and images representing both the gods (though 
in a different way than in the Vitjhala idol) were found in 
other parts of India also. 

Though the period of Pundaiika is not certain, the saint 
who gave a philosophical basis to this cult and is regarded as 
the fou)ider* was Jftanadeva, (A.D. 1275 ? — 1296) the victim 
of the intolerant ceiitrifugal Hindu society which excommu- 
nicates its followers on the flimsiest pretext. JAanadeva was, 
however, salvaged by a Savite sect which retained the catho- 
licity and Karma of its Buddhistic predecessor. It is, however, 
noteworthy that Jflandeva does not mention the name of 
Vitthala or Panduraiiga in his philosophical treatises — the 
Bhivirtha-Dipikd, a commentary on the Bkagaoad'GiUi now 
popularly known as jUiiuivari and his mystic poem 
Anubhavdmrla. It is only in Abhaiigas attributed to hiia 
that we find him teaching the Vif^haia cult. The real credit 
of popularising the devotion to Vi|thala should rather be given 
to saints from the masses contemporaneous with Jfianadeva 
like Namadeva and others. These saints from practically 
all castes and communities preached a simple religion — faith 



— Bahin&Bfti 



XXXUI 

and devotion unto God, Japa of His Name, and fast on the 
eleventh day of each fortnight and an annual pilgrimage to 
Vif^hala at Pandharpur 

The personalities who are draped in miraculous and fasci- 
nating legends by Mahipati in this work, were historically 
outstanding philosophers, social and religious reformers and 
eminent litUraUurs of their age. All of them were 'mystics' 
(as R. D. Ranade designates them) who unanimously advo- 
cated the Bhakticult and carried on a sustained struggle against 
discrimination between man and man and mal-practices in 
the name of religion, 

Jayadeva (circa 1150-1250 A.D.) is the author of th%t 
supremely musical poem Glta Govinda which became the 
source of inspiration to Fine Arts in medieval India. On the 
spiritual side, he was the exponent of Madhura Bhakti long 
before the birth of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Jnanadeva 
(A.D. 1271 or 1275 — 1296) was a revolutionary genius in 
more than one ways. When sacred works like the Bhagavad- 
giUI (B.G. ) were scrupulously protected from tlie "pollution" 
of the language of the masses, Jflanadeva wrote his Bhd^ya, 
Bhdvdrlha-dipika, in Marathi. His interpretation of the B.G. 
supplied a sound philosophic base to the Vitthala cult. 

Though he propagated his Yogic tradition separately and 
also entertained disciples of all caste to the Bhakti sampraddya, 
his selection of Naniadeva to lead the Sampraddya and requbi- 
tioning his association in his (Jnanadeva 's) pilgrimage to 
sacred places in North India, showed his farsightedness. Yogic 
back-ground, scholarship, Karund for the dumb, and the down- 
trodden mjisses so deeply impressed his contemporaries that 
they and the later followers of the Vitthala cult regard Jflana- 
deva as an incarnation of Vi?nu. 

Mahipati devoted the highest number of chapters to 
Namadeva (A.D. 1279-1350). Though elder tojiianadeva, 
he was the disciple of Jfianadeva's disciple Visoba Khechar 
and is called the "servant" (Kitftkara) of Jfi&nadcva by Bahina- 
bai. But long before he met Jfianadeva, he was an ardent 



XXXIV 

devotee of Vitjhala. As recorded by non-Maharashtrian 
saints like Narsi Mehta (Gujarat) and Kabir(U.P.). it was 
reported that god Vitdiala drank the milk from the hands of 
child Namadeva, repaired the roof of his house and made the 
temple of god (Ava^hya Naganatha) turn round to enable 
the deity to have Namadeva in front of him. (Narsi Mehta — 
Hdramdla w. 53, 82; also in Namadeva's Mukhabini in Adi- 
Grantha what is not known to Mahipati and to a large number 
of people in Maharashtra is Namadeva's work in the Punjab. 
We owe it to Sikh Guru Arjan Singh (A.D. 1561-1606) who, 
while compiling the Adi grantha (Granth Sahib) of Sikhs, 
included 61 poetic compositions of Namadeva in a mixed 
Braj-like dialect, as his mukhabdni. Hindi scholars like 
Vinay Mohan Sharma^, Bhagirath Mishra and others call it 
"Hindi". After a prolonged dispute, it has now been estab- 
lished that Namadeva, the contemporary of jAanadeva in 
Maharashtra is the same jjerson who went to the Punjab 
probably in Circa A.D. 1325 and stayed there for 20 years. 
He had his headquarters at Ghoman in Gurudaspur Dist., 
though he spent most of his time in touring firom place to place, 
preaching the efficacy of the name of the Lord. 

Textual similarity between Namadeva's Mukhabdni in the 
Adi-grantha and his Marathi AbhaAgas (poems), identity in 
their teacitings and glorification of god's name, sometimes 
of Rama and at other places of fii(vi)thalu — (the latter is a 
loan-word from Marathi, the Paiyabi form would have been 
Bijan), to lives or spuitual exploits of both Namadeva's are 
the same viz. : Vi^thala idol drinking milk from Namadeva's 
hand, repairing of the roof of his house by Vi^piala, bringing 



i) Vinay Mohan Sharma— f^^ Vt Jf^nSt ^ ^ ^ 

ii) s.p.jodu-jigrnrRft^ mf^ 

iii) Bhagirath Mishra and Riynarayan Maurya — ^ •THT^ ^ fl^ 

<nni«|t (Poona University 1964) . 
>v) 11*1^^ ^jiR Pub. Namadeva Sanuyonnati parishad, Kothapui 

1976. 



XXXV 

back to life a dead cow in the Durbar of a Sultan. These 
and other factors have led to establish the identity of these two 
Namadevas'. 

This identity makes Namadeva the first exponent of Santa- 
mata as Ramananda, Kabir, Nanak seem to have got inspi- 
ration from his work. He is probably the second Nii^nia 
after JfSanadeva who synthesized both the Saguna and Nirgima 
types of Bhakti. His associates and disciples included Brah- 
mins, as well as men from goldsmith, potter, barber, Harijans 
communities. 

Bahinabal r^htly gives the credit of extending the temple 
of Bhakti to this "servant" of Jfianadeva.* 

Though Mahipati did not observe a chronological sequ- 
ence in the arrangement of chapters, the next important saint 
is Ekanatha (A.D. 1533 ?— 1599) . He was the greatest scholar- 
philosopher-saint-poet cum social reformer of the 16th Century 
Maharashtra. But as we have already written in details about 
him*, we may pass on to the towering personalities of the 
17th Century (Maharashtra) viz. Tukarama and Ramadasa. 

Next to Namadeva, Tukarama is respected by VSrakaris 
(followers of the Vitthala cult ) . As stated above, Mahipati 
studied his literature, visited this native place Dehu and based 
his chapters on Tukar&ma on the legends he got from Gopala 
Baba, the great-grandson of Tukarama. Being a product of a 
credulous age (as many of us are even today), Gopala Baba 
thought that it is not his literature and piety but attribution 
of miracles that would enhance the greatness of Tukarama, 
and Mahipati believing in them as historical &cts depicted 
them in a highly poetic way. Modem researchers, however, 
have established that Tukarama was not a destitute nor a 
simpleton. Though he discontinued his hereditory Mahajana- 
^hip and money-lending profession, he owned a big house, 

•• 'n'n ?^T^ f%VT I WT? %«T ft Prenr --Bi>l»ia» Ba 
2. Introduction to J. E. Abbot's Thtltfi tfShmtA (Motilal Buianidaa, 
Odia, 1960} 



XXXVl 

had his private Vitthala temple with a land-grant of 15 
BighaSy had sufficient landed property other than this land- 
grant. Hence he could condemn begging in the strongest 
terms.^ 

Bahinabai, his spiritually advanced disciple who stayed at 
Dehu to the end of Tukarama's life, does not record him to 
be a VSrakari but notes that he spent most his time in Sddhani 
in his private Vitthala Temple. She does not record the for- 
mation of T^^karis at the time of his Kirtana and hints that 
Tukarama wrote his AbhaAgas himself, the manuscript of which 
due to the absence of Tukarama's wife and children from 
Dehu for 25 years after his death, is now irrecoverably lost. 
As a miracle, she records that God preserved the Abhahga- 
books of Tukarama dry in water, for 13 days. People still 
believe that Tukarama went to Vaikunfha physically (in 
his mortal body). Bahinabai states that Tukarama suddenly 
passed away in the presence of all.* 

The epithet Caitanya in the names of the two spiritual 
predecessors of Tukarama misled many to link up Tukirima 
to the Caitanya SampradOya of Bengal.* It is true that Nimai 
or Gauranga Prabhu came to Pandharpur where he was 
initiated in Krsna cult by I^vara Puri and he spent some six 
years in the Deccan before he went to Orissa. But philosophi- 
cally, (if we are to believe Baladeva, the Conunentator of the 
Brahma SOtras as p)er Caitanya's Cult), Caitanya was a Dvaiti, 
a follower of Madhva. In his Prameya Ratnioali which Bala- 
deva regards as the summary of the nine Prameyas (proved 
propositions) of Caitanya, the world h regarded as real and 

1. ftwnqigr tpmyit I grytfirqf <>t i r^<< ii q i ii 

(AbhuAgNo. 74) 

V. S. Bendrar-g^jnrnr H^KI^ t^ HtTTSft pp. 83-108. The whole 
90ok is worth perusal (M«i^ Pab. Bombay 1958) 

3. For esan^le M. T. Kennedy^Tlf Ouilaigfa M, atmrntt, p. 42 

Pub. Y. M. a A., Cklcutta 



xxxvii 

that difference (of souls etc. ) is real. This Is against the teach- 
ings of Tukarama — in fact against the teachings of all saints 
of the Vifthala cult (and of Rannadasa as well). A reference 
to any standard catalogue of Sk. MSS. will show a number of 
authors bearing the epithet Caitanya but having absolutely no 
relation with Gauranga Prabhu. 

Mahipati bases Vitthala's manifestation as Rama to Rama- 
dasa on the basis of his own Abhanga at the sight of Vitthala. 
It shows his realization of oneness of Rama and Vitthala, 
if not an attempt to mobilise the followers of Vitthala to the 
cause of Shivaji. 

A lot of research has been carried out on Hindi and Gujrati 
saints like Kabir, Tulasidas, Surdas, Narsi Mehta. But 
Mahipati had only a second-hand knowledge about them 
through the works of Nabhaji and Uddhava Cidghana. In fact 
our knowledge about many Maharashtrian saints described 
by him is still very limited. We owe gratitude to him for 
preserving for us their names and legends for further research. 

This is not a critique of Mahipati, but an attempt to present 
succinctly tne research on these saints since 1933. Mahipati 
deserves our gratitude for presenting these legends in a fasci- 
nating, poetic style. The very fact that he devoutly describes 
the legends of all saints irrespective of caste, language, state 
or community shows that he had imbibed the fundamental 
tenet of philosophy of Bhakti: 

ekarh sad, viprd bahudhd vadanti j 



BHAKTAVIJAYA 

BY 
M AH I P ATI 

CHAPTER I 
INVOCATION 

OBEISA.NCE TO SHRI GANESH 

1. Obeisance to Shri Sarasvati (goddess of speech). 
Obeisance to my (furu. Obeisance to Rukmini and 
Pandurang. Victory, Victory, to Thee whose place of 
enjoynient is the bank of the Bhima river, Lover of Thy 
lihcikki.^. Ocean of mercy, Who, although pervading all the 
animate and inanimate, art different from them, and dost 
extend far beyOndall existing things. 2. Yet assuming the 
form of Ganesh and Sarasvati, Thou hast appeared as if 
existing in many forms. Therefore, at the beginning of 
this book I have bowed to Sarasvati and Ganesh. 3. Let us 
how to the sar^(7?/ru Tukaram, who discarded the illusions 
of this worldly existence, showed me love for his name; 
and removed me from this earthly existence. 4. Now let 
us bow to the great poets, Vyasa, the M7ini Valmlki, 
Bhargav, Shuka, Narada, and the poets Ushana, and 
Jaimini, who are the first to be bowed to. 5. Now let us 
bow to saints and good men, whom Hari ( God ) loves with 
all his heart, and who in this Kali Yuqa came to save the 
dull, the fools and the ignorant. 6. I have begun this book, 
the Bkaktavijaya, but in order that it may be carried to 
completion, all of you raus*- help. Just as when in a poor 
man's house some function is planned, his rich neighbours 
assist him. 7. Just as a man, full of kindness and endowed 
with sight, enables a blind man to visit sacred places, so do 



BUakTavuaya Ch. 1- 7-19 

yon by your gift of kindness make these verses acceptable 
to the hearers. 8. I am mentally dull and ignorant. I 
have never studied the art of poetry. I have never read 
the books known as Puranas. I do not know the divine 
( Sanskrit ) language. 9. But here there is one special 
thing that Hari ( God ) is fond of, the stories of His 
bkaktas, so the Qod Shiva has said in the JShavishyottar 
Parana. 10. And therefore a desire has arisen in my 
mind out of intense love for the stories of the bhaktaa, but 
the attempt is like that of the water bird, the titavi, saying 
to itself. ' I will drink the ocean dry. ' 11. Who am I to 
attempt to describe the attributes of Hari ( Gk»d ) ? For 
when the V«dia attempted to describe Him even they had 
to be absolutely silent. The attempt made the serpent 
Shesha's tongue to be cloven, and it made itself into a 
oouoh for Hari. 1*!. Since Brabmadev, Indra and Shiva do 
not know His limits, how can I describe His attributaa, I 
a pocr miserable sinner T 13. When an infant obetinately 
insists on anything, the mother supplies it at once; so He> 
the Merciful to the Lowly, will grant me my obstinate 
longing. 14. The child Dhruva desired to sit on his 
father's lap, and Hari gave him an everlasting seat. 15. 
When Upamanyu asked for a oup of milk. He gave him the 
whole ocean of milk. So, I know that He, the Merciful to 
the Lowly, will supply my intense desire. 16. The bhakttis 
who descended to the earth during the Krita, Treta, and 
Dvapara Yugas, they are the very ones who in this Kali 
Yuga have become manifest as saviours of mankind. 17. 1 
have felt intense joy in relating the stories connected with 
them, so now, my hearers, be careful to give close attention 
to me. 18. I am ntjither a clever nor a wise man. I have 
read but little of Vedantio books. £now nothing of the 
Sanskrit language. This the glorious husband of Rukmini 
knows. 19. Long ago Eknath wrote his version of 
Ramayam at the inspiration of the saints, but I have 



Ch. I- 19-31 INVOCATION 

neither those words of blessing, nor any inspiration. 2,0. 
Namdev and Mukteshwar described Vishnu in the 
BJiarata, but I have no inspiration like them. 21. In the 
commentary by Vaman on the glorious Bhagavaia and 
in the Harivijaya composed by Shridhar their words 
carry blessing, but in my attempt to speaK: such words 
of blessing I have not been able to use them. 22. In 
the Bodharctja composed by Ramdas, he pleads in his 
verses with the Giver of salvation, but in my attempt 
to speak words of blessing I have failed. 25. Graneshnath, 
Keshavaswami, Salaya, are all well known in the world for 
their sweet compositions ( in Marathi ) while Eabir wrote 
in Hindustani, the language of his own country. 24. Such 
were the good saints whose books make the ignorant wise : 
-this is a most remarkable fact. 25. In PratishthanfPaithan ), 
Dnyaneshwar made a male buffalo repeat the Vedas. To 
such saints, merciful in character I bow at the begin- 
ning of this book. 26. Just as when a little stream of 
water acquires holiness when it flows into the river Ganges 
and becomes the very same in nature ; or just ss iron be- 
comes a golden ornament for the rich man the moment it 
comes in contact with the touchstone (theptmls); 27. or 
as when any one sings the praise of kings the sons of the 
minister regard that praise as rightly given : so as I relate 
the stories of the saints good men are delighted. 28. As in 
the case of a river that is not distinguished by being 
mentioned, It receives the reverenca of men when it joins 
the sea ; or as when a man sits in the shadow of a wish-tree, 
neither poverty nor disaster harms him ; 29. so, although I 
am so dull-minded, yet when I relate the character and 
deeds of God's bhaldai the Merciful One will have pity on 
me. 30. I bow to the ground before Vasishtha in whose 
family line I was born. May He in his mercy cause this 
book to reach completion. 31. And now let me bow to my 
mother and father, to whom I givahonour hi^ber than to 

3 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. I- 31-11 

all the sacred places, through whom by my good fortune I 
gained this human body. 

32. As I bow to the Husband of Rukmini who is the 
family deity of both my maternal and paternal family 
lines, surely all the gods feel satisfaction. 33. Just as 
when one worships the sea, the hearts of all rivers are 
made happy; or as when one looks at the moon, all stars 
become visible; 34 or as when one travels round the world 
rapidly, that journey must include all sacred places; or as 
the worship of the Son of Vinata ( Eagle, the vehicle of 
Vishnu) is the same as the worship of all birds; 35. so when 
I worship the deity Pandurang ( Krishna ) all the gods are 
made happy. The function of supporting all things rests 
on Him, Pandharinath, the God Supreme. 36. He, Vishnu, 
is the giver of all intellect. In whatever manner he may 
cause me to compoBe my verses, saints and other gowd 
men must with reverence and love listen to them. 

SOURCES AND ENCOURAGEMEKT 

37. Perhaps you may say that I myself have com- 
posed this book, founding it on my own imagination 
and according to my own fancy, but sirs, that is truly not 
so. Have no doubts regarding this. 

38. In the country to the North there was one by 
the name of NabhSji, an avatar of Brahmadev. He wrote 
a great book containing the stories of the saints. He wrote 
it in the Gwalior language. 39. And in MSndesh there 
was one Uddhvachidghan. He also wrote the .stories 
of the saints. Uniting the stories of both, I have begun 
this book, the Bhaklavijaya. 40. The Husband of Rukmini 
who abides on the bank of the glorious river Bhima, 
has given me the needed encouragement, and be has caused 
me to write this profound book. So good people, listen with 
love. 41. A child speaks in broken words, but its mother 

4 



Ch. I- 41-52 EVILS OF THE KALI YUGA 

expresses her delight. So my very uncouth language I 
think you will accept. 42. Or as a streamlet flows into the 
river Ganges, the river makes it like itself; so by making 
you friendly to me my verses will be acceptable. 43. If clay 
should become one with the fragrant musk, it will arrive at 
value ; so you will accept my commonplace language. 44. 
Or as when a tiny drop of water falls into milk, it makes 
the drop like itself; so through your kindness my words 
will become acceptable to you. 45. That you are saints, 
the very image of God, is the firm conviction of my mind. 
Therefore, I, Mahipati, bow to you in reverence. 

EVILS OF THE KALI YUGA 

46. And now listen with attention. At the end of the 
aralarasMp of Shri Krishna during the Kali Yuga, when the 
offering of sacrifices and giving of benevolent gifts had 
ceased, 47. Brahmans had neglected their religious 
obligations, and the Kshatriyas had given up rational 
thinking. Saunyasis had abandoned their duties and Brah- 
maiis ( earth-gods ) had ceased to observe the duties of the 
fourth stage of life. 48. Sons would not listen to the 
oo.nraands of their parents. Disciples would not serve their 
religious teachers. Husbands listening to the wishes of 
their wives, went to live in the homes of their fathers-in- 
law. 49. No one cared to go to sacred places. No one 
listened with reverence to the reading of the Puranas. 
And giving up the Hari-praise-services, they delighted in 
watching indecent dramatizations. 50. Brahmans cast 
aside the Shaligram and installed in their homes the idols 
of inferior deities. They threw away the rosary made of 
the falsi and rudrSksln. and wore around their necks 
garlands made of glass beads. 51. Rich persons disliked 
to make gifts. Those in health had no desire for religious 
acts. Kings had no love for their subjects, and justice 
and morality were put aside. 52. Women of noble birth 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. I- 5'2-€5 

became slaves of others. Parents sold their daughters just 
as they sold horses. Muhammadans slaughtered cows as the 
king Kali became powerful. 53. Many spoke falsehood 
and inanlted Sadhus {godly Sannyasis). They declared as 
true, things that were false ; they gave a false witness. 54. 
The repeating of Oayatri ( a prayer to the Sun ) ceased. 
Magical formulas took their place. Evil men, pretending to 
be trustworthy to the pious, murdered them. 55. The images 
of deities would be mere stones, and then Muhammadans 
would smash them to pieces. The visiting of sacred places 
would be cared. Thus the Kali Yuga ( the evil age ) broufbt 
trouble to men. 56. There is no sin equal to that of false- 
hood. There is no virtue equal to truth, but Kali Yuya 
caused all truth to disappear and evil deeds multiplied 
without limit. 57. When Rahu ( the monster that swallows 
the sun, creating an eclipse ) arises, darkness fills the sky; 
or when death approaches, a multitude of diseases attack the 
body; 58. or when night falls, ghosts leave the cemeteries ; 
or when an unfortunate person sees himself without guod 
fortune, pains and poverty come upon him ; 59. or as whea 
a teacher becomes angry the result is ignoi-ance, or when 
the period of youth arrives, pride fills the heart; 60. or when 
men of crooked life come into an assembly, they naturally 
indulge in insults ; thus during the existence of KcUi Yuya 
unlimited sins appeared. 61. Rishis went away to Badrik- 
ashram, while Brahmans neglected their religious duties. 
When this was once happening, an earthquake took place. 
62. Then Shri Hari ( God ) in heaven thought over the 
sad conditions of His bkaklaa. He saw terrible sins com. 
mitted on earth among mortals. 63. All sacrifices and 
offerings had ceased. Brahmans had cast aside the doing 
of good deeds. Ignorant men sank in the sea of sorrow. 
64. As the Husband of the Daughter of the Ocean ( Gbd ) 
thought of what was to be done, all His hhaktas joined their 
hands palm to palm and stood before Him. 65, Then they 

6 



Ch. r 65-78 EVILS OF THE KALI YITGA 

said to Him, ' Vishnu, give us some command ' Then 
He whe enjoys dwelling on the ocean of milk ( Vishnu ^ 
spoke thus to His bhaktas : 66. ' Long ago I became an 
avatara&nd killed evil demons, setting free the whole world 
from enemies. I am now carrying on the Buddha Avatara. 
67. Now I wish you all to become avatar n in the world of 
mortals, in as many places as I have an abode, and in the 
ancient sacred places. 68. For example, in the forest called 
Dindir there is a place named Pandhari. Uddhav should 
become an avaiar and turn the inhabitants of the southern 
country ( Deccan ) to worship me. 69. Akrur should be- 
come &\\. avatar at Mathura and Gokulvrindavan, and by his 
preaching turn all their inhabitants to my worship. 70. 
The bfiakta Daruk should become the avatar Ramdas in the 
Western country, and cause the whole country to worship 
me. 71. In the East at Jagannath, Vyas should become an 
nvaiar. He should cause men to listen to my extraordinary 
deeds. 73. In Hastinapur ( ancient Delhi ) the well known 
sacred place, Valmiki should become an avaiar and turn 
everyone to worship me with extreme reverence. 73. I became 
the Ram avatar, and at that time you became monkeys. I 
killed Ravan, and delivered Indra together with all the 
other gods. 74. They were the very ones who in the time 
of Krishna's avatar became cowherds, and others became 
loving Yadavris. He slaughtered Kansa and other demons 
and protected cows and Brahmans. 75. And now becom- 
ing Buddha I am remaining quiet. "Who dares to sing 
my praises to men, except you ? 76. For your sake I took 
human form with visible qualities. Otherwise who would 
have paid attention to me ? Aside from my bhaktas I see 
no one dear to me.' 77. While thus the Husband of Kamala 
( Vishnu ) spoke, the bhaktas shouted ' Victory, Victory ', 
adding ' Thou art God, Merciful to the Lowly. This we 
have now fully understood. 78. As the rays proceed from 
the sun, as gold comes out of clay, so we Thy bhaktas are 

7 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. L 78-92 

purified by Thee, Shri Hari. 79. Or as trees develop from 
water, or as clusters of stars arise in the heaven, so we 
Thy bhaktas are ( dependent on ) Thee, Shri HarL 80. As 
cloth comes from threads, as light comes from lamps, so 
we Thy bhaktas are purified by Thee, Shri Hari 81. As 
fishes develop from water, as honey comey from flowers, so 
we Thy bhaktas seem important because of Thee. 82. As the 
bracelet is made of gold, as the wind comes out of the sky, 
so we Thy bhaktas have become avatars on earth with 
human qualities. 83. As the dolls of the juggler are made 
to dance by pulling a string, so Thou noble Ram, didst 
cause us to capture Ceylon. 84. A fife gives out a sweet 
sound, but it must be played by one who knows how to 
play it; so during the avatarship of Krishna, Thou didst 
perform great deeds through us. 85. According to Thy will, 
everything, Brahmadev and the other gods included, come 
into existence and then disappear. At Thy will. Thou hast 
created an infinite number of universes, and then Thou dost 
destroy them. 86. So according to Thy command, O Vishnu, 
we will hasten and turn mankind to Thy worship.' 

VISHNU ALLOTS AVATARSHIPS 

87. Having heard their reply, the Husband of Karaala 
(Vishnu) replied to Uddhava, ' I wish you to become an 
(icatur by name of Namdev in the family line of a tailor* 
88. And in becoming that avatar on earth in the sacred 
city of Pandhari, cause men to hear the infinite number of 
my names. 89. The deeds which I showed you in my (uxitars 
as Ram and Krishna, I wish you to make known to the 
ears of mankind- 90. In the Kali Yuga my name is the 
Only Saviour.' Thus spoke the Husband of Rama to Uddhava. 
91. Vishnu then said to Shuka, 'I wish you to become an 
avatar in the family of a Muhammadan, and I will give 
you birth in an unusual way. 92. Become my bhakta 
Kabjr. Go there as my representative and proclaim widely 

S 



Ch. I- 9^-105 VtSHNU ALLOTS AVATAESfflPS 

the exfaraordiiiary power of my name.' 93. Then Vishnu 

Baid to Valmiki, " I wish you to become the Brahman 

Tulsfdas and cause men to realise in this Kali Yuga an 

intense love for worship. 94. You composed the Ramayana, 

s thou.sand million verses in which you spoke of the future 

You should describe the same glory in the vernacular 

( Hindi ) language, and turn men to worship me.' 95. 

' Daruka, I wish you to become at once at Dakur the 

Brahman Ramdas, and in return for your devotion for me 

I will rush to your aid from Dvaraka.' 96. The Creator 

of the universe said to Shiva, ' I wish you to become 

Narsi Mehta and cause the inhabitants of Junagad 

to hear the stories connected with the path of devotion. 

97. 1 wish you to hasten before me. I also will soon 

follow you in the form of Dnyaneshwar.I shall explain the 

meaning of the Bhagavadgita. 98. Brahmadev will become 

Sopan; Sadashiv will become Nivritti; Adimaya will 

become Muktabai ; and descend to the earth as avatars. ' 

99. So spoke Vishnu and all clapped their hands with 

cries of 'Victory, Victory, ' and the gods showered flowers 

upon them. The immortals rejoiced. 100. They said, 

Blessed is this day; the Life of the World has been pleased 

with us. We will now descend to the world of mortals and 

carry on ou^ work of salvation. 101. The world of mortals 

seems to us to be superior to the heavens, Vaikuntha and 

Kailas. Here both sin and righteousness are harvested, as 

also sacrifices and offerings. 102. As the fruit of good deeds 

done in the world of action comes to an end in heaven, 

souls are pushed back to the world of action. 103. In 

this v/orld of mortals it is possible to be united to tlie feet 

of Hari. In this world of mortals, one can attain to Hari's 

heaven. Through birth here, the praise of Hari falls 

on the ears of every one. 104. Therefore, we gods will 

become atKitars.' Thus speaking the gods returned to the 

heaven of Indra. 105. The noble Vaishnavas will now 

9 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. I- lOo-lll 

become avatara as we shall see, in order to save the 
world. Let your ears now listen to the stories of saints. 

106. Perhaps you will say in your mind, that these 
stories are not in the Puranaa composed by Vyas. By 
bringing this into your mind, you will fall into the forest 
of doubis. 107. Still, in the Utter part of the Bhavishya 
Parana, Vyas himself declared that in the Kali Yuga the 
bhaktas in heaven will bscoraa avatars voluntarily among 
a race of inferior beings. 108. They will perform in men's 
sight the most remarkable daads and causa Vishnu Himself 
to be subject to tham. They will proclaim the glory of 
Qod*s name and ba filled with the knowledge of the Vedanta. 
109. I have already related what auatarships the Vaish- 
navas, bhaktas of God, ware to assume. This I have already 
related in detail. Do you, good people, listen to it with 
pleasure. 110. In the next chapter there will be a relating 
of the story of Shri Jayadev, a man absolutely pure. 
Mahipati herewith .states, ' Let all saints and good men 
give close attention to me.' 111. SvasU. This book is 
the Bnakfavijaya. The Lord of the earth will be pleased 
as he listens to it. Let the pious, Qod-loving hhaktas 
listen. This is the first delightful chapter 



10 



CHAPTER II 

JAYADEV 

Ohei.^nce 

Obeisance to Shri Ganesh. Obeisance to Shri 
Krishna who appeared among the cowherds. 

1. After this Vishnu said, 'Vyas, what you have said 
in the Parana is not understood in the Kali Yuga by 
ignorant men, because of its difficulties. 2. I wish you 
to become an aiatar in the form of Jayadeva, and bring 
about the salvation of mankind. ' Having thus heard the 
wish of Vishnu, Vyas prostrated himself on the ground 
before Him. 3. In accordance with Vishnu's wish, Vyas 
became a full avatar in a Brahman family, in a town by 
fhe name of Tundubilva, near the sacred city devoted to 
Jagannath, Lord of the universe. 4. The Brahman belongs 
to the highest caste. He is chief among the four castes. 
Here Vyas descended voluntarily as an avaiar. 5. Day 
by day he grew in stature. His mother and father invested 
him with the sacred thread. Without the cfiFort of study 
he became skilled in all the sciences. 6. As the moon 
cannot be hidden among a multitude of stars, or as the 
eagle among birds, or as the god Indra among other gods; 
7. or as God Shiva ( Shankrj ) among ascetics, or as the 
Husband of Rukmini ( Krishna ) among the Yadavas, 
or as a jewel in the midst of gold ; 8. or as a hero in an 
army, or as the sun in the sky, or as an ocean 
above all ponds; 9. or as a clever listener among the 
ignorant, or as a speaker in a Hari Kirtan, or as a royal 
swan among birds-these the wise can recognize from afar; 
10. or as a prince among paupers, or as pure devotion 
among all the other means of worship; so Jayadeva 
appeared amongst the Brahmans as a great orator, 

11 



BHAKlAViJAYA Oil. II. ll-2i 

11. He studied the Vedas and the Shaskras. He went 
through all the Puranas. He discovered that in the Kali 
Yugathe praising of God was the chief means of salvation. 

JAYADEV'S GrTA--GOVINDA AND KING SATVIK 

12, The Husband of Rakmini ( Krishna ) said to 
Uddhav, ' In the Kali Yuga I wish you to worship me by 
singing my praise.' Therefore, the poet Jayadev composed 
the poetic work called Gita-Govinda. 13. The theme of 
this poem is from the Padma Parana, about the love- 
actions of the Lord of the Universe with Radha, and also 
His voluntary plays in Gokul in his Krishna avatar. 14. 
The actions of Shri Hari are already enchanting ; and 
moreover Jayadev has sung them in a beautiful manner in 
the form of a poem. This is like setting a diamond in a 
golden bracelet. 15. He composed a book called Oita- 
Govinda which everyone copied and took away with him. 
They joyfully committed it to memory and sang it in every 
house. 16. Flowers may oe in one place, but their fra- 
grance spreads everywhere. So this book, the Gita-Govinda 
became known throughout the world. 17. There was a 
King in Jagannath whose name was Satvik. He also 
composed a book similar to that of Jayadev. 18. He had 
copies made of his book, sent them to people and ordered it 
to be read by all. 19. When the pandits heard this news, 
they were very angry. These wise ones assembled at Jagan- 
nath and said to the King, 20. ' You have composed ti 
book which is pleasing to yourself. You have even put it 
on an equality with that of Jayadev, and are therefore 
talking nonsense. 21. But those who are really wise never 
praise their own works with their own lips. But you are 
telling all men to commit your book to memory. 22. If you 
shout out, " Take this knowledge, take this divine service, 
this mantra of a particular guru, and this knowledge of 
Brahma, this garland, and this great diamond," it loses its 

1 y 



oil. II- 22-35 BOOKS OF JAYADEV AND KING 8ATVIE 

value. 23. With your own lipa to praise your own clever- 
ness and the beauty of your own poetry, is as foolish as it 
is to praise the nausk, the sandalwood of Mount Maila, or 
saffron, or the odorous testicle of a wild cat, 24, If you also 
try to fix the value of a daughter or a pearl, of a book 
or a rich cloth, of black ambergris or the wind on the Mount 
of Malaya, it is really lowering their true value.' 25, 
The Brahmans continued, ' King, you have composed 
this book in vain. You are holding pride in your heart. 
This is not pleading to God.' 26. The king replied, 
' Bring both books here at once, and we will place them 
for the night before the idol of Jagannath. 27. Jayadev 
sang the praises of God's goodness, and I also did the 
same. The book that is not acceptable to God, He will 
throw out of the temple.' 28. Both books were immediately 
brought and placed before the idol. The doors were locked, 
and the priests came out of the temple. 29. On the next 
morning early all the Brahmans assembled together, and 
at the time of wickwaving all the priests also came 
into the temple. 30. There they saw the superior book of 
Jayadeva. This book was placed near Him, by the Supreme 
Being. The king's book was treated with contempt and 
tossed outside the temple. 31. Hands were clapped with 
shouts of ' Victory, Victory. ' The assembled Brahmans 
rejoiced and the king had to hang his head in shame. 

32. The pandits said to the king, 'Milk and water have 
now been separated. How can a book on the Vedanta 
philosophy and an immoral book be placed on an equality? 

33, How can a royal swan and a crow, or a learned 

pandit and an out-caste Mang, or tinplate and pure gold 
be considered as of equal value ? 34, How can the babhul 
tree and the sandlewood tree, the sandalwood on Mount 
Maila and the fruit hivgav, a good man and a bad man, 
be considered equal ? ' 35. How can a saint and a reviler, a 

18 



BHAKTAVtJAYA Oh. II- 35-50 

deceiver and & pious mart, the god Indra and a pauper, be 
evenly matched ? 36. So your poem and the Gita-Govinia 
of Jayadev, could not ba brought to any equality, and 
yours was therefore thrown out by Jagannath. ' 37. When 
the king heard them say this he was greatly ashamed. He 
went and stood before the image of Jagannath. 38. Join- 
ing his hands palm to palm, he said to God. 'O Jagannath, 
I now understand the meaning of the names you bear. 
39. Your name is Purifier of the Sinful. I think this is 
not true in that you discard one, and call another your 
ow n. 40. You are alike to every being, pervading every- 
thing, OGod. One who is a bhakla and one who is not a 
hhakta both live by Thy power. 4t. The sun shines in every 
vessel. Just as water is to a cow and a tiger, so Thou, O 
Lord of the Yadavas, art alike to every being. 42. Just 
as to alooust and an eagle all space is the same, so art 
Thou. O Lord of the universe, alike to every living being. 
43. A child is the same to its mother, whether ignorant or 
wise; so Thou, O Purifier of the Fallen, art alike to all. 44. 
The moon is the same to both king and despised pauper; so 
Thou, O Husband of Rukmini, art alike in every one. 
45. O Jagannath, Thou didsi; cause Jayadev to utter his 
poam in tile world. Then, Infinite One, tell me who is 
the mover of my haart. 46. This being so, Jagannath, 
you threw my book outside. I therefore shall now commit 
suicide.' Thus spoke the king. 47. As God heard his 
pleading words. Ha w.^? pleased and Ha took from the 
king's book twenty-four verses 48. The Life of the 
World then wrote them down in Jayadeva's book. By do- 
ing so the King was comforted. 

JAYADEV'S MARRIAGE 

49. There was a Brahman in the sacrad city of Jagan- 
nath with sacrificial duties. Ha had a jfewel of a daughter 
born to him by name of Padmavati. 50. Her beautiful 

14 



Oh. ir 50-63 JAYADEV'SJMARRIAGB 

form seemed like that of Lakshmi's. Therefore the noble 
Brahman gave her the name of Padmavati. 51. The 
Brahman thought to himself, ' My daughter is a mountain 
of beauty and goodness, so I must with reverence offer 
her to Jagannafch.' 52. When Brahmans came to ask her 
in marriage, seeing her beauty, he would tell them that 
she had been offered to Krishna. 53. Every one under- 
stood thifi, and she grew up day by day. The Pervader 
of the World came to the Brahman in a dream. 54. 
Jagannath said to the Brahman, ' You offered your 
daughter to me, but I live in the Kali Yuga in the f.orm 
of Buddha. 55. Now the poet Jayadev is a portion 
of me, an aya/ar of mine. You should give her to Jayadev 
with all her ornaments ' 56. Waking from this dream, 
the Brahman was exceed! agly happy. And after inviting 
Jayadev Swami to his house, an agreement for marriage 
was made. 57. The Brahmans examined their horoscopes. 
They showed a value of thirtysii points. All preparations 
were made, including ornaments. 58. The deity presiding 
over marriage was installed; the Brahmans vi^ere feasted; 
and the god Ganpati (Destroyer of obstacles) was worshipp- 
ed. The Brahmans held the marriage curtain. The words 
of blessing were pronounced by the priest. 59. ' Keshav, 
O Narayan, O Madhav, O Govinda, O Gopal, O God Supreme, 
Slayer of Madhu, Madhav, protect this bride and 
bridegroom. 60. Krishna, Vishnu. Vaman, Ram, O 
Advocate of Thy bhaklas, O Home of all goodness, O Impri- 
Boner of Bali, O Trivikram, protect this bride and bridegroom. 
61. O Protector of the cowherds. Dweller in Dwarka, 
O Lord of Pandhari, O Krishna, Protector of the World, O 
Thou mountain of goodness, protect this bride and bride- 
groom. 62. O Thou who dwellest in the heaven Vaikunth, 
O Husband of Rukmini, Dweller in the ocean of milk, 
Recliner upon the serpent Shesha, O Protector of the 
bhaJcfas, O Mine of goodness, protect this bride and 

15 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. II. 62-74 

bridegroom. 63. Ram, who dwellest in Ayodhya. and 
who protects his bhaktaa in time of distress.' These were 
the verses the Brahmans uttered as they performed the 
wedding ceremony. 64. Suddenly there was one great shout 
of 'Victory, Victory.' Innumerable musical instruments 
were sounded. For four d^rs the festival lasted and the wed- 
ding parties were honoured. 65. Jayadev Sivam continued 
to live in Jagannath. He continued praising God daily 
with great love. He performed the services of praise. 

THE PIOUS MERCHANT 
66. There was a merchant there, who was a God- 
loving pious man and exceedingly generous. Jayadev 
seeing that he was worthy of being initiated made him his 
disciple. 67. One should not be accepted as a disciple 
who is unfaithful and miserly, who is always looking for 
faults in others, one who is desirous of the property of 
others. 68. One should not be accepted as a disciple who 
is an evil-doer and a great rascal, who hates his father and 
mother, whose ways are filthy, who lives an immoral life. 
69. One should not be accepted as a disciple who is very 
loquacious and extremely garrulous, who does not enjoy 
singing the praises of God, who preache.^ the doctrine of 
Brahma without any experience of it himself. 70. One 
should not be accepted as a disciple who does not believe 
in the Vtdas and Shaslras, who will not listen to the words 
of the saints, who has no campassion on living beings. 

71. Such a one this merchant was not. He was 
supremely pious, exceedingly generous, always alert to 
serve his c/uru with body, speech and mind. 72. One 
day he invited Jayadev Swarm to come to his home. 
He seated the Swami in a carriage and brought him into 
the city. 73. It is impossible to attain to the praise of 
the goodness of God or to thoughts of the doctrine of 
Brahma without fellowship with the good. 74. Pardon, 

IG 



Ch. II- 74-88 JAYADEV'S MABBIAGB 

peace, mercy, unselfishness, sacrifices, benevolences, cannot 
be attained without association with the good. 75. Gener- 
osity, courage, faith, knowledge, postures for breathings, 
can never be attained without association with the good. 76. 
It was for this purpose that the merchant took Jayadev to 
his home, and there served him day and night with great 
zeal. 77. Jayadev Sioami performed the services of 
praise day and night in that city. He helped the dull- 
minded, the ignorant and the doers of evil to a life of devo- 
tion to God. 78. He remained there a month. He then 
said to the merchant, 'Give me permission now to return 
to Jagannath. ' 79. The merchant said to Jayadev, 'Place 
thy hands upon my head. Let thy favour be on me 
as thy servant for ever.' 80. The merchant then seated him 
on a golden chair and worshipped him with great love. 
Meanwhile he wa.s thinking in his mind what he should 
give to his Guru as his religious gift ? 81. 'Jewels, silver and 
gold aro like earth to thfl Swami, so I will send some money 
to the Guru's wife. ' 82. So v/ithout the knowledge of the 
Swami he placed iri a carriage many kinds of brilliant 
diamonds, garlands of pe-irls and gold an ornaments, 
83. After that, having properly arranged a seat, he 
placed Jayadev jn the carriage with reverence, sent a 
clever man along with him, and thus saw him off for 
some distance. 34. He said to his man at that time, 
' Go to his home and tell Padmavati that I bow at her 
feet. 85. Without the knowledge of the Stmmi, I have 
given raiments and ornaments. Offer them to tlie Guru's 
wife and quickly retur \. ' 86. After accompanying 
Jayadev for seme distance the merchant returned to 
his own city. Now that d.ay there were two thieves 
who came walking behind Jayadev. 87. These thieves 
learned the news that Jayadev had gone from the city 
and that the merchant had made a secret gift. There, 
fore the two thieves walked behind Jayadev. 88. The 

B.V. 2 17 Asiatic ?ui-ty, CalcnJ 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. II- 88-102 

merchant had given a man to accompany Jayadev. He 
said to Jayadev, ' It is very necesary that I return to my 
home, I have some urgent business there. * 89. Hearing 
this remark Jayadev said to him, * Return to your home 
and carry your business to completion. 90. A female 
slave, a male slave, a wife, a beast, a tree, an insect, an 
ant, as they wander about in this life, have to endure the 
life of subordination. ' 91. Therefore Jayadev felt com- 
passion in his heart. Having given this man permission 
to leave he sent him back to his home. 92. And so he 
went through tho forest quite alone, driving the cart him- 
self. Suddenly the two thieves appeared walking behind 
him. 93. They waited for an opportunity and coming 
near him the thieves made him a namaskar (obeisance), ju'jt 
as a crane on the banks of the Ganges sits waiting for the 
prey. 94. Then suddenly the two thieves walked along 
on both sides of the cart. Jayadev now understood the 
purpose of these thieves. 95. The wise man recognises 
from afar the croaked, the deceivers, the evil doers, the 
crafty, the thief, an immoral man, an impious man, a 
reviler, and a bad man. 96. Jayadev understood their 
movements, so he said to them, ' what is it you wish ? 
I will give it to you now. 97. You are aware that on 
this cart are many kind;: of brilliant diamonds, rich 
clothes and ornaments. I offer them to you. 98. Great 
evils are associated with money. For money, men will 
kill others. ' So Jayadev left the cart and quickly 
walked forward. 99. The thieves thought to themselves, 
' Jayadev has left his cart. He will inform the merchant 
and cause us to be punished. 100. So let us kill him and 
take his cart. ' Thus • saying, they rushed towards him. 
101. But a moment later the two men thought to them- 
selves that they ought not to kill him. So they cut off both 
his feet and hands and threw him into a pit. 102. They 
then took the cart and at once returned to the city. In tlw 

18 



Ch. II- 102-115 THE DEVOUT KING OF KRAUNCH 

meantime Jayadev was thinking of God, remembering 
Him with feelings of love. 103. Thinking of this subject 
with true perception, he said to himself, ' It is only the 
body that can be killed. The soul is not toucned thereby. 
It is quite separate from happiness and pain. 104. The 
body is the home of all diseases. The body is the root of 
bist and anger. The unhappy changes of the three gunas 
arise out of the body. * 105. Therefore Jayadev quickly 
becoming unconscious of his body thought of God, who 
finds His pleasure on the Ocean of milk. 

THE DEVOUT KING OF KRAUNCH 

106. On a cartain day the King of Kraunch came 
into the forest to hunt, and night fell while he was 
wandering thera. 107. Saeing a light in the pit, the king 
walked rapidly towards it to saa what it was. 108. There 
he saw this worshippar of Vishnu in a postura of contem- 
plation, supramely bright and rafulgant, and rapaating the 
names of God : ' Ram, Krishna, Govinda ! ' 109. The king 
seeing him in this position, he bowed prostrate bafora him. 
Looking at him closely he saw that his hands and feet had 
been cut off. 110. The king was frightened and said to 
Jayadev, ' How is it that you ara in this condition ? * ill. 
Jayadev rapliad to the king, ' I was born this way without 
hands and feat. I am quite separata from all my bodily 
organs. ' 112. The king thought to himsalf that this 
bhakta of Vishnu saemad a very learned man. So he 
seated the 8w2tm in a palanquin and took him back to the 
city. 113. Seating him on a golden throne he worshipped 
him lovingly. Coming humbly before Jayadev, he received 
the mantra making him his disciple. 114. Having seated 
Jayadev on his throne he said to his attendants, ' You murf 
carry out my command And serve the Swami every day.* 
115. The attendants said, '0 King, our star of fortunia 
has arisen. We have seen a saint. We shall now listeo 

19 



BHAKTAVUAYA C!h. II- 115-12$ 

to the praise-services of God, and to the stories of His deeds/ 

116. One day the king thought to himself, ' Let me ask 

today of the Stcami the means which I must adopt for my 

•salvation. ' 117. So when Jayadev was seated on the 

throne, the king with hands joined palm to palm 

said, ' Please ask of me some act of service. * 118. 

Jayadev said, ' O king, you should worship saints. 

There is no better means ( for attaining Paramartha ). 

119. When saints or other good men come to your 

home, you must feast them with such food as they 

enjoy. You should give to them the raiments, money, gold 

ornaments which they ask of you. 120. If you worship 

the saints in that way, God will be pleased. God is fond 

of these who serve His saints. They are more to Him than 

Lakshmi herself.' 121. The king said to the Swami, 'How 

shall I rtcognise saints ? I do not at all know how, because 

I live in a condition of ignorance.' 122. The Husband of 

Pacmavati ( Jayadev ) said to him, ' Listen to the marks of 

a saint. On his forehead are the three upright marks, and 

twelve other marks on his body. On his neck he wears the 

ornament of a tulsi garland. 123. Such are the outer marks 

of a follower of Vishnu. You must go to him alone as a 

suppliant.' The king hearing this replied, ' I certainly 

will do so.' 124. Honouring his Guru's command, the 

king served the saints. Vaishnaxas heard of this, and 

came to his home. 125. Just as travellers come to sit 

in the shade when they see a tree, or as when birds see 

some food and joyfully come there; 126. or just as 

beggars come rushing when they hear the news of some 

generous giver; or as an ant seeing sugar, runs towards it 

with great joy; 127. or as when a cow comes back from 

feeding in the forest, the calf rushes to meet her; or as 

a cloud sends down rain joyously, when it sees a high 

mountain; 128. or as a peacock dances in ecstasy when 

it hears the thunder in the cloud; or as the warrior seeing 

20 



Ch. ir 128-141 THIEVES WHO FEIGNED AS SAINTS 

a battle rushes towards it with eagerness and courage ; 
129. so good people came to see the marks of the king's 
bliakti. They first met Jayadev and then went to see the 
king. 130. When the king saw these saints he prostrated 
before them on the ground. He was accustomed to take 
^hem into his home for four months of the year and to 
feast them after their own hearts. 131. Whatever 
these Vaishmivas asked for, the king was accustomed to 
give them. He gave them limitless garments, ornaments 
and money when they asked for them. 

THIEVES WHO FEIGNED AS SAINTS 

132. The thieves who cut off the hands of Jayadev 
learned that this was the case. 133. They said, ' Let us 
pretend to be saints and go and see the king, and so 
plan that wo shall obtain an abundance of money. ' 134. 
Thsy did not know that Jayadev was there. These deceivers 
then dressed themselves as saints. 135. Taking gopichandan 
(a sort of clay) they decorated their persons with the twelve 
marks of a Vaishnavn. They wore a garland of tulsi around 
their necks. Tliey appeared very brilliant. 136. As the medi- 
tation of a crane ( sitting with eyes closed while intending 
to seize fish ) looks more beautiful than that of a great 
h uni; or as a sher tree looks brighter than a banana tree 
from a distance; 137. or as tin appears brighter than gold 
from a distance, or as the colour of patang wood looks 
better than saffron; 138. or as the singing of indecent 
songs is liked more than the songs of a Haridas ( who sings 
God's praises ); or as a shell in the sun shines brighter than 
silver from afar ; 139. so these thieves from a distance 
seemed perfect saints, but no one knew that in their hearts 
there was deception. 140. The two thieves came into the 
city and hastened to meet the king. They had a rosary 
in their hands and pretended to be indifferent to earthly 
things. 141. As they went into the king's palace and 

21 ' 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. II- 141-156 

looked in front of them they suddenly saw Jayadev sittinjf 
on the throne. 142. The fire of alarm burned within them- 
The two made signs with their eyes, implying that by 
their own act they had fallen into this furnace of fire. 

143. 'Jayadev, the poet whose hands and feet wo cut off, 
is here. Our deception has at once come to its fruitage, 

144. A hunter once went to shoot a dove and its mate 
when a great serpent bit his heel. Such seems to be our 
case now.' 145. As the two came forward Jayadev recog- 
nized them from afar. As soon as their eyes met they under- 
stood one another. 146. Jayadev naturally lived without 
enmity towards every creature, as forgiveness and peace 
were personified in him. 147. Enemies to him were like 
friends. He ignored the faults or merits of others. All 
mankind was to him in thr form of Brahma. Such is the 
characteristic of saints. 148. Hearing that thieves had 
robbed him of hig property and wealth, it brought comfort 
to his heart. Such is the characteristic of saints. 149. Pity 
either for one's own crying child or for the crying child of 
another is the characteristic of saints. 150. Whether a 
king gives him ornaments, or a common man brings 
him vegetables and greens, both please him alike. 
Such is the characteristic of saints. 151. Jayadev 
Stoami leaped down from his throne when he saw 
these enemies near him. 152. They hastened to grasp 
the feet of Jayadev. Seeing this, the Husband of Pad- 
mavati embraced them. 153. Jayadev said to his servants, 
• Some saints have come to the city. Go and say to the 
king that they should receive special honour. ' 154. Hear- 
ing this remark the servants went and told the king, who 
came at once and bowed to them. 155. The king worship- 
ped them. Using the many kinds of materials used for 
worship he gave them to each and then made the following 
l«quest. 156. He said, ' As long as you may desire, spend 
your time in this my home. ' Hearing this they said, ' We 

22 



Ch. ir 156-170 THIEVES WHO FEIGNED AS SAINTO 

shall surely remember to do so. ' 157. When it was night 
the two thought as follows : ' What will be the end of all 
this ? We feel uneasy at the hospitality shown to us*. Then 
they said to one another, 158. ' In a town of cruel 
Muharamadans men are deceived and then fed. Then finally 
they murder them Such will be the case with us, we 
think. 159. Just as a parrot comes and sits on a trap, and 
then falls into the cage, this is going to happen to us it 
would seem. 160. Seeing the bait a fish is deceived. It 
swallows it and the hook pierces its throat. Such will 
happen to us today, so it see'ms. ' 161. By continually 
worrying, the bodies of these so-called saints began to 
waste away as if they were seized with tuberculosis. 

162. One day the king said to Jayadev, ' my Swami, 
I have a request to make at your feet. 163. Other saints 
come to my house and the Swami worships them at a dis- 
tance. Why did you bow prostrate before these ?16i. Although 
I am constantly using many kinds of worshipping materials 
on theta, yet their bodies are becoming thin day by day. * 
165. Jayadsv replied, ' O king, the saints are not fond of 
enjoying the objects of the senses. To those who ara 
indifferent to worldly things, the illusions of the world and 
selfish enjoyment seem like poison. 166. Other Vaishnavas 
come, but these are more indifferent to worldly things than 
the others. Your fortune is good, therefore they have 
remained here. 167. If they should say to you, ' Give us 
permission to go, ' give them as much money as they may 
of their own choice request. ' 168. The king replied,* I will 
certainly do that. ' And with this he bowed to his Sunmi. 
One day these thieves who pretended to be saints asked per- 
mission to go. 169. ' We live at a sacred city. We wish to go 
back to our home. ' The king said to them, ' Ask me for 
whatever you wish. ' 170. To this reply of the king's the 
pretending saints said, ' Fill two carts with money for us. 

23 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. II- 171-185 

171. The king replied, ' Your request is my authority. I 
•will give you whatever you ask. ' So he gave to these 
pretending saints garments and ornaments. 172. He filled 
two carts with these costly^hings and gave two soldiers to 
go with them. He joined his hands palm to palm, in a 
very humble manner. 173. After taking leave of Jayadev 
these pretending saints started on their way. When they 
were in the forest some distance away, soldiers asked them 
a question. 174. ' Many sadhus and saints come to our 
palace, but it seems the Suximi's special favour has been 
bestowed on you rather than on others. 175. We have this 
doubt, therefore we ask the Swami for an answer to our 
question.' The pretending saints replied to the soldiers, 
176. ' Some time ago, while in the former stage of life, 
we and your Swami ( Jayadev ) lived with a king who 
was a very bad man. 177. He had a minister Jayadev 
by name. We were his servants. Because of some fault 
he committed, the king was very angry with him. 178. In 
anger the king gave us a command to take him far away 
into the forest and there behead him. 179. Having received 
this command we immediately carried him to the forest 
and instead of killing him, we cut off his hands and feet. 

180. We threw him into a pit and returned to the city. 
From that day we became indifferent to worldly things. 

181. We gave up serving the king, and have become 
■worshippers of Vishnu. Wandering from sacred city to 
sacred city, wc arrived at your city. 183. As soon as we 
entered the palace we recognised one another. We saved 
the life of Jayadev and for that reason he was full of 
thankfulness. 183. Because we had saved his life he 
prostrated himself before us. He told the king our story 
and caused him to serve us.' 184. As they said these things 
the earth began to tremble. There is no sin in this world 
etjual to that of untruth. 185. The earth quickly opened 
her mouth and the pretending saints disappeared into it. 

24 



Ch. II- 185-198 THIEVES WHO FEIGNED AS SAINTS 

This caused great wonderment to the soldiers. 186. They 
said, ' This is a great catastrophe. What ought we to do ? 
The king will punish us.' It caused them great alarm. 
187. One said, ' Let us be courageous and truthfully relate 
what has occurred.' Saying this the servants returned to 
their city. 188. Coming to Jayadev Swami they told him 
all the news. Tears then flowed from the lotus eyes of 
Jayadeva. 189. He said, 'O Krishna, Purifier of the sinner. 
Dear to the bhaktas. Husband of Rukmini, why have you 
taken my enemies to hell, O Life of the World? 190. Ravan 
who was the enemy of the bhaklas was given a home in the 
highest spiritual state. Why didst Thou, O Enchanter of the 
heart, take my enemies to hell? 191. Shishupal committed 
hundreds of faults, yet Thou wast favourable to him, but my 
enemies Thou didst take to hell. Why was this, O Merciful 
One ? 192. Kans, Chanur, and Putana, to these Thou gavest 
the highest spiritual state, but my enemies, O Slayer of 
Madhu, Thou hast taken to hell. ' 193. Listening to this 
moving plea, the Life of the World was delighted. At once 
Vishnu came and met Jayadsv. 194. God Narayan became 
pleased with him and appsiired before Jayadev in Kissagun 
form with four arms. Immediately afterwards, Jayadeva's 
hands and feet sprouted from him like the branches of a 
tree. 195. A chariot of light, Pushpaka by name, was 
sent. And the pretending saints were taken to Vaikuntha 
( the heaven of Vishnu ). Such is the power of a hhakta 
which even Bramhadev and the other gods cannot under- 
stand. 196. The husband of Rukmini said to Jayadev, 
' Blessed is your devotion. E'orgiveness, mercy and peace 
dwell in you. 197. To whom an enemy and a friend are 
alike, even I Hrishikeshi ( Lord of the heart ) to him 
am subordinate. Thus spying, the Dweller in Vaikuntha 
became invisible. 198. The king, seeing that the hands and 
feet had sprouted from Jayadeva, then thought it a wonder^ 
ful miracle, and joining his hands together palm to palm 

25 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. II- 198-311 

he spoke with him. 199. Jayadev then related to the King 
the story mentioned above. The Vaishnavas shouted aloud 
the names of God. 

PADMAVATI, THE WIFE OF JAYADEV 

200. At that time the king sent a palanquin and had 
Fadmavati brought. This dutiful wife was a mine of 
beauty, the avatar of Indira ( Lakshmi, wife of Vishnu ). 
201. The king gave to her ( the wife of his Guru ) orna- 
ments, jewellery and garlands of pearls. The king w^ith 
reverence bowed before this honoured mother. 202. The king 
going into his private apartment said to his wife, ' The 
queen of Jayadev, Fadmavati, is our honoured mother. 203. 
I desire that you should personally serve her day and night 
with all your heart.' Hearing her husband's remark, his 
lovely wife replied, ' I shall certainly do so.' 204. The 
king thus thinking to himself, he sent his servants awf.y, 
and personally began to serve Jayadev. 

205. Now it happened on a certain day that the 
king's wives were seated together. Fadmavati, a mine of 
virtues, shone from her dais ( the chief seat ). 206. Like 
the noble Bhagirathi among the rivers, or like Savitri 
among faithful wives, or as the Oayatri mantra among 
all other mantras, she shone as the chief ornament. 
207. Like the musk among all other fragrant perfumes, 
like a necklace of glass beads among ornaments, so 
Fadmavati seemed when sitting on the chief seat. 208. 
Suddenly a message arrived announcing that the queen's 
brother Sujan had passed away. 209. Thinking of her 
husband in her heart, his ( Sujan's ) wife started to burn 
herself on his funeral pyre. The young women liearing 
this were overcome and wondered about it. 210. Fadmavati 
sat quietly. Seeing her so, all thought it strange, and &11 
the queens with folded hands requested her as follows: 
211. ' Thinking of her husband at heart, the dutiful wife 

26 



Ch. ir 211-225 PADMAVATI, THE WIFE OF JAYADEV 

started to immolate herself. How is it that hearing this 

news you feel no surprise? 212. Abandoning all ties of 

affection, a dutiful wife who starts to burn herself alive 

with her dead husband has the same husband during her 

seven births'. 213. Hearing this Padmavati said, ' Why 

should a wife burn herself alive? When her husband goes 

before her, I do not know when they will meet one 

another again. 214. When one hears of the death of 

one's husband, one bliould immediately commit suicide; 

ju.st as when the sun sets, the rays disappear. 

315. As Padmavati said these things the queens were 

astonished. Thay said, ' She speaks without experience. ' 

They therefore took it as false. 216. (But she continued ):— 

' Just as the knowledge of Brahma withoui, erperience of 

it, just as a body without life in it, so to speak without the 

favour of God seems a vain thing. ' 217. As a house 

without a master, as a face without a nose, as the doing of 

anything without authority seems "n v&in; 218. as the 

beauty of a barren woman and the fiiendship of a money 

loving person are in vain, and as a town without trees 

looks frightful; 219. as God without His bhaktas, or a king 

without his army, so a pure purpose without the means of 

fufilling it is good for nothing. ' 220. While Padmavati 

was saying this, her thoughts seemed false to the queen. 

She called the minister and communicated to him her plan. 

221. She said, ' Listen to one thing. Speak an untruth for 

my sake, that Jayadev Stvanii is dead and send this news 
to the city '. 

222. On a certain day the king went into the forest to 

hunt. He seated Jayadev in a palanquin, and took him with 

him to the forest. 223. The minister now sent a messenger 

into the city to say that a tiger had killed Jay&dey. 

224. Some garments were dipped in the blood and sent 
later by the minister. Hearing this news the queen wept. 

225. Making a pretence, the queen came weeping and 

27 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. II- 225-239 

running to the place where the beautiful Padmavsti was. 
226. Said she, ' A catastrophe has happened. Jayadev 
Buxmi has been killed by a tiger. ' Padmavati questioned 
her, * Is this really true ? ' 227. The other replied, ' It is 
absolutely true. Jayadev has been really killed. ' On 
hearing this news Padmavati gave up her life. 228. Just 
as when the sun set?,, its rays set with it; or as when a lamp 
is put out its light disappears; 229. just as the moon's 
phases wane in succession after the full moon, or as flowers 
Io^3 their fragranca when cnished between the hands; 230. 
so r,3 soon as she heard of the death of Jayadev she gave 
up her life. When the king returned to the city, he saw 
what a catastrophe had fallen. 231. He a.sked of the 
minister what had happened, and he listened to all the 
story. Said he, ' I would like to kill my wife, but that 
would be murdering a woman. 232. So by being burnt 
to death on burning wood, I will give up my own life. ' 
Therefore outside the city he immediately made a great 
boafire, 233. and came there to make a ni.maskar to 
Jayidev Swami, saying, ' O Swimi, a great disaster has 
occurred through me. ' 234. By his inner sight Jayadev 
understood all the news. He comforted the king and told 
him not to give up his life. 235. Jayadev came near to the 
corpse of Padmavati, bringing cymbals and the vina ( the 
]ut3 ) in his lotus hands. He began to sing the Radhavilas. 
236. Jayadev sang twenty-four of the eight-feet verses 
well known to the world. Then singing God's loving 
names, he danced in the place of the kirlnna. 237. ' O 
Keshava, Narayana, Mukunda, Lovor of the Bhnktas, O 
Source of joy, Protsctdr of the Cowherds, praised by the 
world, come quickly to my help. 238. Hearing the plead- 
ing cry of Gajendra, Thou, Life of the World, didst hasten 
tc his help. O Protector of Pralhad, Thou Enchanter of 
-the heart, hasten to my help. 23». Thou who didst protect 
Draupadi from shame, Protector of the Pandavas, Slayer of 

28 



Ch. II- 239-251 NABHAJl OF GWALIOK 

Madhu, Delight of the mind of the cowherdesses, hasten to 
ray help. 240. Helper of the helpless, Hushand of Rukmini, 
Dweller on the bank of the Bhima, Thou whose garment is 
all space. Purifier of the sinners, Saviour of the world, 
hasten to my help.' 241. Hearing this plea, God came at once 
to his help. He embraced Jayadev and gave him this boon. 
242. ' Whoever sings your verses, or listens to them with 
fondness, the Hu^Jband of Lakshmi ( Vishnu ) stands at his 
side with hands joined palm to palm.' 243. Having given 
him this blessing, the Life uf the world embraced Padmavati 
and br jught her to life. 244. As soon as the corpse came 
to life there was a united cry of ' Victory, Victory,' and the 
gods sitting in their chariots of light showered flowers upon 
her. 245. Everyone was greatly delighted. The ncble 
Vaishnavas shouted in their love, and the king with rever- 
ence made a vamankar to Jayadev Swanii. 246. Pious men 
both sing and li.sten to this exceedingly interesting rtory 
of Jayadev. If they are in trouble and remember the 
Husband of Rukmini, He will come to their aid immediately. 
247. I have related to the best of my ability this siu-piirify- 
ing story of the perfect avatar of Vyas, to whom an entmy 
and a friend were alike. 

NABH..UI OF GWALIOK 

248. In the province of Gwalior there lived a well-known 
Nagar Brahman by name of Nabhaji.a chief jewel amongst 
the VaisJmaias and the perfect avatar of Brahniadev. 249. 
He wrote the very extraordinary history of the bhakias. 
After reading his verses I wrote this book in Marathi. 
250. Just as the dolls of the jugglers dance when pulled 
by the strings ; in the same way my lip;-, have uttered the 
story of Jayadev. 251. The Hu.«band of Rukmini, who 
dwells o\\ the banks of the Bhima, gave Pundalik this 
promise. TheAdvocate of His £hQktas,ihe Life of the World 
is the real compoeer of this book. 

29 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. II- 252-254 

253. In the next chapter the very special story of Tulsi 
das the bhakta of Vishnu will be told. But the composer and 
the relater will be God. Listen with attention, you pious 
folk. 253. Krishna is standing with both hands on His 
hips. I, Mahipati, am singing of His goodness in the praise 
services. 

334. Sonsli. This book is the Bhakfavijaya. God will be 
pleased as He hoars it. Listen therefore, you God-loving 
pious bhaktas. This is the second delightful chapter. 



?>0 



CHAPTER III 
THE LIFE OF TULSIDAS 
Obeisance to Shri Gnnesh. Obeisance to Shri Krishna. 
Ood's Care of His Bhaktas. 

1. Victory, Victory, to the lover of His bhaktas, root of 
all joy, the Supreme Being, Sachchidauanda, Saviour of 
the world, worthy of the worship of the world, beautiful 
in His dark features, Govinda. 2. Victory to Him Who 
lives near the banks of the Bhima, Giver of the promise 
to Pundalik, King of the Yadavas, Who stands with his 
hands upon His hips, waiting for His bhaktas. 3. Many 
sinners, thieves, adulterers, haters of Brahmans, killers of 
cows have been saved by mere sight of Him. 4. Gajendra 
the elephant, wholly ignorant, remembered Thee when in 
distress. Tbou didst listen to his pitiable cry and send 
Thy disk to .save him. 5. Thou didst punish the crocodile 
and didst t'ume to meet Gajendra. Thou didst seat him in 
a chariot of light. The crocodile laughed at Thee. 6. The 
crocodile said to Thee, "Thy name is the Purifier of the 
sinners, and yet Thou didst cast me aside and didst depart 
taking Gajendra. 7. 8o drop Thy reputation of being the 
Purifier of the sinners, O Krishna.' Hearing this remark 
of the crocodile, Thou didst take him also in Thy chariot of 
light. 8. Thou gavest both btiakta and noa-bhakta a home 
in the Final Deliverance. In thus attempting to describe 
Thy goodness and gooti deeds the serpent Shesha became 
wearied. 9. Indra and other gods have never acquired the 
nectar of the stories of Thy goodness and good deeds. But 
Thou gavest the nectar of Thy stories to those God-loviug 
bliaktas who came to Thee with entire reverence. 10. Just 
as a loving mother, seating her child by her side puts the 
morsel of food into its moath, feeling a sense of great love 

31 



BHAKTA.VIJAYA Ch. Ill- 10-21 

for it, 11. so Thou didst raio down tlio nectar of Thy stories, 
and didst place morsels of it in the mouths of Thy bhaktas, 
O Life of the world. Thou who dost attract the heart, 
O Govinda. 12. So seating Thy bhaktas by Thy side Thou 
feedest them with the nectar of Thy stories. And at this 
time therefore I also, a beggar, have arrived in order to 
receive food. 13. As Thy bhaktas were fed with the nectar 
of Thy stories, they ate to their satisfaction, and now, 
O Lord of the world, whatever they left in their plates, send 
to me, a helpless one. 14. O Merciful to the lowly, O 
Husband of Rukmini, hearing an account of Thy extra- 
ordinary deeds, I Mahipati have been waiting eagerly. 
Show roe Thy love. 

15. In the Kali Yuga there were very many God- 
loving bhaktas. O Cloud-dark Govinda, I will describe 
their exceedingly delightful stories, as Thou mayest make 
me relate them. 

TU LSI DAS 

16. Now listen, O hearers. While Narayan was reclin- 
ing, on the serpent Shesh in the .sea of milk, some of His 
bliaktas arrived. 17. Uddhav, Akrur, Valmiki, Dhruva, 
Pralhada and Shuka coming near Him paid their reverence 
to the Lord of the Yadavas. 18. The Saviour of the world 
said to Valmiki, 'lu the Kali Yuga sins have become 
intolerable. I wish you to become an avatar among mortals 
and bring about the salvation of men. 19. The Ramaijami 
which you composed, in which you sang my name, good- 
ness and good deeds, was in the Sanskrit language 
which tbe ignorant people of the Kali Yuga did not 
understand, 20. So becoming an avatar among mortals, 
set them to worshipping me.' Valmiki hearing Him say 
this made obeisance to Him. 21. In the northern country, 
in the city of Ha.stanapur ( Delhi ) in the house of a 
Kanoja Brahman, the Rinlu Valmiki bacame a voluntary 

32 



Ch. Ill- 31-36 TUIittDAS 

avatar. 22. The Brahman bore the name of Atmaram . 
He became a man devoted to religion and of perfect good 
deeds. Akbar was king at that time, and he was in the 
service of Akbar. 23. Atmaram was a wise Brahman and 
he enjoyed the King's favour. It was in his family tha t 
Valmiki became an avatar. 24. The good Brahman , 
Atmaram, performed rituals of birth and naming of his 
son. He was named Tulsidas. The father lovingly played 
with him. , 25. Day by day he grew in stature. His parents 
invested hiin with the sacred thread. And he was kept as a 
Brahmuchari ( a celibate ) for twelve years. 26. He daily 
performed bis baths and devotions. They made him study the 
Vedus according to the prescribed rules. After searching out 
a bride for him his marriage took place. 27. As his childhood 
passed away, and he became a young man, the two were 
united ia love. They never could endure separation. 28. 
Both gave themselves up to enjoying many kinds of rich 
clothes and ornaments, garlands of pearls and brilliant 
jewels, saffron, musk, sandal and flowers, yellow betelnu t 
leaves, 29. cardamons, cloves and nutmeg ; but Tulsidas 
could not endure being without his wife. 30. The name 
of Tulsidas' wife was Devi Mamata. As a dutiful wife she 
served him with full reverence. 

31. It happened one day, that King Akbar was going 
on a tour. Tulsidas immediately joiaed him and went with 
him. 32. Just then a messenger arrived from her mother's 
home asking her to come there. He said, ' Your mother is 
seriously ill. 33. Let her have a sight of you and then 
you can return. * On hearing this she wept aloud. 34. 
Hearing that her mother was seriously ill, she became hys- 
terical. The messenger therefore said to her, ' We 
have told you what is false. 35. It is many days since 
you have visited your mother. Tulsidas refuses to send 
you, therefore we told you a falsehood. ' 36.Mamat& 
replied to them, ' My husband has gone on the royal 
B. V. 3 33 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. Ill- 36-51 

tour. In the meantime I shall go to my mother's. 
Having visited her I will immediately return. ' 37. 
Obtaining leave from mother and fathar-in-law Mamata 
went to visit her own mother. That very day, by evening 
Tulsidas returned. 38. He questioned his mother and learn- 
ed all the news. Said he, ' My dear one, why have you 
left me and gone away ? ' 39. At night on his bed he 
was unable to sleep. So he started at once, and by walk- 
ing ten miles that night he arrived at the house of his 
father-in-law. 40. Two watches of the night had already 
passed away. All the doors were closed. Tulsidas looked 
all about him. 41. Just then he saw a great poisonous 
serpent hanging down from above. He seized it with 
his hand and ascended to the upper storey. 42. As 
he entered the house the servants were awakened, and 
as they looked about they saw Tulsidas. 43. Mamata, 
that mine of beauty, awoke just at that moment. 
Seeing her husband there, she arose astonished. 44. The 
husband said, ' You mine of beauty, why did you leave 
me and come here ? I have had to walk ten miles, in 
order to come for you. ' 45. The wife replied, ' The 
Yamuna river is full of flood, I cannot understand how 
you were able to enter the house.' 46. Tulsidas replied, 
* Your love for me is so great that you threw a rope from 
above and I crossed holding on to it.' 47. The dutiful 
wife hearing this replied, ' Why do you speak an untruth? 
I never threw a rope from the upper storey.' 48. As she 
did not know what was true or false, she said, ' Show me 
the rope.' Taking her servant with her and lighting 
a lamp they looked- for it. 49. Just then they saw 
this great enormous serpent hanging down from above. 
All were frightened. It seemed so strange a thing. 
50. Holding her husband by the hand the wife entered 
into the house and said to her husband, 'O Lord of 
my life, listen to me. 51. You call yourself wise and 

34 



Ch. Ill- 51-65 TULSIDAS 

clever, but you haye no common sense. You qre always 
intoxicated with your ignorance. 52. Why did you 
leave your mother, father, brother, and friends, your 
wealth, and property, and come for me at such a time ot 
night? 53. If this great serpent had bitten you, you 
would have lost your life. O Lord of my life, you knoir 
nothing about the transitory concerns of this life. 54. 
With desire to see me you came rushing by night. Many 
ha?e lost their lives in running after women. 55, When 
Indra saw the beautiful Ahalya he was overcome by her 
charms. Many have lost their lives by running after 
women. 56. Ravan lost life by running after Sita. 
Many have Icwt their lives by running after us women. 
57. Saeing the brightness of the light, the moth loses its 
life. So many have lost their lives by running after 
wo.m«n. 58. Not recognizing God in their hearts, they 
seek to satisfy sensual desire. These evil ones do not recog- 
nize Shri Ram, the placa of rest for every one. 59. Men 
iove their sons, wives, wealth, and properties, more than 
their own lives. If men remembered the feet of Shri Hari 
( God ) their lives would have value. ' 60. Ttirough these 
words of Mamata, Tulsidas experienced a change of heart. 
'Waat you say, Oh mother, is true,' and as he(Tulsidas) said 
this, he bowed to his wife. 61. ' When a child puts out its 
hand to grasp a live ember of the khadir wood, the mother 
at once protects it. So to-day you have done me a great 
favour. ' 62. Speaking thus to her, he immediately left. He 
remembered all he had done in his former births.63.Said he, 
' I am the Vaishnava Valmlki. I have become an avatar in 
this world of mortals, that I may sing with my lips the 
story of Ram, and that I may turn men to devotioa to 
Him. 64. I was entangled in the enjoyment of tempomry 
sensual joys.' With this change of heart he came to Anand- 
van( Benares ). 65. After bathing in the Bhagirathi,^e 
adopted severe austerities. He rejected cooked food and 

35 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. Ill- 65-80 

fruits and he lived on the fallen leaves. 66. After bathing in 
the early morning he was accustomed to pray to Shri Ram. 
He used to say, ' O Dweller in Ayodhya, O Husband of 
Jsnaki, show me manifestation of Thyself.' 67. In order 
to wash himself he was accustomed to go into the forest. 
II any water was left in his vessel he poured it on the 
roots of the trees. 68. Twelve years he continued with 
these austerities. He was always repeating God's names* 
He never ceased for a single moment. 

69. It happened one day that Tulsidas went into the 
forest to wash himself. The water that remained in bis 
vessel he poured upon the roots of the tree. 70. Suddenly 
he saw a most terrifying demon. His two hands were joined 
together as he stood before Tulsidas. 71. He said to 
Tulsidas, ' I am pleased with you. Whatever blessing 
you may ask, I will give it to you.' 72. Tulsidas said to 
him, ' Tell me who you are, and why you have become 
pleased with me ? I do not understand why ?' 73. The 
other replied, ' I am a demon. I have been here for a long 
time. I drink the water which you pour on the roots. 
7 4. We have no permission to drink water from wells, 
tanks, rivers, or the sea, so I am very thirsty. 75. You have 
s upplied me with water for these twelve years. I will gi\-e 
whatever you ask for' 76. Tulsidas with an astonished 
m ind, said to himself, ' I was wishing for a visible mani- 
festation of Shri Ram. The result of that desire has been 
the favour of this ghost. 77. I planted a n-^ingo tree, and 
b<»e the fruit of ihe Vrindavan tree. So the performance 
of these austerities have brought me the favour of this 
ghost. 78. I was wishing for a wish-cow. Instead of her 
a pig appeared. So failing a manifestation of Shri Ram it is 
this ghost who is showing this favour to me. 79. Having 
jnade a ring of sugar around a tree,thei-e sprung out of it a 
bitter SQua.sh. So although my austerities have been good, 
it is this ghost who is pleased with me. 80. I waslt.ioking 

36 



C!h. Ill- 80-93 TUI^SIDAS 

at a beautiful royal swan coining towards me,' wBen 
suddenly I saw a crow instead. So instead of meeting 
Shri Ram it is this ghost that is pleased with me. 81. It 
is like looking for association with the good, and then 
seeing a reviler coming forward. So instead of meeting 
the Husband of Janaki, this has become pleased with me. 
82. While seeking philosophic knowledge, sensual stories 
may fall on one's ears. So instead of meeting with Ram-, 
it is this ghost that is pleased with me. 83. It is like one, 
desiring the shade of the wish-tree, should immediately see 
a forest of Sindi trees. So, instead of meeting with Ram, it 
is this ghost who is pleased with me. 84. So one has the 
desire for scientific knowledge and suddenly one listens 
to some heretical story. So instead of meeting with Ram this 
ghost is pleased with me. 85. While one desiring a garland 
of pearls, a pile of crystals fell before him, so instead of 
seeing the Husband of Janaki this ghost has been pleased 
with me. 86. While desiring to see the ocean of milk, 
one suddenly sees instead a pool of water, so instead of 
meeting the slayer of Ravana it is this ghost that is pleased 
with me." 87. After listening to him the demon said, 
'You seem to be a wonderfully clever man. So ask of me a 
gitt worthy of me to give. Do not hesitate. 88. One should 
never call that great or little by which our purposas are car- 
rifcd out. If one refuses to use borax, gold will not melt in 
the melting pot. 89. If one refuses to use fine thread, he will 
not be able to string a garland of flowers. And without an 
iron needle one will not be able to sew a coat. 90. One 
should not refuse to use the broom because it is made of 
sindi. A wise man is willing to use common things to 
cairy out his purpose." 91. So Tulsidas said to him 
You have become pleased with me, you say. I have no 
further desire in my heart than that you should help me to 
meet Shri Ram.' 92. As the name of Ram was heard by 
the demon he stepped back and said; ' If I should repeat 
His name by my lips it will mean my destruction. 93. If 

37 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. Ill- 93-108 

you really wish to meet Him, Maruti is Hfa servant. I 
can cause him to manifest himself to you.' 94. Tulsidas 
replied, ' Where is Maruti ? Show him to me at once. He 
will fulfil my desire. ' 95. The demon answered, ' You 
are constantly listening to the purana*i. An aged Brahman 
is accustomed to come there. It is he who is Maruti. 96. 
If you ask who he is I will tell you how he may be 
recognised. He comes and sits before anyone else. He 
leaves after every one has gone. 97. He has a staff in 
his hand and a cap on his head. He wears an old garment 
•nd a loin cloth. If you see a form like that, you will know 
that he is the head of the monkeys.' 98. Thus speaking 
the demon became invisible, and Tulsidas returned to 
his hermitage. 99. The next day after taking his b^itb, 
and repeating God's name as usual, he hastened to go 
where the purana was being read. 100. When suddenly 
an aged Brahman appeared and seated himself there. 
Tulsidas saw that his appearance was just as described by 
the demon. 101. After the reading of the purana was 
finished, and all the listeners bad gene, the aged Brahman 
in silence started to go. 102. Tulsidas followed along with 
him. When he got outside the city, Hanuman ( Maruti ) 
was going very rapidly. 103. Seeing himself all alone 
with him. he held the Brahman by his feet and said to 
him, ' Swami, have compassion on me, Thou Mighty One. " 
104. The Brahman said to him, ' Hallo, who are you ? 
Why have you held my feet ? I am a poor helpess lowly 
one. ' 105. Tulsidas replied to him. ' You are Maruti, the 
bhakfa of Ram. 'Thus speaking he again fell at hisfeet. 106. 
Maruti (bought to himself, ' He is the mum Valmiki who 
has descended as an atofor.' Heat once gave him an em- 
brace, thus expressing his love. 107. Maruti said to Tulsi- 
das, 'I am pleased with you.' The other replied, 'My mind 
desires a gift by your favour. 108. I want you so to act 
that I may have a manifestation of Shri Ram.' ^ying, * I 

38 



Cb. Ill- 108-128 rvim>A3 

wfll do so, • he ( Hanumati ) became invisible. 109. MarutI 
said to Shri Ram, 'Listen to this my request. The Mafda 
Tulsidas is a full oixrfor of Valmlki. 110. I want you to 
give him a visible manifestation of yourself. This is my 
desire, so ccnnplete the wish of my heart, O Sitwmt.' Ill 
Hearing Maruti's words Ram replied, ' I will do so.' So 
he called together all the monkeys and took the army with 
him. 112. The Holder of the bow ( Ram ) passed in ftont 
of the hennitage of Tulsidas, but he did not recognise Hrai. 
He said io himself, ' Some Muhammadans are passing by.' 
113. The monkeys seemed hetoic and Shri Ram seemed to 
be the king of the Muhammadans. Seeing them thusr 
Tulsidas made them a nawasJSwr. 114. After that Maruti 
came to the hermitage of Tulsidas and said to him, ' R*ui 
has fulfilled your desire.' 115. The other replied, ' O 
Maruti, I have not met Shri Ram.' Maruti replied ' Why ^ 
He has just passed by your hermitage.' 116. Tulsidas saidt 
The one who passed by my hermitage was truly a Muham- 
madan. I did not se^ Ram. My desire still remains 
unfulfilled.' 117. Maruti remarked, 'A wish-cow came 
to your house, and you wise fellow drove it away, thinking 
it was a goat. 118. As you were once walking along the 
road you suddenly saw a touchstone, how is it that you, a 
wise man, should throw it away, thinking it was a mere 
pebble ? 119. A very wise clever parrot happened to come 
to your hermitage. It seemed to you to be a dove, there- 
fore you did not care for it. 120. You meet the forest of 
wish-trees, but they seem to you 1 ike sindi trees. So when Shri 
Ram was passing by, you did not recognize him. 121. On 
a day of great festival a Brahman came to your house. 
You thought him a herder of goats, and so you turned him 
away. 122 You saw a garland of pearls and you thought 
them made of glass. So Raro passed by you and you did 
not recognize Him. 123. A flock of royal swan passed by 
you and they seemed to you like crows, so Shri Ram passed 

39 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. Ill- 123-137 

by and you made no obeisance to Him. 124. As if Lakshmi 
should come without an effort into a pauper's kitchen and he 
should discard her as a slave, in the same way you have 
acted. 125. An unfortunate man, while digging the founda- 
tion of a house, found a golden coin. He thought it was a 
pebble and discarded it. 126. The pure sandalwood of Mount 
Maila, has seemed to you like hingan^wood. So when Bam 
passed by you, you did not recognize Him. 127. The 
Holder of the Pinak bow, the Husband of Parvati (Shiva), 
came in the form of a beggar, you gave him no gift. So 
you have done now. ' 128. Tulsidas replied, ' O Swami, 
you accuse me unjustly, but Ram who fills all space and 
pervades the universe, is invisible. 129. A bracelet is 
made of gold, but the ignorant man does not call it gold. 
Milk comes from water, but one should not call water 
milk. 130. All water is the same, but the chatak bird 
will not drink the water that is on the earth. So the 
worshipper of Ram does not consider Him as appearing in 
many forms. 131. The Dweller in Ayodhya, the Life 
of Janaki, was holding His bow and arrow in the same 
way as Valraiki described Him. Show me that appear- 
ance. ' 132. When Maruti heard him say this, he smiled 
and said, ' Shri Ram will fulfil the desire of your heart.' 
133. Saying this, Maruti became invisible, and bringing 
the image of Shri Ram into his imagination he began his 
loving praise : 134. ' Victory, Victory, O Dweller in 
Ayodhya, Husband of Sita, Slayer of Ravan, Holder of 
the bow, Purifier of the sinner. Saviour of the humble. 
Slayer of demons, O Shri Ram. ' 135. Shri Ram re- 
plied, ' Maruti, why this special praise today ? What 
is the special desire of your heart, that you have begun 
this loving praise ? ' 136. Maruti replied, ' Shri Bam, 
Wish tree of the desires of the bkaktaa, Thou a visible 
form, dark as thick cloud, I desire Thee to visit Tulsidas. * 
137. Hearing Maruti's request Ram said, ' How can he 

40 



Ch. Ill- 137-151 TtJUODAB 

have a direct manifestation in this Kali Yuga ? * 
138. Maruti replied, * O Lord of the heart, he is an avatar 
of the riahi VftlmlkL It was Thou who gavest the command 
that he should turn men to Thy worship.' 139. Hearing this 
remark of Maruti's Ram said, ' I will listen to your request. 
I never break my word. ' 140. So Shri Bam withSita and 
Lskshman, taking the form of visible avatars, walked along 
with MarutL 141. The bhakta Maruti went forward and 
informed Tulsidas. Said he, ' Shri Ram will today fulfil 
your heart's desire. * 142. Hearing Maruti's remark, 
Tulsidas was full of joy. Just then he saw before him the 
Jjord of Ayodhya. His joy now was without limit. 143. 
A brilliant crown adorned his head. He wore a yellofw 
garment. His complexion was that of a dark cloud. In 
His hand was a bow and arrow. In thi3 form he saw Shri 
Ram. 144. With deep reverence Tulsidas bowed prostrate 
on the ground. And the merciful Shri Ram embraced his 
bhaKta Tulsidas. 145. Maruti said to him, ' You are a very 
fortunate man. With your eyes you have seen the form of 
Ram. You must now proclaim to all men God's deeds which 
you formerly described. 146. In this Kali Yuga the means 
of salvation are not yoga practices, nor sacrifices, nor the 
study of tho Vedas. So proclaim the might of Grod's names 
and turn men to the worship of God. ' 147. Maruti said 
to Ram, ' Place your hand on his head. ' Ram listened 
to his request and gave Tulsidas the blessing of his assur- 
ance. 148. After giving him this blessing the Husband 
of Sita ( Ram ) became invisible, and Tulsidas continued 
with love his description of Shri Ram's good deeds. 149. 
All the inhabitants of Bsnaras listened to his 'services in 
the praise of God, and they built a hermitage for Tulsidas. 
150. There were wealthy and pious men to whcan Tulsi- 
das gave the manira and made them his disciples, "niey 
used to bring a variety of things and place them in tlw 
hermitage. 151. A thousand Brahmans daily dined along 

41 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. HI- 151-164 

wtth Tulsidas. Any poor person, any beggar, anyone with- 
out food. If he came there, went away satisfied 152. His 
i^wtation became great among the people. They brought 
him unlbnited amounts of money, great, great, golden plates 
and an aiilimited and innimierable amount of silver. 153. 
Same ^v© and some took away. Sane reviled him »nd 
aomeiraised him. But Tulsidas was untouched by them. 
H« had neither joy nor sorrow. 154. Just as in the havens 
the three seasons have their beginning, yet the sky is free 
&om the fault of association with them. 155. After the 
feast of the Brahmans, there followed the enthusiasm of 
the praise-service. Pious people came in large numbers in 
order to repeat God's names. 156. People left their doors 
open while all went to sleep. Thus they thought of the 
feet of Shri Ram, when dreaming and in dreamless sleep. 
and when awake. 157. Two thieves therefore considered the 
situation carefully. 'We see no one in tLa hermitage of 
Tulsidas who would refuse us admission. 158. We can go 
there without fear, and take away a load of golden plates. 
We can take away as much as our hands are able to 
carry.' 159. After the praise-service of God was over, 
all the audience went to sleep. Just then the two 
thieves came and began to steal. 160. They gattiered 
np the golden plates with their hands and tied them up in 
s bundle. They placed the load on their heads and started 
to leave hurriedly. 161. As they came near the gate they 
foand two men seated there with bows and arrows, very 
■toot-looking men. 162. The astonished mind of the 
thieves said to them, ' A while ago there was no sentinel 
here to protect the place. ' So they turned back quickly 
and arrived at the northern gate. 163. They suddenly saw 
a person with shining countenance with a crown and 
ornaments. In His hand were a bow and arrow. The 
thieves saw him from afar And became ashamed. 164. Then 

d3 



Ch. Ill- 164-178 TUIfflDAS 

they went to the south door, but there also est the dopr- 
keepers. The thieves thought this very stT»nge wid ««• 
back and sat down. 165. The two thieyes thought to them- 
selves, ' These men holding the bow will soon get up and 
go away. Then we will quickly take away tbase golden, 
plates.* 166. Thus remarking to one another, tliB thieves 
sat quietly for four ghatikaa and then they went to tli^ g^a 
and looked. 167. And there they saw the two men Mated 
with bow and arrows in their hands, with the string drawn 
to their ears, and standing in a position to shoot. 168. 
The thieves became frightened, threw down the gold plates 
and went to the gate, but they were not allowed to pass. 
169. The night passed in great anxiety of mind. The sun 
now arose, and all the hhaktas arose when the wicks were 
lighted for waving. 170. After the early morning repeti- 
tion of God's names, Tulsidas came out of his hermitage. 
Just then the two thieves came and fell at his feet. 171. 
The thieves filled with emotion said to him. ' Forgive us 
our fault. ' Tulsidas said to them, in reply, 'Tell me who 
you are. ' 172. They replied, ' We are thieves, who had 
come to rob you. But there were soldiers of the bow seat- 
ed at the gate and they would not let us pass. 173. We 
had made a bundle of your golden plates, and were wait- 
ing in your hermitage. It was a great fault on our part, 
forgive us, you merciful one. 174. You are, a bhakta of Ram, 
supremely generous. At night you leave your door open. 
Therefore we thieves came in without fear. * 175. 
Tulsidas had many disciples. He therefore asked them, 
' Who is at the gate protecting us ? Why have you 
placed them there without my knowledge ? 176. I 
hav* alnady told you that it was alike to me whether 
anjroM |^ve to me or took away. Worship Sbri Ram 
with loT«.* 177. The disciples replied with an oath, ' Wo 
Bwaar bj your feet that we do not know who is guarding 
tb« door. ' 178. The thieves replied, ' His face was 

43 



BHAKTAVUAYA C!h. HI' 178-190 

brilliant. He woto a orown and ornaments. He was dressed 
in a yellow robe. His complexion was dark. He is seated 
there even now.' 179. All were astonl^ed, and coming 
near to the gate they looked, but they saw nothing and 
thought this very strange. 180. Tears now came to the 
lotus eyes of Tulsidas. He said to himself, ' Bam and 
Lakshman have now become my doorkeepers at this time: 
181. what I could not obtain by adopting the severest pos- 
turds in yoga practices, what visits to sacred places would 
not give me; for I have as my doorkeeper Ram the Dweller 
inAyodhya;182. Husband of one wife, who doss not require 
a second to accomplish his purpose, whose determination was 
as he promised; He the Slayer of Ravan, Shri Ram, has 
become my doorkeeper. 183. When His feet touched the 
stone-slab, it brought about the salvation of Ahalya. He 
who with supreme generosity is the Giver of. eternal life. 
He has become ray doorkeeper. ' 184. He then exclaimed, 
' Victory, Victory to the noble Ram, the Supreme Being, 
the Supreme Generous one. Friend of the blue-necked 
Shiva, the Saviour of the world, Ram Krishna. 185. Thou 
art the Husband of Lakshmi, supremely generous. When 
Upamanyu asked Thee for a little milk. Thou didst listen 
to his request and gavest him the ocean of milk. 186. When 
his father would not permit him to sit on his lap, the in- 
fant Dhruva went away in a sulk. Then Thou, the Hus- 
band of Sita, gavest him an eternal place in a wonderful 
way. 187, Bibhishan was loved by Thee, so Thou gavest 
him a golden city. So when the thieves began to take 
away the golden vessels Thou didst become a great miser.' 
188. Tulsidas then said to the thieves, ' Whatever your 
heart may desire, take It away to your homes. Do not feel 
any hesitation.' 189. When they heard him say this, the 
thieves fell at his feet. They cried out, * Have mercy on 
us, and place your assuring hand upon ua. 190. We are 
sinful, evil men. We were encircled by ignorance, but 

44 



Ch. Ill- 190-202 TULSIDAS 

by the power of association, with you, we have seen 
a manifestation of Ram. 191. The natural virtue 
of the touchstone turns iron into gold; so through giving 
you trouble we have had a sight of Shri Bam. 193. The 
moment we beheld you, our evil heart left us; just as when 
the day dawns, the darkness can no more be seen.' 193. 
Tulsidas said to them, ' Your good fortune is very great. 
Without any efforts on your part, Shri Ram gave you a 
manifestation of Himself. 194. You are like one who, 
collecting herbs in the forest, finds the vine that gives 
immortality, or as a man while gathering pebbles near the 
town, happens to find a touchstone. 195. Or as one beg- 
ging for gruel from house to house, finds in his ixassession 
the nectar juice. Or as when one is labouring over slamp, 
the sun itself shines into the house. 196. Or as when 
examining Kokashastra, a book on the Vedomta comes to 
band. Or when stringing beads of glass, a necklace of 
pearls comes to one's hand. 197. Or as when searching for 
babhul-woodi in a forest, one should see the sandal-wood 
tree of Mount Maila. Or as when one should go in search 
of the city of Yama, one should see the city of Heaven. * 
198. Hearing him eay this, the thieves made him a 
namaskar and putting aside their evil minds, constantly 
remained in Tulsidas' hermitage. 199. In the Shri 
Bhagcaat Purana the Lord Krishna told UddhavB the 
meaning of His deep thoughts. ' He who desires to attain 
Me he must associate himself with the good. 200. By 
association with the good the praises of Qod fall on one's 
ears. ' So these thievep, who had been- evil men and 
adulterers became good men. 201. They began to listen 
to the praises of God constantly, and to repeat His names. 
These things continued for many days, and then a very 
strange thing han>ened. 

202. Some Brahmans were seated eating in the 
hermitage of Tulsidas. A great variety of food oooked 

4d 



BHAKTAVUAYA C3h. Ill- 202-214 

with butter and sugar vras spread before them. 203. As 
Tulsidas was about to make the offering to the gods, 
and as the Brahmans were repeating the words, ' This B 
«n offering to the Supreme Brahma, ' suddenly a Brahman 
appeared at the gate. Listen to what he said.} 204. FiiBt 
repeating the names of Sita and Bam, he said, ' I am a 
great killer of Brahmans, Give me some of the food yoa 
give to those who ask for it. ' This was what he said. 
205. When the Brahmans who were present heard him, 
they were all filled with wonder. Tulsidas came outside 
and embraced him. 206. He took the Brahman by the 
hand and seated him by his side. He then said to hioa. 
*0 Swami, personification of mercy, listen to my regueat. 
J07. The moment you utter the words Sita and Ram, sins 
like that of killing Brahmans and similar sins are burnt 
up as if they were straw." 208. So saying to him, he then 
said to the Brahmans, ' Begin now to eat. ' Hearing him 
give this invitation, the Brahmans rsplied to him. 209. 
These Brahmans, skilled in the six ahaslraa, said to 
Tulsidas, ' On what authority have you saated this Brahman- 
killer in our line? ' 210. Tulsidas replied to them, ' Thera 
is one authority for it. How can the sin of killing a Brah- 
man remain, when uttering the name of Ram? 211. In 
the Shri Bhagavat Purana the Lord Krishna revealed his 
ideas to Uddhava, that in the Kali Yuga the power of 
God's name would be manifested to an extraordinary 
degree. 212. When performing one's bath and devotion one 
has first to repeat the names K^hav and Narayan. If he 
is faulty in any of his religious deeds, it would be remedied 
by repeating the names of Vishnu. 213. In order to carry 
out properly the worship of ancestors, the whole rite is 
finally offered to Janardana (feeder of the universe). No rite 
is properly performed, unless the name of Hari is pronounced. 
214. When determining upon a marriage, the horosoopes of 
the bride and tlie bridegroom agreeably resulting in thirty-siK 

46 



Ch. Ill- 214-226 TULSIDAH 

points, the marriage will not take place without repeating 
the names of the Husband of Lakshmi. 215. When about to 
die and taking the penance, the name of God is repeated 
at that final moment. The Husband of Parvati (Shiva) the 
Lord of Kailas, lovingly repeats the name of Ram. 216. 
That great sinner, Pingala Ganika (prostitute ) spoke to her 
parrot, calling him Raghu ( parrot ). In doing so the straw 
of her great faults was burnt up by the flames of the name* 
of God. 217. The Brahman Ajamil became exceedingly 
depraved, when he was at the point of death, and when h« 
called to his infant son Narayan, immediately all his sins 
were burnt up. * 218. The Brahmans wanting explanation, 
said, ' This does not seem to our minds to be true. Show 
us some evidence, and our doubts will disappear. * 219. 
Tulsidas said to the Brahmans, ' What kind of evidence da 
you ask for ? ' The Earth-^gods ( Brahmans ) said : ' Make 
an offering to the stone bull. 220. The Lord of the Uni- 
verse, the Lord of Kailas (Shiva's heaven), Nandikeshvar, 
stands in front of it. Fill a plate with food and offer it to 
the stone bull. 221. If the stone image of the bull eats the 
offering from your hands in sight of us, then we shall 
allow this killer of Brahmans to sit amongst us at this 
time. 222. Using many instances you tell us much of the 
power of God's names. If you will give us this evidence 
to our sight, our minds will accept it. 223. Not merely by 
telling us of the sweetness of sugar will our tongue's love 
of the sweet be satisfied. You tell us of the great power of 
the names of God, but our doubts do not leave us. 224. 
The experts pierce coins by their instrument in order to 
test their genuineness. So show us good evidence and 
jremove our doabts. 225. Jqst as the jewels in the serpent's 
head are wound a«>ttn4 witii a string, and then thrown into 
the fire and examined, so show us the certainty of exiwri- 
«nce of the names of <3od. 226. A diamond is placed oa 
«Q anvil, and tesbed by striking U with a hammer. So yon, 

47 



BHAKTAVIJAYA. Ch. Ill- 226-239 

wise man, show us the power of God's name at this time. * 
227. Hearing the Brahmans* remarks, Tulsidas was very- 
pleased. He at once took a plate of food and went into the 
temple of Vishveshvar, the Lord of the Universe. 228. All 
the Brahmans now arose and followed him. They stood 
in the assembly hall and all looked with curiosity 
229. With a plate of food in his hand Tulsidas came 
to the great door of the temple. He joined his hands 
palm to palm, and bowed prostrate on the ground. 230. 
Said he, ' Victory, Victory, to Thee Who wearest the 
moon on Thy bead, blue-throated one. Holder of the 
Khatvanga bow. Husband of Parvati, Enemy of the demon 
Tripur, listen to the request of the lowly one. 231. Just 
as Thou didst drink the virulent poison, and Thy whole 
body became inflamed, then Thou didst repeat the names of 
Bam. 232. By merely repeating the two-lettered name of 
Bam, Thou didst become cool, Lord of the Universe. If 
that be true, then let this stone bull eat this offering.' 233, 
As soon as the prayer was heard a very strange thing 
happened. Tlie stone bull arose and began to breathe 
violently. 234. After eating all the offering he ate up the 
whole leaf-plate. All saw this miracle. Blessed was that 
time and happy day. 235. Having shown this miracle, the 
stone bull sat quietly. Neither the Vedas nor the Shasbaa 
understand the most extraordinary power of a hhakta. 236. 
The noble Vmshr.atas all shouted out, ' Victory, Victory. * 
While repeating the names of God all the twice-born 
made a namaskor to Tulsidas. 237. They said, * Blessed 
are you noble Vaichnava. You are very wise in the spheres 
of the knowledge of eternal truths. Now we know that 
you are truly a full avatar of Valmlki. 238. Just as the 
moon stands supreme among the clusters of stars, just as 
the eagle is supreme among birds, just as Vishnu is supreme 
among the gods; so you are supreme among the Vaishnavaa. 
2S9. Just as Shiva is supreme among ascetics, just as muni 

48 



Ch. Ill- 239-250 TULSIDAB 

Yyas is supreme among the rishis, just as Mother Rukmini 
vras supreme among the cow-herdesses, so you are suprane 
among the Vaiahnavat. 240. As the Husband of Janaki is 
supreme among the Holder of Bows, as the ocean of milk 
is supreme among all oceans, as the Son of Anusaya is 
supreme among those who had attained Godhead, so you 
are supreme among the Vaishnavas. 241. As the fourth 
siiage of deliverance among the four stages, as the father 
of Brahmadev among the Yadsvas, as the expounder of 
the Vedas among Pandita, are each supreme, so you are 
supreme among bhaktas. 242. As the sun among the nine 
planets, as Ushana among the great poets, and as mount 
Meru among mountains, are each supreme, so you are the 
noblest Vaishnava among the Vaiaknavas.' 243. Thus 
having praised Tulsidas, all the Brahmans came back to 
the hermitage. They allowed the Brahman-killer to sit at 
their side and all dined together. 244. Thus all the people 
of Benares began to repeat the names of God. They gave 
up their pride and came to listen to the deeds of Hari. 

TULSIDAS RESTORES JAITPAL TO LIFE 

245. Some time after these things had happened a very 
wonderful event took place. There was a merchant by 
name of Jaitpal. He suddenly passed into a state of peace 
( i. e., he died ). 246. His dutiful wife, abaadoning every- 
thing that was dear to her with the Lord of her Life in 
her heart, started to burn herself with him. 247. In a 
cleared forest by the bank of the Ganges, they lighted a 
great funeral pjrre. She arranged herself for the occasion 
in the spirit of one already possessing a husband, and 
walked gaily along. 248. Just then she walked by the 
cave of Tulsidas. She came alone in order to make him a 
namaakar. 249. Tulsidas was repeating the xuunes of Gk>d. 
She bowed prostrate on the ground. He gave her this 
blessing, ' May you have eight sons. ' 2S0. The good 
4 49 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. Ill- 250-262 

woman said to the bhakta of Vishnu, ' My husband has 
xeaobed the state of eternal sleep. And I am on the way 
to 800(»npany him, abandoning all that is dear and my 
own. 251. You have given me this blessing that I should 
become the fortunate mother of eight sons, and be endowed 
with a husband. That word of yours will prove true, and 
yet I have my doubts. * 252, He said, ' I spoke without 
knowing your condition, but Ram will make it true. * 
When the good woman heard him say this, she bowed befoja 
him. 253. When she went near the corpse she found her 
husband sitting up. This gave great joy to all, and all 
cried out, 'Victory, Victory.* 254. She took her husband 
by the hand, and leading him to the hermitage, there 
she again made to Tulsidas loving obeisance. 255. All 
the inhabitants of Benares sang the praise of Tulsidas. They 
exclaimed, 'Blessed is this Vaiahnava. He is a tomplete 
Saviour for us dull-minded men. 256. He caused the stone 
bull to eat food, and by his word of blessing brought a 
corpse to life.' Then someone went and carried the news to 
the king. 

AKABAB SENDS FOR TULSIDAS TO TEST HIM 
257. King Akbar was at Delhi where somebody in- 
informed him. He then made an attempt to see the miracle. 
258. He called his wise ministers and informed them of his 
thoughts. He said, ' I want you to bring about a meeting 
with the Vaighnava Tulsidas. 259. I wish you to send 
a messenger, who is exceedingly learned in the knowledge 
of Brahma who is a remarkably clever speaker, and who 
will incline Tulsidas' mind to come here. 260 Take a 
palanquin and carriage and bring him here cpiickly. I 
wish to see for myself what I have heard by the ear.' 261. 
The minister said to him, 'Your command is my authority.* 
He took scHne wise and clever speakers along with some of 
his army, and arrived at Benares. 262. Coming to the 

50 



Ch. ni' 262-275 ruiSLDAS 

hermitage of Tulsidas they remained there thai day. The 
news .was conveyed to him that the king had called 
him. 263. They said, ' The king has heard of you, as 
a most extraordinary Glod-Ioving Vaishnava bhakta. The 
king has sent us because of his desire to see you. ' 
264. Hearing this request, Tulsidas thought to himself, 
* I must turn all the inhabitants of that country to 
repeating God's name. 265. If the noble Vaishnaixxs are 
free from selfish desire, why should they wander from 
country to country ? Because it is truly Hari's command 
that they should save mankind. 266. Evil and ignorant 
men are surrounded by dark ignorance. In order to save 
them, good men wander about. 267. The king as we 
have seen has sent a messenger and every one has heard 
the news.' Tulsidas the God-loving bhakta at once started. 
268. Enthusiastically repeating the names of Hari, he 
quickly arrived at Delhi. The king came forward and 
fell at his feet. 269. The king then seated Tulsidas on his 
throne and whispered a command to his servants, not 
to allow him to return. 270. He worshipped him with 
the sixteen materials for worship. The King said to 
Tulsidas, ' I have heard of your wonderful i)ower and 
that you have got yourself made into a Gtod. 271. You 
made the stone-bull eat food. In the giving of a bless- 
ing, you brought a corpse to life. Your deeds seem impos- 
sible to me. I do not understand your power.* 272. 
Tulsidas said to him, ' It is all the doing of Shri Eam. I 
am but a helpless person who has placed his heart at the 
feet of Earn.' 273. Hearing this the king said to him. 
Cause me to meet Bam. If yoiT do not do so, I shaU 
surely not allow you to go from here. ' 274. 'thus 
speaking, the king went into his palace. He said, ' If he 
will show me a manifestation of Bam, then only will 
I regard Tulsidas as a noble Vaiahnava.' 275. While 

61 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. Ill- 275-288 

Tulsidas sat on the throne the servants said to him, ' You 
sre not to be allowed to go from here. 276. Without losing 
a moment give the king a sight of Shri Bam. If you do not 
Slant this,he certainly will not allow you to leave here.' 

MARUTI'S VENGEANCE 

277. Hearing them say this, he began to praise 
Maruti, and Maruti at once came and met Tulsidas. 278. 
Tulsidas said, ' I am in ext reme distress and, therefore, I 
have thought of you. And now remove this distress and 
increase the glory of the names of God. * 279. Maruti 
then performed a wonderful miracle. He called together 
his army of monkeys and many mighty heroes started from 
Heaven. 280. Just as during the rainy season clouds 
appear in the sky; or as when the rain falls on the earth the 
grass begins to sprout; 281. or as during the time of famine 
a cloud of locusts appears in the sky; so suddenly this army 
of monkeys ten thousand in number appeared. 282. The 
monkeys bowed to Maruti, and said to him, ' Please tell 
us what your command is. ' 283. Maruti replied to them, 
' I have called you together in order that you may show to 
the king some of your natural characteristics. ' 284. As 
soon as they received this command, the monkeys became 
full of action. They climbed upon the roofs and began to 
destroy the tiles. 285. They pulled up great trees by 
the roots, and threw them at men. There was a 
great alarm felt in Delhi, and a great outcry. 286. 
They broke the noses of some and cut off their ears, they 
twisted off the necks of some. They grabbed some by the 
legs and started upwards. 287. As women were going to the 
river Jamna, with water-jars on their heads, they snatched 
their clothes from them, and threw them into the river. 
288. As fathers-in-law and mothers-in-law were passing 
oat of the alleys, the monkeys seized them, and fastening 
their beards and braids of hair together, they ran away. 

b2 



Ch. m- 289-302 TUISDAS 

289. Those who did not worship Shri Ram, or peisecufed 
the bhakta» oi Vishnu, the monkeys lifted them up and 
threw into the stinking drains. 290. The evil-^ninded 
merchants never gave food to anyone ; the monke3rB broke 
open their store-rooms and carried away their contents. 
291. There was a great outcry in the city. Then they 
entered into the palace of the king and cut off noses 
and ears. This also made a great outcry. 292. The five 
hundred Wives of the king were all seated in the company 
of his concubines. The monkeys came and threw dirty 
water on them. 293. They suddenly seized all evil men who 
were thieves, adulterers, and crooked in their lives. They 
lifted them up and took them from the palace, and threw 
them down from above. 294. They seized the garments 
and ornaments, and flew with them into the sky and then 
with great pleasure gave them to the poor or those who 
lacked food. 295. They made the poor rich. They robbed 
the merchants. They beat those who spoke untruth. 296. 
The servants of the king hastened to inform him what was 
taking place. They said, 'An army ol monkeys has 
arrived, and they are destroying everything. 297. Just 
as when a cloud pours down a heavy rain, the sky is dense 
with clouds, so Delhi seems crowded with this army of 
monkeys. 298. The monkeys show great anger, and there 
is a great outcry in the city.* The king remarked, 'The 
time for destruction of all things seems to have arrived.* 
299. There were some wise men present who said to 
the king, ' Tulsidas is a Vaishnava. You should not 
persecute him. 300. If the monkeys increase in their 
anger,they will turn the whole city of Delhi upside down.* 
The king thought all this very Remarkable, and confes- 
sed that he had committed a great fault: 301. 'When 
Durvas persecuted Ambarisha, he had to be humiliated. 
So it has happened to me. I am reminded of my injustice.* 
302. So he came to Tulsidas and there joining his hsnd» 

53 



BHAKTAVUAYA Cb. Ill- 302-315 

palm to palm, he stood before him. 303. Akbar said to 
him, ' O bhakta of Vishnu, restrain this army of monkeys. 
I persecuted you, because in my ignorance I did not know 
what I was doing. 304. Duryodhan sufifered humiliation 
when he attempted to persecute the good Draupadi. So it 
has happened to me by my persecuting you. * 305. 
Hearing this pity-arousing request, Tulsidas said to him, 
' You were wishing to see Shri Ram, It is His army that 
has arrived. 306. Just as when the sun arises at dawn, and 
its light spreads all over the world, so this great hero has 
come with an advance guard, O king. 307. Hearing 
produces desire. Meditation produces devotion to listening, 
and a direct manifestation of God produces in one a desire 
to know more of Him. 308. So the monkeys are arriving 
first, and Ram is following them. An army of eighteen 
billions are following these monkeys. 309. These eighteen 
billion monkey warriors will be followed by Ram. Your 
good fortune has no limit. Shri Ram is coming to see 
yon. ' 310. Hearing this, the king said, ' I have already 
seen enough of Ram. * So saying, he grasped him by his 
feet and said, ' I did not understand His power. 311. If 
an army of ten thousand monkoy.=! has wrought such destruc- 
tion, then if the army of eighteen billion should come 
it would mean the end of the world. ' 312. Hearing the 
king's pity-arousing request, the monkey army became 
invisible and all men worshipped the feet of Tulsidas. 

313. Tulsidas remained here for a yaar, and in great 
love he daily sang the praises of the extraordinary deeds in 
Shri Ram's life. 314. All the inhabitants in Delhi began 
now to repeat constantly the names of God. And the 
Ignorant and dull-minded became wise through association 
with him. 

TULSIDAS GOES TO MATHURA 
315. Tulsidas nowtook leave of Akbar and went 
54 



Ch. Ill- 315-328 TULSIDAS 

went to see and worship Shri Krishna at Mathura. 316. At 
first he came to Gokul and bathed by the bank of Jumna 
river. Having seen and worshipped Shri Krishna he da- 
parted from there. 317. From there he came to Vrindavan. 
There he made an obeisance to Krishna. He remained 
there a month, and danced in the praise-services devoted 
to Hari. 318. From there he came to Mathura. He bathed 
by the banks of the Jumna. He saw and worshipped 
Shri Krishna, and met there many Vaishnavaa. 319. In 
Mathura, Gokul, and Vrindavan, live many Vaishnavas 
( those who worship only Vishnu as the One God ). They 
are constantly engaged in singing the praises of Hari, and 
are always repeating His names day and night. 

320. There was a Brahman citizen by name of Priya- 
das of supreme piety, and a Vaishnava. Bhnkti, knowledge 
and indiiference to worldly things, were his characteristics. 

RAM HIMSELF WRITES TULSIDAS' LIFE 

321. This Priyadas wrote a book in Sanskrit, descri- 
bing the extraordinary deeds of bhaktas of Vishnu in this 
Kali Yuga. 322. Tulsidas heard that he had written this book 
containing the stories of saints. So on a certain occasion he 
came to visit Priyadas. 2^23. He said, ' O Swami, you have 
•written the stories of saints. I have not listened to them. Bring 
me the book and show it to me. ' 324. Priyadas replied, ' I 
have described the bhaktas belonging to the four yugaa. 
But. I have not written in this book the noble story of 
Tulsidas.' 325. Even the Vaisknava bkaktm of Kali Yuga 
were described in that book. Therefore he ( Priyadas ) felt 
very much troubled. Just then a very wonderful thing 
happened. 326. Unknown to Priyadas, Shri Ram came there 
and with His own hands wrote the story of Tulsidas. 327. 
In order to listen to the book, all the Vaishnavas assembled 
and sat in the assembly hall by the great door of the 
temple. 328. Clever and wise pandits also sat down 

55 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. Ill- 328-340 

to listen. Priyadas the God-loving bhakta read aloud 
from the book. 329. All the Vaiahnavas admired the book 
that was written by Priyadas. It was Tulsidas who said 
to him that it was Shri Hari who spoke through his lips. 
330. Hearing this remark made by the saint ( Tulsidas ), 
Priyadas said to them, ' Ram came and wrote the whole 
history of Tulsidas. ' 331. All the noble Vaishnavas now 
examined the handwriting of Eam. The power of bkaktas 
is great. Neither Vedaa nor Shashtras are able to describe 
it. 332. In attempting to describe the characteristics of 
Shri Hari the eighteen Puranaa had to remain silent. And 
the six Shaatras had to ackowledge that they did not under- 
stand His power. 333. If one constantly listens to this 
explanation of the book with pleasure he will certainly 
have a sight of Shri Bam. 334. Thus the beloved of Shri 
Bam, the full aiatar of Valmiki, had his story recorded by 
Barn's own hand. 335. Priyadas' first book was in the 
Sanskrit language. After that, Nabhaji wrote in the Gwalior 
language. 336. After listening to its verses I have written 
this book in the Marathi tongue, just as the milkman adds 
a little water to his milk. 337. As in setting a diamond in a 
gold ornament, lacquer is used in the act of placing it, so, 
you saints and good people, have listened to my uncouth 
language. 338. It is God Himself who is describing the 
life of Tulsidas ; listen to it, therefore, with reverence. 
Those who do so, assume the form of Shri Ram. 339. The 
Husband of Bukmini, Dweller by the banks of the Bhima, 
is the real Author of this book. Mahipati's name appears in 
these verses, but the real writer is Eam. 

340. Swwft'. This book is the Bhaktavijaya. In listening 
io it, the Lord of the world is pleased. Listen therefore you 
God-loving, pious bhaktas. This is the third delightful 
diapter. 



56 



CHAPTER IV 

LIFE OF NAMDEV 

Obeiaance to Shri Oavesk. Obeisance to i/ie Beloved 
of the Oopis. 

1. Victory, Victory, to Thee, Pervader of the Universe 
the Saviour of the worlds Father of Cupid, beautiful with 
His dark complexion, loved by the mind of the blue- 
throated One ( God Shiva ), Lord of all, Govinda, 2. Victory 
to Thee who lived at Gokul, Protector of the cows, the 
Child of Yashoda, Father of Brahmadev, Slayer of Eanas, 
Preserver of the universe. Lord of the senses. 3. Victory 
to Thee who dwellest at Dwaraka, who has in His hand 
the Sharang bow, generous in the extreme in the giving of 
Final Deliverance, beloved by the daughter of the sea 
( Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth ), Lord of the Universe 
and Euler of the world. 4. Victory to Thee who delightest 
the heart of Radhika, the one who findest Vaikunth the 
place of Thy pleasure, the Life of the world, the Slayer of 
Futana, the Killer of Kaliya, Destroyer of this worldly 
existence, O Shri Hari, 5. Victory to Thee, Giver of th& 
promise to Pundalik, Husband of Rukmini, Deliverer of 
Draupadi from humiliation. Lover of Thy hhaklas. Cloud 
of mercy. Victorious King Shri Ram. 6. Victory to Thee 
Lover of Thy bhakfas, Lord of Pandhari, Pervader of the 
universe, Husband of Lakshmi, Thou, the Infinite One, be 
my Helper, and enable me to compose this book. 

NAMDEV AND KABLR AS AVATARS OF UDDHAV AND SHUKA 

7. Now listen to Nama's story, you good hearers. Nar- 
ayan invited Uddhav and Shuka to see Him on the ocean 
of milk. Said he to them, ' I wish you to become avatars 
in the world of mortals. ' 8. They replied to Him wh» 

57 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. IV' ^-21 

dwells on the Ocean of Milk, ' We do not wish .to be 
"born in the natiiral way, O Vishnu, give us birth in 
an unnatural way. ' 9. Listening to them, the Life of 
the world turned them into infants, put them in shells, 
and dropped them down from raining clouds. 10. One fell 
into the Bhagirathi river. One fell in the Bhimarathi 
river. As they flowed along with the stream they repeated 
the names of Qod. Listen to what they said. 11. The one 
in the shell that fell in the Bhagirathi river repeated the 
name ' Bam, Bam. ' The other who fell in the Bhimarathi 
river cried in his delight, ' Vitthal, Vitthal, * 12. So Shuka 
became the worshipper of Bam, and Uddhava became the 
worshipper of Pandurang (Vitthal). Listen to the wonder- 
ful things that happened as they flowed along. 13. There 
was one Damaji a tailor, a Vaishnava, supremely pious, 
pure through good deeds, and perfect in his devotion to 
God, his knowledge, and his indifference to worldly things. 
14. After bathing in the Chandrabhaga, he went to worship 
Pandurang. After completing this, it was his regular 
custom to take his morning meal. 15. His wife Gonai was 
supremely pious and a dutiful wife. They both lived at 
Pandhari and were constant in repeating the names of the 
Lord of the World. 16. Gonai had no child of her ewn, 
so she said to her husband, ' Go to Pandurang and ask for 
a son. * 17. Damaji said to her, ' You are an ignorant 
woman. We are both now aged. Why should we expect 
God to give us a child? 18. If insects have eaten the seeds, 
there is no use of expecting a crop when sown. So are 
you not ashamed to ask for a son ? 19. What is the 
good of wishing that clouds would pour down rain, 
after the rainy season ? So you ought to be ashamed to 
wish for a son. 20. The mango tree does not bear fruit in 
the month of Shravan. So are you not ashamed to ask for a 
son ? 21. After the oil and wick in the lamp have been 
consumed, only darkness will prevail. It is like that 

58 



Ch. IV- 21-35 NAMDEV 

when you wish for a son of which you ara not ashamed. * 
22. The wife replied, ' Lord of my life, you blame me 
for being unreasonable, but God's power is supreme. 
Now I know that you are ignorant. 23. Whan Ram was 
an avafar, He made stones float on the sea. What difficulty 
has He in giving us a child although we are aged ? 24. 
When Brahmadev carried away the calves, He himself 
became cows and cowherds. What difficulty can He have* 
therefore, in giving us a son ? ' 25. Damaji said to his 
wife, ' I will go now to the temple and tell God the wish 
you hold in your mind. ' 26. He therefore went to the 
great door of the temple and there prostrated himself before 
God.He said, 'My wife desires a son. Be pleased to give one, 
Shri Hari. ' 27. After saying this, he immediately fell 
asleep. The Life of the v/orld came to him in a dream 
and said, ' I have given you the gift of a son, ' 28, When 
at sunrise you go to bathe on the bank of the Bhima, a son 
will come floating down the stream. Take the babe up, 
and hasten back to your home with it. 29. The avatar of 
Uddhav will fill the three worlds with the glory of his 
deeds. He will be a saviour of the world, and a supreme 
Vaishnava. ' He carries my name. 30. Hearing this in his 
draam, he hurried back to his homa. There he told his 
wife just what had happened. 31. The next day Damaji 
came early to the bank of the Bhima. He quickly bathed 
and performed his daily devotions. 32. Just then he 
suddenly noticed a shell floating down the Bhima. He 
waded into the river, and took up the shell. 33. When he 
opened the shell his eyes fell on a beautiful babe, just as 
if at that very moment it had come from the womb of 
its mother. 34. As he saw it his mind was troubled, 
for he said, ' Who will nurse it ? ' Ha wrapped up the 
iafant in his garment, and brought it to his home. 35. 
He said to hi} wife, ' God has given us a son. * Gonai 
took the child, and immediately her breast flUed with milk. 

59 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. IV" 36-49 

36. Both of them thought it very strange, that in her old 
age she should be able to nurse the child. She bathed the 
infant, and with great love fed it at her breast. 37. Because 
they had made God pleased with them, and bad asked 
for a son from the dark-complexioned One, they therefore 
called him Nama, and they had intense love for the child. 
THE IMAGE OF GOD EATS NAMDEV'S OFFERING OF FOOD 

38. Day by day the child grew in stature. Now listen 
to what happened. Damaji went to the market, and he sent 
Nama to the temple. 39. Gonai gave him an offering to 
take to the temple. The mother said to Nama, ' Show this 
offering to the god and come back. * 40. Taking with him 
all necessary things for worship, Nama came into the 
temple. He bowed prostrate before the god, and worshipped 
with all the materials he had brought. 41. He bathed the 
image. He clothed it in a yellow robe. He offered sandal- 
wood paste and flowers, and presented incense and lamps. 
42. He then placed the plate of food for offering before the 
image. He joined his hands together palm to palm, and said, 
' Be pleased now to eat. ' 43. Nama had always conceived 
the idea that God always ate these offerings. He had no 
doubt about it in his mind. It was his firm conviction. 
44. He said, 'Victory, Victory to Thee, Merciful One. Thou, 
Lord of Pundalik, must be angry because of my delay in 
bringing the offering. 45. But Damaji Thy bhakta has 
gone early to the market, and has sent me here to present 
this offering of food. 46. If Thou dost net eat this offering of 
food, my mother will be angry with me. What wrong have 
T done, O Lord of the world, that Thou dost not eat this 
offering of food ? ' 47. Nama had no question in his mind, 
as to how a stone image could eat, therefore he began to 
sob aloud, and said, ' O God, eat this offering. ' 48. Seeing 
Kama's pure thoughts, God Supreme became pleased. He 
caressed Nama, and embraced him. 49. God manifested 

60 



Cb, IV- 49-62 NAMDBV 

his love by eating the offering which Nama had brought. 
Hari said to Nama, ' By no means tell anyone about 
this event. ' 50. After making obeisance to God, Nama 
ratamed to his home. His mother said to him, * Whom 
did you give that offering to? ' 51. Nama Said, ' O mother, 
the god ate the offering. ' Now next day Damaji re- 
turned from the market. 52. After inquiring of his 
wife what had happened he heard the whole story about 
the offering. Damaji became much perplexed; it seemed 
to him a very extraordinary thing. 53. He said to Nama, 
' How was it that the god ate ? Let us both go to the 
tample, and show me what took place. ' 54. They took 
with them the materials for worship, and both came to the 
great door of the temple. There they bowed to the Saviour 
of the world, and began at once to worship. 55. They 
worshipped the god, with the sixteen forms of worship, and 
fittingly offered incense and lights. Nama said to the 
eagle-bannered One, ' Be pleased to eat.' 56. The god 
said to Nama, ' Damaji has come with you ; I shall never 
appear to his sight. I will meet with you.* 57. Nama 
said to God, ' Thou art a deceiver, Thou sayest Thou wilt 
not meet with my father. Thou seemest to me, O God, to 
use deception. ' 58. Hearing Naraa's remark, the Life of 
the world began to laugh. He gave Damaji a sight of Him 
and ate the offering. 59. The father said to Nama, ' You 
have been born in my family line, therefore God in His love 
has given me this vision.' 60. Thus satisfying his doubts, 
the father bowed prostrate before the god. He took Nama 
by the hand, and returned to their home. 61. He told the 
whole story to his wife. 'The Lord of Heaven truly ate 

the offering. We must no longer call Nama a relative, 
because he is God's bhakta. ' 62. Gonai then said, ' God had 
mercy upon you, and gave you a son, though born in an 
unnatural way. ' 

61 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. IV- 63-75 

NAMDEV'S MARRIAGE 

63. Tht;is with their doubts settled, they bestowed great 
love on Nama. After searching for one who would be a. 
helpmate, he was married 

64. When Nama was growing up he had a son. For 
the naming of the child on the twelfth day, the Life of the 
world Himself brought the gifts. 65. Gondii said to Grod, 
' Nama has now a son. What name shall I give him, O 
God, tell me. ' 66. Listening to what she said, the Life 
of the world replied, ' Call him Narayan, and play with 
him in love and joy.* 67. The Brahmans were then invited, 
both men and women, and the Pu-nyahavachan then began. 
It was the Life of the world who in His love gave gifts to 
Nama. 68. He gave sari and jackets to Gonai and gave the 
child a garment and a cap. God Himself gave them and 
then went back to His home in Heaven. 69. Gonai said to 
Nama, ' Both of us are now aged. You are engaged 
in the contemplation of God. Day and night you meditate. 
70. Your thoughts are always occupied with His name and 
form. Not for a moment do you think of yourself. You 
are holding the Lord of Pandhari in your heart. He has 
persecuted you extremely. 71. In your domestic life we 
require every sort of thing. But you, my son, have 
become one indifferent to worldly things. What can I 
now do ? ' Such was Gonai's exclamation. 72. ' There 
are many Vaishnatas who carry on at the same time their 
domestic affairs and their religious life. It seems to me 
that your condition is quite different from theirs. 73. In 
your domestic life you have children, but you have very 
little food and few garments. The evil-minded laugh at 
you, what are we to do ? ' 74. At these words of his 
mother's he felt grieved about himself. He went to the 
temple and bowed prostrate before God. 75. Said he, ' O 
Shri Hari, who dwellest at Pandhari, why didst Thou put 

62 



C!h. IV- 75-88 NAMDEV 

me in t^ is domestic life ? Why hast Thou deserted me in 
the sad sea of this worldly existence?' 76. Hearin% 
Nama's piteous plea, God said to him, 'Who is it that is 
troubling you ? ' He lovingly embraced him, and wiped 
his eyes. 77. Nama replied, ' Oh God, it is my mother, 
Cronai, who is troubling me, but I am continually 
remembering Thy feet. Qiuse the shadow of Thy mercy to 
cover me. ' 78. God said to Nama, ' You should always 
remain with me, then the illusion and seductions of the 
world will never touch you. 79. You are a portion of My- 
self. And I am in your form. Just as salt gathered from 
the sea is not different from the salt water to the eyes of 
knowledge; 80. and as the sun and its rays are not different 
from one another; so your life and My life are united, 
O Nama. 81. A lamp and its light, although they are one, 
yet they seem different. So your love and Mine are the 
same. 82. You cannot separate sweetness from sugar. So 
your thoughts and Mineai-e not different, O Nama 83. A dia- 
mond and its brilliancy, although not different, are sp*ken 
of as different. So let your heart regard your love and Mine, 
O Nama. 84. Or only as the most precious pearl is spoken 
of as different from its lustre, so you, God-loving hhakta, 
are not different from Me, O Nama. 85. Ordinary water and 
the water of the Ganges are never different, so I, of dark 
ccHnplexion, am not different from you, O Nama. 86. Gold 
and the ornaments made from it are surely not different, so 
your thoughts and Mine are not different, O Nama. 87. 
■When sound proceeds from a bell. It becomes really one 
with the bell itself. So, considering our oneness, you 
must destroy the thought of duality. ' 

NAMDEVAND GOD CONVERSE 

88. Nama said to God, 'What is this knowledge 
that Thou art teaching me? If Thy name is on the 
tip of one's tongue, who would pay any attention 

63 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. IV- 88-100 

to the sorrow of this worldly existence? . 89. If Thy 
form is reflected in my heart, where would there be 
any room for the sorrows of this worldly existence ? If 
Thou art mother and father in this worldly existence, no 
sorrow can come upon me. 90. Thou art God. I am Thy 
bhakta. I will sing Thy praises with my lips. I ask this 
blessing of love in every future birth of mine. Give it to 
me. 91. Thou speakest of the supremacy of the joy that 
comes from the deliverance from rebirths. But I do not 
agree with that. ' Hearing this remark of Kama's, God 
smiled. 92. The Life of the world said to Rukmini, ' Nama 
is desirous of seeing Me in \isible form. If he is taught 
philosophic knowledge it does not satisfy him. * 93. Thus 
saying, God drew Nama to His heart. He embraced him, 
and held him close to Him. 94. The Dweller in Heaven 
(Vaikunth ) said to Nama, ' What is your manner of life at 
home ? Tell Me. Do not be ashamed to do so.' 95. Hearing 
this, Nama replied, ' If one has Thy blessing what could 
there be lacking ? Thy home is the Heaven of Vaikunth. 
We live in a broken down hut. 96. The eight Siddhiit ( ac- 
complishments personified ) are Thy slaves. In our home 
rats live. Thou art clothed with the divine garments, my 
children have no clothes to wear. 97. Thou reclinest on 
the serpent Shesha in the ocean of milk, but we cannot 
obtain even a seat made of straw. Thou hast platters of 
gold; we have leaves to eat on. 98. Thou hast gold and 
silver in Thy home, but our comfort is Thy name. ' Hear- 
ing this remark, Krishna laughed. 

GOD DISGUISED AS KESHAVSHET 

99. Turn now to Nama's wife. She experienced much 
trouble in her home, and said to her mother-in-law, ' For 
me you have given birth to a pure crystal. 100. But now 
my garments are torn and exceedingly old. I have not 
enough to eat. I have, therefore, come to your house to 

64 



Ch. IV- 100-114 NAMDEV 

live my poverty-stricken life. 101. He whom I serve with 
devotion has been persecuting me. I see no way of better- 
ing our domestic state. ' 102. As Nama's wife was in great 
trouble in her own home, the Lord of Pandhari, Helper of the 
helpless, had mercy on her. 103. Without Nama "know- 
ing it, God became a merchant by name Keshava. This was 
because of his great love for His bhakta. In their distresses 
H3 at once came to their relief. 104. He filled a bag with 
gold coins, and he said to His Eagle, ' Take the form of an 
ox, and come to the house of Nama.' 105. Ha took the bag 
of money along with him, and on His way he said to the 
people, ' Will some one tell ma the way to Nama's housa? ' 
103. Hearing this question tha townspaople laughad. 
They said, ' There is no food to eat at Nama's hoasa. Who 
can this guest be that has arrived?' They added, 107. 
'Do you see yonder tulsi altar with many tuld plants 
around it ? Many bright banners adorn tbe altar. Thifc is 
Nama's house. ' 108. Krishna said to Rajai, ' Some guests 
have come to your home. Come outside at once and give 
them a place to sit down. ' 

109. Hearing these words, Rajai was perplexed. 'Where 
could a guest come from ? I do not know who this is 
whose coming will humiliate me. * 110. She therefore 
attempted to send him away, and said to him, ' The 
master of the house is not here, therefore I wish you to 
go back. * 111. To the neighbours who assembled she 
said, ' These guests have nearly taken my life; what am I 
I to do ? 112. Just listen to the strange things that are 
happening. Innumerable sadhus have come into my house . 
They carry cymbals and vinos and dance in their love. 

113. They put aside all thought of shame and public praise. 

They put aside all thoughts of caste difference. They hold 
the Chief of ITadavas in their heart and dance in their delight 

114. The master of ihy housa has told me that I must feed 

B. V. 5 65 



BHAKTAVUAYA CJh, LV- 114-129 

every ssini that comes to the house. Now I have not the least 
bit of food in the house, but he does not know this/ 

115. Sbri Hari was standing at the door listening to that 
conversation. He said to Bajal, * Come otitsida quickly. * 

116. She asked from behind the door, 'Where are you 
from, and who are you ? And tell me your name. * 

117. Hearing her question the Lord of the world 

replied, ' My name is Kcshav Shet; I love Nama dearly, 

and I have come to visit him. 118. I have heard the 

news that you have no food in your house. Nama is 

a friend of mine, and therefore I have brought him 

some gold coins. * 119. Hearing this answer of His, 

Bajai came outside in order to bring and give him a seat. 

120, Seeing that she spoke harshly to Him, and then spoke 

with reverence, amused the Lord of the world, and smiling 

He remarked, 121, ' You saw the money I have brought, 

and now you speak very friendly, therefore one should not 

ever go ansrwhere empty-handed, 122. One should never 

go to a marriage, without carrying a wedding gift. One 

should never go to see the king without money in his hand. 

123, One should never go to visit one's daughter or sister 

empty-handed. So during the time of distress one should 

not go to visit at the house of a relative or an evil-minded 

person. 124. One should never visit sacred places at 

festivals empty-handed. One should not go empty-handed 

when going to a temple to worship God, 125. When 

going to see and pay worship to a sadhu or guru you 

should at least take a itdsi leaf as Sudama, with great 

reverence, gave me a handful of parched rice. 126. 

Everybody is selfish, and I pay them as they deserve. 

Nama alone worships me without a selfish desire. * 127. 

So God said to Bajai, ' Do not do anything now to trouble 

Kama. 128. 1 have brought a bag full of money. Store it in 

your house, and when it is all spent, call on me for more. 

129. Give Nama my kind regards and tell him that his 

6Q 



Ck IV« 129-143 NAMDEV 

friend had called. * Kama's wife having heard this said 
to Vithoba ( Krishna ), 130. ' Do not be angry with me, be- 
cause I spokel harshly to you. I did not know that you were 
a friend of the master of the house. 131. Eat therefore 
and then go on your way.' The Lord of Heaven replied, 
I will not 0Bkt without the presence cf Nama. ' 132. So 
saying Vithoba hastened to go away. He came to Bukmini 
and told het all the news. 

GONAI'S COMPLAINT TO GOD 

133. Now Eajai felt very much comforted at heart 
and said, ' My husband served Ood and He has been 
pleased.' 134. She tore open the bag and took out 
a lapful of gold coins. She went at once to the market 
and gave it to the grocer. She said to him, 135. * You 
know What materials are needed for one's domestic life. 
Send them to my house. ' 136. After saying this to him, 
she hastened back to her home. The merchant was perplex- 
ed, but said to himself, ' God must be helping him. * 137. 
He sent to Nama's house various garments and orna- 
ments, melted butter, rice, sugar, and other materials. She 
( Bajai ) could not contain herself for joy. 138. Oonai had 
gone out, and she knew nothing of what had occurred. She 
had gathered some grain and was returning to her house. 

1 39. She thought to herself, ' Nama has sulked and gone off. 
I will go to the temple, console him, and bring him back. * 

140. Thus saying, she hastened to the great door of the 
temple. She bowed to Qod on the eagle-platform, and then 

' came into the assembly hall. 141. As she looked she saw God 
standing before her sight. He put Nama behind Him when 
he saw Gonai. 142. Gonai said, ' O God, turn Thy face this 
way towards me. Thou hast made' Nama love Thee greatly, 
and so we are lacking in our worldly affairs. 143. By asso- 
ciation with Thee, O Govinda, he has neglected his home 
and business. In his worldly affairs he is suffering distresses^ 

67 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. IV- 143-156 

bscause he has no taste for things that please the senses. 
144. Giving up all ties of affection, he has firmly grasped 
Thy feet. By our lack: of things in our domestic life, we 
are laughed at by the evil-minded. 145. Putting aside all 
thoughts of himself, he enjoys perfect satisfaction. It is 
Thou who hast turned his mind to non-duality, and he has 
no longer thoughts of worldly things. 146. Those who 
become associated with Thee, Thou makest like Thyself, 
I have never seen, ncr heard anyone associated with Thee 
coming back to his domestic life. 147. Thou hast purposely 
brought about ill feeling between us, and put Nama 
behind Thee. His wife is in great distress at home, but O 
God, Thou hast no pity. 148. Thou art destroying my life 
by taking pity on Nama. I will no longer hold Thee in 
raverence, O Husband of Rukmini. 149. With great love 
I bore him for nine months, but Thou, O God, hast made me 
hopeless. Thou hast divided us in our worldly affairs. 150. 
Thou callest Thyself generous, but tell me what and whom 
Thou hast given anything? O Life of the world, I do not 
believe in the praise that is given Thee. 151. Thou didst 
take Sudama's handful of parched rice, and for it Thou didst 
give him a city of gold.Thou never comest to the aid of one, 
unless he gives Thee something. 152. Seeing Ravan's power 
Thou didist turn Bibhishana against him and taking advan- 
tage of this domestic division, Thou gavest him the gift 
of Ceylon. 153. When Draupadi was in great distress. 
Thou didst first take from her a vegetable leaf ( to satisfy 
Thy own hunger ), and then feasted the riahia, and thus 
Thou didst proclaim Thy generosity. 154. In describing 
Thy bad qualities, the serpent Shesha grew weary in his 
writing. I have had some reverence for Thee, therefore 
Thy divinity has remained. ' 155. Hearing Gonai's reply, 
Ood laughed and said, ' You are needlessly angry with 
me. 156. Your crazy Nama who cares not for himself, in- 
flated on clinging to My feet. If you have a false 

68 



Oh. IV- 156-168 NAMDEV 

coin, why quarrel with another about it ? 157. "^itb love 
in your heart you look to Nama from the point of view 
of his being a son. You try to divide us and 
seek to reproach us with your lips. 158. If 
you have any love, take away your son from 
here. Do not needlessly place upon Me the wrong 
you charge. 159. A fruit has ripened on a stem, 
the wind blew against it and it fell down. And so 
in the case of Nama, you have brought a false charge 
against Me. 160. I am the Unborn, the Imperishable, the 
Unconquerable, and have no relation with the three uunns 
{saiva, raja, and tama). Out of love for Nama I assumed 
a form and visible attributes. 161. I was formless when 
there existed no space, no air, no water, no earth, no light, 
no fire, when even Brahmadev, Vishnu and Shiva did 
not exist, and everything was without form. 162. Then 
Nama has been my associate, and my love has been intense. 
And why you want to quarrel with me, I do not under- 
stand. 163. Just as when a tree bears fruits, the gardener 
plucks and takes them away. The tree could not enjoy them 
itself. This separation has been caused by its own bad 
deeds (initsfoimer birth). 164. So consider Me as a 
tree in the form of the universe, and the loving Nama v* as 
the nectar fruit on it. You have plucked off that fruit, and 
I feel troubled thereby ! ' 165. Gonai replied, ' O God, 
Thou art talking very proudly. Thou dost compel me to 
swallow pebbles ( for lack of grain ), and makest a separa- 
tion between us. 166. The farmei-s with various efforts 
raise crop from the earth. The king ccmes along and 
exacts a penalty, and becomes lord of the division. 
167. Suffering much I have laise'd Nema from childhood 
to adult age, and now Thou dost claim to be his owner 
in a very wrong way. * 168, Hearing Gonai's reply 
the Life of the world laughed and eaid to Himself, ' I nuet 

G9 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. IV* 168-180 

explain it all to her plainly. 169. If I do not do W), she will 
ruin my reputation. ' Therefore the Husband of Rukmini 
replied to her. 170. The dark-oomplexioned One said to 
Gonai, ' Your good deeds are entirely pure in mc^ive, there* 
fore this God-loving bhakta oame to your womb. 171. As the 
great Vaishnaoa Narad was born to Bramhadev and Sayitrit 
so is it with you and the fortunate bhakta Damashet, 
through whom Nama has desoended as an axakar. 172. Just 
as in ihe line of demons, the bhakta Pralhad became an 
<ivatar by being born to Eayadhu, so Nama the servant of 
Vishnu has been born from you for the salvation of the 
world 173. Among the sixty-five million Yadavas, 
TJdbhavawas the most distinguished Vaiahvava. So in 
the line of tailors Nama has become an avatar. 174. Just 
as among saints, aadhua and yogis, the son of Anusaya was 
the most distinguished, so you seem the most fortunate of 
women, thai you have had such a jewel of a son in Nama. 
175. Or just as the king Uttanaoharan had as his disting- 
uished wife Suniti, and she gave birth to their son Dhruva 
and he made me subservient to him. 176. Or as Maruti 
was born in the race of monkeys from his mother Anjani 
< a female eagle ) so Nama, the embodiment of virtue, has 
been born to you. 177. O Gonai, blessed is your devotion, 
for this Vaiahnava has come to your womb. Who can 
describe your fortune, in that you should become the nurse 
of Nama ? 178. Taking Nama to your bosom, you rested 
with him on your bed. I cannot sufficiently describe your 
great good fortune.. 179. While eating with Nama you ate 
taking him to your side. You only are cognizant of the 
great number of your good deeds, dear friend. 180. I who 
am above every other being, and unoonquered, am the one 
who is describing your good character. You alone haT« 
the fortunate blessing of having Nama as your ion.* 

70 



Ch. IV' 181-191 NAMDBT 

181. Gonai replied, ' O Life of the world, O Pervader 
of the universe, the Delight of the heart, give me my son 
Nama, and let his love of worship still remain.' 182. After 
hearing her say this, God looked up and saw &at she 
would influenoe Nama to engage in worldly affur& There- 
fore He was very much troubled. 183. As the Life of the 
world remained silent, Gonai understood its meaning. The 
power of reason is the highest kind of knowledge. So say 
the wise- men. 184. While studying about the fourteen 
spheres of knowledge and every form of wisdom coming 
to one's hand, if the mind has no reasoning power these 
fourteen spheres are entirely useless to him. 185. One 
may show learning in the king's assembly ; justice and 
morality may be discussed, and the replies may depend on 
the assembly which appears before him ; still there must 
be the power of reason. 188. In arranging a.matrimoniaI 
connection, or in one's business relations with others, or in 
the reading of books, there must be the knowledge of 
reasoning. 187. In forming friendship with someone 
whom to trust when revealing a secret, or when writing a 
book, there is necessary the knowledge of reasoning. 188. To 
be able to give a gift to a worthy person, or to give the 
right medicine to the sick, to perform the praise service 
suitable to the asssembly present, the power of reasoning 
is necessary. 

GONAJ'S APPEAL TO SATYABHAMA AND KALINDI 

189. In the story already rele^ed, it was stated that the 
Life of the world remained silent. So Gonai called Bahi 
and Rukmini and told them her story. 190. She lovingly 
called the good Satyabhama and Kalindi. Gonai said 
to them, * Listen to what I have to say. 191. Your HusWd 
is merciful to the lowly, of whom the Vedaa and Skaatraa 
speak in praise. So why has He been pleased to caose 
my diild to possess the condition of one unconscious of 

71 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. IV- 191-205 

Ms own body ? 192. My child is my only-begotten, yet God 
bag turned bim to 'worehipping Him all the time. Such is 
tbia false actor as you all know. 193. Shuka, Sanaka, and 
other distinguished sadhvs, saints, and other leading yogis 
axe familiar with the fact that He has ruined my home. 
194. We are weak, helpless and lowly. We have no 
garments or food at our home. He has turned Namato the 
contemplation of Himself. Please understand this. 195. 
I have seen and heard of many gods. A fastidious person 
is known at dinner, but I have never seen- anyone quite 
so reserved as this man is. 196. He calls Himself a 
family deity at whose feet I should always fall, but He 
needlessly employs deception and needlessly troubles us. 
197. Until to-day I have paid him reverence, and so His 
high reputation remains. But if be carries matters to the 
extreme, I shall lose regard for him before the public. 198« 
At His sight, one's own life is destroyed. He has turned my 
only-begotten son to His contemplation. Friends, what 
am I to do? 199. You have all heard my story. Beseech 
the dark-complexioned One and tell Him to free me from my 
trouble. 200. AH y^u wives, coming together, should bring 
Krishna to my house, and there ask Him what He has in 
His mind to do, friends.' 

GONAI REBUKES GOD 
201. She then turned to Nama and said to him- 
' Why are you sitting heie ? I will take you away 
by force in the very presence of the god. 203. Nama, 
you are a thief as regards our domestic life. This 
Enchanter of the world is our enemy. He stands on the 
brick and destroys the domestic life of others. 203. O 
this false Saviour of the world, Pundlik gave Him a 
pHace to stay, therefore you do not Qome home, and have 
brought our domestic affairs to ruin. 204. So I will never 
leave this place without taking you with me. I am deter- 
mined to swallow the whole of Pandhari. 205. O You of 

72 



Oh. 1V« 205-218 NAMDEV 

beautiful form, and wise one, reply to me. You Lord of 

the Yadavas are sitting silent, O Vitthal, You Destroyer of 

the house. * 206. Gtonai said to him, ' O Life of the world 

Pervader of the universe, Ornament of bhaklas, why does 

my plea not come to your mind ? O Cloud of mercy, 207 • 

give back Nama to me, and thus may Thy fame increase 

in the world. ' Hearing her say this, the Husband of 

Lakshmi spoke as follows: — 208. 'Listen to me, Gonai, take 

your son and go away. You are making a vain attempt 

to found a charge against me.' 209. Vitthal said to 

Gonai, 'Take your son Nama by the hand, and lead him 

away. Take your son to your house even now. 210. He 

has put aside all ties of affection, but the charge of 

wrongdoing has needlessly been cast on me. Take your 

son and go back to your home. ^Vhy do you continue 

such useless charges ? ' 211. Thus speaking, the Husband 

of Lakshmi brought Nama and placed him in her hand, 

and Gonai then at once started for her home. 212. As they 

walked along the road his mother said to Nama, ' You 

have deserted your business and have gone to the Lord of 

Pandhari as a suppliant. ' 213. Hearing this charge of 

€h>nai, Nama hung his head and tears of love flowed from 

his eyes. 214. So the mother taking Nama by the hand 

returned to their home. Just then Rajabai started to do her 

cooking in her part of the house. 

NAMDEV SICKENS AT FORTUNE'S SIGHT 
215. She prepared many kinds of delicious food 
including nine kinds of cooked food saying to herself* 
* The Life of the world hss done a very remarkable 
thing, * and she was full ' of joy. 216. But Nama 
saw with great displeasure the various pots and ves- 
sels, and the garments and ornaments which had been 
given to his wife, 217. Just as when a deer thai has been 
ensnared in a net becomes distressed, so Nama by holding 
these rich vessels experienced the same distress; 218. or 

73 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. IV- 218-231 

SB when a strong wind blows upon a light, it at ono« loses 
its brightness; so Nama's sad mind lost its happiness in 
seeing these riches; 219. or just as a beautiful person, 
vrhen he finds himself a victim to leprosy, feels disgusted 
in his mind, so Vaishnava bhaktas feel disgusted at the sight 
of wealth; 220. or as when the sun is in eclipse it seems 
to be without any brightness, so, when he saw this illusory 
wdalth, his face turned sad; 221. or as when a south 
wind strikes a cloud, it melts away in every direction; so 
in Nama's heart there was dejection. 222. As when a king 
hears of a defeat he finds his mind full of perplexity, 
60 this bhaUa ol Vishnu became full of concern. 223. 
Or as Shuka sat performing his austerities, he was 
troubled at the sight of Bambha, so Nama seeing 
this wealth became sad at heart. 224. He asked his 
mother lovingly, ' Where has all this wealth come 
from ? ' Gonai replied, ' I surely do not know. ' 225 . 
Na na's wife said to him, ' You are very late in eating* 
so perform your bath at once, and sit down and enjoy 
the food which God has bestowed as a favour.' 226, 
Nama wondered to himself, ' Why is she speaking so 
humbly to-day ? It must be because my wife feels great 
comfort in seeing all this wealth and grain in the house.* 

227. When there is no money in one's possession, even a 
brother calls one an enemy, and the evil-minded and 
-wrongdoers laugh, and this is what is called afteotion. 

228. Seeing her son unable to acquire money, even his 
father is disgusted with him and says, ' In being born to 
us, you have brought us a bad reputation. ' 229. The 
neighbours are displeased with him and say, ' He seeme 
to us to idle away his time, so when he goes to visit hll 
daughter or sister they feel ashamed to see him. 230. .4 
-wife will not embrace a husband who is so weak.' Hfe 
sons say, ' He has put us all into debt. ' 231. Thus all 
etijoy association with one in happy circumstances, but in 

74 



Ox. IV- 231-244 NAMDET 

time of his distress they turn away from him. Nama had 
love for the Brother of the helpless, the Husband of 
Bukmini. 232. Nama said to his wife, ' Where did you 
bring this bagful of wealth from ? ' But she maintaining 
silenoe uttered not a word. 233. She thought to herself, ' If I 
inform him of it just now, he will distribute it off-hand.* 
Therefore knowing he would do so she said nothing in 
reply. 234. Just then Jani, Nama's maidservant, hastened 
near to Naina, bowed at his feet, and told him what had 
occurred. 235. She said, ' Rajabai was greatly troubled. Gtod 
quickly came to her help. He became a merchant by 
name of Keshavshet and forced this bag of wealth upon 
her. 236. The Lord of Heaven became a Kanaress Lingayat, 
and standing in front of her house informed her that 
He had come as her guest.' 237. Rajabai said to Him, 
' Tell me your name. * Hearing her, the Cloud of mercy 
replied. 238. The lotus-eyed One, in kindly words said, 
' Nama is my greatest friend. You ask Me My special 
name. I am spoken of as one whose complexion is that of 
a dark cloud. 239. Hearing that there was a lack here 
of food and raiments, I have oome with a bag full of coinsL 

240. When this bag of money is spent I will bring soma 
more. So that from to-day no one should trouble Nama. 

241. The Husband of Rukmini let the bag down from the 
ox's back, and he has only just gone.' A!; this point tears 
flowed from Nama's eyes. 

NAMDEV DISTRIBUTES HIS FORTUNE 

242. He cried, ' Krishna, Purifier of the sin- 
ner. Lover of the bhafdas, the Ornament of Thy 
saints. Ocean of mercy. Life of the world, the Delight of 
the heart, Shri Vitthal. 243. Thou who art the Unborn, the 
Unconquered, the Imperishable, Unaffected by maya. Void 
of any pain, Helper of tiie helpless, the Home of compassion, 
why hast Thou wearied Thyself on my behalf ? 244. Thoa 

75 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. IV« 244-255'- 

never comest to the eight, of those who piactise rigorous 
aui-terities. But to-day Thou hecamest the merchant 
Keshavshet for my sake. 245. O Thou Merciful to the 
lowly, Mother Krishna, it was not I who gave Thee this 
trouble, and yet Thou didst rush to my help on foot. 246. 
Bhaktas with desire in their hearts worship Thee, but 
Thou dost not give them the wealth they seek. But with- 
out ny at'kiiig Thee, Husband of Rukmini, Thou didst 
lush to my aid out of love. 247. If a cloud pours down 
rain on the cceaii; of what use is that ? So, God, 
the f eld Tfccu gavcst me I regard as of no value. £48. 
Casting asirfe the Riddhia and Siddhis ( female deities, 
presiding over accomplishments ), royal wealth, the four 
forms of final deliverance, including that of Salokaa, 
I think, God, of Thy feet alone day and night. 249. 
I know nothing about sacred places, religious rites, 
the practices of yoga, mystic formulas, or austerities. I 
sing only of Thy name day and night with love." 250. 
Praising God in these words, he then called the Brahmans 
of the town and gave to these twice- born the money, the 
garments, and the ornaments. 251. And now Nama without 
any hindrance worshipped the Good Being with reverence. 
Even Brahmadev was ignorant of Nama's love. 

252. This book containing the history of the saints 
may be thought of as the ancient sacred city of Pandhari. 
The pure-minded and the good Vaishnatas come to visit it. 
253. Those who are suffering from fever cannot bear the 
taste of cooked food. So those desiring wealth and wives will 
not enjoy these stories. 254. But those who worship without 
the desire of worldly things and are indifferent to them, 
they will enjoy this book .Those who are inclined to evils 
and are not bhaklaa will feel a distaste for these stories- 
255. Crews want meat for their food, so why would they 
come to the ocean of milk ? So be well assured that those 

7G 



Ch. IV- 255-259 NAMDEV 

who are not bhaktaa will not find this book at all to their 
taste. 256. The good-natured swans will like my saying an 
delicious. So those who have love in their hearts are 
without disturbing thoughts. 

257. In the next chapter we shall have the wonder- 
fully delightful tale of the bkakta Kabir, the avatar of 
Shuka. May bhaktas in love listen to these delightful 
stories. 258. I will write their lives somehow or other 
just as they happened. In fact, it is the doing of saints 
who caused me, Mahipati, to write my name in these verses. 

259. SwasH (Peace!). This book is the Shri Bhaktavijaya. 
In listening to it the Lord of the world will be pleased. May 
the pious, God-loving bhaktas also listen. This is the fourth 
delightful chapter. 



77 



CHAPTER V 

KABIB'S BIOGRAPHY 
Obeisanee to Shri Otmeah, (Xmtanee to 8M iTfiMmr 
1. Listen now, my hearers, to a story that is very 
interesting and very purifying. In thinking of its sweet- 
ness it is sweeter than nectar. This comparison even 
seems inadequate. 2. I undertake to describe its purity. 
It seems to be superior to the river Gangea If I look at 
the great extent of its influence, I have nothing with which 
to compare it. 3. If I look to its depths of meaning, it 
looks deeper than the sea. It is more generous than the 
generous wish-tree to whom a prince and a pauper are 
alike. 4. If I think of how it brings coolness, a comparison 
of it with the moon is inadequate. Although the lustre of 
a diamond is most precious, still the light of this story 
would dim it. 5. If I look to the honour paid to it, it is 
sung by the five-faced god ( Shiva ). An equal would be 
impossible to find, so Indra and other gods search for 
it. 6. Such being the holy story of a saint, listen, you 
pious folks, with reverence. 

KABIE AS AVATAR OF SHUKA 

In a former chapter, I have related the story which all 
of you have heard, 7. namely, that a shell came floating 
down the river Bhima, and from it Gonai received the 
bhakta Nama. The shell fell into the Bhagirathl river, 
and was floating down exceedingly fast. 8. This very 
obstinate avatar of Shuka was not born in the natural way, 
and floating down the river Ganges landed at the Manikar^ 
nika ghat of Benares. 9. Becoming one with human 
attributes, through his unnatural form of birth, he conti- 
nued repeating the names of God with his lips. From the 
shell a sound was continually coming out. It was of 

78 



CaL V« 9-22 KABIR 

* Bam, Bam. * 10. Just then Eamal the Muhammadan 
-weaver oame down to wash his thread. As he looked down 
he han;>ened to see the shell. 11. He waded in the wster^ 
opened the shell and looked in. There his eyes beheld s 
babe, and his heart was full of joy. 12. It was as if a man 
without making any efforts finds a hidden store of wealth; 
or as if one hunting for a pool of water should suddenly 
see the ooean of milk; 13. or as if when stringing glass 
beads, one should find them to be pearls; or as when 
picking up shells, one should find there a jewel; 14. or 
as when hunting for the oity of Yama ( god of death ), one 
should find the city of Vishnu; or as when hunting for a 
hut habitable to live in, one should find himself entering 
a golden palace; 15. or as when seeking to hear some 
obscene music, one should hear a service of praise of God; 
or as when one might go to watch a quarrel, it should turn 
out to be a song from the Soma Veda; 16. or as when 
spending one's energy on the shindi palm ( wine yielding ) 
tree, he should come across a wish-tree in his comi>ound; or 
as when beginning to associate with a thief -or immoral 
person, suddenly one's religious teacher should come to visit 
him; 17. so, while merely carrying on his daily business* 
Kamal found this babe in the Ganges river. This child was 
the avaiar of Shri Shuka in this Kali Yuga, the universal 
Saviour, a world-Guru. 18. He wrapped the babe up in 
his garment, and hastened to his home. With heart over- 
flowing with joy he said to his wife, 19. ' I have found a 
babe in the Ganges, of perfect beauty, endowed with 
thirty-two qualities. My dear wife, take care of it. * 
20. Hearing this, his wife's breasts swelled with milk. 

She nursed the child and her joy overflowed. 21. A great 
Vaifhnava was born in a Muhammadan family, there- 
fore the name of Eabir was given to him. His father 
and n-cther IcvedMm intcrsdy. J2. Even while a bale 

79 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. V- 22-33 

it repeated God's name, and listening to it every one was 
astonished. They said, ' We wonder what good deeds this 
orthodox Muhammadan named Kamal performed in his 
former birth. 23. How is it that this Vishnu-6AaA;to, already 
distinguished by his religious characteristics, should be 
born to this Muhammadan ?' One replied, ' It was 
because fate was favourable to him. 24. If fate is 
favourable to anyone, why does one need the power of 
knowledge ? Madmen, born in alow caste, are often praised 
by all men, through the power of fate. 25. So this man's 
good fortune is extraordinary. A bhakta of Vishnu has 
come to birth through him. ' Such was the talk amongst 
all the people of that sacred city. 

KABIR'S INDIFFERENCE TO WORLDLY THINGS 
26. Well, because he had done some good deeds in his 
former births, Kabir was born to him ( this Muh ammadan ). 
Day by day he grew in stature and his parents had him 
married. 27. The mother and father taught Kabir how 
to carry on his avocation, but he would not take it to heart. 
He would give no attention to a business life. 28. He 
could not distinguish what belonged to him and what 
belonged to others. He did not know what was joy and 
what was sorrow. He paid the same respect to a Brahman, 
a prince, or a pauper. 29. If he saw a heap of money 
fall before him, he had no desire to pick it up. If a thief 
came to rob him of his money, he did nothing to protect 
himself. 30. Because Kabir worshipped in this way, his 
buBiness declined. The evil-doers and evil-minded laughed 
as they saw Kabir's conduct. 31. If a banana tree and a 
bor tree are planted in the same place it will not be happy 
for either. How can fire and water dwell together in 
friendship ? 32. How can a prostitute and a dutiful wife, 
a miser and a generous giver, a reviler and a man of in- 
telligence, live together in peace ? There will be enmity 
between the one and the other. 33. How can a fly and 
dainty food gat on well together ? A goat-herd and a 

80 



€h. V- 33-45 ZABIR 

pandit cannot live together in friendship. 34. How can 
the demon Bahu and the moon, a moth and a flame, the 
sea and the rishi Agaski, dwell in love ? 35. ^Vhile the story 
of Shri Krishna was being read, Shishupal was unwilling 
to listen. When Ravan heard of the might of Shri Ram 
he did not feel happy. 36. As there is perpetual enmity 
between poison and nectar, so there is always a mental, 
opposition between worldly riches and the supreme spiritual 
riches. 

KAM WEAVES FOE KABIR 

37. Well, enough of this long digression. Kabir con- 
tinued his worship of God, while his business prosperity 
grew less. The evil-minded laughed at him. 38. 'You 
have taken God to your heart, and so has come about this 
condition of self-neglecfc. It does not appear how you will 
continue to carry on your domestic affairs.' 39. Having that 
day rubbed paste on the threads, Kabir was made to sit at 
the loom, but he was not able to think of himself. He was 
entirely lost in the worship of Ram. 40. Bringing the 
image of Ram to his imagination, he closed both his eyes. 
His full attention was given to the form and name of God. 
He no longer remembered his own bodily condition. 41. 
His mother came to him, and tried to awaken him. She said, 
'Kabir, I do not know what has happened to you now.' 43. 
Believing that his mother would whip him, hs came to self- 
consciousness and being now awake he wove a hand- 
braadth of cloth. 43. But just then he again became un- 
conscious and the image of Shri Ram appeared in his heart. 
Seeing this to be the case, the Lord of Ayodhya ( Ram ) 
Himself sat down to weave. 44. Rama said to himself, 
' He has lost himself in contemplating Me. His mother 
will give him a beating. * So thinking, the Holder of 
the Bow (Ram), sat down to weave the shela ( gold scarf ). 
45. He who finds his pleasure in the ocean of milk, Lord of 

6 81 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. V- 45-58 

the universe) Dweller ^n the Heaven Vaikuntha, He sat 
down at Kabir's lcx)m in order to weave. 46. Yogis sit on 
spiked beds and yet He does not quickly come into their 
imagination, but seeing Kabir's bhakti He sat down to 
weave the scraf. 47. He who cannot be attained by the 
study of the Vedas and Shastras, by wandering from sacred 
places to sacred places, He, Dweller at Dwaraka, Ornament 
of His bhaldas, sat down to weave the scarf. 48. He whom 
Sanak and other munis bring continually into their con- 
templation, even He, Ilari, sat down to Kabir's loom and 
wove the scarf. 49. He whom the daughter of the ocean 
serves, holding His feet to her heart. He who is the dear 
ornament of Shiva, even He sat down to weave the scarf. 

50. Now awaking, however, Kabir regained his con- 
sciousness and after a moment's thought he hastened to begin 
to weave. 51. But he was no mora than awakened when 
the HuBband of Janaki ( Ram ) came into his imagination. 
Kabir's mind attained its calmness, and beheld that it was 
Krishna who sat weaving. 52. Whenever Kabir lest 
seif-consciousness then Krishna began to weave. When 
self-consciousness began to return Krishna would stand at 
a distance amused. 53. Thua Kabir and Krishna both to- 
gether, wove the garment ; just as when the water of the 
Saraswati Joins the water of the Ganges, the two are no 
longer different; 54. so God and His bhakta together 
wove the garment. Kabir folded it up, came into the 
house and gave it to his mother. 55. The mother now said to 
Kabir, 'Go now into the market and quickly sell the 
scarf and come back bringing me the money.' 56. Saying 
'I will doso, ' Kabir started from his home, taking the 
Bcarf in his hand, and sat down in the bazaar. 57. He 
closed his eyes and brought to his mind the form of Sbri 
Bam. He lost self-consciousness and continued singing 
&e praise of Bam with his lips. 58. He forget entirely 

82 



Oh. V- 58-68 KABm 

that he bad oome to sell the scarf. Holding God in his 
heart, he continued repeating the names of Ram in his lore 
for Him. 59. Merchante came into the bazaar iand Eabir 
sat down beside them, but no customers appeared for the 
purpose of buying the shela. 

MIRACO: OF THE 8HBLA (SCARF) 

60. Because the hand of God Supreme, Lord of 
the Heaven Vaikuvth, had touched it. It seemed to 
would-be purchasers as they looked at it from a dis- 
tance, as being too costly for them. 61. If buyers wished 
to purchase a garment within five rupees, it seemed to them 
that it was of twice that value. If they thought they 
would buy it for ten rupees, it appeared to them as if it 
were worth twenty rupees. 63. Those who would purchase 
it for twenty-five rupees, seemed to see it worth more than 
fifty. Those people who were in search of one worth 
fifty rupees, saw it as worth double that amount. 
63. Purchasers who wished to spend five hundred or a 
thousand rupees seemed to see it as worth more than a 
thousand. Because it seemed of such high value, people 
merely glanced at it from a distance. 64. They said to 
themselves, ' Even if we ask him the price, we have 
no money with which to purchase it.' Some wealthy 
merchants passed by. It seemed to them to be worth more 
than a hundred thousand rupees. 65. Looking at one 
another, customers passed into the bazaar saying to one 
another, 'This bhakta Kabir weaves very costly garments. 
€6. As we have no money, our coming to the bazaar is 
useless. ' Thus saying, men and women hastened back to 
their homes. 67. The value of the scarf seemed to exceed the 
financial ability of the customer. So no customer came 
to ask Kabir his price. 68. The garment that seemed to 
customers of the value at which they were willing to pur- 
diase it, that garment seemed to become double such value. 

83 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. V- 68-80 

Just aa in every living being the soul exists, just so it was 
in this case. 69. Having planted mustard, an onion, sugar- 
cane, or any seed, and having given it water its sap 
gets the same characteristic as the plant. 70. When 
many musical instruments are being loudly played, 
space seems to take their very form; so Kabir's cloth seem- 
ed of a different nature to every one looking at it. 71. Or 
one might think of gold as being homogeneous, but orna- 
ments made from it seem of various kinds ; or just as a 
flame seems in size according as one piles on the wood; 

73. or just as the beholder sees himself as he is in a look- 
ing glass held before him by a barber; so Kabir's scarf 
seemed to the customer. 73. Looking at it from a distance 
they said to themselves, '"We have not the ability to pay 
for it, and not having sufficient money with which to 
purchase it, why needlessly go and ask him the price ? 

74. Thus saying to themselves, customers went forward 
aimlessly into the bazaar. In the meantime the bhdkta 
Kabir full of love continued his worship of Shri Bam. 75. 
As the sun began to set, the bazaar people began to dwindle. 
Kabir now opened his eyes and looked about him. 76. 
Said he, ' All the people have gone to their homes, and the 
scarf has no customer. If I go back to my home, my 
mother will give me a whipping. ' 77. So saying, this 
fefeiWa of Vishnvb continued sitting calmly. Just then he 
auddenly noticed an empty house. 

GOD AS A BRAHMAN TESTS KABIB 

78. Kabir quickly arose and went and sat in- 
side, and continued his worship of Bam with love 
and affection. 79. Just as a daughter-in-law hides 
herself saying, ' My mother-in-law will treat me 
Toughly,' so Kabir out of fear of his mother sat alone 
in this deserted house. 80. Or just as when Dhruva was 
Jdckedi>y his mother, and sulking went into the foreBi^ 

84 



Oh. V« 80-SS KABIR 

80 this bhaJda Eabir beosune indi£Ferent to worldly things, 
and went and sat down in this vacant house. 81. Just as 
aannyasis attain their highest order by abandoning every 
form of action, so Eabir became indifferent to his dcxnestio 
affairs, and sat down in this vacant house.* 82. The servant 
of Vishnu having entered this deserted house for that 
purpose, the Pervader of the universe, seeing his devotion^ 
came to test tine truth of it. 83. He ioc& the form of 
a very ^ged Brahman, with old and torn clothes. The 
cold was intense, just as it is in the months of Paush 
(January) and Magha (February). 84. In order to test 
the generosity of Eabir, the Life of the world entered 
shivering. As he sat there worshipping, this Brahman 
arrived. 85. Just as the son of Gadhi arrived to give trouble 
to the Eing Harischandra, or as the Lord of Eailas, 
assuming the form of a guest, came to trouble Shrlyal; 86. 
or as the Muni Durvas, having heard of the goodq^ss of 
Ambarish, came to trouble him; or as when Gktd assum- 
ing the form of Vaman came to test Bali with his own 
eyes. 87. In that way this Brahman Q)oke to Eabir in a 
distr^sed voice, ' I am old, helpless and poor. I have no 
clothes to wear. 88. You are the bhakta vi Vishnu and 
exceedingly generous. It is intensely cold; if you have 
any garments, give me somSi ' 89. As the Dweller in 
the Heaven Vaibinth said thus, Eabir thought to him- 
self, ' If I say No to this Brahman^ it will be to the 
harm of my desire to be good. ' 90. So he tore his scarf 
in half and gave one piece to the Brahman. Eabir then 
full of love continued his worship. 91. Erishna then put 
on this garment and came immediately outsida Then he 
thought to Himself, ' I will go in again, and see what 
is happening.' 92. Thus saying, Erishna became a/oMt in 
the guise of a Muhammadan. His head was adorned with a 
mass of hair. On his feet was an ornament made of crystal. 
93. Carrying in his hands a rosary and opening wide his 

85. 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. V« 93*106 

Hood-shot eyes, the cloud-dark-One rushed Tiolently into the 
house to test the truth about Eabir. 94. When gold is seen 
to be dimmed in laaite it is rubbed on a testing stone. 
Or when a coin is suspected of being false, it is forcibly 
punctured by an instrument. 95. Or when a valuable 
diamond is under consideration, the expert hammers it on 
an anyil. So, Gk)d became a Muhammadam /aA»r in order to 
test the mind of Kabir. 96. In a violent laughter He stood 
at the door and called Kabir. He said to Kabir, ' Give me at 
once a garment. 97. God is without form and without quali- 
ties. You have forgotten this. Why do you leave Him and 
worship Ram ?' 98. Hearing this harsh voice, Kabir replied 
in soft tones. He said, 'To be without form and at the same 
time possess qualities, both can exist without any difference 
between them. 99. If butter is hardened or melted, it does 
not thereby lose its character of being butter. Or when an 
ornament is made of gold it does not thereby lose its lustre. 
100. So, the Unmanif ested. Eternal Being has taken form. 
The Pervader of the univerae has assumed visible form 
for the purpose of His bhaktaa.' 101. To these words of the 
noble Vaishnava the fakir said in reply, ' If you have got 
any garment, give it to me quickly.' 102. Kabir hastened to 
remove the half of the scarf which remained with him and 
gave it to the fakir. He then continued to sit there without 
any concern and the fakir hastened away. 103. Just as 
when the rainy season has passed away the sky lodes 
clear; or as when the soldering is tested it turns out to be 
brilliant gold; 104. just as when the python has left 
-the mount Maila, or as when Bahu has let go the moon, so 
Kabir sat down to his worship with quietness of mind. 
105. Or as the water of the Ganges appears clear after the 
flood has ceased; or as when mount Mandara was drawn 
cut of the ocean its roar ceased; 106. sO, the oonoem 
which Kabir felt, when no customer appeared for the 
purchase of the soarf, disappeared from bis mind. Kabir was 



Ch. V- 106-119 KABia 

now in a state of joy. 107. So thus aaiisBed in his mind, he 
sat woishipping Shri Bam. The Life of the world hewing 
this did something which I ask you to listen to. 

OOD DISGUISSD AS A BRAHMAK BEP0RT8 TO KABIR'8 
MOTHBR HIS INDIFFSRBNCB 

108. In the guise of a Brahman, Krishna went to Kahir'W 
hou33. He called to his mother and told her what had happen- 
ed. 109. He said, 'Kalor sat in th s bazaar and customers came 
and asked the price of the scarf, but he would not reply 
to them and kept silence. 110. A great number of customers 
came and he could give them no reply, but bringing the 
Husband of Sita to his mind he continued his worship. 
111. When the whole bazaar was empty, he called to s 
Brahman, tore his scarf in half, and gave it to him, 
mother. 112. A fakir then called for the remainder of the gar- 
ment, and Kabir at once gave him the other half of the scarf. 
113. He saw there an empty house, and is seated there now 
performing his worship. I saw from a distance what was 
happening, and have hastened here to tell you. 114. It 
is the earnest wish of my heart that you may be prospered, 
but mother, Kabir will not put his mind to worldly affairs.' 

115. As the Dweller in the Heaven Vaikunth said this, 
Kabir's mother grew very angry. She said to herself, 
* When he comes home I will give him a sound beating. * 

116. As the Delight of the mind ( Ram ) heard her say 
this, He exclaimed, ' He will not come home quickly. 
After a scorpion has co.-npleted its wrong doing by stinging, 
it hides itself in some other place. 117. Come along with 
me, I will show you where he is sitting. * Then taking 
the old woman by the hand, Krishna walked rapidly with 
her. 118. Both soon arrived where Kabir was seated, 
repeating the names of God. The Life of the world 
pointed him out to the old woman from a distance. 119. 
From the house in which Kabir was seated, there issued 

87 



BHAZTAVUAYA Oh. V- 119-130 

file sound of Barn's name. Just as Natad seated the Muni 
Valmiki for the purpose of repeating the name of Ram; 
120. or as Sita sat in Ashoka forest and with love worship- 
ped Ram; or as Jatajru worshipped Ram when harassed 
by Rawan; 121. in that same manner Eabir sat, and bring- 
ing the form of Shri Ram into his imagination, with his 
lips he sang the praises of Ram, having lost his self-cons- 
oiousness. 122. Losing all thought of whether he was 
honoured or dishonoured, losing all pride of public 
recognition, losing all thought of objects of sense, he 
continued singing the praises of Ram with his lips. 123. 
Just then his mother entered the house, and the Lord of the 
Heaven Vaikunth pointed Xabir out from a distance. He 
then stood outside, and saw the amusing scene of the 
bhakta Eabir. 

KABm'S MOTHER PUNISHES HIM 

124. The mother said to Kabir, * Bring the scarf 
and show it to me. If you do not bring it at 
once, I shall punish you. * 125. He would, however, 
give her no reply. Keeping his mind steady in the worship 
of Ram he did not recognize the fact that his mother and 
a noble Brahman had arrived. 126. His mind was entirely 
taken up with the form and name of Qod, and so he lost all 
self-consciousness. His mother became angry and said 
to her son, 127. ' In a stupid manner ycu are sitting here, 
lovingly worshipping Ram. ' Hearing her say this, the 
Lord of the Heaven Vaikunth said to the old woman, 128, 
' You have used harsh language with your lips, but you 
have love for him in your heart. Now take a cane in 
your hand and punish your son. * 129. Hearing Him say 
ibis, Eabir's mother said, * I see nothing with which to 
whip him. * Oodthen produced a cane, and put it in 
Iter hand. 130. Growing angry ^e struck Eabir on his 
back, but he had no bodily consciousness, being lost in the 

88 



Ch. V- 130-142 KABIR 

worship of Ram. 131. Now you wise bhaktas, listen to the 
smusing event that took place. As she continued to 
steike Eabir on his back, Shri Hari stood outside trembling 
with the pain. 132. He said to her, ' You are beating your 
child, but the welt appears on My back. Now that beating 
is quite sufficient. ' So said the dark complexioned One. 

133. Just as when the edge of an axe strikes the root of a 
tree, the tree violently trembles, so as she continued punish- 
ing the bhakia Kabir, the Saviour of the world, trembled. 

134. Or as when a child is troubled by soma bad 
person, its mother suffers the pain, so as she continued 
whipping Eabir with the cane, God trembled with 
the pain. 135 Or as when an army lessens in number 
s king becomes depressed; so when this God-loving bhakta 
was being troubled it was this One, the Merciful to the 
lowly, who trembled with pain. 136. Or as when a young 
deer is caught in a trap, the mother deer feels the pain; so 
in the whipping of His bhakia, God trembled with the pain. 
137. Or as when the sea saw the risU Agasti it trembled in 
its heart, so the Dweller in the Heaven Vaikunth trembled 
with pain as the mother continued to beat Eabir. 138. 
Finally the Husband of Rukmini exclaimed, 'That is 
sufficient now, O mother,' and then the Infinite One added, 

139. ' I went to trouble Bali. I ended in being His door- 
keeper. So in the end my deception had its positive result. 

140. I have had many noble and pious bhaktas, but no one 
has ever given me a beating. Now I recognize the fact that 
the bhakta Kahii is superior to Myself.' 141. Then said 
the Husband of Sita to Himself, ' I must show him My 
visible form, and because I troubled him in the guise of a 
Brahman, so he did not recognize Me.' 

RAM ( WITH SITA ) MANIFESTS HIMSELF TO KABIE 

142. So he cast aside His Brahman guise, and in 
His hand took His bow and arrow. A dazzling crown 

89 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. V- 142-154 

adorned His head. His large eyes gave brightnesB 
io his face. 143. In his ears were the most brilliant 
ear-rings. His chest was broad, but His waist was slender. 
j&Tound His neck was the purest of jewels, the Eaustubb, 
and the Vaijyanti garland adorned His neck. 144. 
Around His waist was an embroidered yellow garment. 
On His feet were the Vanki and the Todar ornaments. The 
Husband of Janaki thus presented Himself together with 
Sita. 145. Esbir opened his eyes and looked. It was as if a 
billion of suns had arisen. Seeing such a form as that, he 
embraced His feet. 146. The Dweller in Vaikunth then 
said, ' You have stood My test. I shall never forget you, 
just as a mother never forgets her child. 147. Just as 
erperts pierce coins with their instruments, and then 
string them together; or as they test diamonds by ham- 
mering them on an anvil, and then store them in their 
treasury ; 148. so I have put you to the test. Now I will 
put you in the depths of My heart, always looking on you 
with the eye of favour. ' So spoke God. 149. The Life of 
the world then gave Kabir's mother a loving embrace, and 
said, ' Your good fortune, because of Me, can never be 
fully described. ' 150. As God said this, the mother felt 
great joy. She drew Kabir to her heart, and gave him a 
care^ of love. 151. Said she to him, ' It is because you 
have become my son that I have had a sight of Shri 
Bam. * The mother then took Kabir by the hand and 
led him back to their home. 152. And the Husband of 
Sita said to them, ' Keep thoughts of Me in your heart. ' 
Thus speaking, the Life of the world became invisible. 

153. This book relating the stories of the saints is the 
lake Manas. Listeners .who are wise, and bhaktas of good 
fortune come to it. 154. The royal swans, who want 
pearls as their food, sit by this lake. Crows, who are not 
bhaktas, who are haters, and who have no faith in their 

90 



C!h. V- 154-159 KABIB 

hearts, they revile these royal swans. 155. They gladly eat 
pebbles, because they dislike pearls. So there is no sense 
of worship aroused in those who are not bhaMaa. They 
hold in their minds irrational thoughts. 156. But now 
good people, let that thought pass. Give me your atten> 
tion. Just as when an infant uses prattling words, its 
mother rejoices to hear them. 157. The blind grope their 
way behind those who have sight, by listening to their foot- 
steps. So -through your favour I speak to you in my un- 
couth language. 158. It is you who are making my 
thoughts clear, and causing me by your love to write this 
book. As the author of the book my name, Mahipati, 
appears in the beginning. But the book is being written 
through your favour, 

159. Swasti ( Peace ! ). This book is the Shri BhaklavC- 
jaya. The Lord of the universe ir pleased as He listens to it. 
So let all God-loving pious bhaktas listen also. This is 
the fifth sweet chapter. 



91 



CHAPTER YI 

KABIR AND HIS SON KAMAL 

Obeisance to Shri Ganesh, Obeisance to Shri Krishna 

1. To-day the festival of lights and the Dasara festival 
have arrived, bringing joy to every sense. Among these the 
ear of the listener possesses the highest good fortune. 2. 
The moon shines for all alike, but the Chakor bird first 
satisfies itself with it. So when reading the stories of the 
saints, it is the ear that seems more fortunate; 3. or as 
when at marriage a great number of guests assemble, it is the 
bridegroom's mother who has the highest honour paid her; 
or as when the sun has arisen in the sky, it is the lotus that 
is the first to open ; 4. or as when a cloud brings moisture to 
the sky it is the Chatak bird that first satisfies itself with it; 
or as the bee is the first one to supply itself from the sweet 
honey of the flower; 5. or as when uttering sacred words 
there is first the worship of Ganpati; or as when Shiva 
distributed the fourteen jewels ( churned out of the ocean ), 
he gave the first honour to Vishnu; 6. so when offering to 
you, a fortunate assembly, this delightful composition, 
giving the story of the bhaktas, it is the ear that satisfies 
itself; so it seems to me. 7. As the result of hearing is 
thinking, and after thinking there comes study, then the 
exi)erience of it comes and the seeker after truth becomes 
complete in his knowledge; 8. so in the acqtiisition of 
knowledge, it is the ear that is the most important among 
the organs of sense. Therefore if one wishes to place an 
ornament in the ear, it should be the precious jewel of the 
story of the saints, set in a golden setting. 9. I will there- 
fore make an ear-ring of a beautiful form, and place it in 
my listeners' ears. It will shine with the light of 
knowledge of philosophic truth. 10. Then the Husband of 

92 



Ch. VI- 10-20 KABIR AND HIS SON KAMAI. 

Bukmini will be pleased, and give them an everlasting 
blessing. In describing the good deeds of his saints I 
have held this purpose steadily in my mind. 

THE HAPPY HOME OF KABIB 

11. Now listen, you pious God-loving people. The 
story to be told is a very delightful one. After the dark- 
complexioned One had embraced Kabir, he went back to 
his home. 12. When Eabir's mother had whipped him it 
was done in ignorance. After that event had brought to 
her the sight of Shri Ram, she became comforted. 13. She 
was in the habit of persecuting him, but now she said 
nothing to him. When one has the favour of the Pervader 
of the universe, all troubles pass away. 14. Those who 
have the king's favour are honoured by the king's 
ministers. If a mother-in-law is fond of her daughter-in> 
law, no one ever reviles her. 15. Those who have the 
favour of their guru are never troubled by rebirths. If 
Sarasvati ( goddess of speech ) is favourable, heretics do not 
enter into discussion with them. 16. Those who have 
obtained necteur are not troubled by disease; or if Qan- 
pat! is favourable to anyone, hindrances'do not come into 
his way; 17. so Eabir's mother having received the 
favour of the Lord of Ayodhya (Ram), no longer perse- 
cuted him. And having received divine knowledge, she 
gave herself to the worship of Hari. 18. Her mind became 
Indifferent to worldly things. In order to conform to 
public custom she carried on her daily routine in her domes- 
tic concerns, but in her heart she was continually 
repeating the names of GKid, full of love. 19. Although 
she had not in her home any food or raiments, her mind 
felt no anxiety. Eabir's dutiful wife was like the good 
Anusaya. 20. A lamp and its light are without dlfferenos 
from one another; so also there is no difference between a 
iirordanditB meaning; and in the same wayEabirand 

9S 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. VI* 20-32 

liis wife were one. 21. Lightning and a cloud both exist 
in unity, so the two, Kabir and his wife, lived in perfect 
harmony. 22. Juat as sweetness and sugar never exist 
apart from one another, so their love* was strong like the 
phases of the moon. 23. Kabir in his domestic life con- 
lidered joy and sorrow as both alike. In the same way his 
wife behaved resolutely in union with her husband. 

KAMAL'S BIETH AND PILGKIMAGE 

24. Eabir's wife was great with a child who became a 
statue of devotion, knowledge, and indifference to worldly 
things, and in the ninth month a son was born to £abir by 
her. 25. At the moment of his birth his nature was one 
indifferent to worldly things. In matters of cleanliness 
he was extremely pure. He was generous, wise, and one 
of fixed determination. His mind suffered no disturbance. 
26- When he was twelve days old he was given the name 
of Kamal. As he heard his father sing the praises of Qod, 
so he imitated him in the same worship. 27. When seven 
years old he said to his father in a humble voice, ' Give 
me permission to go to Dwarks.' 28. Hearing his son's 
request, Kabir said to him, ' Go and fulfil the desire of 
your heart and then hasten back.' 29. While still young 
lie had the desire to visit sacred places. Seeing this, 
Kabir's mind was full of joy. 30. Just as when a king's 
son wishes to conquer the whole world, the father feels 
joyous, so it was with Kabir ; 31. or as the tide of the sea 
reaches its fulness when it sees the full moon, so when 
Eamal started to go to visit sacred places, the bhakta Kabir 
rejoiced ; 32. or as when Ganpati danced, the five-headed 



* The reading translated in the text for the latter half of versa 
28 is that of the Indu-Prakash edition, 1888, edited by Lakshman 
B«bn Gokhale. Another reading in the Abhinava Bhaktavijaya,19Z0, 
edited by DInadas is translated: ' Just as the phases of the moon 
wax and want,' 

94 



C!b. VI- 32-43 KABIR AND HIS SON KAMAL 

One ( Shiva ) nodded His head in His joy ; or as when 
]|%nhniadev rejoiced when listening to the singing 
of Sarasvati; 33. so seeing his son full of the 
spirit of indifference to worldly things, both were 
filled with joy. Eamal made an obeisance to his 
father and mother and then started. 34. As he walked 
along the easy path, he sang of the names and praiseworthy 
deeds of God. Th6 shame of worldly life never came into 
kis mind. 35. He had no liking for clothes or ornaments. 
His tongue had no liking for the best of food. He had no 
desire for the hypocritical meeting with the king. All he 
cared for was the worship of Ram. 36. Every one knew 
the bhakta Karaal as the son of Eabir. As he entered into 
oities, people heard of his coming and went out to meet 
him. 37. Just as the risM Narad, the son of Brahmadev, 
continually devoted himself to the singing of God's 
praises, so Kamal day and night gave himself up to the 
Worship of Ram. 38. The townspeople, seeing him, would 
take him into the town with marks of honour. He would 
remain there a night and perform a Hari-kirtan. 39. In 
this way, with full experience of knowledge, he hastened 
to Dwarka. Suddenly there appeared before him the sacred 
pond of Gomati. His mind at the time was full of 
repentance. 

PILGRIMAGE FUTILE WITHOUT E^PENTAKCE 

40. If a man wanders from one sacred city to ano- 
ther without repentance in his ht.nrt, his going and 
coming will be in vain. Why should anyone who has no 
son seek to lay up a fortune ? 41. If you have no money, 
why uselessly go to the market ? If you have no love of 
God in your heart, why sing the praises of God ? 42. If 
you do not mix salt in your food it will have no good 
taste. The wealth of a miser does not reach those who are 
worthy of a gift. 43. If a warrior has no bravery, why 

95 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. VI- 43-54 

should be in vain carry a weapon ? In making friendship 
with a miser, one will never find joy. 44. If one does not 
know the Oayatri mantra why call himself a Brahman ? 
Although loaded with ornaments, still that is all useless if 
without the Mangalasari ornament. 45. If one has not the 
knowledge of reasoning, the sixty-four crafts are useless 
to him. If one has no compassion for living beings, why 
prate with his lips over his own knowledge ? 46. Or if 
one has not the favour of God, one has composed his verses 
in vain. So if one has not full repentance in his heart, his 
wandering from one sacred place to another results in no 
advantage to him. 47. Lust, anger, pride, and envy are 
the worst faults of a person. If there is no repent- 
ance in his heart, these sins will not be washed away 
by bathing at these sacsdd places. 48. As the son 
of Kabir now stood on the banks of the Gomati ha 
made obeisance and with feelings of love praised God. 
49. He then waded in the water and bathed 
with his clothes on. He prayed, ' Oh Ganges, wa.sh away 
my faults, and end my re-births.' 50. Having bathed in 
this way and made the twelve marks on his forehead with 
clay, and having placed around his neck the tulsi garland, 
51. and having brought into his mind the Lord of Dwarks, 
he mentally worshipped { manas-puja ) and with lova in his 
heart, entered into the temple to sae Him. 52. At the 
great door of the temple he bowed prostrate on the ground. 
Then entering the inner shrine, he embraced the feet of 
Shri Krishna. 53. Now lovingly opening his eyes, ha 
brought the image of Shri Krishna before his imagination, 
and singing His names and great deeds he waved aus- 
picious lights. 

A MEECHANT GIVES KAMAL A DIAMOND 

54. Living in this way, the bhakta Kama! re- 
mained four months at Dwarka and in lore oomposed 

96 



Ch. VI- 54-67 KABIR AND HIS SON KAMAL 

poetry describing the good deeds of Hari, 55. Having 

completed four months at Dwarka in the acquisition of 

knowledge, by association with the good, and three times a 

day entering into the temple to see and worship God, he left 

that place. 56. Pie made his obeisance to the image of Krishna, 

prostrating himself on the ground With love he prayed, 

' O God, give me again the opportunity of coming here to 

see and worship Thee. ' 57. Thus praying, he immediately 

started on his way. As he walked along he saw the 

town of Chitrakut which he entered. 58. There was a 

merchant by name Vishnudas ( a worshipper of Vishnu ), 

supremely pious and generous. He came and with feelings 

of love made obeisance to Kamal. 59. Having a great 

desire to welcome him he took the bhakta Kamal to his 

home, lovingly washed his feet and placed a meal before 

him. 60. For the night a Hari-kirtan was arranged, and 

all the people of the town assembled They listened with 

love and their minds became absorbed in the theme. 61, 

The merchant then thought to himself, ' What shall I give 

him ? If I should place before him a heap of money, he 

would not care for it. * 62. In his treasure-liouse he had 

8 diamond which he quickly brought. He geated Kamal 

and placed it at his feet. 63. He said to him, ' This little 

brilliant diamond will dim the lamps ; take it to your home 

and place it in your house. 64. At night-time if you place 

it before you, there will be no darkness.' Kamal replied, 

' Kabir will be very angry with me on account of his 

indifference to worldly things. 65, Diamonds and crystals 

look alike to my sight. Why do you give it to me and 

urge me to take it ? 66. Money should be offered to 

Brahmans. Diamonds and other jewels should be offered 

to kings, and food and gifts should be given to living 

beings. You know this, for you are a wise man. 67. One 

should give to rope-dancers, jugglers, and players, the old 

clothes. One should give dry provisions of food to the holy 

B. V. 7 97 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VI* 67-79 

men who are performing auetexities. 68. One should give 
daintily cooked food to Sannyasis. They should be 
given the yellow robe and the loin cloth. We are wor- 
shippers of Vishnu, indifferent to worldly things, with 
minds always satisfied. 69. Having no desires in my 
heart, why do you force me to take this diamond ? Why 
serve a meal to those already satisfied ? Why not give it 
to those in distress from hunger ? 70. A great cloud may 
rain upon the sea, but the sea has no need of it, so you have 
uselessly brought and given me this diamond.' 71. As 
the bhakta Eamal thus replied to him, the merchant pros~ 
trated himself on the ground before him, and unknown to 
Kamal, the merchant tied the diamond in Kamal's garment. 

UNWORTHINESS OP A(X3EPTING GIFTS FOE ' KIBTAN8 ' 

1%. He soon left that place and came back to 
Benares. He entered into his home and embraced the feet 
of Kabir. 73. His son placed the diamond before Eabir, 
and related the things that had happened to him. Kabir 
was overcome by the recital and at once fainted away. 
74. His heart was full of repentance, and he wept aloud. 
His wife immediately came out and grasped her husband 
by his feet. 75. The dutiful wife said to Kabir, ' Why are 
you so troubled to-day ? "What have you seen to-day of 
evil omen that has aroused the feeling of repentance in 
your mind ?' 76. Turning his back towards his son, he 
said to his wife, ' It seems to me that our whole family 
line has been sunk in shame. 77. Our Kamal has sold our 
good name, and brought back this diamond, and therefore, 
my good wife, I have fallen into this sea of 
sorrow. 78. It is as if one had scattered musk in 
the bazaar, and tied up ashes in his garment; or 
as if one had driven away a well-versed person in 
the Shaatraa, and in his stead had brought a- Mcmg 
into his home ',19. or as if one should throw away & 

98 



Ch. VI- 79-89 KABIR AND HIS SON EAMAL 

1>ottle full of the sacred water of the Bhagirathi and 
should take in its stead water from a washerman's p(4 
or as if one should drive away from his home the Dweller 
In the saored place and put a thief there instead ; 80. or as 
if abounding in the worship of Vishnu, one should resort 
to a cemetery and worship Vetal there; or as if giving away 
books on the Vedanta philosophy, one should bring back 
immoral books; 81. or as if one should give away the 
sandalwood of mount Malaya, and bring back instead tha 
stinking hingan; or like giving io crooked dealers a place 
in your neighbourhood, and driving away those of religi- 
ous character ; 82. or like giving away the horse of the 
sun and taking the washerman's donkey; or like giving 
away the sweet nectar, and taking curdled milk in his 
vessel.- 83. So, O wife, I think to myself that my son, 
with a secret desire, has comuiifcted a wrong. He has sold 
the name of Ram and has brought here this diamond. 84. 
Therefore my heart is full of grief, and I fell to tha 
ground in a fainc' Hearing his father's words, ICamal 
started from there, 85. and going back to where the 
merchant was, he returned the diamond. Then he came 
back to his home and bowdd to his mother and father. 86. 
He told them all that happened. When Kabir heard his 
story he was full of joy. Just as a good guru rejoices when 
his disciple becomes iadifferent to earthly things; 87. or as 
when a mother sees her child free from its illness, .Aa 
overflows with joy; or as when Shri Ram was delighted 
when he heard of the bravery of Lava and Kusha ; 88. so 
seeing Kamal free from hindrances, Kabir at once 
embraced him. And he ( Eamal ) embracing Kabir's feet 
gave himself up to the worship of Shri Ram. 
KABIR AND KAMAL AS EOBBBKS 

89. It now happened on a certain oocasion,; thai a 
large company of saints who lived at sacred pladesfoatne to 

99 



BHAKTAVDAYA Ch. VI- 89-102 

Kabir's house. 90. It was at the first watch of the 
night that these saints came to Kabir's house. Both 
father and son came forward and prostrated themselves on 
the ground. 91. Kamal hastened to bring a woollen 
blanket for them to sit upon, and he said to the saints, ' O 
Swamis, seat yourselves on it.' 92. When the saints saw 
what was being done, the three parties felt joy, just as 
Indra felt joy when he saw Sanak and the others ; 93. or 
just as after many days of drought, a great number of 
clouds should pour down rain, making men happy, so Kabir 
felt joy; 94. or it was as if one should give to a sick 
person nectar to drink; or as when a Chatak bird drinks 
nectar from the moon; or as when wick and oil are plac- 
ed in the lamp, it is seen to give bright light; 95. or as 
when the God-loving bhaktas full of joy, nod their heads 
in gladness while listening to a kirtan; or as when the 
daughter of Janaka ( Sita ) was full of joy when she met 
Maruti in the forest of Ashoka; 96. so Kabir felt 
great joy as he saw these great saints. Going aside 
he said to his wife, ' We must give these saints 
something to eat. 97. These bhaktas of Vishnu who 
reside at sacred places have come to our home. If 
we permit them to sleep here hungry, our reputation for 
goodness will be lost.' 98. Now there was not the least 
bit of food in the house, so the distress of the couple was 
intense; but now listen to what the wife said, when she 
heard her husband's remark. 99. She said to Kabir, ' O lord 
of my life, I do not see what is to be done. If we go to our 
neighbours to borrow, they will give us nothing whatever 
100. We could go into the bazasr and buy, but we have no 
money. So take your son with you and go and steal some- 
thing. 101. Break open the shop of the merchants who 
83em to have an abundance of materials fcr food and britig 
back the food which you steal, and serve a meal to these 
mainta.' 102, The bhaUa Kabir assented to this. 

100 



C3h. VI- 302-114 KABIR AND HIS SON EAMAX. 

He took a sword, and the bhakla Kamal took a crowbar, 
and they hastened to go. 103. They came into the bazaar, 
and broke open the shop of the merchant. He put the son 
inside the shop, and he himself remained outside. 104. Ifc 
was now midnight, and the merchant was in heavy sleep. 
Kabir called to his son from outside that he should hasten 
in what he had to do. 105, When Kamal looked into the 
shop he saw piles of money, garments and ornaments. 
Seeing them he felt a sense of disgust. 106. The son 
brought out ot the shop flour, rice, sugar, split peas, 
melted butter, crystallized sugar, and gave them to Kabir. 

HONESTY EVEN IN THEFT 

107. He also brought out termerio,assafoetida, cummin 
seed, salt and vegetables and plates of leaves, just suflBcient 
to provide what was needed for the saints. 108. Just as 
when a thirsty man, though he sees an abundance of 
water in the Ganges, drinks just enough to quench his 
thirst, and then comes out of the river; 109. or as when a 
hungry man has a dish offered him with a great abundance 
of food on it, still he eats only sufficient for his stomach's 
need ; or as when Sannyasis beg food on their open palm 
and will not eat more than a morsel; 110. or as whan 
Vaishnava bhcktas when listening disregard faults in the 
kirlan, and accept its good points ; or as when a royal swan 
sits in the water and separating the milk in it from the 
water, drinks it; 111. so although Kamal saw with his 
eyes garments, ornaments and a heap of money he rejected 
them all, and took with him only the materials needed for 
cooking. 112. As he hastened to come put of the house a 
thought came into his mind, ' The grocer is fast asleep, I 
ought to waken him. 113. If one's enemy is fast asleep, 
and one kills him in that state, oi if one reviles anyone 
behind his back, he will fall into the horrors of hell. 114. 
If in a battle anyone pursues a Seeing enemy; or if 

101 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VI- 114-126 

anyone steals fearlessly, or if one sets fire to a house 
inhabited by men, he will fall into the horrors of hell. 115. 
Now I am a wise bhakta of Vishnu and I know what is 
■wrong and what is right. So I will waken the grocer and 
quickly run away from here. ' 116. Then taking courage 
he moved quickly to the side of the grocer, and slapped 
him on his back, saying, ' You ought to be awake. 117, We 
are two thieves who have broken open your shop. We are 
going away with the materials for cooking, I tell you this.' 

KAMAL ASKS HIS FATHER TO CUT OFF HIS HEAD 

118. The grocer sat up, but Kamal started to run 
away. As he was passing through the narrow opening 
both his feet get caught. 119. When half his body was 
outside, the merchant seized him. It was as if a deer, 
escaping from a snare, should find itself in a forest full of 
hunters; 120. or as if a royal swan should go to lake 
Manas and there should be suddenly seized by a falcon; 
or as when a parrot in its ignorance finds itself in a trap; 

121. or as when the king of the Kauravas arranged his 
army in a circle and in it was caught the child of 
Subhadra ( Abhimanyu ); or as when the kokil bird, while 
flying about in the flower garden, is caught by a hunter; 

122. so Kamal, as he hastened to run away, had both his 

feet seized by the grocer. The child Kamal then called 

out to his father. 123. He said, ' As the Son of the wind 

( Maruti ) was carrying away mount Dron for the aid of 

Bam, while on his way Bharat wounded him and threw 

him down, that is just happening to us. 124. The grocer 

will now come outside and shout in the bazaar. When the 

people of the town hear him, they will come rushing to see 

what the matter is. 125. All the men and women will 

regard us as the thieves of the town, so you cut off my 

"head and hurry back to oar home. 126, If you hold in your 

inind any idea of love (that I am yours), it will be to the loes 

102 



Oh. YI- 126-136 KABTR AND HIS SON KAMAL 

of your reputation for goodness. If people hear the story of 
your stealing, saints will not come and sit in your house; 

127. just as when dutiful wives, hearing a statement the^ 
there are prostitutes present, get up and go away ; or as 
when the Mang ( out-oaste ) comes into a house, those 
learned in the aha^ras and pandits will not remain present i 

128. or just as when a wise person hears his good guru 
reviled, he gets up and goes away ; so hearing the story of 
your stealing, saints and aadhus will get up and depart; 

129. so, O bkakta of Vishnu, ocean of peace, complete in 
all good qualities, now listen to me. Put aside all ideas 
of love and of my belonging to you, and cut off my head 
with your own hand.' 130. Listening to what his son said, 
Kabir was pleased in his mind. He took the sword in his 
hand and cut off his son's head. 131. He then made the 
bundle of materials for cooking, and taking it up, hurried 
back to his home. There he told his wife what had 
happened. 

SAINTS FED IN KABIR'S HOME 
132. In lovingly relating this courageous act of Kabir's, 
my whole mind is overcome with wonder; so I, Mahipati, 
will seek for illustrations of it and give them to you who 
are listeners. 133. Just as when the Dweller in theKailas 
( Shiva ) came as a guest into the palace of Shriyala and 
asked to be served with human flesh, he ( Shriyal ) killed 
his own son ; 134. so this noble Vaiahnava did the same 
thing. But this illustration will not be adequate because 
the Husband of Parvati ( Shiva ) persecuted Shriyal, and 
therefore he killed his own son. 135. But in the present 
case no saint asked Kabir for a meal, and yet he killed 
bis own son. Therefore the illustration I have used 
seems deficient, as all clever and wise men will 
recognize. 136. Where is anything to be found as 
solid as the earth? Where elsewhere is to be found 
the vast extent of space ? Where is a tree to be seen as 

103 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VI- 136-147 

worthy of worship as the Pimped tree ? 137. There is 
truly no bird like the eagle. There is no river mightier 
than the Bhagirathi river. As for depth, no other collec- 
tion of water surpasses that of the sea. 138. What fniit is 
there equal to that of the wish-tree ? Or what cow is 
sttperior to the wish-cow ? One might search through the 
three worlds and not find a mother equal to Anasuya. 139. 
What planet is there in the heavens eqral fo the brilliancy of 
the moon ? In all the line of demons there was no such 
generous giver as Bali. 140. What poet has there ever 
been equal to Valmiki, who declarer^ future events out of 
his own mind? If one searched throughout the three 
worlds, one would not be able to find or see a monkey 
equal to Maruti.' 141. What is the use of using too many 
illustrations ? Illustrations really belong only to those to 
whom they apply. I might hunt everywhere and not find 
so noble a bhakta as Kabir. 

142. Kabir put the bundle down on the floor and gave 
Kamal's head to his wife. Her love for him overwhelmed 
his mother, .And tears flowed from her eyes. 143. ' O my 
child, you are one of great good fortune. You have sacri- 
ficed your body for saints. Coming into this worldly 
existence you have made Shri Ram your own. Thus you 
have saved our whole family line. ' 144. Saying this, 
SZabir's wife restrained her ^'eelings by the force of her 
courage. She took the cooking materials and started to 
cook. 145. She mixed the nine different kinds of materials 
into a dainty dish and served the meal to the saints, say- 
ing as she served them, 'This is a blessed day. T have seen 
■the feet of saints.' 146. Kabir gave them 8^.raw mattresses 
to sit on, and served these saints. It was now sunrise and 
these aadhus at once arose. 

KAMAL'S BODY IMPALED 

147. After their early morning devotions, these Vcdsh- 
navas went to their bath. Meanwhile the grooer came out 

104 



Ch. VI- 147-161 KABIR AND HIS SON KAMAL 

of his house and shouted aloud. 148. Hearing the shouting, 
all the people came there in a hurry. They came to whara 
the thief was, and looked at his condition. 149. They said, 
* His head has been cut off and taken away. Who can. 
now recognize him ? ' They remarked to tbo gmzer, ' Your 
fate works most curiously. 150. One of ihe tbisves has 
killed this man and taken away his head. Ths Q-i of all 
has protected you. If it had not besn for tlial, you would 
have truly met with calamity. 151. AVhen one has a great 
deal of money with one he should not slenp alone. In the 
possession of money, there is great and contiausi danger. 
15)2. If one loves his money, his friends ^nd brothers 
become his enemies. Money works in twi/ w-ijs. Ic both 
saves and kills. 153. If one is confined by ibe i.iiigs court, 
money can procure his release. The beheading of this 
thief must have been done for the sake o. htg aK>?:ey. 154. 
You have laid up good deeds from fc-iaifr births, and 
therefore your life has been preserved. Pv-r'iaps they ware 
not thieves; they must have been very gc- m! nun. 155. 
There was a pile of money in your shop. Ilovf is is that 
they left the garments and ornaments, a;; I tc jk :\wciy only 
a little cooking materials ? This seems very Ptvanga to 
us. * 156. Thus the different classes cf osopla discussad 
the subject, and expressed their vari -^^ ' opinion.:-,, Tho 
grocer, however, hurried away and rsports'l the matter to 
the king. 157, He said, ' Two thieves carac; and broke 
open my shop. I caught them in the rv^.t t>f taking away 
the materials of food. 158. One of the thieves cut off the 
head of the other and took it away. ' He.uing him say 
this, everyone present laughed. 159. The king, however, 
became very angry and gave <th=; c>nimand to his 
officers, saying, ' Impale the thief. He r.iust be punished.* 
160. Hearing this command, the officers hurried in their 
anger and impaled Kamal'sbody. 161 , To bostow punishment 
upon a dead body, to enter into discunsion with a persoa 

103 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VI- 161-172 

of great mental ability, to pick up a quarrel in a foreign 
country, are all bad actions in wise people. 

KAMAL RESTORED TO LIFE BY THE SAINTS 

162, The saints and sadhus had gone to the river-bank 
to bathe. They performed their worship of Grod and re- 
turned to Kabir's hermitage. 163. Finally taking leave 
of Eabir, these dwellers in sacred places staiiied on their 
way. Kabir made a namaskar to these saints, and accom- 
panied them to see them off. 164. Tlie wife was bitterly 
weeping. She prostrated herself on the ground before 
these saints, and said, ' "^Vhen shall I see your feet again ?' 
165. Speaking thus humbly to these saints, the two ac- 
companied the saints to see them off. As they came out 
of the city an extraordinary event took place. 166. As 
the company was hurriedly walking along the path, they 
suddenly saw a headless corpse impaled upon a stake. The 
saints saw it from afar. 167. As they stood still for a 
moment to look at the sight, a most extraordinary thing 
took place. Kamal joined his hands together and made a 
namaskar to the saints and sadhus. 168. The men and 
women expressed their astonishment as they saw this most 
unusual act. It seemed to them extraordinary that a 
headless corpse should make a namaskar. 169. The saints 
and sadhus said to Kabir, ' Tlie corpse is making a 
namaskar to us. How is it that life has been pre- 
served in a body without head ? 170. When a tree is cut 
down what would make its branches suddenly show signs 
of life ? If the feathers of a bird are plucked from it, 
what would enable it to fly in the air? 171. If the 
strings of a vina are broken, how can it be played upon ? 
So, seeing a corpse with life in it, seems to our minds a most 
unusual thing. ' lit. Kabir joined his hands palm to 
palm, and said to the saints, ' Bhishma fell on the bed of 
arrows, and yet his life was preserved in his body. 

106 



Ch. VL 173-186 KABIR AND His SON kam al 

173. Abhimanyu, in order to relate to Arjun his sorrows when 
he fell on the battlefield, had his life preserved in his body 
with courage, 174. Also when Ra van was making trouble 
for Jata3ru his body was overwhelmed with pain, his 
desire to see Shri Ram preserved life in his" body. 175. So 
this thief was a Vaishnava. He had a great desire to make 
a namaskar to your feet. Therefore his life remained ia 
him. 176. The desire of his heart has been fulfilled. He has 
seen you. Now he will leave his perishable body and live in 
his everlasting home. * 177. Hearing him say this, the 
saints replied, ' Who indeed was this thief ? ' Then Kabir 
related to the saints the whole story. 178. The Vaiaknavas 
then said, ' Although we had not asked for food, how is it 
that Kabir should kill so good a son as Eamal ? ' 179 
Hearing them say this, the noble Vaishnava answered, ' All 
earthly things are perishable. "Whatever is seen to have s 
form must in the end disappear.180. Suppose I had not killed 
£araal, would he thereby have remained immortal ? * 
Listening to this remark, a sense of compassion arose in 
the hearts of the saints 181. The saints said to Kabir's 
wife, ' Hasten and bring the head and show it to us. 
Hearing this remark, she hastened back to her home. 182. 
She took her son's head and brought it back to the saints. 
When the compassionate saints saw it they were moved 
with emotion, 183. They took the corpse down from the 
stake and placed the head upon it. The men and women 
looked on with wonder. Listen now to the strange 
thing that happened. 184. As the saints placed their hands 
upon the head of Kama! he came to life, arose and made a 
namaskm- to the saints. 185. All the inhabitants of Benares 
now prostrated themselves on the ground before Kabir. 
Said they, * This Vaishnava is supremely wise, a complete 
saviour for all dull-minded beings. ' 186. The saints gave 
him their blessing and started on their way to sacred places. 

107 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ol. VL 186-190 

Listen now to the delightful story which will be related 
in the next chapter. 187. This book containing the history 
of the saints might be considered as a beautiful temple in 
the sacred city of Pandhari; where the eternally loved, 
dark-complexioned One for ever stands on a brick; 188. 
whwa aadkus and Vaiahn^vaa sing His praises out of love, 
and thera I, a sinner and an ignorant person, have come to 
see and worship Him. 189. With reverence I take in my 
hand these verses, like tulsi leaves and flowers. I, 
Mahipati, fall at His feet in order to ask Him for His 
beneficent love. 

190. Swasti (Peace ! ). This book is the 8kri Bkakiamjaya, 
The Lord of the world will be pleased if you listen to it. 
Therefore listen, you God-loving pious bhakfaa. This is the 
sixth very delightful chapter. 



108 



CHAPTER Tn 

KABIR CHOOSES RAMANANDA AS HIS GURU" 

Obfisance to Shri Ganesh. Obeisance to Skri Krishna. 

1. Listen now. The book that contains the stories of the 
saints m&j be oonsidered as the ocean of milk, in which 
v/ater-animals in the form of illustrations rush hither and 
thither in the water, in their love of it. 2. Waves of jojr 
arise heavenward and seek to split the space above, the 
space that is knowledge. Pious clouds come rushing over 
the sea, and drink the water of these stories. 3. Then thejr 
go and rain down the water-joy upon those who have 
become heated by the fever of this earthly existence, i. 
The favour of Shri Pandurang is the full moon, which 
when it ri£«ii in its love, produces the tide on the limit- 
less sea, a tide that cannot be resisted. 5. He who will 
bathe in the sea of this book at the time of a festival, when 
a praise service is being held, will find severe diseases of 
this earthly existence certainly disappear. 

KABIR WEEP3 AT THE SOUND OF A GRINDING MILL 

6. In the previous chapter there was the holy story of 
how the saints raised the sen of Eabir to life. Let the 
hearers now listen to the holy story of what happened 
afterwards. 7. Once upon a time the father of Karaal wen^ 
into the bazaar at night. He was worshipping Shri Ram 
at that time full of love. 8. He took a vina ( lute ) in 
his hand and sang the praises of God in his sweet voice. He 
brought to his imagination the foms of Shri Ram, and sang 
with a heart full of love. 9. His mind discarded desires, 
affections, honour, pride and wrong wishes. He put aside 
egoism and the thought of T and'thou.'and gave himself to 
contemplating Shri Ram. 10. There was a grocer's wife in the 

109 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VII- 10-22 

bazaar sitting there grinding. When the bhakta Kabir saw 
her grinding, his heart was overcome with emotion. 11. 
He stood there and wept aloud. The men and women in the 
bazaar seeing him do this, laughed and wondered why he 
did so. 12. One of them said to Eabir, ' Why are you 
crying here ? Who has been giving you trouble ? Tell 
us. ' 13. A great many people said the same thing to him, 
but he would not reply to any of them, for he thought to 
himself, ' These people cannot remove my sorrow. 14. If 
one tells his grief to one already in sorrow, one feels his 
pain all the more. If a frog makes a friend of a serpent, 
the serpent will not give him the least joy. 15. A wise 
Pandit will not ask a drunkard any questions on good 
thoughts and morals; just as a thoughtful man will never 
take medicine from the hand of a sick man; 16. just as 
the clicUak bird will not drink the water of the river, even 
if it be intensely thirsty; or as the chakor bird finds no 
satisfaction until the moon arises; 17. or as an orator 
will never spaak with love and enthusiasm to wicked and 
ignorant hearers; or as the royal swan will never bring 
to mind pearls made of quick silver; 18. or as when a 
twice-born ( Brahman ), seeing a Mang at a distance, will 
not pronounce a blessing, or as a clever and wise man 
will not talk in private with a reviler. ' 19. So when these 
avaricious lovers of wealth asked Kabir that question, he 
would not give them any answer, but continued crying 
bitterly. 20. The various classes of people said to one 
another, ' Kabir has gone crazy. He is crying for nothing 
in this bazaar. ' 

KABIR CONSOLED BY NIPAT NIEANJAN 

21. Just then a sadhu, named Nipat 17iranjan, happened 
to come there. He at once said to Kabir, ' Why ara you 
manifesting such grief ? * 22. When Kabu opened his eyas 
and looked, he saw an ocean of knowledge before hica 

110 



Ch. VII- 22-35 KAEIR AND NIPAT NIBANJAN 

Then taking courage he replied to him. 23. He thought 
to himself, ' If I tell him the truth, he will remove at least 
apart of my trouble. ' Thus thinking to himself the bhakla 
Kabir spoke as follows: 24. ' A sick person feels great joy 
in his mind when telling of his pain to a good physician. * 
Just as a daughter-in-law doss not hesitate to tell of her 
sorrows to her own mother; 25. or as a good disciple, if 
he has doubts in his mind, tells them to his guru; so the 
father of Kamal told the reason of his crying to the sadhu 
Nipat Niranjan. 26. Kabir said to him, ' O good guru, my 
heart is full of repentance. You, kind sir, have questioned 
me in affectionate terms, so listen, and I will tell you why 
I am crying. 27. As I saw the mill being turned, I saw 
the grains of wheat turn to flour. Just such is my condi- 
tion. I have fallen betwesn the millstones of this earthly 
existence. 28. I was therefore saizad with fear, and have 
manifested this violent grief. Who basidas you can remove 
the sorrows of this earthly existence ? ' 29. Hearing this, 
Nipat said to him, ' Why do you mourn in vain ? As you 
saw the mill turning, your miad fait a sansa of repantanca 
30, So, O bhakla of Vishnu, I will remove your doubts on 
this question. It is when you dijcird tha central prop 
and wander about that you become as it ware flour in tha 
mill of Kal { death ). 31. Just as grain in tha mill adher- 
ing to the central prop, is not turnad to flour, so thosa who 
are devoted to the worship of Shri Ram are not caught 
in the cycle of death. 32. You ara courageous on 
account of your righteousness, and indiffarant to 
earthly things. You are a mountain of peace and 
forgiveness; you see the fearsome things in a dream. 
Why do you in vain fear them ? ' 33. Hearing him say this, 
Kabir was awakened to the truth, and the two embraced one 
another with feelings of love. 34. These noble Vaishnavaa 
ma'de loving namaakars to one another. Eabir then hastened 
to leave there, and returned to his hermitage. 35. There ia 

111 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VII- 35-45 

many forms of verses he continually sang the praises of 
Hari. He continually performed kirfana full of joy 
and love. 

ONS WITHOUT GURU IS WITHOUT LIFE 

36. He said to himself one day as his mind was think- 
ing about it, ' If one does not have a gtiru while in this 
earthly existence, he should be called a man without 1 ife. 
37. It is useless to have a domestic life without a wife, 
and a home without children, and ornaments without the 
safifron mark on the forehead of a woman ( indicative of 
her husband living ). 38. If a tree grows, but yields no 
fruit ; or if a king is born without possessing valour ; or 
if one should cook a meal without the use of salt, its salt- 
lessness will make that food useless ; 39. or like a youthful 
body with no life in it; or a banker without money ; or an 
officer without authority ; of what value are these ? 40. 
The rainy season without a cloud, a great lake without 
water, a festival without a sacred place and observed in a 
miserable village, 41. a corn-cob without grain on it; 
of what value are they ? A home soeras empty without a 
master; a praise service v/ithout love is like thf: singing of 
obscene songs. 42. As friendship without any regard, 
or 8S knowledge without any compassion, so why should 
one accept the state of a sanntjasi without repentance ? 43. 
There can be no enjoyment without money, no religious 
observance without some rule, and why should those 
without peace be called saints? When a great man 
possesses no peace of heart, why do people needlessly call 
Jiim a great man? 44. Just as the chatak bird seems to be 
without beauty until the moon arises ; so this human body 
has eip^rienced many rebirths in vain if it has not Had 
ft good Quru.i^. So I must go with feelings of reverence 
»s a suppliant to the sannyati swami Bamananda.' Hav> 
Ing decided ibis in his mind, be remained with that 

112 



Ch. VII- 45-58 KABIR AND BAMANANO 

determination. 46. When after se3ing many kings with 
her own eyes, and carefully considering the matter, Sita saw 
the form of Shri Ram, her heart chose him at once, 47. When 
the daughter of king Bhimaka (Rukmini) heard of the beau- 
tiful form of Shri Krishna, she sought to win him as her 
husband. So it was that Kabir held the desire for the dost 
of Eamanand's feet. 48. Finding himself alone one day, 
he at once arose and went to the hermitage of Raraanand 
and lovingly embraced his feet. 49. Standing first at a 
distance, Kabir besought Raraanand saying, ' Your great- 
ness must show me compassion. * 50. When Ramanand 
heard Kabir's voice, he put his fingers in his ears, went 
into a cave and sat alone on his mat. 51. Kabir stood 
outside and said in his soft sweat vjica, ' A lowly and 
helpless one, I stand at your door. Give mo your assuranca 
and satisfy my desire. ' 52. Raraanand said to Eiabir, 
' You were born in a Muhammadan family. I have, there- 
fore, no authority whatever to give you instruction. 53. 
All wise men recognize that seed should be sown in a 
field after the examination of its soil. In making a gift, 
one should first seek someone worthy of it. When giving 
a daughter in marriage one must choose the proper bride* 
groom. ' 54. Kabir replied, ' I have determined to come to 
your feet. I have not spared body, speech or mind in 
doing so. 55. The moon loves the chakor bird, but even if 
the love may not be exclusive, yet God in His pleasure 
rains nectar on it for its devotion. 56. Should the sun not 
express its intense love for the lotus by rising, still it will 
not open by an attachment for something else. 57. In the 
making of an earthen image of Dron, the reverence of the 
Koli (Ekalavya) bore fruit. So I have embraced the 
swamt's feet with body, speech and mind. ' 58. Thus 
speaking, Kabir again with love prostrated himself on the 
ground before the Suxtmi. He then hastened back to Ym 
home with his mind full of intense love. 
8 118 



BHAKTAYUAYA Ch. VII- 59-72 

59, One day while sitting alone he thought to himself, 
I must hear the sound of Barn's name from the lips of 
my auxani. 60. What methods shall I adopt that the dust 
of his feet may cling tb me ? * He then dug a ditoh in the 
path and laid down in it. 61. The lotus in the lake Manas 
closes its petals at night time, and says to itself, ' When 
will the sun arise ? It will make my heart rejoice. * 62. 
Or as when the chafak bird is exceedingly thirsty it longs 
for a cloud, so the bhakia Eabir lay in the ditch waiting 
for his guru. 63. Just as on the beautiful day of the full 
moon the chatdk bird wishes for the sight of the moon. Or 
as a child overccone with hunger, waits for the coming of 
its mother. 64. Or as when an excessive drought having 
taken place men long for the clouds, so the bhakta Kabir 
in his love waited for the coming of Ramanand. 65. Now 
it happened that there w^-e four ghoUikas remaining of the 
night, and swami Bamanand was on his way to bathe in 
the river Ganges. 66. As he was rapidly walking, his foot 
touched Kabir and he exclaimed, ' Bam, Ram ! Whom has 
my foot touched ? * 67. The bliakta Kabir having heard 
him say this, stood up and said, * You, swami, have done me 
a great favour today. 68. Your feet accidentally touched 
my forehead, and I beard the mantra, " Ram, Ram. " I 
see no one as fortunate as myself in all the three worlds. 
69. All the good deeds that I may have committed during 
the infinite number of my rebirths, have now come to their 
fruitage. Today birth and death have ceased for me 
through the touch of the feet of my guru. 70. If fate 
comes to one's aid, grains of sand may become brilliant 
diamonds. If the water of a well contains salt, fate can 
make it like nectar.* 71. So the bhakta Kabir, in his love, 
danced before the Swami Bamanand. His heart felt 
intense joy, because it was full of happiness. 72. It was 
like that of a hungry man receiving dainty food. Or as 
-when a cloud rains upon a withering tree ; or as when the 

114 



Ch. VII- 72-83 RAMANAND TESTS KABIR 

husband of Shachi gave nectar to drink to one who had no 
longer to live ; 73. or as when a poor man finds a heap of 
money ; or as when a sick man receives a divine medicine ; 
or as when a man seeking final-deliverance becomes 
associated with the good, he cannot contain the joy that he 
feels ; 74. or as when a girl who is living with her mother- 
in-law meets her own mother ; or as when a poor person 
obtains a wish-cow ; or as when a king through his power 
gains his seat on the throne. All these have joy. 75. As 
when the muni Gautam arrived at the river Godavari his 
mind was full of joy : or as when Bhagiratha brought the 
Bhagirathi river-these felt joy in their hearts ; 76. or as 
when the son of the Wind ( Maruti ) was in the forest, he 
suddenly met Shri Ram : or as when Narad, seeing Vyas, 
became full of joy ; 77. so the heart of Kabir was now 
comforted. Swami Ramanand smiled, astonished at what 
was taking place. 

RAMANAND TESTS KABIR 

78. He kept silence, however, and went on to 
j-erform his bath, saying to himself, ' I have never 
seen one so determined as Kabir seems to be. 79. So I 
will give him a little suffering, and so give his mind a test, 
as experts melt and examine inferior kind of gold ; 80. or 
as experts seek to discover the true diamond by placing it 
upon the anvil and striking it with a hammer ; or as when 
they test the jewel in the serpent's head by winding tliread 
around it and throwing it into a blazing fire ; 81. or as 
when Vishvamitra gave Harischandra's mind a severe test; 
or as when Shiva came as the uninvited guest to Shriyal ; 
82. oras when Kama fell on the pile of arrows when 
Krishna went to him for some gift ; so I will assume an 
outward anger and test Kabir's mind.' 

83. On a certain day Kabir went into the bazaar sing- 
ing and dancing with joy. Tears of happiness flowed from 

115 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VII- 83-97 

"his eyes in the fulness of his love. 84. As he danced in 
"his love he said to himself, ' By holding in my heart the 
1(^U8 feet of my guru Bamanand my mind has joy.' 85. 
As he was thus singing in his love, Bamanand heard from 
a distance. He took off his wooden sandals and said 
angrily to Kabir, 86. ' You call yourself my disciple with- 
out any reason for it. When did I give you instructions ? 
"What witness have you employed to prove that you are 
my disciple ? Tell me.' 87. So saying he struck Kabir on 
his head with his sandal, just as a mother outwardly mani- 
fests anger to her child ; 88. or again as a mother out- 
wardly pretending anger gives her daughter instructions ; 
or as a teacher punishes his pupil in order that he may gain 
knowledge ; 89. or just as men forcibly brand their cattle 
to drive away all diseases ; or as an expert melts the gold 
to test it ;90. so in order to test the determination of Kabir, 
Bamanand struck him on the head with his sandal. 
Blood flowed freely, but Kabir was full of joy. 91. Said 
he, 'Give attention to what I say. When you gave me the 
Instructions that made me your disciple, there was no wit- 
ness present, therefore, -0 Swami, you could treat me with 
contempt. 92. Now in the presence of everyone, you gave 
my head a blow with your sandal. That act proclaims to 
the people that everyone should know that I am your 
disciple. 93. I have^appointed as my witnesses water, the 
earth, air, space, light and God, that I have placed my 
service at your feet.'^ 94. As the i>hakta said these things 
the good guru was very pleased. He went up to Kabir and 
placed his hand on his head. 95. Saying, ' Seeing your 
determination, my tiast of you has satisfied my mind. Kow 
constantly repeat the mantra, "Bam Krishna" and sing 
their praise day and night.' 96. As the aadguru said these 
things, Kabir became full of joy, and composing verses of 
various kinds, he sang of the goodness of Shri Bam. 97. 
Putting aside all wrong desires, all hopes for popular 

116 



C!h. VII- 97-108 KABIR'8 PUBUC PBRSECUTIOKr 

honour, putting aside all sensual desires, putting aside all 
pride of knowledge, he continually sang God's praises. 
98. All the people of Benares said to Kabir, ' Blessed are 
you.' Such high reputation became intolerable to the 
evil-minded persons. 

KABIR'8 PUBLIC PERSECUTION 

99. When evil-minded persons hear the praises given 
to the good, they have doubts arisen in their hearts ; just 
as whe;i the sun arises, owls become ashamed and go in 
hiding ; 100. or as when thieves are intensely troubled 
when they see the moon arise ; or as when a miser hears 
the great praise given to a donor his mind burns with 
malice ; 101. or as when a prostitute becomes angry, as she 
hears praise given to a dutiful wife ; or as when hearing 
from anyone an exposition of the vedanta, a heretic becomes 
irritated ; 102. so, as soon as Kabir's high reputation spread, 
revilers sought to find some fault in him. These evil- 
minded persons then met together in private and discussed 
the matter, 103. ' Through the unusual service rendered 
by the bhakla Kabir to saints, his reputation has vastly 
increased. But he killed his own son with his own hand, 
and the saints raised him to life. 104. From that day 
everyone bows to him. So now unknown to Kabir, let us 
bring here a company of saints and good men. 105. Let 
us write letters to them, and some day bring a company of 
Vaishnavas here. When Kabir sees with his own ey^ th© 
great number of saints, he will run away. 106. If a very 
great gathering of these saints should once take place» 
Kabir would become disgusted witL them. Then the saints 
will curse him and no blame will be attached to us. 107. 
Starting a quarrel between the demons and the gods, the 
son of Brahmadev( Narad ) watched the fun ; or as having 
started a fight between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, 
Shakuni watched them from a distance ; 108. so let us 

117 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VII- 108-119 

invite a vast number of saints, and disbonoiir the bhakta 
Kabir.' Such was the plan which these evil-minded per- 
sons formed at that time. 109. Writing letters in the name 
of Kabir, they sent them to Hardwar, Mathura, Gokul and 
Vrindavan, and to the city of Dwarka as well. HO. All the 
Vaishnavas were invited to come on a certain day in a cer- 
tain month. They also sent messengers. Inviting all the 
mendicants who lived in the sacred cities. 111. They decided 
among themselves not to let Kabir know of this. If these 
saints came unawares, what would he do ? 112. If there should 
be a great gathering of a hundred thousand or more on 
some special date, who was there so foremost in doing good 
that he would provide them all with food ? 113. So they 
spent their own money in inviting these Vaishnavas. The 
evil men arranged for Kabir 's discomfiture, that they might 
bring out his faults. 114. Just as Duryodhan endangered 
his merit and sent the yogi Durvas to the Pandavas, so, 
with evil thoughts in their mind, these people invited an 
innumerable number of saints. 

SAINTS SERVED BY GOD IN VARIOUS FORMS OF KABIR 

115. Having listened to the reading of Kabir's letters* 
the saints bowed their heads in his praise, and on the day 
appointed in the letters, they arrived. 116. An innumer- 
able number of saints arrived from east, west and south. 
Kabir bowed to them and lovingly embraced them. 117. 
Seeing this enormous gathering of Vaishnavas, the 
saint Kabir was full of joy. Said he, ' A happy day has 
arisen to-day. for with my own eyes I have seen the 
Vaishnavas.' 118. The crooked-minded men began to wag 
their heads in derision ; ' Now let us see what is going to 
happen.' Looking at one another they clapped their bands. 
119. Noticing this difiBcult situation the Dweller in 
Ayodhya, the Life of Janaki ( Ram ), said to Himself, ' I 
cannot bear to have any lack found in my bhakta on my 

118 



C5l. VII- 119-133 QOD AS KABIB SERVES SAIinS 

account. 120. Kabir is one entirely detached from the 
thinkings of this world. Now that this innumerable 
gathering of saints has taken place, I must behin helper 
and protect him.' 121. The Vaishnavas oi the sacred cities 
suddenly arrived and encamped on the banks of the Ganga 
river. The Lord of the world seeing this, arrived to re- 
lieve Kabir in his distress. 122. He became a Kabir to as 
many of the noble Vaishnavas as had arrived. The Holder 
of the Bow ( Ram ) assumed for the occasion an infinite 
numb« of forms. 123. Hari took the form of Kabir in 
various ways and served these bhaktas. The evil-minded 
sought to see the fun, but seeing the astonishing sight, 124. 
and taking one another by the hand, they went into the 
gathering to investigate. When they saw.:with their eyes 
an infinite number of Kabirs, their mind was filled with 
amazement. 125. God felt great pleasure in serving His 
saints. In assuming these infinite forms His wonderful 
power of creating appearances was seen. 126. As men and 
women looked about to see the fun they everywhere saw 
the bhakta Kabir. Each Kabir was serving the saints with 
reverence and caring for them. 127. One washed their 
feet, one gave them a bath, one prepared the sandalwood, 
paste used in the worship of God. 128. One stood before 
them with hands joined palm to palm. One massaged their 
feet. One held their wooden sandals. Such were the illu- 
sory forms of Hari. 129. One sang before them and another 
gave them to eat. The Life of the world gave them pan- 
supari. 130. He helped some to lie on beds, and himself sat 
by them. To some of them Krishna spoke in tender tones. 
131. Krishna powdered bliang, and gave to some. To some He 
gave the kusumba juice to drink. He filled the pipes of 
some and gave them to smoke. 132, The Saviour of the 
world said to some, ' Let us hasten to the temple.' To 
some He was constantly saying, ' Show me your favour.' 
3 33. On the foreheads of some he made the marks with the 

119 



BHAKTAVUAYA Cb. VII- 133-145 

paste of white clay. Making a garland of ttilsi He would 
put it on them and hold a mirror before them. Shri Ram 
put these on with His own hands. 134. The Lord of the 
world sat before some, rubbing them with the saffron and 
sandalwood paste. He put musk on the foreheads of some, 
and gave beauty to their eyebrows. 135. The Life of the 
world put on raiment and ornaments on some. Some He 
took aside and requested them to teach Him the knowledge 
of the soul. 136. He took the sandals of some, and with 
feelings of reverence held them on His head. Before some 
of them the wonder-working Hari sang songs. 137. The 
Life of the world prepared straw mats for some and laid 
them down to sleep. To those who had a hankering for 
opium. He brought and gave it to them. 138. Innumerable 
people sat down to eat and there the Lord of the world 
served them. In His love He gave some water to drink. 
139. In some places Krishna was making garlands of fulsi 
and placing them around their necks. In some places He 
had taken fans in His hands and was delighting peopla 
with the cool breeze. 140. In some places the Life of tb?; 
world made the saints lie down, and He sat by thorn 
massaging them, In some places He lovingly sat to lists n 
to books being read. 141. When some went to bathe, the 
Lord of the heart went with them. The Dweller in the 
heaven Vaikunth would say to some, ' Tell me something 
1 can do for you.' 143. He sat near some and gave them a 
light lunch. The Husband of Rukmini waved the whi)k 
on some. 143. Just as the one sun is reflected in all vessels 
of water and is still untouched by the water, so the all- 
pervading Krishna manifested Himself in the form of 
Kabir. 144. Long ago when Krishna was a child, the cow- 
herdesses took him by the hand and came to complain to 
Yashoda. He then suddenly manifested Himself in number- 
lees forms. 145. "While the daughter of Drupad was serv- 
ing a meal to a gathering of Kauravas some evil-mindsd 

120 



Ch. VII- 145-155 PJRSECUTORS OF KABIR REPENT 

men gave.her trouble. He then appeared before each one's 
plate in the form of Draupadi and reproached Duryodhan. 
146. So Krishna, seeing the lovi ng devotion of Kabir, 
assumed innumerable forms. Men and women saw the 
amazing sight and wondered at it. 

147. The Vaishnava bhaktas remained there in the 
BBcred city of Benares for three nights. During ail theija 
times, the Lord of the heaven Vaikunth lovingly served 
them. 148. The Lord of the heart with His own hands 
gave to every one garments and ornaments. Whatever 
anyone desired, he obtained. 149. The Husband of Sita, 
naving seen these Vaishiavns on their way. He became 
invisible, 

PERSECUTORS OF KABIR REPENT 

Then all these evil-minded men came to Kabir and 
embraced his feet. 150. They said to him, ' You are 
a bhakta of Vishnu, we have troubled you greatly, but Ram 
has been your helper, and increased your extraordinary 
praise. 151. Moths try to put out the bright flame of a 
lamp, but it ia not put out. The hatred of the fire-fly cannot 
hide the brightness of the sun. 153. Although the Kaura- 
vas sought to burn down the Pandavas in the lacquer 
houses, they could not burn them. The internal fire of the 
ocean seeks to burn up the ocean, but it can never be 
burned up.' 153. Thus saying they again prostrated them- 
selves upon the ground. They put aside their unreasonable 
anger, and lovingly sang the praises of his goodness and 
good name. 

THEME OF THE NEXT CHAPTER 

154. In the next chapter, the Husband of Rukmir.i, 
who is the ornament of bhaktas, an Ocean of Mercy, will 
be described as avatar in the form of Dnyaneshwar in this 
mortal world. 155. That story, with its nine sweet juices, 

121 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VII- 155-157 

I will serve on the plates of those who are anxious for it. 
Those who are fortunate, God-loving, and who hunger for 
it, can eat and drink it with love. 156. The wise bhaktas 
drive away the flies in the form of doubts to a distance 
and enjoy the fragrance of this story. Mahipati, your 
servant beseeches you lovingly to take it 

157. Stvasti (Peace !) This book is the Shri Bhaktaoijaya' 
The Lord of the world is pleased when He hears it read. So 
you, Gk)d-loving pious bliaktas, listen. This is the seventh 
very delightful chapter. 



122 



CHAPTER Vin 

DNYANDEV AND HIS GRANDPARENTS 
Obeisance to S/iH Ganesh, Obeisance to Shri Krishna 

1. To-day is the very happy day on which we have 
Aoen the book relating the stories of the saints. Both 
hearers and speakers have received its nectar with love. 2. 
To speak, however, of the stories of the bliaktas as nectar 
seems to be a comparison that is deficient. The Husband 
of Shachi drank the nectar of immortality, but did He gain 
final deliverance from rebirths ? 3. On the contrary, those 
who drink the nectar of these stories attain final deliver- 
ance. Therefore, listening to the stories of the saints 
causes rebirths and deaths to cease. 4. One might compare 
these stories to the river Ganges, but the saving merit of 
the Ganges cannot be weighed in the same balance as one 
weighs the meritorious nectar of these stories ; for, in order 
to gain final deliverance through the Ganges one needs to 
be sawn asunder at the confluence of the three rivers 
( Ganges, Jumna and Saraswati ). 5. Such are not the 
praises of Hari. Men become pure in heart by merely 
listening to them. Therefore clever and wise people speak 
of these stories as nectar. 6, God loving bhaktas regard 
these stories as more brilliant than the sun, and as making 
men feel a coolness greater than that of the moon, and 
regard them as purer than space itself. 

DNYANESHWAR'S ANCESTRY 

7. Now give me your attention. Brahmadev and Shiva 
suddenly appeared on the Ocean of Milk to see and wor- 
ship Hari. 8. The Husband of the daughter of the Ocean of 
Milk ( Hari ) said to them, ' Let us become avatars in the 
world of mortals, in the form of Nivritti, Sopan and Dnya- 
neshwar, and manifest such deeds as may please us. 

123 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VIII- 8-22 

9. We will take birth at the same place, as three brothew. 
Muktabai, the Primal Maya, will become our sister.' 

10. On the bank of the Ganga ( Godavari ) there is a 
celebrated sacred place named Apegaon known all over the 
world. The town clerk was Govindpant. He was a 
bhakta of Vishnu. 11. His wife Nirabai was a supremely- 
pious and dutiful woman. Being with child she greatly 
desired a son. 13. The personification of Indifference to 
worldly things came into her womb. Nine months as nine- 
fold devotion were completed, and she gave birth to a son. 
DNYANDEV'S FATHER VITHOBA 

13. When the mother and father saw the son born to 
them as the personiSoation of bhakti, knowledge and in- 
difference to worldly things, they were full of joy. 14, On 
the twelfth day they named bim Vithoba. When he had 
fully completed his eighth year, he was invested with the 
sacred thread. 15. Vithoba studied the Vecias and Shastras 
and became proficient in grammar and poetry. He now enter- 
tained a wish to visit the sacred places. 16. With repent- 
ance in his heart, he asked leave of his mother and father 
and said to thsm, ' Give me permission to go to the sacred 
place of Pushkar (in Rajputana).' 17. Hearing him say this 
his parents were pleased. Vithoba bowed to them, and at 
once left. 18. If the heart does not attain indifference to 
earthly things, the study of the Shastras is in vain. If a deaf 
man should have very large ears, of what use would they 
be to him ? 19. The peacock looks as if it had eyes all over 
its body, but what use are they if they lack sight ? 20. Of 
what use is the enlarged growth on the neck of a goat ? Of 
what use is a dense forest of Sauiri trees ? Of what use is 
the sweet singing of those who sing love songs ? Of what 
uae is a widow in her youth ? 21. All these are like a face 
without a nose ; or an officer without authority; or as a 
grown up man without manliness is good for nothing. 

124 



Ch. VIII- 21-33 VITHOBA'S WANDERINGS 

22. So although the Shastras may be profoundly studied, yet 
without the heart experiencing repentance, of what use are 
they ? It would be like a crane who sits apparently per- 
forming some religious act but really to swallow fishes. 

VITHOBA'S WANDERINGS 

23. So with repentance in his heart, Vitoba started on 
his wanderings to sacred places. Putting aside love and 
aifection for earthly things, he gave himself up to the 
worship of Hari. 24. He came first to Dwaravati, and 
there h6 bathed in the Gomati river. Seeing there an 
image of Krishna, he lovingly prostrated himself before it. 

25. He then hastened to the place where God became an 
avatar in the form of a fish, who both killed and saved the 
monster Shankha and is the Home of, Final Deliverance. 

26. From there he went to Pindaraka. From there he 
visited Mangalahuda. He saw the domes of Dwarka, and 
then proceeded again on his way. 27. After a visit to Sudam- 
puri ( now Porebunder ) he came to Mulmadhav where 
King Bhishmak gave Rukmini in marriage to Krishna. 
28. He paid his respects to the sacred place Bhaluka, where 
Sbri Krishna ended His avatarship. From there he hasten- 
ed on to Prabhaslinga. 29. He worshipped at Sorati- 
Somnoith ( a sacred place in Kathiawar ) ; then hurried on 
from there, and saw the kind of a cave in which Mucha- 
kund had lived. 30. He saw the place where Kalayavan 
was burnt to ashes by Muchakund. Then coming to 
Dhawalpuri he visited that cave which was Muchakund's 
place of Test 31. He paid his respects to all the great 
sacred places along his route described in the puranas and 
known the world over. He then came to Saptashringi. 32. 
He paid his respects here to Adimaya and bathed in the 
Arunawaruna. From there he travelled eastward to the 
Godavari river, the sight of which gave him great joy. 33. 
He saw Kapileshwar with his own eyes and then arrived 

125 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VIII- 33-46 

at Trimbak. He bathed in the Kushavart pond and paid 
his respects to Gangadwar ( the source of the Ganga ). 34. 
He circumambulated the Brahmagiri mountain, keeping it 
to his left, this gave him great joy. He came to Bhima- 
shankar where through his repentance he became pure in 
heart. 35. Every day as he walked along he sang 
the praises of Hari with his lips. From there he soon came 
to AlandL 

VITHOBA MARRIES THE BRAHMAN SIDHOPANT'S DAUGHTER 

36. After bathing in the Chakratirth, he sat down to 
worship God. Just then tfie Brahman Sidhopant came 
there to bathe. 37. Seeing a Brahmachavi before him, 
Sidhopant prostrated himself on the ground. 'Tell me 
your name,' he said. ' Where have you come from ?' 38. 
The Brahmachari replied, ' I belong to a family in good 
circumstances at Apegaon on the banks of the Godavari. 
So the elders speak of us. 39. My aged mother and father 
live there. I have been to Dwarka and all other sacred 
places, and now I have arrived at Alandi.' 40. The Brah- 
man replied, ' Blessed is the day in which you, my Swami, 
have come here. Now coijie to my house and by your pres- 
ence make my home holy.' 41. Thus saying, Sidhopant took 
him at once to his own house. He gave him a meal of deli- 
cious food, and made him lie down to sleep. 42. In a dream 
Shri Pandharinath came to Sidhopant and said. ' Give your 
daughter, adorned with jewelry, to this Brahmachari.' 43. 
The moment he heard this in his dream he felt great satis- 
faction. After finishing his usual bath and devotions, he 
reported what had been told him in the dream. 44. The 
Brahmachari replied, ' What you say is absolutely true, but 
Pandharinath has given to me no command whatever.' 
45. Sidhopant replied, ' Then remain here over this day. If 
what I say is true, you will most certainly have the same 
dream.' 46. The Brahmachari then arranged his bedding 

126 



C!h. VIII- 46-56 VITHObI'S MARRIAGE 

near the tidsi altar, and at once went to sleep. While all 
sorts of thoughts, wise and foolish, were passing through 
his mind, the saw the following in a dream. 47. Pandhari- 
nath, the Pervader of the universe, was telling the young 
Brahmachari in a dream, ' Four avatars will he born to you 
by her. 48. So bow your head to My command and accept 
the gift of his daughter.' The Brahmachari after seeing 
this in this dream woke up. 49. A Brahman astrologer 
was consulted, and their horoscopes agreed in thirty-six 
points. The wedding day was appointed, and all the marri- 
age arrangements were made. 50. The gods were install- 
ed ; the Brahmans were feasted. Ganesb who removes 
hindrances was worshipped. Sweet music was played 
and the auspicious ceremony of Pimyahavachan { blessing 
the day ) was performed. 51. All kinds of dainty food 
were cooked and given to the Brahmans. The bridegroom 
was worshipped by the bride's father at the town line, and 
Brahmans recited the eight verses of blessing. 52. ' Vic- 
tory, Victory to Mukund, the Enemy of Mura ( Krishna ), 
the Eternal Being, the Enemy of Madhu, and Kaitabha, 
the Ornament of His hhaktas. In every way protect the 
bride and bridegroom. 53. Victory, Victory to Thee, 
Slayer of the Demon Shankha. Victory, Victory to Thee, 
Who took the form of a tortoise, churner of the ocean, 
who took the form of a wild boar. Slayer of Hiranyaksha, 
protect this bride and bridegroom. 54. Victory, Victory to 
Thee, half-man half-lion, Protector of Pralhad. Victory 
to Thee, in the form of Vaman, the Troubhr of Bali. Vic- 
tory to Thee, Holder of the axe. Slayer of the thousand- 
armed One^protect this bride and bridegroom. 55. Victory 
to Thee, son of Dasharath and Slayer of demons. Victory to 
Thee who played His pranks at Gokul, Son of Nand. 
Victory to Thee, in the form of Buddha, O Janardan, pro- 
tect this bride and bridegroom ! 56. Victory to Thee, in the 
form of Kalki avatar. Slayer of despised foreigners, Found- 

127 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VIII- 56-65 

er of religion, Life of the world. Victory to Thee, Giver of 
blessing to Pundalik, Husbartd of Bukmini, protect this 
bride and bridegroom.' 

57. After reciting these verses of blessing, the Brah- 
mans repeated tfca word 'Savadhan' ( Beware I ) Many 
musical instruments were now played, and the ceremony 
of taking one another by the hand ( marriage ) was com- 
pleted. 

VITHOBA AND SIDHOPANT GO TO PANDHARPUR 

58. After the four days of the marriage festival, 
they made their bow to Sidhopant and said, ' We must go 
to Pandhari in the month of Ashodh ( July ) to see and 
worship Shri Panduraag.* 59. Then Sidhopant with his 
family took him ( Vithoba ) and his wife on a pilgrimage 
to Pandhari, He bathed in the Chandrabhaga, and wor- 
shipped Shri Pundalik. 

60. If Pandhari is compared to other sacred places, 
any such comparison seems deficient. No one sees a planet 
in the sky as brilliant as the moon. 61. What metal is 
superior to gold ? Whose praise is greater than that given 
to Vishnu ? One may search as one will, and not find a 
diamond as brilliant as the Kaustubh. 62. What bull is 
superior to the nandi of Shiva ? What performer of auster- 
ities equals Shiva? What Shastra is superior to the 
Bhagavadgita ? One might hunt tiirough the three worlds 
and not find its equal, 63. One has never seen or known a 
mantra superior to that of the names ' Ram, Krishna.' There 
is no other religious teaching superior to that taught by 
the Bhagavat. 64, So there is no other sacred city to be 
seen by one's lotus eyes in all this round earth like that of 
Pandhari, The moment it is seen it burns up mountains 
of sins, 65. You may say, ' How can Pandhari be superior 
to Saptapuri (the seven great sacred cities, Ayodl^a, 

128 



Ch. VIII- 65-77 VITHOBA VISITS RAMESHWAR 

Mathura, Maya, Benares, Kanchi, Avantika, Dwarka ), the 
givers of final deliverance from rebirths. ' There takes 
place the destruction of pride, and egoism does not remain. 
66. Moreover, by bathing at other sacred places one's 
piide especially grows, but Pandhari, if seen even from 
the distance, moves evil men to repentance. 

67. Well, this praise of Pandhari's greatness must 
suffice, for to say more would greatly increase the length 
of our story. Sidhopant with his son-in-law remained in 
the sacrad city of Pandhari. 68. They pliyed on the 
cymbals and vina and drum, and as Vaishnavas danced and 
sang with love, even the Lord of the heaven Kailas (Shiva) 
seeing that interesting sight, nodded His head in joy and 
love. 69. After the party had circumambulated the city, 
they came to the great door of the temple. By the eagle 
platform Vitthal bowed prostrate on the ground before God. 
70. Sidhopant took both his daughter and son-in-law by the 
hand and placed them at the feet ( of Vithoba ). 71. After 
embracing the god, they tightly held His feet. When the 
great festival was over Sidhopant 73. taking his daugeter, 
his wife and all his attendants returned to Alandi. 
VITHOB\ ViSITS EAMESHWAR 

Vithoba now said to Sidhopant, ' I wish to go to Ram- 
feshwar, but will return quickly.' 73. Rtcognizing his 
motive, Sidhopant gave hitr permission, saying, 'Quickly 
perform that pilgrimage and come back to my home.' 74. 
He made his bow first to Pandurang, and then quickly 
started, visiting one after another the chief places describ- 
ed in the Puranas. 75. He saw Mount Shaila, Mallik- 
arjuna, and Nivritte Sangam; their power is unfathomable. 
The moment they are seen a heap of sins turns to ashes. 76. 
As Vitthal hurriedly walked along the path, he kept think- 
ing in his mind of the image of Vitthal and with his lips 
he sang the praises of God's name with love. 77. After 
B. V. 'J 129 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. VIII- 77-92 

seeing Ahobal, Narsinha, Vasudev and Lord Vyankat in 
Mount Giri and Mount Arun, he worshipped Chidambar. 78. 
After visiting those places he saw Gokarna. He bathed 
at Hatakeshwar, and then hurried from there. 79. He saw 
with his own eyes the mountain from which Hanumant 
flew in search of Sit». From thera he hurried forward. 
80. After seeing Janardan he ari'ived at Rameshwar. He 
there accomplished his purpose and then started to 
return. 81. He came to Kolhapur and there bathed on the 
Panchaganga. He saw and worshipped Lakshmi. Then 
he started on his way frozn there. 82. He came into the 
valley of the Krishna river, and there bathed at Mahuli 
Sangam. Continuing from there he returned to Alandi. 
83. With supreme love he embraced Sidhopant, bowing 
before him prostrate on the ground and at his feet. 

VITHOBA RETURNS TO HIS PARENTS 

84. After remaining there four nights, he said to 
Sidhopant, ' I feel I ought to go and see my mother and 
father. 85. If you will give me permission I will go at 
once.' Sidhopant assented and said to him, 86. ' Go with 
your wife and visit your parents. I will also accompany 
you in order to meet them.' 87. Sidhopant then took with 
him his daughter and son-in-law, and went to Apagaon, 
and there he met Govindpant. 88. Vitthal bowed to his 
mother and father and embraced them, and Sidhopant told 
them in detail the story of their son. 89. When Nirabai 
heard his explanation she was very glad. Just as the daugh- 
ter of Janak rejoiced when Ram, after his marriage, came 
to Ayodhya; 90. and seeing Shri Ram and Sita before her, 
his mother Kausalya could not contain her joy; so, Vitho- 
ba's mother, seeing her son and daughter-in-law, was 
extremely happy. 91. It was just as Kunti was full of joy 
■when Ar jun, the brother of Bhima, won the bet and brought 
Draupadi. Such was the case now. 92. In order to honour 

130 



Cb. VIIL 92-103 VITHOBA AS SANNYASI 

'the parents, Sidhopant gave them garments and ornaments. 
Then after obtaining leave frcHU them, he returned to 
Alandi. 

VITHOBA GOES TO ALANDI WITH SIDHOPANT 
93. Now it happened on a certain day that both father 
and mother left their bodies and went to the heaven 
Vaikunth. 94. Vithoba never entertained disgust for the 
conoern which his domestic duties gave him; just as when 
the three seasons come, they are accepted by every 
one ; 95. or as when the rivers are in flood they do not 
increase the water in the ooaan ; or as when in the hot 
season water evaporates, one do3j not notice the lack of 
it; a6. so Vithoba considered both joy and sorrow as alike. 
Sidhopant then learned of this ?5tate of Vithoba's mind . 
97. Feeling that his son-in-law would be experiencing 
sorrow, he felt he should visit him and comfort him. So 
then he returned to Apagaon. 98. He said to his son-in- 
law, ' You are one indifferent to earthly things, and yet 
all kinds of things are needed in one's domestic life for the 
daily and occasional necessities. 99. Therefore do me the 
favour of coming with ma now to Alandi. It is Hari 
who cares for you, but your conduct is contrary to popular 
custom. ' 100. Vithoba assented and Sidhopant took with 
him his daughter and son-in-law end very quickly returned 
to Alandi. 101. Residing in thio sacred city was a great 
comfort to Vithoba's mind. He daily performed praise- 
services in praise of Hari, and continually met sadhus. 
VITHOBA BECOMES A SANNYASI 
102. On the eleventh day of the month Ashadh ( July ) 
and Kartik ( November ) he waS accustomed to go on a 
pilgrimage to Pandhari. Many days passed but they saw 
no signs of a child being born to them. 103. Vithoba now 
said to his wife, ' My mind has become dejected. I want to 
go to Benares in order to join the order of the sant^asis. 

131 



BHAKTA.VUAYA Ch. VIII* 104-116 

104. This ffi the way my mind feels, and I ask your* 
peimission to go. * Rakhimiabai gave him no reply, because 
her mind was so troubled. 105. She hurried to her father 
and told him the whole affair. She said, ' The lord of my 
life asks my permission to join the order of sannyasis. 
106. Sidhopant said in reply to her complaint, ' So long as 
a man has no child, he should never enter the order of 
satmyasis, such is the command of the Vedas. 107. Beware, 
lest you give him permission. ' Having received this 
reply from her father, Rakhumabai was always careful to 
watch what she said. 

108 It so happened on a certain day that 
Vithoba said to his wife, ' Give me your penni»> 
sion to go and bathe in the Ganga.' 109. Very 
carelessly she assented. He was satisfied with her reply, 
and went to Anadavan (Benares ). 110. Just as when a 
oobra escapes from the juggler and crawls into an ant-hole 
in the forest ; or as when a parrot escapes from its cage 
and goes and sits on the tree; 111. or as when a .sadhu 
finds comfort inleaving an assembly of crooked men ; or as 
when a dutiful wife runs away privately from a company 
of prostitutes ; 112. or as a deer runs away from the 
clutches of a tiger ; or as when a saint leaves a town of 
revilers and goes to a great sacred city ; 113. or as the muni 
Shuka ran far away from Rambha ; or as the ocean came 
out of the womb through the action of the rishi Agasti ; 
114. so with that same satisfaction in his heart Vithoba 
came to Benares. He bathed at the junction of the Triveni, 
and there experienced repentance of heart. 115. After 
worshipping (Bindu) Madhav { Krishna), he went to 
Prayag in the month of Magh ( February ) to bathe. From 
{here he returned and came to Fushkar ( a sacred place in 
Bajputana ). 116. At ibis place there lived an inniunesto 
able number of saints, mdkua and Vaishnavas. Here while 

133 



Ch. VIII- 116-127 VITHOBA AS A 3ANNYASI 

listening feo tlie explanations of the Bhagvadgila, he hestfd 
of the principles of the order of sinnyasis. 117. He said to 
himself, ' It is difficult to endure the difficulties created by 
Maya- I must take thought how to escape the ever-return- 
ing births and deaths. 118. He therefore went as a sup- 
pliant to a sannyasi named Shri Ramasbram. Vithoba 
embraced his feet and said, ' Initiate me into the order of 
the sinnyasis.' 119. The sannyan asked him in reference 
to what previous order he belonged, and whether he 
had a wife, a son, brothers and othei rhlatires ? 120. 
He replied, ' I am all' alone. I have ao suttre of '.vifo 
or children. Therefore, as soon as I have experienced re- 
pentance I have come with reverence as a suppliant 
to you, ray sivjim. ' 121. Seeing thit this siiint seemed one 
free from all wordly passiong, tha sidguru said, ' I agree. * 
So he gave him the mantra that initiawd him, and ha 
entered into the order of the sannyasis. 

122. After Vitthal had thus entered the fouTth stage 
at Benares, Sidhopaut indirecdy heard this news regarding 
him, 123. Hearing that her hasband had become a 
sannyasi, Rakhumabai became deeply concerned in her 
mind. Said .she, ' O lord of ray life, why have you cask me 
away in the wilderness of this world?' 124. Just as 
the good Draupadi felt at saparacion from the Pandavas, 
or as Damayanti wept when separated from Nal, or as 
Taramati was scorched by the fira of sorrow whan she 
found herself without Harischandra, 125. or as when 
death approached Satyavan, Savitri sought to commit 
suicide, or as when hearing of the death of Jayadev, 
Padmavati fell in a faint, 126. so the faithful wife of 
Vithoba oried aloud when she heard the news of his 
becoming a sanmjasi. But being comforted by her mother 
and father, she restrained her mind with courage. 127, 
After completing her domestic duties it was bar custom to 

133 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VIII- 127-138 

worship the pimpal-tree. By her very many austerities 
all her faults were destroyed. 

VITHOBA'S DISLOYALTY TO HIS WIFE FOUND OUT 

128. Shripad, the head of the sanvyasis, who had 
admitted her hushand to that order, happened to come to 
Alandi. Rakhumabai seeing him there approached him to 
make him a namoskar. 129. Shripad had seated himself at 
the time on the stone platform surrounding the pimpal- 
tree. Rakhumabai made a vamaskar very reverently. 130. 
Very graciously he gave her a blessing : ' Be the mother 
of eight sons, and one poeseesing a husband. ' Hearing 
him eay this she wss exceedingly astonished. 131. As 
Rakhumabai smiled to herself, Shripad Questioned her. 
He said, ' Mother, why do you regard what I said 
as a matter to laugh at T' 132. She rerlied, ' Because 
you gave me the blessing that I should always 
have a husband, and be the mother of sons. But oh chief 
of the sannyasis, how can this result without iny husband ? 

133. My husband has left me, and with repentance has 
entered the order of the sanniasis. Therefore, when you 
gave me your blessing, I thought it a very strange thing. 

134. To sow seed in a fireplace, or for a cloud to rain down 
upon a rock, such is your blessing given to me, without 
asking me any questions. 135. It is like showing a mir- 
ror to a blind man, or singing before a deaf man, or giving 
dainty food to a sick man, without giving the deed a 
thought. 136. Just as it is useless to blow the fire when 
there are no live coals, or bringing a lamp without oil in 
it; or 88 it is in vain that a beggar pleads with a miser ; 
137. or as it is useless to sow the seeds in the ground 
when the clouds have poured down no rain ; or of what 
use is it for a physician to give the royal medicine to a 
man destined not to live? 138. When the moon is in its 
dbrk half, why should an astrologer allow the bride to 

134 



Ch. Vni- 138-151 VITHOBA FOUND OUT 

marry ? Or after the sun has set, of what use are the gifts 
given in worship ? 139. So you did not bring the facts 
( of my case ) to your mind, and yet gave me your blessing. 
A promise that you utter cannot prove untrue, however, 
and that is why it amused me.' 140. While Rakhumabai 
spoke Shripad felt great surprise. He thought to himself, 
' It will be necessary to prescribe a penance to the one who 
admitted Vithoba to the order of the sannyasis. 141. If a 
disciple abandons his young wife when as yet she had no 
offspring, and enters the order of the sannyasis, then for both 
disciple and s^iru the Shaslras have prescribed a penalty. 
142. When one speaks in a mine, the echo comes back to 
him; so although I asked him his condition, yet my 
mistaKe has come back to me. 143. It is like the moon 
laughing at the stars, when it itself has spots; or as if the 
ocean should blame the Ganges, when itself is salty; 144. or 
as when a man finds fault with dainty food when his 
mouth tastes bitter; or as when a person blind from his 
birth should blame the sun; 145. or as when a person 
without a straight nose should get angry with his mirror; 
or as when a lamp has darkness underneath it, but shows 
light to others; 146. so I have done what is wrong and 
needlessly blame others. I feel that the injury I have 
caused her will destroy my good deeds. ' 147. So he asked 
Rakhumabai, ' Who are your relatives here ? ' She stood 
before him with hands joined palm to palm, and replied in 
a humble tone of voice ; 148. ' I have a mother, father, 
brothers and sisters, but because of my separation from 
my husband I seem like one without a protector. ' 149. 
Shripad then commanded her to invite her father and bring 
him* there. She hastened to her home and brought Sidho- 
pant. 150. When he saw this chief of i/ogrjs he made him 
a prostrate obeisance. He worshipped him by the use of 
flowers and perfumes and washing his feet, and ended by 
giving him to eat. 151. He stood before him with hands 

135 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VIII- 151-164 

joined and asked, ' Where have you come from, my swami- ? 

And where are you going to from here ? Kindly tell me. * 

152. Shripad replied, 'My home is at Benares. With 

intention of going to Bameshwar I have reached this 

southern country. 153. Your daughter has told me all 

about herself. I must therefore now hasten back to 

Benares. ' 154. Shripad further added, ' According to 

scripture authority my good deeds will go for nothing, 

because of the fault committed against her. 155. Bring 

Eakhumabai with you, and let us go to Benares. * When he 

said this, Sidhopant fell at his feet, and said, 156. ' You 

are merciful. Let us hasten to go. ' He took his daughter 

with him and started. 157. Arriving at Bsnares, Shripad 

went to his hermitage. He called Chaitanya [ as Vitboba 

was now called in the ordar ] before hirn, and asked him 

again about his former condition of life. 158. ' Tell me 

now. Did you have a wife or did you not in your home when 

you were a householder ? You told me an untruth. Now 

keep nothing whatever back. 159. Tell me the whole 

truth.' And with that, he placed his assuring hand upon 

him. Hearing the sac/guru say this, Chaitanya ( Vithoba ) 

replied in the same way as does 160. a child when it has 

committed a fault and its mother spsaks to it with anger ; 

it timidly confesses to its mother ; so Vithoba confessed to 

his guru. 161. When a subject has done what is wrong 

and the king has punished him, he very timidly tells him 

what had happened, just so it was with this »annyasi 

Chaitanya ( Vithoba ); 162. or as when a sick man eats 

some indigestible food and the physician in anger asks 

him about it, the sick man tells the truth from fear of 

further sickness; 163. or as when the youngest of 

the daughters-in-law in the performance of her 

domestic work fails in some matter that has been told 

her, and she confesses timidly when the mother-in-law 

becomes aware of it; 164. so Vithoba replied very timld- 

136 



Oh. VIII- 164-175 VITHOBA AS HOtJSEHOLDKB AGAIB 

ly to his saci^itru, feeliag in his heart great fear lest this 

chief of the yogis should curse him. 165. He said: ' I did 

truly abandon my young wife while yet without offspring.* 

VITHOBA AS HOUSEHOLDER AGAIN 

Shripad hearing him say this, called BakhumabaL 
166. He now said to Ohaitanya (Vithoba), ' Take back your 
wife, return at once to your own country, and live accord- 
ing to the rules that apply to you. 167. If you hold the 
fear of doing what is forbidden and have no doubts ia 
your mind, then my command to you is your authority to 
obey, and God will be your Helper. * 168. Having received 
this blessing, Ohaitanya ( Vithoba ) worshipped his feet. 
He took bis wife by the hand and started for his own 
country; 169. just as the Vindhya mountain range 
accepted Agasti's command, and fell down upon the earth; 
so accepting his sadguru's wish, Ohaitanya ( Vithoba ) 
hastened on his way. 

170. Thus Sidhopant arrived at home bringing with 
him his daughter and son-in-law. When the people heard 
the news, all the evil-minded began to laugh at them. 171. 
They said, ' How is it that after entering the sannyasi order 
he has now become a householder?' One said, 'He has 
done what is improper, because he is a man of faulty life. * 
172. Another one remarked, ' He must be sensually in- 
clined.' A third remarked, ' He is a miser and a vile hate- 
ful fellow.' Scill another remarked, ' We should never 
even look into his face. 173. As one who first drinks 
nectar and then takes intoxicating drinks, abandoning his 
connection with the sannyasis, he has become absorbed in 
earthly things. 174. li is like one who at first carefully 
studies the Vedas, and then takes in his hand some obscene 
book. So, determined to cast aside indifference to earthly 
things, he has returned to the sorrows of the domestic life. 
175. He has left off the wonhip of Vishnu and has brought 

137 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. VIII- 175-186 

■upon himself the favour of devils; op as if one should 
leave his residence in a sacred city, and come and live in 
MHne misfrahle village; 176. or as if one should give up 
association with Brahmans and set his affection upon the 
unnamahles ( untouchables ), so he has abandoned the gain 
from indifference to worldly things and fallen into the 
maze of domestic life. ' 177. So everyone now began to 
revile him, but Vithoba had peace of mind; just as when a 
cloud rains upon a mountain it is never washed away; 
178. just as an eagle will never fly away out of fear of a 
serpent; or as an elephant is never frightened by the 
barking of a dog; 179. when the sea roared, Agasii was 
not frightened; and when the sun sees a firefly with its eye 
it is not troubled; 180. so when the waves of trouble came 
upon Vithoba he drank deeply of peace ; he stopped the 
entrance of desire and anger ; his action was unusual and 
beyond comparison. 181. The Brabmans turned him 
out of caste. His relatives abandoned him. He built a hut 
in the forest and there lived with his wife. 183. In order 
to provide for his wife he obtained food by begging. Day 
and night, never ceasing for a moment, he repeated the 
names of God. 183. He spent his time in listening to and 
contemplating the Ehagavadgita and Bha<jKat, with a 
mind continually at peace. 

THE BIRTH OF DNYANDEV 

In this way twelve years passed and then children 
were born to them, 184. three sons and one daughter; these 
were their children. And by merely listening to their 
names dullards and fools are purified. 185. Tl.e first one 
born was an avatar of ( Shiva ) the Husband of Mridani 
( Parvati ); they gave him the name of Nivritti. The avatar 
of Vishnu came to birth in this world and was given the 
name of Dnyandev. 186. Sopan was the avatar of 
Brahmadev. Adimaya ( the primal force of the universe ) 

138 



Ch. Vlir 186-192 GOD'S DRUM 

took the form of MuktabaL In tbeir births Bakbumabai 
took great oonfort. 

MAHIPATI AS GOD'S DRUM 
187. And now, fortunate hearers, listen with reverence 
to the next chapter with its delightful story. Just as the 
choker bird, drinking the nectar of the moon, looks at it 
with close attention; 188. or just as a deer enraptured over 
music forgets itself, so do you hearers listen with reverence. 
189. Or as the chafak bird, when thirsty, longs for the rain 
from a cloud, so with fondness listen to the story with its 
nine sentiments [love, heroism, compassion, surprise, 
mirth, wrath, fear, disgust, peace J. 190. The stories of there 
bhaktaa have a depth of meaning indescribable by words. 
It is the Husband of Rukmini who is really relating it. 
Just as the sound proceeds from a drum, but it will not 
sound unless one plays upon it, 191. so my mouth has as 
it were a skin stretched over it, and it is God who makes 
me compose this book. Mahipati is a mere instrument in 
God's hand, as all wise saints know, 

192. Suwjrft ( Peace ! ) This book is the Shri Bhakta- 
vijaya. In listening to it, the Lord of the earth will be 
pleased. Listen therefore, you God-loving, pious bhaMas, 
This is the eighth very delightful chapter. 



139 



CHAPTER IX 
LIFE OF DNYANDEV ( Continued ) 

Obeisance to Shri Oanesh. Obeisance to the Husband 
of Rukmini 
BENEFITS FROM THE STORIES OF THE SAINTS 
1. Blessed is this day on which the stories of the saints 
are related. Those who listen to them are fortunate pos- 
sessors of love and bhaklL 2. Listen now to the words in 
which the story of the saints is related. As it enters into 
the heart through the door of the ear, peace and forgiveness 
move in them as they become indifferent to earthly things. 
3. As one listens to the ?jtory through the ear, compassion 
for every creature arises in the heart. Through the eye of 
knowledge wrong thinking at once flees away. 4. He who 
makes a collection of such books at his home, hindrances 
in his life flee far away. Shri Hari with a disk in His 
hand protects him in every way. 5. Those who continu- 
ally sing tbe stories of God's bhaktas, the Husband of 
Rukmini will meet with them and the longings of these 
hearers will at onoe be fulfilled. 

BRAHMANS REFUSE TO INVEST VITHOBA'S CHILDREN" 
WITH THE SACRED THREAD 

6. In the previous chapter, attentive hearers learned 
the fact that Nivritti, Dnyandev, Sopan descended as ava- 
tars, and Muktabai as the primal force ( of the universe ). 
7. But everyone reviled them, saying. ' One should not 
even look into their faces. Those children have been 
born among the low caste and brought a stain on their 
Brahmanhood.' 8. Day by day they grew and appeared 
as youths. As their mother and father became concerned 
regarding them, 9. tbe wife said to her husband, ' I have 
great concern in my mind. We must ask permission 

140 



Ch. IX- 9-22 VITHOBA'S CHILDREN DESPIiailJ 

of the Brahmsns, and invest our sons with the 
sacred thread.' 10. On a certain day therefore, Chaitanya 
( Yithoba ) gathered together an assembly of Brahmans and 
joining Mb hands he pleaded with them: ' Swamis, forgive 
me my transgression Listen to the pleading of a humble 
person. 11. Consult the Shastras that contain the religious 
principles and prescribe a penance for ua ' Saying this, 
Yithoba prostrated himself on the ground before the 
Brahmans. 12. The eldest son, Nivritti, then said to them, 
' Merely by seeing you, we have become free. Prescribe 
at once penance for us six persons. ' 13. The pandits 
skilled in the Shastras, and the highest rank of the 
Brahmans, consulted the books and replied, 'There is no 
other penance for you except death. ' 14. The Brahmans 
said, ' Put yourselves under a saw, or burn yourselves to 
death with repentance, 15. Aside from these {wnances 
there are no other prescribed for you. ' Hearing this reply 
of the Brahmans, Yithoba's mind was filled with repent- 
ance. 16, He made a namaskir to the Brahmans and 
quickly started away leaving his wife, his sons, his 
daughter and his home, 17. He did not even glance back- 
ward, much to the astonishment of the Brahmans, and 
they remarked, * He has burnt up all his sins by bathing 
in the sacred waters of repentance. 18. The Shastras speak 
of no penance superior to that of repentance. Through the 
favour of his sadguru he has become pure. ' 19. Nivritti 
then said to the Brahmans, ' Tell us what we are to do, 
what penalty do the Shastras prescribe for us ?' 20. Hear- 
ing his question the Brahmans said to him, ' Go now to 
Pratisht'nan ( Paithan ) and bring from there a l^er 
declaring you to be pure. ' 21. Nivritti said to the 
Brahmans,' What shall we go and tell them? We have 
no authority to tell them regarding our caste or family. 
22. We are neither Yaishyas, Kshairiyas, nor Brahmans. 
We are of the imperishable, the ancient of dajrs, the 

141 



BHAKTAVUAYa Ch. IX- 22-34 

eternal, the self-knowing perfect one. 23. We are neither 
water, light, the heavens, the earth, the wind, nor the origi- 
nal elements. Nor can we be said to possess the divine form 
of the universe. 24. We are not god-attendants of Shiva, 
nor are we celestial beings such as Yakshas and Kinnars. 
We are neither rishts nor demons. We do not possess attri- 
butes, nor are we unchangeable. We should not be called 
formless.' 25. Nivritti said to Dnyaneshwar, ' Such being 
our ancestry, if we do go to Paithan, what are we to tell 
the Brahmans there ?' 26. Dnyandev replied, ' The man 
who acts contrary to scripture commands is worthy of 
blame, such is the teaching of the Shastras. 27. Although 
the man who has knowledge becomes a jivanmukta ( free 
while living ), he should not leave the rules that are pres- 
cribed for him. Moreover, those who are aadhua should 
show others the right way by themselves walking in it. 28. 
To act. contrary to what is prescribed in the scriptures 
should be recognized as the supreme fault. Whatever one's 
special duties are, they should be performed. So have 
spoken the Brahmans learned in the Vedas.' 29. Dnyandev 
then said, ' Nivritti, this is what the Shaqras have to say 
regarding one's duties. I have therefore replied to you 
because of our close friendship.' 30. Sopan then spoke. 
Of what value is caste or family ? Without bhakti the 
feet of Shri Hari can never be attained. 31. Durvas, the 
muni Vasishtha, Gautama, Vyas, Valmiki, and the great 
Agasti and the Pandavas, in what scripture are the f amiles 
of all these declared noble ? 32. Alhough one may be 
born in the noblest families, and although he may have 
studied profoundly the Vedas, still, unless he has bhakti, 
all this is in vain. The Shastras do not praise such. 33. 
If one places one's bhakti on Qod, of what necessity is 
there of being of high caste ? ' Such were the words that 
Bopan addressed to Dnyandev. 34. After this discussion 
among themselves, they gave an answer to the Brahmans. 

142 



C!h. IX- 34r-45 DNYANESHWAE AT PAITHAK 

DNYANDEV AMONG PAITHAN BRAHMAN8 

After making them a namaskar they at once started 
on their way to Paithan. 35. After reaching the banks 
of the Godavari they performed all the duties devolving 
upoti the pilgrims to sacred waters, and then en- 
tering into Brahmapuri, they made their bow to the 
twice-born ( the Brahmans ). 36. They collected an 
assembly of Brahmans and told them plainly just what 
had happened. The Brahmans of the highest rank after 
listening to them said, ' It is evident that you have fallen 
from your high state. ' 37. When they read the letter 
( fron the Brahmans at Alandi ), the whole affair became 
known, and they remarked, ' These are the children of a 
sannyusi. There is no penance that can avail them. 38. If 
a Shudra is bathed in the Ganges, will he thereby become 
a pure Brahman ? If a touchstone is applied to a piece of 
pottery, it will never turn to gold. 39. If one should give 
water to seed that has been baked, it will never sprout. 
If one gives medicine to one whose life is about to end 
why look for his recovery ? 40. So these can ^lever be 
made pure by sacred waters or religious observances or by 
any number of penalties.' Such was the decision of the 
whole assembly of Brahmans. 41. They said, 'According 
to the opinion of the Sha^lras there is only one remedy. 
If they do that, what necessity is there of penance ? 43. 
They should go as suppliants to Shri Hari ( God ) and 
worship every existing thing. Donkeys, dogs, elephants 
and the like should be worshipped as if they were the same. 
43. They should bow with the same reverence to a hog 
and an out-caste with the thought that God is in them 
jail; they should bow to them in love *. 44. After listening 
to this reply, Nivritti was highly pleased. Dnyandev 
and Sopan also felt supreme joy. 45. They remarked, 'Thi.* 
rule of religion and morals is just as it was in our hearts. * 

143 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. IX- 45-57 

Muktsbai also accepted the decision with pleasure. 46 
Listening to their ( strange ) names, the Brahmans mani- 
fested great surprise and said, ' Why should we call you 
Dnyandev ? 47. How can we call you Dnyandev ? Have 
you lovingly studied the Vedas or become acquainted with 
the Puranas ? 48. If one has no efficiency, of what good 
is it to speak of one's self as a great person ? If a cow 
has no milk in her udder, of what value are her long 
herns? 49. A great eye without sight, or the assuming 
of responsibilities without being respected, or a man with- 
out manliness, what use is there for such to exist ? 50. 
Divine knowledge without compassion for creatures, sing- 
ing without enthusiasm, food cooked without salt, never 
produces a good taste. 51. If one has no courage, why go 
on to the battlefield ? If one has not lost desires, why 
should he be called indifferent to earthly things?' 

DNYANDEV MAKES A BUFFALO REPEAT THE VEDAS 

52. While they were thus speaking and saying among 
themselves, ' What is in a name ?' one of the Brahmans 
remarked, ' A young male buffalo with a leather water- 
skin on his back is coming towards us. 53. His name also 
is Dnyan.' Listening to this remark of the Brahman, 
Dnyandev joined his hands palm to palm, and said, 'Listen 
to my words. 54. I cannot see the least dilference between 
this male buffalo and myself. The airaa ( soul ) that per- 
vades every body is alike in every creature. 55. If an 
infinite number of jars are filled with water, the sun would 
be reflected in all of them. So the All-pervading, the 
Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) is alike in every creature. 
56. There might be eighteen kinds of vegetables, but the 
water that feeds their roots is the same for each. 
Just so the Lord of Bama ( Krishna ) is alike in 
every existing thing. 57. The gold is the same 
i n all ornaments, but the ornaments are seen to be different 

144 



Ch. IX- 57-68 A BUFFALO EECITES VEDAS 

So God peivades all existing things alike. 58. One thread 
is used in the weaving, but the oloth woven appears 
in different forms. So tho Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) 
pervades all existing things alike.' 59. A Brahman hearing 
him say this remarked, ' You are needlessly talking too 
much. ' Then taking a whip in his hand, he angrily struck 
the buffalo. 60. That made Dnyaneshwar violently tremble, 
and the welt appeared on his own back. When the twice- 
born ( Brahmans ) saw this, they exclaimed, 61. 'If 
there is no difference between you and the buffalo, then 
let it recite the Fcc^ss. ' Hearing these words of the 
twice-born { Brahmans ), the bha:da who knew no differences 
did as follows. 62. He went up to the buffalo, and 
placed his hand upon its head, saying, ' Recite at once the 
Btgveda, and satisfy these earth-gods ( Brahmans ) . 63. 
As soot, as he said this a most extraordinary thing hap- 
pened. The young buffalo recited the Vedas with proper 
intonation. 64. The buffalo then recited all four of the 
Vedas and gave pleasure to the Brahmans. They exclaim- 
ed, ' No one has ever seen so wonderful a thing in this 
world of mortals. 65. When a sick man drinks nectar, 
his disease immediately disappears. If the poor man has 
the favour of a wish-cow, he is no longer despondent. 66> 
If the sun shows favour to tha bliiid man, what will he 
not be able to see ? Or if Saras vat i ( goddess of speech ) 
kindly gives her blessing to a dumb man, will he not speakt 
67. If Ganpati shows His favour, the 'fourteen sciences 
will become as plain as the lines on one's palm. By 
association with the Husband of Mridani ( Shiva X yoga 
in its eight forms can be acquired. 68. So by the hand 
of the Giver of blessing, Dnyandev made the buffalo 
recite the Vedas. ' All the Brahmans were full of astonish- 

* The foar Vedat, the six angan (gramiuar, 3prrosody, astronomy, 
pronunciatioD, interpretations of unusual terms, the Hindu ritual ), 
the eighteen Purunai, mimansa or theology, nyaya or logic, and 
dkatmo. or law. 

B. V. 10 1*5 



BHAKTAVUAYA CJh. IX- 68-79 

ment, and they felt repentance in their hearts. 69. They 
remarked, 'We have studied the Vedbmtaaxid all those 
parts called Upanishads, but Gtod has never given to vs 
such great power. 70. What has never been heard of before, 
our eyes have seen today in our very presence. 
What Brahmadev could not perform, that seemingly im- 
possible thing in this universe has taken place. 71. These 
three are evidently the avatar* of the three gods, and 
Muktabai is the anatar of Adimaya ( primal force of the 
universe ). No penance is of value to them. Just as the 
river Changes cannot be defiled ( so they cannot be defiled ). 
72. We preach to others freely, but we do not act accord- 
ing to it Wishing for wealth and honour among men, 
we have qwnt our life in vain. 73. We have ixok seen in 
this world such noble Brahmans as these. ' This is what 
all the twice-born (Brahmans) said, adding, 71. 'Blessed are 
their mother and father. Both of them must have perform- 
ed good deeds in their former births. ' With these expres- 
sions of astonishment the Brahmans remained silent. 75. 
But Dnyandev said to them, ' O Swarms, what I have done 
is through your power, I «un truly an ignorant person. It 
is your feet that manifest this power.' 76. All the people 
of Faithan were moved with much love and reverence^ 
They exclaimed, ' Blessed are these bhaktaa of Vi^nu, who 
in this earthly existence are entirely indifferent to ^rthly 
things. ' 77. They now began daily to bathe in the 
Gtodavari, to listen to the explanations of the Vedanta, and 
the stories in the Puranaa. At night time there were 
kirtan$ in praise of Hari> and every one came to listen. 
78. Seeing the extraordinary miracle they had performed 
every one showed them respect. After many d».js passed 
in this way another most extraodinary thing happened. 
ANCESTORS OOME TO THE FEAST AT WHICH 
THEY ARE WORSHIPPED 

79. Onacertainday, the owner of the house wherew 
146 



Ch. IX' 79-92 ANCESTORS AT A FEAST 

Nivritti, Dnyandev and Muktabai were staying began 
the ceiemony of worshipping his ancestors. 80. When he 
went to invite the twice-born ( Brahmans ) to be 
present, they said to him, ' You have kept in your 
house the children of a sannyasi. 81. Therefore we 
cannot come to your house to eat.' Hearing their words 
the man was deeply concerned. 82. He hurried back to 
his home and sat down depressed in mind. Dnyandev 
asked him what had happened. 83. ' Why are you so 
troubled today and sitting so silent ?' Hearing this qaes- 
tion, 84. the Brahman replied, ' Today is the holy cere- 
mony in honour of ancestors, but the Brahmans will not 
come to the feast. Therefore my mind has become sad and 
I am sitting here silent.' 85. Dnyandev then said to the 
Brahman, ' Do not be troubled in your mind. The anees- 
tors will come to the feast in visible form. 86. Calm 
your mind, and do the necessary cooking in yonr 
house.' Hearing this prediction the man was astonished 
87. After finishing his bath and devotions and thus puri- 
fying himself he prepared and served many kinds of dainty 
food on leaf plates. 88. Dnyandev sprinkled the rice and 
brought down the ancestors in visible form. He worship- 
ped their feet and gave them seats in the chief place. 89, 
He gave them garments, ornaments, adornments, tulai 
leaves, garlands of flowers, the twelve forehead-marks, the 
beautiful sacred thread, and gifts of gold. 90. In this way 
having worshipped them he offered to them an abundance 
of incense and lights. The twice-born ( Brahmans ) 
thought this very strange and in their minds they expressed 
their astonishment. 91. When Dnyandev made the offer- 
ing to God in the form of the ancestors in visible fram' 
these ancestors very graciously began to eat the food. 92. 
He served to them whatever pleased their taste until all 
of them were satisfied. He gave them water to wash their 
hands, then offered them the pansupari, and gifts of money. 

147 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. IX- 93-10^ 

93. When it was said to them, ' Return to your abodes, 
these ancestors became invisible, and all the Brahmand 
of Paithan discussed the matter among themselves. 

94. They said, ' Dnyandev has done a wonderful thing. 
He has feasted the ancestors in their actual visible form. 
We have never seen nor heard so great a miracle in 
Uiis world of mortals. 95. Through our obstinate pride 
we rejected the invitation to the feast. So the ancestors 
came in person and took away the gifts. 96. Just as 
Shiva devoured the offering, and the guardian of the 
idol remained silent, so it seems it has happened to us. 
97. It is as if the sun came in person and took away the 
image of the sun, and the astrologer whose mind was 
full of expectations remained chewing his cud. 98. The 
guardian of the scared city has taken away the victim 
that was placed near the altar of sacrifice. The keeper 
of the treasures strongly objected, but his opposition was 
of no avail. 99. Just as when Indra and those with Him 
came in person and took away the materials offered in 
sacrifice, the fire itself remained silent, so it has happened 
to us. 100. Just as when ghosts come in visible form and 
take away what has been offered to them, and the sorcerer, 
thinking what is done as of no value, remains hungry; 
101. so these ancestors have taken away the gifts of gold 
and the dainty food. Because we were filled with pride, 
we have lost everything. 102. Blessed are these: Nivritti, 
Dnyaneshwar, and Sopan, noble Vaishnavas, and Muktabai 
who is the visible avatar of Adimaya ( the primal force ). 
103. A penance cannot be of any value to these three 
divine beings. They are world gurus, uninfluenced by 
their bodies, and jivanmuklaa ( free while living ).' 

104. They therefore wrote a letter to that effect and gave 
it into the hand of Sopan. 'The young male buffalo has recit- 
ed the Vedas, and in the same way it is still reciting them,' 

148 



rni, IX- 105-116 THE ' dnyaneshwaei • 

105. When a touchstone touches iron, it always turns 
it to gold, so this buffalo was day and night long reciting 
the philoBophio teachings of the Vedanta. 106. Hari gave to 
Dhruva an immovable place. His seat will never be re- 
moved. In that same way Dnyandev gave to this buffalo 
the everlasting knowledge. 107. Upamanyu was seated by 
the ocean of milk and continued without ceasing to drink 
the milk. Just so Dnyandev made the buffalo recite the 
Vedjos without ceasing. 108. Just as Yogis sit on seats of 
spikes and y«t feel unceasing joy, so this buffalo is absorb- 
ed in the knowledge of the Vedanta. 

DNYANESHWAR WRITES HIS 'DNYANESHWABI* AND 
' AMRITANUBHAV ' 

109. Dnyaneshwar realized the truth of the above, and 
discussed the matter with Nivritti. He said, ' Through 
this continually recited knowledge of the bufiSalo, the 
Way of Works will be destroyed. 110. The deep inner 
meaning of the Vedas is a secret. If it is plainly divulged 
to people, it will drive away the misunderstandings of those 
devoted to the Way of Works. Thera will then be nothing 
left of sacrifices. ' 111. After explaining this to Nivriti, 
he made a namaskar to the Brahmans, and having asked 
their permission to take away the buffalo, they obtained 
leave from the Brahmans and started on their way. 112. 
As they left the town the Brahmans walked with them 
to see them off. Tears filled their eyes, and they lovingly 
embraced them. 113. With hearts stirred with emotion 
they conversed with one another. The Brahmans remarked, 
' The time has been well spent in our association with 
Dnyaneshwar'. 114. The men and the women of the town 
accompanied them for one mile. And then Dyaneshwar 
pleaded with them to return to their homes. 115. They 
then made a namaskar and returned, while Nivritti, Sopan 

and Dnyaneshwar, with their sister Muktabai, 116. 
walked along the road full of joy. With love they sang 

149 



BHAKTAVUAYA Cb. IX- 116-128 

the pnkes of Hari ( Ood ) and composed wise verses con- 
taining the nine emotions. 117. When they arrived 
at the sacred town of Mahalaya ( modern Nevasa), they 
remained there. They bathed in the sacred waters of 
the Pravara river, and there met with the Lord of Mohani. 
118. There Dnyaneshwar composed his Marathi commentary 
on the Bhagavadgita, and showed an easy way for 
the dull-minded, the fools and all ignorant persons. 119. To 
begin with, it is like the brilliant gold on which is the 
Betting for diamonds; it is like dainty food prepared from 
grain in order to give to the tongue the pleasant taste; 120. 
or like a golden ornament that adorns a beautiful body; or 
like the scattering of very small seeds, that finally show 
their beauty in flowers and fruit; 121. or like the power of 
the wish-tree which is made to appear beautiful through 
the imagination; or like the full moon raining down nectar 
for the chakor bird. 122. Dnyandev composed this Marathi 
book to make plain the deep meaning of the Bhagavadgila, 
in order that the wise, God-loving, pious men might have 
true knowledge. 123. Nivritti, who was Dnyandev's 
tadguru, said lovingly to him, ' From your own thoughts 
on the subject, compose ih.e Amritanuhhav. ' 124. Replying 
that be would do so, he placed his head at his sadguru's 
feet. Then giving thought to his own spiritual exjwriences, 
he composed the Amritamihhav. 125. In order to destroy 
the pride of Brahmadev, Krishna created cows and calves, 
and Dnyandev composed the AmrUanubhav to answer the 

proud heretics who talked in vain out of their own imagina- 
tions. 

126. After having lovingly made a namatkar to the 
primal-power, Mhalasa, the party hastened from there to 
come back to their own part of the country. 127. As the 
four walked along the path, they lovingly repeated the 
names of God. At night they lodged in some town and 
performed a kirtan in honour of Hari. 128. Having left 

150 



CSl IX- 128-141 THE ALANDI FAMILY 

All thoughta of love and affection, of honour and 
dishonour, and all pride of body, they looked upon 
every creature, from Brahmadev to insects, as the ssmt'. 
129. One day while walking along the path, they encamped 
in the forest belonging to AlandL Here the animal that 
recited the Vedas died. 130. Having placed it in a tomb, they 
caused it to reach the state of final deliverance. Saints 
are always merciful mines of compassion and givers of 
assurance 131. After worshipping the tomb, they smeared 
it with shftidur. That place is still called Mhasoba. 

132. From there they hastened to return to the town 
of Alandi. Muktabai said to Nivritti, ' We must see the 
place where we were born' 133. When all arrived at 
Alandi, all i)eople there felt very happy. With feelings of 
love they worshipped their feet and embraced them. 134. The 
people had already heard what had happened at Paithan, 
In addition Sopan showed to the Brahmans the letter he 
had brought with him. Listening to it, all were amazed- 
135. It was clearly written in the letter that the three 
brothers were the avatars of the gods. Hearing this, the 
Brahmans were lost in wonder. 136. And so after listen- 
ing to the letter from Paithan all the Brahmans accepted 
its contents, and acted just as Indra and the other gods 
act in obedience to the command of Brihaspati; 137: or 
as pandits acknowledge the authority of the Puranas 
uttered by the lips of Shri Vyas^, or as a good disciple 
studies philosophic subjects at the command of his guru;. 
138. or as clouds move in the same direction as the wind; 
or as our sense organs act in accordance with the desire of 
our minds; 139. or just as a sun-flower turns to wher- 
ever the sun may be; or as* when water is in the form 
of a stream it flows by reason of its fluidity; 140. in 
whatever direction the wind blows the banners wave 
and musical instruments sing in harmony with songs sung 
giving due attention to the stops; 141. just so, the Brahmans 

151 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch, IX- 141-152 

of Alandi worshipped the three brothere according to the 
saggestion of the Brahmans of Faithan. They said to one 
another, * Truly three gods have descended as avatara.' 142. 
And as they lovingly performed kirtana, all the people 
came to listen to them. They remarked, ' These sadgurus 
have become avatara iot our sake. ' 

DNYANESHWAR AND HIS OPPONENT VISOBA CHATI 

143. There was a very hateful Brahman there, whose 
name was Visoba Chati. He was continually reviling 
these four children. 144. He exclaimed, ' These are the 
children of a sannyasi. One should not look into their 
faces. ' He was continually muttering these revilings. 
145. Just as the moth in accordance with its character 
should seek to put out the light; or as the fire-fly should say, 
' I will utterly destroy the sun;' 146. or as when Hiranya- 
kashipu muttered to himself in rage when he saw Prahlad; 
OP as Duryodhan was filled with anger when he heard of 
the praises given to Dharma; 147. or as the ten-necked 
monster ( Ravan ) was filled with wrath when he heard the 
story of Ram's heroism; or as pandits with feelings of 
hatred rebuke authors when they see books written in 
Marathi; 148. or as when thieves see the full moon they 
revile it; or as astrologers with hatred oppose the teachings 
of Sahadev; 149. in that same way Visoba Chati contin- 
ually looked at them with his wrathful eyes; if he saw them 
anywhere he felt greatly troubled. 150. He would remark, 
' These are children of a aannyasi. One should never even 
look into their faces. If we look at them, they will make 
us the same as themselves. ' 151. Now it happened 
on a particular occasion that the festivals of Dasara 
and of lights were being celebrated. Nivritti said to 
Muktabai, 152, ' Prepare some very excellent pancakes 
for UB, and give them to ui to eat.' Assenting at 
once, she collected the materials neoresary for the 

152 ' 



Ch. IX- 152-166 VBOBA CHATI 

iiooking. 153. In order to bake these cakes she went to 
the potters' factory for an earthen pan. As she went 
along the street, she suddenly observed Yisofos. 154. 
Seized with fear, Muktabai hid herself behind something. 
He at once rushed towards her, and said to her, 155. ' For 
what purpose are you hastening ? Tell me at once. ' When 
Muktabai heard him say this, she trembled violently. 
156. For just as the lotus flower hjM fear aroused in its 
heart when it sees an elephant , or just as the kokil bird 
( ouckoo ) trembles violently at seeing a falcon , 157. or 
as when gk deer saarohing for water in a forest, sees a 
hunter in the distance ; or as when a cow sees a tiger, 
she trembles violently with fear; 158. so with extreme 
fear she replied, ' I am going to the potters' field to purchase 
an earthen pan. 159. Nivritti has told me to make ai 
once s(Hne pancakes.' Hearing her reidy, Visoba broke 
out inio a laugh. 160. He struck Muktabai, and thea 
went and told the potter that if he gave the earthen pan 
to her, he would punish him at once. 161. ' I have lent 
you money and I shall demand it at once.' Hearing 
this threat the potter was very troubled. 162. If one gets 
no profit from any source but has to pay money on the 
debts he owes people, or when one has a severe illness; one 
«hould recognize it as due to the anger of God. 163. If 
one lives in a poverty-stricken home, or if one mourns 
over a son dying in adult age, or if people revile one who 
is honoured by others, this also should be recognised 
as due to the anger of God. 164. Or one may have studied 
a subject all one's life and yet on an occasion may not 
remember the right reply while many wrong iiioughts 
arise in the mind; this also should be recognized as dae 
to the wrath of God. 165. Or an enemy discovers one of 
our secrets and then everyone speaks alike in reference to 
it, anger then grows in the heart; this should be recognised 
also as due to the anger of God. 166. A householder (lover 

153 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. IX- 166-178 

of his family ) when travelling is greatly disturbed from 
his lack of food and at his home his wife bitterly com- 
plains of the same; this also should be recognized as Ood's 
anger. 167. If in one's old age one's limbs are without 
strength, or if none of his sons come and inquire for his 
welfare, or if his wife speaks harshly to him, that should 
be regarded as due to God's anger. 168. Well what is the 
use of any further illustrations ? A man enjoys or suffers 
according, to his own acts. So when he heard Visoba's 
threat the potter remained silent. 169. Just then Muktabai 
arrived and said to the potter, 'Give me at once an earthen 
pan on which to bake my cakes. ' 170. The potter ans- 
wered her, * We have not yet prepared the earthenware for 
baking. After I have baked them, then you may come and 
take away an earthen pan.' 171. Hearing his reply» 
Muktabai returned to her home very much concerned and* 
weeping with a pitiful voice, 172. Just then Dnyaneshwar 
returned to his hermitage after performing his bath, 
and suddenly there fell on his ear Muktabai's pitiful cry. 
173. Dnyandev drew her close to himself and with his 
hand caressed his sister. He said to her, 'Why are you sad ? 
Tell me at once.' 174, She said, ' I was on my way to the 
potter's house to bring an earthen pan for baking cakes and 
Visoba met me on the way and angrily struck me. 175. 
He went and said to the potter, " Do not give the earthen 
pan to Muktabai. " I then returned home and am sitting 
here weeping. 176. Nivritti gave me the command to 
make the cakes to-day with my own hands. Therefore I 
am sitting here disconsolate. What shall I do ? 177. Just 
then Visoba Chati began to look at them from 
a distance through a window, and in order to hear every- 
thing they said in detail he stood outside. 178, Dnyandev 
then said to Muktabai, ' Why are you being troubled f or 
nothing ? I wonder what I should do in view of his charac- 
ter. ' 

154 



Gx. IX- 179-191 DNYANDEV'S YOGIO POWER 

DNYAiraSHWAB'S POWER OP ' YOGA * 
179. Dnyandev then made use of his powers 
of yoga. He kindled his internal fire and flames came 
oat of his mouth. His eyes were seen to be blood-hot. 
180. Like gold when heated, so his back became bright 
red. Visoba stood outside and viewed the wonderful 
sight. 181. Dnyaneshwar then said to Muktabai, ' Bake 
the cakes on my back. ' She immediately brought together 
the materials for the cakes and properly rolled them out. 
182. In a moment the cakes were baked and ready, and 
Dnyandev put out his internal fire. 183. She served the 
milk of bhakti and love in a cup of joy. Then for sugar she 
used the joy of peace, whose sweetness is unlimited. 184. 
Into this milk she broke the cakes of experience and the four 
sst down together to eat them, Nivritti, Dnyandev, Sopsn, 
and the sister Muktabai. 185. As all four partook of the 
first morsel they exclaimed, ' Sbri Hari is the real enjoyer 
of this meal. ' All this time Yisoba stood outside watching 
the wonderful sight. 186. Then with a repentant heart he 
thought to himself, ' These are really divine persons. I 
have needlessly troubled them. I have not taken proper 
thought. 187. I found a mine of jewels and diamonds, 
and I thought they were glass beads; and so by a careless 
thought I took a sling in my hand and slung away wish- 
jewels. 188. I saw a wish-tree^ but thinking it to be a 
mere hivar tree I applied the axe to it. Before a blind man 
the most precious diamonds are but like common stones. 
189. Ganges water when put into a bottle, a drunkard 
understands as intoxicating liquor; or it is as when an 
unfortunate man comes near a pile of jewels, and 
it should seem to him to be merely a fire; 190. or 
as when Duryodhan thought to himself, " Shri Krishna the 
avatar of the Supreme Brahm ( God ) is my brother-in-law 
And I thought wrongly regarding him and needlessly 
troubled him." * 191. Having thus repented, Visoba said 

155 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. IX* 191-204 

-to himself, ' I must go as a suppliant to them. I must take 
by force what thoy leave on their plates, and thus bring 
about my well-being.* 192. Thus thinking, Visoba rushed 
into their home and came into the room where they werd 
sitting eating. 193. Dnyandev hid his plate behind him, 
but Visoba forcibly swooped down on it and grabbed from 
it a morsel of food. 194. As he put his morsel into his 
mouth, Dnyaneshwar said to him, * Why are you becoming 
« scavenger bird ? Go away from here at once.' 195. Hear- 
ing this, Visoba took that thought to his heart, and no 
language can describe his state. 196. Whatever is beyond 
description in words was here united into one person, and 
the darkness of his ignorance then entirely disappeared. 

197. A sound comes out of a bell, then disappears in the 
same place, so becoming united with Brahm's essential 
form, Visoba remained without any duality in his nature. 

198. Then joining his hands together palm to palm, be 
placed his head on Dnyandev's feet. Dnyandev understood 
his thought and gave him the blessing of assurance. 199. 
Just as Valmiki put aside his evil nature as soon as he 
saw Narad, so by association with Dnyandev, Visoba 
gained a character of goodness, 300. because Dnyandev 
said to him, ' Why are you eating like a scavenger bird ?* 
From that time he was called Visoba Khechar. 

201. The story to be told in the next chapter is exceed- 
ingly interesting. Hearers must listen to it attentively. 
As it falls on their ears, they become regardless of 
other things and all faults disappear. 202. Just as when 
the sun arises the darkness sets, so when the Bhaldavijaya 
falls on anyone's ears ignorance is driven away. 
203. When the' touchstone touches iron its name and form 
at once change. So the moment one bears the stories of 
saints, the thought of all earthly affaire disappears. 204. 
The ^istory of the saints cannot be fully described in 

156 



Ch. IX- 204-205 C0KCLU8I0K 

words, but the real relator of it is the Husband of BukmiiuL 
To Mabipati has come the office of being His attendant in 
order that He might use him as His instrument. 

205. Swasti ( Peace ! ) This book is the Shri Bhakta-^ 
vijaya. In listening to it, the Lord of the earth will be 
pleased. Listen to it, you God-loving pious bhaktas, Thia 
is the ninth deeply delightful chapter. 



157 



CHAPTER X 

LIFE OF DNYANDEV ( Continued ) 
Obeiaance to Shri Cfanesh, Obeisance to the Husband cf 
Shri Rukttdni. 
THE STORIES OF SAINTS SWEETER THAN NECTAR 
1. To-day good fortune has arisen for those who have 
listened to the Bhaktavijaya. This joy cannot be described 
in words. What then shall I say with my lips ? 2. It is 
as if a wish-tree sprang up in the garden and bore wish- 
jewels as its fruit; or as if afi abundant rain of nectar 
should fall on the earth ; 3. or as if twelve suns, becoming 
oool, should shine at the same time ; or as if all rivers began 
to flow over the earth with nectar as their waters ; 4. or as 
when a mine has been opened containing precious stones, 
diamonds and wish-jewels, a fortunate man should wholly 
drive away his laziness and take them away with him ; 5. 
or as if in a moment's time sand itself should become like 
di&monds and precious stones; or as if common stones 
should become eternal wish- jewels. 6. All kinds of right 
and wrong thoughts and poverty have fled away. Therefore 
listeners have received waves of the nectar of love, 7. I 
think that the sweetness of love is superior to nectar. The 
immortals who drink nectar, long for the nectar of love. 8. 
The gods that drink nectar perish at the end of the ages, 
but those who drink ef the supreme spiritual nectar ttiey 
exist for all eternity. 9, Therefore give close attentioa 
and listen to the stories, you God-loving bhaktaa. As the 
stories fall on your ears all your sins in half a moment's 
time are destroyed. 

DNYANDEV AND NAMA GO TOGETHER ON PILGRIMAGE 

10. It came to pass on a certain day that Dnyandev came 
!to Pandhari and conceived the desire of meeting Namdev. 

158 



Ch. X- 11-22 DNYANDEV AND NAMA 

11. As he entered into the house of Nams he saw him fiom 
a distance. Namdev prostrated himself on the ground 
before him and lovingly embraced him. 12. He worship' 
ped him with fiie usual materials and said to him, * My 
good fortune has arisen to-day, because the king of wise 
men has kindly come to my home. 13. My good deeds 
in a former birth have come to their fruitage. I have met 
Pandurang in visible form. 14. In order to save those who 
are entangled in the deeds of this earthly life, and those 
ignorant-'men intoxicated by the seductions of this life, yon, 
O Stoami, have become an avatar.' Saying this he again 
prostrated himself on the ground before him. 15. Dnyan^ 
dev then said to Nama, 'Your good fortune is a special one* 
God is near you without ceasing. I see no limit to your 
good fortune. 16. You have received the joy and sweetness 
of His love. Desire and thirst for the things of this life 
have passed away. The family in which you were born 
has a holy ancestry. 17. If you will listen I will 
tell you one of the secrets of my heart.' He then took 
Nama by the hand, and led him into the interior of 
the house. 18. He said, ' Although a Jivanmukta ( free 
while living ) has become free from sin, he should 
not leave off the worship of his guru, of God or of 
sacred places. I desire to see all the sacred places on the 
3urface of this earth in your company. 19. With this 
purpose in mind I have come to meet you. Tell me 
whether the desire of my heart will be fulfilled or not. 
20. Having heard this remark Nama became very sad and 
said, ' Why should I abandon the sacred city of Pandhar^ 
and wander to sacred bathing places ? 21. That is like 
throwing nectar away and going from house to house beg- 
ging for gruel ; or it is like throwing away the pne/laoB 
kaduri ( musk ), and like carrying ashes in one's cloth. 2S, 
Why should one leave the shade of the wi8h4ree and search 
for a forest of ahindi ( palm ) tree ? Why leave untouched the 

159 



BHAKTAVUAYA CL X- 22-36 

dainty food on a plate, and eat fallen leaves? 23. Why drive 
the royal swan away and in its place bring a crow to one's 
hoow ? "Why fling away diamonds and precious stones and 
fill one's cloth with sand ? 24. Why leave off listening to 
the hymns of the Sarmved, and listen to sensual songs ? 
Why drive away the wish-cow and bring home a goat?' 25. 
Having decided the matter in his mind, Nama said to 
Dnyandev, ' I am not master of myself. ' So saying he 
bowed at his feet. 26. ' I am subject to him who has 
vared for me and supported me, and I call myself His in 
body and speech Who is the beloved life of Rukmini, and 
The giver of the promise to Pundalik. 27, I am subject 
to Him with all my heart. You go and ask Him. If 
He gives me the command to go with you, I will respect 
His words. * 28. Dnyandev replied to Nama, ' I understand 
your purpose ; you are clever, wise, and generous, and the 
home of bhaldi and knowledge. ' 29. Then giving him an 
embrace he took Nama by the hand and said to him, ' Let 
both of lis go to the temple and ask God to give His com- 
mand. ' 30. So taking Nama with him, Dnyandev came 
to the great door of the temple. He lovingly bowed pros' 
trate on the ground near the eagle-plafcfonn. 31. He then 
oame to the inner shrine and there he saw God standing 
on the brick- He embraced the god and with sincere feel- 
ing worshipped His feet. 32. The secret thought which he 
liad in his mind he told the god, and as God heard his wish 
he began to smile. 33. The One dark as a cloud said to 
Dnyandev, ' You are intelligence itself in visible form. 
Yoa are as ptire as crystal. You are untouched by the 
association of desires. 34. You are absolutely in the form 
«f Boui. Why do you want to wander to sacred bathing- 
plaoes ? Why apply a paste to the surface of the sun ? 
55. Why again and again use means to make the moon 
cool ? For what purpose should one turn the ocean of 
icilk into a guest ? 36. Why does the moon need the 

160 



C2l. X- 36-51 NAMA IN DNYANDEV'S CAEE 

gentle cooling breeze of a fan ? What paste should one 
use to cool the moon ? 37. It is not necessary to teach 
Ganpati. It is not at all necessary to teach Sarasvati 
the sixty-four arts. 38. Just so, Dnyandev, why do 
you want to wander to sacred bathing-places with 
useleas thoughts in your mind? Why wander about 
uselessly ?* 39. The other replied, ' True, true. What you 
say is perfectly right, but I want association with such a 
God-loving hhakta as Nama is. 40. I want the joy of 
association with him, and so make my life worth living. ' 
Thus saying he lovingly placed his head on the god's feet. 

41. Then the Lord of Pandhari smiled and looking 
towards Nama He said to him, 'Dnyandev, who is actually 
God supreme, desires your company. 42. So, go with him at 
once and come back again soon. Accomplish whatever 
purpose you have in your mind. 43. But whether sitting 
or lying down or walking do not forget me. And Nama, 
life of my life, let your love of Me continue. ' 44. Thus 
speaking, God's throat choked with emotion. Then turning 
towards Dnyandev, He said, 45. ' You are wise and the 
very image of joy, I have one thing to ask you. Let the 
remembrance of it continue in your heart. 46. Nama grew 
up by My favour ; I have always loved him. For once I 
might bear separation from Rumi, ( Lakshmi ) but I could 
never be separated from Nama. 47. You have put Me into a 
dilemma, for I do not like to go against your wish. There 
is no one dearer to Me than Nama. ' 48. God then took 
Nama by the hand, and gave him into the hand of 
Dnyandev, saying, ' Never neglect him, lovingly care for 
him. 49. You are putting Me in a great difficulty in 
asking Me fcr the beautiful jewel ( Nama ) around my 
neck. So take care of this uncouth, innocent, crazy Nama, 
50. Never have I been separated from Nama, but beoauEe 
yf My respect for you, I am sending him with you. * 51, 

B. V. 11 161 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. X- 51-65 

Thus speaking the Husband of Ruma was moved with emo- 
tion. Tears filled His eyes. 52. Dnyandev then placed his 
head at God's feet and immediately started, taking Nama by 
the hand. They came first to the bank of Chandrabhaga riv- 
er. 53. After both had bathed they walked round the tomb of 
Pundlik.They made a JtamosAzzr before his feet and then cross- 
ed over to the other side of the river. 54. After seeing Nama 
off, Krishna returned to His own temple. Just then Rukmini 
came with a golden vessel to wash his feet. 55. When she gaa- 
ed into His face she saw His eyes were filled with tears and 
His whole body was wet with perspiration. The Mother of 
the world was astonished. 56. Rukmini placed Her head upon 
His feet and said to Him, ' Your condition today seems 
very strange. I feel very surprised.' 57. Hearing Rukmini's 
question the Life of the world said, ' My heart has been 
broken by the arrow of separation from Nama. 58. I love 
him greatly and therefore I feel very sad. By no method of 
joy does My mind become quieted. 59. Aside from Myself, 
Nama has no close friends and relatives. I feel great con- 
cern as to how he will keep alive without Me ? 60. Dnyan- 
dev came as a beggar and has carried away the wealth I had 
stored up, miserly as I am, in the form of God-loving Nama 
who is a mine of bhakti. 61. Nama is the child of My 
old age, and I am very fond of him all the time. But Dnyan- 
dev has forcibly dragged him away from Me, and taken 
him away to wander to sacred bathing-places. 62. I am, 
as it were, a tree in the form of the earth, and Nama is 
the moisture of My roots. Dnyandev, a water-deity as it 
were, has drawn it away. 63. As I was watering the tree, 
Nama gave it moisture like a cloud of joy. Dnyandev 
coming like a tornado carried it far away.* 64. Hearing 
Him say this, Rukmini replied, ' Weeping, pain, and de- 
sires do no injury to those whose lips repeat Thy name.* 
65. Hearing her, the Life of the world answered, ' You 
have spoken the truth, but I cannot endure a single moment 

162 



Ch. X- 65-80 KRISHNA PINES FOR KAMA 

without My bhakta. 66. lam theunmanifested and the fonn- 
less but have assumed attributes for the sake of my bhakfas. 
I have created the Heaven of Vaikunth for My bhaktaa 
to dwell in. 67. My bkakfas alone have the right to become 
sharers in my good fortune. I alone know their neces- 
sities. 68. Aside from My bhaktas no one knows my 
heart's secrets.' This the Lord of Heaven said to Rukmini 
with great emotion. 69. 'These bhaktas of mine put aside 
all pride, and become one with Me in essence, just as there 
is no difference betwsen a lamp and its light ; 70. or just 
as the sun and its rays are always united; or as gold and 
brilliancy are always found togather. 71. Nama is the 
dust of the feet of the chiefs of the bhaktas, who have the 
experience of soul-knowledge. I am separated from him 
to-day and therefore I am sad.' 72. Thus saying, the god 
fainted away and fell on the ground. Mother Rukmini, 
the Mother of the world, was greatly alarmed. 73. Bat 
regaining her courage, she awakened the god from his 
faint. She then invited all bhaktas to come there and told 
them what had happened. 74. She said, ' The Holder of the 
disk ( Krishna) suddenly gave a great sob and fell down in 
a faint. Do something to help. Gome near Him and tell 
Him.' 75. The bhaktas fanned Him with their clothes and 
asked Him, 'O Ocean of mercy. Saviour of the world, why 
art Thou so overcome to-day?' 76. Hearing the words of 
His bhaktas. He aroused Himself by force of will. The 
Life of the world awakened from His faint and said with 
emotion, 77. 'There is nothiag that I am mora fond of 
than Nama. I feel as though I must hold him to My 
heart in an embrace. 78. I am always working to meet 
the needs of My binktas. I am ashamed to say so. Btst 
Ngma has never put me into difficulty in working for him. 
79. I have not given him the four chief ends of the ex- 
istence of man. After his birth he made Me his deotor 
through service. 80. Slaughtering those powerful enemies^ 

163 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. X- 80-93 

lust, anger, pride and envy by his heroic deeds he coiiquered 
the difficulties of this earthly existence. 81. He put envy 
and conceit far from him. He freed himself from those 
enemies such as illusion and earthly attachment. And 
Kama has no fondness for exalting the inferior deities. 82. 
Nama will not bow to any other God than Myself. He 
has not seen one moment's rest for his soul except in Me. 
83 As he walks along the path, he must often be weary. 
Who will ask him whether he is hungry or thirsty ? This 
is what severely troubles me.' 84. As God said this, the 
bhaktas shouted out, ' Victory, victory, ' and overflowing 
with joy and love they prostrated themselves at His feet, 
85. From there they came to the eagle-platform, dancing 
with joy. They again prostrated themselves here before 
Him. 86. Seeing them do this, the Life of the world became 
slightly conscious. 

NAMDEV'S DOUBTS AND DNYANDEV'G REPLIES 

In the meantime Nama looked back very often. 87. He 
cried, ' O, God, Thou hast forsaken me. Thou hast not 
oome to see me off ' Thus speaking he fainted away. 88. 
Just as a child cries aloud when separated from its mother; 
as a young deer feels when losing sight of its mother-deer 
hunts for her in every direction ; 89. and as a man over- 
come with hunger, suffers from lack of food; and as one 
overcome with thirst hunts for water; and as the chatak 
bird, in its thirst, watches for a cloud; 90. and as a 
chakcr bird, on the first day of the month, searches for the 
moon; and as a fish in the hot season is troubled by lack of 
water; 91. and as when a young turtle is hungry and does 
not see its mother within sight; so by separation from 
F&ndurang, Nama was overwhelmed with grief. 92. He 
said to himself, ' I find myself in a forest overcome with 
anxiety. I see no one who is near and dear to me. Thou art 
iny father and mother. O God, rush to my help. 93. O 

164 



Ch. X- 93-105 NAMA'S DOUBTS 

Lord of Pandbari, Thou alone art ray dearest friend, my 
brother and my uncle. O Shri Vitthal, Helper of the beli>- 
less, Thou alone art my family deity. 94. Thou alone 
art the means for my gaining final deliverance. Thou, O 
Cloud of intelligence, who knowest the thoughts of the 
heart, who knowest whether my words are true or 
false, O Shri Vitthal. 95. O Ocean of mercy, supreme 
Lord of the earth, Nama is in great trouble without Thee. 
Look upon him with the eye of mercy, and let him be in 
the chamber of Thy heart. 96. Thus Nama, overcome 
with grief, used moving words. Dnyandev then addressed 
him. Listen to what he said. 97. ' With streams of love 
in your heart, why are you sad? God being in your heart, 
you are needlessly troubled. 98. chief of bhaklas, think 
for a moment. Your joy is in your heart. You yourself 
without question are the visible God with attributes. 99. 
The fragrant perfume, existing 3s it does in the navel of 
the deer itself, the latter needlessly wanders through a 
forest in search of it, so you, ignorant of your own 
spiritual nature, are overcome by the pain of separation. 
100. It is as if untold wealth lay buried in the house of an 
unfortunate man; he does not see it and therefore he goes 
hungry. ^Suchisyour case. ' 101. Hearing his words, 
Nama replied, ' Show me God Supreme before my eyes, 
and possessing attributes, with His feet parallel on a 
brick, 102. clothed around His waiat with a yellow robe, 
with both hands on His hips. Show me this Advocate of 
bhaktas, and Saviour of the world. 103. Show me the 
object of contemplation for Sanak and the others, the 
precious ornament of Shiva, the Husband of Eukmini, the 
Life of the world. 104. Show me at once Him of whpm 
Narad and Tumbaru with love sing day and night, the' 
Giver of the promise to Pundalik. 105. I know nothing of 
the means adopted in the yoga philosophy. My resting 
place is the Life of the world. O Dnyandev, if I do nok 

16$ 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. X- 105-118 

meet Him, my life will desire to depart. 106. Dnyandev 
Tilled, ' O Grod-loving bhakfa, there is no place empty of 
God. Abandon the idea of any difference in nature and 
recognize in your heart the One Being who is without a 
second. ' 107. Nama hearing this replied, 'The chatak bird 
will not drink water out of a river; he will only drink glad- 
ly of streams of water from the skies, 108. So God fills the 
whole universe, this seems to me as a false theory, ]ust 
88 a dutiful wife will not listen to the story of anyone 
aside from her husband. ' 109. In reply to this, Dnyan- 
dev said, ' The Being who is imperishable and One only, 
whom the wise worship, it is He who is in your heart. ' 
110. To this Nama replied, ' I am fond of a form that has 
attributes. For to look at it, is refreshing to the eye. I 
feel as if I wish to listen to songs in His praise. ' 

DNYANESHWAR ASKS ABOUT 'BHAKTI' FROM NAMDEV 

111. Dnyandev seeing Kama's firm resolve, said, 
' Blessed is your pure faith. ' In this manner they ex- 
changed their experience every day. 112. They tested 
their discussion by experience. Thereby they felt extreme- 
ly happy, and that brought them joy which their hearts 
could not contain. 113. Dnyandev further said to Nama, 
' Explain to me in detail the way of bhakli, by which you 
have made God subject to yourself. 114. In what way 
should one worship God V How should one listen and 
contemplate ? What is study ? What is the way of gain- 
ing courage ? 115. What is that we should call peace ? 
Tell me this in detail. For many days I have had it in 
my mind to ask you. 116. Tell me of the means of deliv- 
erance which you have obtained through your own ex- 
perience. * Dnyandev with hands joined together palm to 
palm, thus pleaded with Nama. 117. Having listened to 
his words, Nama tightly embraced Dnyandev's feet. His 
voice choked with emotion, and he said, 118. ' I do not 

166 



Oh. X- 118-131 SECRET OF BHAKTI ASKED 

know much about philosophy, and so I have been consign- 
ed to your care. The Husband of Bukmini placed my 
hand in yours. 119, I know little. I am very ignorant, 
and yet you ask me metaphysical knowledge. It is as if 
the wish-tree should become a beggar and go to the hou?e 
of a miser. 120. Or as if the Himalayas should become 
heated and call out, " Fan me with your garment; " or it 
is like the sun saying to anyone, " Light a lamp and bring 
it to my house; " 121. or it is as if the sky shoald 
say, " Give me an extended place in which to liva; " 
or as if ' the earth should come to the king, and ask 
him for a written deed of land; 122. or as if the 
ocean should wish to go and bathe in a popd; or as 
if a wish-cow should ask of a common cow to permit 
her to drink her milk; 123. so you, humbling yourself, ara 
asking me for metaphysical knowledge.* Thus speaking, 
Nama held Dnyandev by the feet. 124. Dnyandev said 
to him, ' Have no doubts in your heart. Abandoning all 
feelings of duality, speak out of your own experience. 
125. Nama, your clear speech seems to me deeper than the 
gea. The collection of the moisture of the supreme divine 
joy is always cool, and refreshing. 126. My ears are 
hungry to listen to it immediately, so let the nectar of 
divine knowledge at once rain down on them. 127. You are 
a refuge of rest, and therefore I have sought your company. 
Nama, you are God's loved one, you have made even Him 
subject to you. 128. Aside from the emotion of love, why 
does one need any deep knowledge ? Just as the great and 
the little stars wander all night long in the starry heaven, 
129. the north polar star ( Dliruva ) looks very small; still 
it is placed where it is ever unmoved; so Nama, you must 
never speak of your knowledge as little. 130. If a fire be- 
comes a great flame it does not spread an entirely pure 
light in the house; tell me how it can claim equality with 
the pure light of the lamp. 131. A lion's body seems small, 

167 



BHAKTAVUAYA CL X- 131-142 

but no elephant can endure its gaze. So Nams, your 
knowledge is superior by means of the brightness of your 
courage. 132. One may have collected a large quantity of 
medicines but it cannot be the equal of nectar, so even 
learned men have no knowledge equal to yours. 133. The 
flower of the cotton plant is without fragrance; yet from 
king to common citizen it is regarded as an adornment. So 
Nama, your knowledge is seen to be what would save the 
universe. 134. To listen to it my mind is filled with in- 
tense cesira and love. Now cease your silence and supply 
my longing.' 

NAMDEV'S TEACHING TO DNYANESHWAR ON ' BHAKTI* 

135. To this request of Dnyaneshvar, Namdev gave reply, 
' Listen then with reverence to my experience, O Sivami. 
136. One should have the determination to be indifferent to 
all earthly passions. One should have unchanging compas- 
sion on every creature. One should not have the trouble- 
some thought of ' I ' and ' thou '. One should not have any 
perplexities about the earthly life. 137. As soon as one 
reaches this condition his worship may be called pure* 
And if he does not have these characteristics, why adopt 
useless means of acquiring them ? 138. One can bow out- 
wardly and at the same time remember the faults of the 
person bowed to; just as a man with keen appetite may eat 
dainty food along with a fly in it. 139. Not to have in 
mind (any idea of) the superior and the common, that 
should be regarded as unceasing worship, for there is no 
cessation of the supreme divine joy in the heart. 140. God 
fills the universe. He pervades the universe. With that 
fixed thought, one should keep his mind steady. This is 
called contemplation, and it is an everlasting cloud of joy. 
141. Now you have asked how one should listen. Just as a 
deer, ^^bsorbed by the sound of music, forgets all about it- 
self; 142. just so with one's mind lost in tho subject, one 

168 



Cb, X- 142-154 KAMDEV ON BHAKTI 

should listen feo services of praise in honour of God. To this 
the wise and experienced give the name of bhakti through 
listening. 143. Just as a miser, giving his whole attention 
to his business stores up money ; so take thought for what 
is for your good. This is called contemplation. 144. ITow 
as to study, it is like a woman giving her love to a man 
( who is not her husband but ) who lives in her house 
according to popular custom. 145. The chatak bird lives 
on the earth, but it is always giving attention to the clouds 
in the heaVen. The lotus remains ia aiwnd, but its thought 
is towards the sun. 146. While a cow is feeding on the 
hillside, it has its thought, fixed on her calf; a miser with 
his mind placed on his wealth wanders about in tho 
bazaar; 147, a goldsmith fixing his attention on the 
stealing of gold, forms it into an ornament; the chakor bird 
though far away gazes at the moon; 148. a woman taking 
a water vessel on her head, walks along with uncumbered 
hands giving her attention to the vessel on her head, and 
at the same time gossiping; 149. a bee fixing its thought 
on a flower yet lives humming in the air; so while perform- 
ing one's domestic duties ia their outward form, God 
should be in one's heart. 150. Vitthal should be wholly in 
one's heart, but His form should be seen in every creature. 
One should entirely cast aside all wrong activities and 
thoughts and have love in one's heart. 151. He is called 
great who disassociates himself from worldly things and, 
standing alone with a character of goodness, wisdom and 
courage, devotes himself entirely to the loving bhakti of 
one God. 152. One should regularly sit down by himself 
and perform services of song in praise of God. All means 
that are employed contrary to this should be considered as 
bondage. 153. Tlius I have told you my exiwrience regard- 
ing body, speech and the feelings of the mind. But the 
one who is really telling this is the Lord of Pandhari, 
the Husband of Rukmini, Shri Vitthal.' 154. Hearing 

169 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. X- 154-164 

Kama's words, Dnyandev was greatly amazed. He said, 
' There are many bhafdas, of Vishnu, and in the future 
•Iso there will be an innumerable number, 155. but Nama's 
Aching is most unusual. One should not speak of it as 
being in the least out of the way. To-day a rain of nectar 
has fallen upon us. 156. This unlimited joy and peace 
hardly ever takes place in anyone. So consider it in your 
mind and let its cause and effect remain in your mind; 157^ 
There have been many writers of the Shastras and there have 
been many wise minds that have become well known. There 
have been many learned men devoted to the performance of 
deeds, and there have been graat men reverenced by others. 

158. Though a man may un(ierstand the art of poetry, 
though he may be clever in all the arts, though he may 
become very active and a ready speaker, though he may 
have become a reader of the Puranas and a seeker after 
salvation, still I cannot see him as the equal of Naraa. 

159. There may be jtvanmuklas ( free while alive ), who 
have the knowledge of the soul and acquainted with the 
yoga philosophy, and who sit down absorbed in contempla- 
tion, but I see no one among them like Nama. 160. Yoyis 
sit on iron spikes and live amongst men indifferent to 
Wirthly things, but in the whole three worlds one like 
Nama cannot be found. 161. Nama's method of bhakli is 
never understood by others, except by the Husband of 
Bukmini, the Lord of Pandhari who stands on a brick. ' 

DNYANESHWAR AND NAMDEV VISIT DELHI 

162. Such were their daily and occasional discussions, 
as they walked along full of joy. Suddenly in their 
wanderings to sacred places they arrived at Hastanapur 
( Delhi ). 163. Namdev in his love was singing of God's 
goodness. As he came near the city every one looked at 
him. 164. As they lif3tened to Nama's most unusual 
expression of k .e, they prostrated themselves before him, 

170 



Ch. X- 164-175 NAMA'S KIRTAN 

and taking cymbals, vina and drums they danced while 
singing songs of praise. 165. Having heard of Nama's 
kirfans an innumerable number of people gathered 
together. They carried musical instruments and banners 
and organized a great assembly. 166. Flags on which 
was the design of an eagle were waved, and musical in- 
struments made a great sound. Joy filled Hastinapur and 
cries of ' Victory, victory, * called out aloud the names 
of God. 

THE DELHI KING KILLS A COW WHICH NAMDEV 
RESTORES TO LIFE 

167. The Muhammadan king who lived in the city 
heard of the affair. He was told that the bhakta Nama was 
on his way to visit sacred bathing-places and had arrived 
from Pandhari. 168. ' He is performing kirtans in the city 
and these have absorbed the interest of the men and wo- 
men.' When the king heard of this his heart became full of 
anger; 169. just as when the moon arises, the thieves curse it 
in their hearts ; or as at the sight of the thousand-eyes ( the 
sun ) the night-wanderers ( evil spirits ) become enraged ; 
170. or as heretics curse in their minds after listening to 
the knowledge of the Vedas ; so an intense hatred arose in 
the king'.s heart. 171. But he said to himself,' I must go 
and see for myself Nama's recitation of Hari's deeds. If 
I am not convinced by it, I shall call it a heretical produc- 
tion.' 172. Thus thinking to himself, this evil-doer came to 
the kirtan; as if a Mang ( an out-caste ) should suddenly 
intrude into an assembly of Brahmans ; 173. or as if a dog 
should enter into a Brahman's kitchen and touch his food ; 
or as if that terrible disease ( leprosy ) should attack one 
in his youth ; 174. so this evil-minded man came suddenly 
and sat down in the kirtan. Just then Nama was filled 
with a sense of love, as he was describing the attributes 
of Shri Hari. 175. The sky reverberated with the sound 

171 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. X- 175-187 

of the cymbals, the drum and the vina. To that was added 
the loud hand-clapping. The enthusiasm was without limit. 
176. Now what did that Muhammadan do in the midst of 
the enthusiastic kirtan ? He killed a cow. And he said 
to Nama, ' What is it you are singing, you heretic ? 177, If 
you will raise this cow again to life I shall regard your 
songs as true If you do not bring the cow to life, I shall 
kill you with my own hand.' 178. When this evil-doer 
said this, the men and women became greatly concerned. 
Their minds were thrown into confusion and the enthusi- 
asm of love melted away; 179. as when dainty food has 
been served on plates and suddenly poison should fall on it ; 
or as when reading a book, a moth should put out the light ; 
180. or as if a poor man should find a mine of 
wealth, and then a ghost be created there ; or as when one 
is singing with a clear voice, and suddenly his throat 
should fill with phlegm ; 181. or as when a field of grain 
should grow rips and bear fniit a hundred thousand fold, 
locusts should attack it; or as when performing an auspici- 
ous ceremony in one's home it should at that moment be 
visited by death; 182. or as when the chakor bird is gazing 
at the moon, the monster Rahu should come in between ; 
or as when Agasti was drinking up the ocean, all the 
water animals were thrown into confusion; 183. such was 
the confusion felt that night by all the listeners. They sat 
silent in their places, for they could do nothing else before 
the king. 184. The Mubammadan king said to Nama, 
' When are you going to raise this cow to life ? Give me 
some evidence of your truth, and then go on praising Hari,' 
185. The noble Vaislmaoa having heard him replied, ' O 
king, it will certainly take me four days from today to do 
it. ' 186. Having heard him say this, the king went back 
to his palace. Namdev brought Hari to his mind, and 
earnestly asked Him to come to his help. 187. ' Victory to 
Thee, Merciful to the lowly, Purifier of the sinner. Lover 

172 



Ch. X- 187-199 NAMA'S PRAYER 

of His bhaktas. Cloud of compassion, Witnesssr of the 
thought of the heart, Mine of goodness, Ornament of His 
bhaktas, Govinda. 188. Victory to Thee, Father of Brahma- 
dev, Dweller on the ocean of milk. Thou whose form has 
attributes, Lord of the heart, Giver of blessing to Pundalik, 
Lord of Pandhari, Victory to Thee, the Indestructible, the 
Guru of the world. 189. Victory to Thee, Ram, Slayer of 
Ravana, Giver of joy to Nand, Slayer of Kans, Destroyer 
of the pride of the Kauravas, Protector of the Pandavas, 
Shri Krisjina. 190. Victory to Thee, Ocean of goodness. 
Cloud of joy, Thou who didst protect Draupadi from 
shame. Husband of Rukmini, lotus-e^ed One, the 
Ornament of His bhaktas, Panditrang. ' 191. Thus Nama 
filled with enthusiasm of love expressed his mourn- 
ful thoughts in the midst of the kirlan. His throat choked 
with emotion. Tears flowed from his eyes. 192. The large 
assembly of those who came to hear him began also to 
weep. For a whole day they sat there. 193. When the 
Bun arose they got up and went to their homes ; just as 
when in a time of famine the hypocritical donors send 
away those who come to them to beg; 194. or as when 
the organs of sense become weakened, men of gay life discard 
sensual things; or as when contractors see a loss coming to 
them and desert their province and country; 195. or as 
when the cool season arrives, the clouds vanish from the 
sky; or as when the rays of the sun fall on the colour of the 
patang wood and makes it fade ; 196. or as when a king 
falls en tbe battlefield, his army deserts him and flees 
away or as when the life of a creature is passing away it 
has to leave its body; 197. or as when a poor man comes 
to a well-to-do man, evil-minded relatives send him away 
or as when old age comes, the organs of sense cease to 
function properly in a man, 198. so as men listened to 
Namdev's klrtan, and saw his extreme distress, they all 
got up and left. 199. Nama took the head of the cow in his 

173 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. X- 199-212 

lap and wept. He cried out and said, ' O Lord of Pandhari, 
Shri Hari, come quickly to my aid. 200. Hast Thou been 
sleeping near to Rukmiui, and therefore been much delayed 
in coming ? Or hast Thou been sitting listening to hrtans 
of the God-loving bhnklas ? 201. Or hast Thou, O Krishna, 
got entangled in the thoughts of Yogis ? Or has anyone 
put Thee into difficulties and so Thou art remaining entang- 
led in them ? 202. Or, O Vi-^hnu, hast Thou been sitting 
receiving the worship of those who regard Thee as possess- 
ing attributes ? Or has Indra taken Thee along with Him 
for the purpose of drinking nectar ? 203. Or have pilgrims 
who belong to Thy bhaktaa arrived at Pandhari to see and 
worship Thee ? And therefore, O Lord of tha Heart, Thou 
hast long delayed coming to my help ? 204. Rich people 
worship Thee, providing many kindsof ornaments, garments 
and adornments and perhaps absorbed in these Thou hast 
forgotten all about me.' 205. Thus for four day.**, day and 
night he cried to God to come and help him. The airth was 
sprinkled by the tears that fall from his eyas. 206. He 
cried, ' O God, hasten quickly, for kat ( death ) has come to 
swallow Thy Nama. I am overcoma with concarn, like 
fish out of water. 207. Hearing these moving words the 
Holder of the disk (Krishna) immediately came, and 
manifested Himself in Nama's heart. 208. He immedia- 
tely raised the cow to life and then said to Nama, ' Awake 
to consciousness.' Nama seiizod Him tightly by the feet, 
and now listen to what he said. 209. ' O God, in 
what business hast Thou been entangled ? eagle- 
bannered One, for four days Thou hast put me to 
an extreme test. * 210. God replied, ' O Nama, it was 
you who made a needles3 promise. Why did you need- 
lossly cay that it would take four days to raise the 
cow to life ? 211. If you had only replied to the 
king that you would immediately raise the cow to life, I 
should certainly have rushed to your aid. 212. It is yout 

174 



Ch. X- 212-224 BHAKTI AND ITS FRUIT 

own mistaken thought that has boraa fruit. Why do you 
needlessly blame Me ? For I, God, am subject to you, 
and I naturally act through My love to you. 213. I aooepk 
as My duty the words that fall from the lips of My hhakiaa. 
The prophetic words which Valmiki used compelled Me to 
follow them. 214. When a seer looks into a mirror he sees 
himself just as he is. So when a man conceives of Me in hia 
heart, I, the Saviour of the world, am just aa 
be conceives Me. 215. Just as a crystal assumes the 
colour of the thing on which it is placed, so I, who am 
subject to My bhaktas become just ss they would 
like Me to be.' 216. Speaking thus, the Holder Of the 
disk ( Krishna ) became invisible. Nama opened his eyes 
and looked, and the cow was sitting there raised to life. 
217. Seeing this amazing thing, the people reported the 
matter to the king. Hearing this most extraordinary news, 
the Muhammadan king arrived onthesoane. 218. Seeing 
the cow whose head he had out off now raised to life, the 
king made a namaskar to Nama. 219. All the people felt 
great joy and exclaimed, ' Blessed is the Vaiihnava Nama, 
whose love for God, Brahaiadev and the other multitude 
of gods are unable to fully describe. * 220. Hands were 
clapped accompanied by cries of, ' Victory, victory. ' 
The assembly of bhakfaa rejoiced. Nama then arose and 
reverently worshipped Vanaoali (Krishna). 221. As the, 
final hymns of praise were sung, all shouted, ' Victory, 
victory. ' Blessed is this noble Vaiahnava, for he has made 
the Holder of the sarang bow ( God ) subject to him. 

222. Listeners must now give attention, and become 
absorbed in the stream of these stories; just as the Ganges 
river in its love becomes one with the ocean; 223. eras 
the royal swan comes to lake Manas and there chooses the 
milk out of the water, so discard the waters of wrong 
thinking and drink the nectar of love. 224. If you give 
good attention, great enthusiasm will come in their 

175 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch, X- 224-226 

recitation, and then Pandurang, renderjing His favour, 
will bring about the destruction of the sorrows of this life 
belonging to His servants. 225. The Merciful to the 
lowly, the Husband of Bukmlni, will cause me further to 
describe their lives in this book. Mahipati who is as it 
were His stamp, conveys this message to you listeners. 

226. SuxisH ( Peace ! ) This book is the Shri Bhakia- 
vijaya. When the Lord of the earth hears it He will ba 
pleased. Listen therefore, you God*loving, pious bhaktcu. 
This is the tenth very delightful chapter. 



176 



CHAPTER XI 

NAMDEV, KA.BIR AND DNYANDEV 
( Continued ) 
Obeisance to Shri Ganeih. Obeisance to Shri Krishna 
THE STORIES OF THE SAINTS ARE LIKE NECTAR 

1. Daar hearerB, listen now with attention. You are now^ 
offerdd a drink of nectar, in that these stories of the 
bkaldas, with their deap and marvellous significance, have 
blossomed like flowers through their being related in the 
Marathi tongue. 2. Just as a dainty food prepared in a 
Brahman's house is eatable by every caste; or as ornaments 
of gold remarkably adorn any beautiful form; 3. or as 
garments woven in cotton protect all from the cold; or as 
pure melted butter when stored by itself never spoils; 4. 
or as jewels in a golden setting are useful for all wearers 
of adornments; or as when the seed of the nectar plant is 
sown in the ground and spreads a million fold; 5. or as 
when stones are chiselled and a temple erected in which 
the image of Shiva ( Jashvanila ) is placed; so this easily 
understood book has become available for all. 6. But if 
anyone has a contrary opinion and says, ' How much are 
you going to boast of yourself ?' I reply, ' I have spoken 
to you as to an intimate friend with thoughts of love. 7. 
Though you needlessly blame me, do not neglect 
the Bhaktaiijaya. Disregard its faults and accept its 
good qualitiea You have the right to do this. 
8. On the other hand I Mahipati and dullness come 
in the same schedule of analogy. Let it be firmly under- 
stood in your minds that the Husband of Shri Rukmini 
is the composer of this book. 9. How can the dolls dance 
when the cords that move them are broken ? If the wind 
ceases to blow, the trees will never wave.' 10. It was rela- 
B.V. 12 177 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. XI- 10-21 

ted in the former chapter how Namdev raised a cow to 
life, and how the king came and worshipped his feet and 
every one vejoioed. 11. After performing this miracle 
he took leave of all, and as he walked along by day and 
night he was continually repeating the names of God. 
12. In whatever country he visited the sacred bathing 
places he composed verses in the same manner there. In 
their various languages he described the priceless qualities 
of God. 13. If I should mention in detail these sacred 
bathing places in the various countries, this book will be 
extended too much. Namdev visited all of them and 
finally came to Anandavan ( modern Benares ). 14. He 
bathed in the Bhagiratfci river He saw and worshipped 
Vishveshwar ( the Lord God of the universe ). Having 
thus carried out his purpose, his mind was full of 
supreme joy. 

KABIR'S WIFE AND THE REPENTANT GROCER 

15. Namdev remained there for four months, and ti.en 
a very extraordinary thing happened. There suddfinly 
came some saints to Kabir's house. IG. It was midni«bt 
when they arrived and all in the house were asleep. But 
suddenly Kabir noticed the arrival of the noble Vaishnaraa. 
17. Eabir and his wife both arose and made them a 
prostrate obeisance. Their house was in a dilapidated con- 
dition and very old. The wattle walls were in a broken 
state. 18, There was not a bit of food in the house. The 
children had gone to bed hungry. They removed the mat- 
ting from underneath the children, and gave it to the 
saints to rest upon. 19. Kabir said to his wife, ' We must 
make them an offering.' She said to her husband, ' That is 
true, but I am troubled in mind. 20. There is no grain in 
the house and no one in the city will lend us any, ' Then 
taking courage into her heart she went alone into 
the bazaar. 21. As she walked rapidly along the street 

178 



Ch. XI' 21-34 SABm'S WIFE 

she worehipped Shri Ram in words that fell from her 
lips. Said she, 'If I do not get food after this effort it will 
bring loss to my good deeds.' 22. Having arrived at the row 
of grocer shops she looked about her and spied in one shop 
a grocer who was awake. 23. Cbming to the shop she spoke 
to him in her sweet voice, ' Some saints have come to our 
house as guests, arriving from visits to sacred places. 84. 
They need to be given provisions of food. Do not delay 
giving them to me. Whatever price you may name I will 
bring it to you.' 25. The grocer said to her, ' Whose wif« 
are you, and who are you ? ' She replied sweetly^ 26. 
' The noble Vaishnava who was born in a Muhammadan 
family, Kabir, is my husband. Get up quickly and give 
me the materials I need. The saints are hungry.' 27. As 
this beautiful woman said this the grocer became enamoared 
of her, just as when Indra saw Abilya he had a wrong 
thought; 28. or as when Bhasmasur was overcome with 
desire when he saw the beautiful Parvaii ; or as Bavana 
looked upon the Mother of the univorse with a sinful eye ; 
29. or as Duryodhan entertained an evil desire about 
faithful Draupadi the wife of the Pandavas; so this sinful- 
minded grocer spoke to the wife of Kabir. 30. ' If you 
will do for me as I wish I will give you the materials. I 
will give you as many garments and adornments as ycu 
may ask of me. 31. If you have any hesitation in your 
mind then go back to your home. * Hearing the words of 
this evil man she thought to herself, 32. ' If I say No to 
him, where else can I obtain any food ? The saints will go 
hungry and that will be a loss to my good deeds. 33. Act 
according to circumstances; give a reply as occasion 
demands ; perform a ft/rtoz after judging the character of 
the audience; and sow seed according to the nature 
of the soil. 34. King Hariscbandra of the noble 
character carried water at an out-caste's house 
and bis queen Taramati suffered great mortification. 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XL 35-45 

35. Cha£f should be blown away in the direction of the 
wind. When one is sinking, one may seek the support of 
an out-caste. In time of famine, beggars have to ask for 
food even of a miser. 36. In order to carry on their 
domestic affairs Brahmans may have to serve Muhamma- 
dans. When the king of the Kali Yuga (evil age) comes to 
power at times, he compels men to do something unusual. 
37. The Shastras have spoken to men of what is their duty 
and what is not their duty. But if by doing what is not 
one's duty, one is thereby united to the feet of Shri Hari, 
one should do it. 38. One's mother and father are as it 
were sacred bathing places. To an elder brother honour is 
due just as to them. The command of one's family guru 
and that of a guest is one's authority for action. 39. If 
Bharat had listened to the wish of his mother, how would 
he have been united to the feet of Shri Ram ? Because 
Prablad turned against his father, Narahari was pleased 
with him. 40, Bali would not listen to the words of 
Shukra, and he offered to Vaman as much land as His 
three steps would cover. The oow-herdessess deserted their 
husbands and became absorbed in the form of Krishna. 
41. Violating the commands of their husbands, the wives 
of the rishis carried food ( to Krishna ). If they had obeyed 
the commands of the Shastras they would have been 
fleparated from the feet of Shri Hari. 42. And now, if I 
should consult the Shastras, my guests who are saints and 
Mdhus will remain hungry. So I will give my promise to 
the grocer and thus accomplish my purpose. 43. Then 
since I respect the names of God, the Dweller in Ayodhya, 
the Life of Janaki, who sees the thoughts of the 
heart and is a Cloud of Intelligence, will deliver me 
from all my troubles.* 44. Kabir's wife then courageously 
replied to the grocer, ' First give me the materials 
tot cooking, then I will truly come. 45. The night is 
now far spent and the saints at my home are hungry. If 

180 



Ch. XI- 45-58 THE EXACnNG GROCER 

I am delayed, these Vaishnavas will have gone to sleep.* 

46. The grocer heard her but did not think she was telling 
the truth ; just as in Duryodhan's sight no one was good. 

47. A blind man thinks everyone is blind. To a thief the 
moonlight seems filthy. The sick exclaim, ' What made 
you cook this bitter food?' 48. A miser has no compassion 
towards other lives. How can a meat-eater feel any love ? 
One ill with tuberculosis does not even in his dreams see 
himself with a beautiful body. 49. How can an evil man 
possess a feeling of love ? A reviler does not see anyone 
as good. A low caste man does not believe that a Brah- 
man's conduct is ever true. 50. So this grocer would not 
accept the promise of Kabir's wife as worthy of belief. So 
he said, ' If you will give me a definite promise, I shall 
regard it as true.' 51. Listening to the words of this evil- 
minded one, by the strength of her courage she controlled 
her mind. She thought to herself, ' If I do not give him 
the promise I shall not receive the materials * 52. So she 
gave him the promise and took in her garments the materi- 
als she needed. She hastened back to her home, and 
prepared these materials for cooking. 53. The saints then 
said to Kabir's wife, ' We wish to do the cooking ourselves.' 
The Vaishnavas then very lovingly took the cooking vessels 
and began to cook. 54. With great pleasure they prepared 
many various kinds of dainty food which was served 
on plates, and Eabir and his wife began the ceremonies 
of the saints' worship. 55. They offered to them per- 
fume, rice, garlands of flowers, fragrant ointments, 
incense, and bowed to them with reverence. 56. The saints 
bad their appetites satisfied with such food as they liked. 
Kabir's wife then called her husband into a private 
room. 57. The wife said to Kabir, ' You must remain 
with the saints. I gave a definite promise to the grocer, 
and was thus able to bring home quickly the cooking 
materials. 58. Give me your permission to fulfil the 

181 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XI- 58-78 

desire of the grocer. If I delay any longer the day will 
dawn, and that will mean loss of my character for truth- 
fulness.' 59. Kabir the bhakla listening to what she said 
replied, ' I also will come along with you. The grocer's 
kindness towards us has been very great. 60. The saints 
have been able to-day to obtain food. This will be credit- 
ed to him as a good deed. We have no way of repaying 
his kindness. 61. You have thought of a good way of 
doing this and have offered your own body in the service 
of the saints, so I will take you on my shoulder and carry 
you there. 65. A heavy rain is falling, a dense terrible 
darkness bas settled on this night and I am afraid to let 
you go alone.' 63. Thus speaking, Kabir made his wife 
sit on his shoulder and immediately hurried along to the 
bazaar. 64. As they passed along the street both of them 
lovingly worshipped Shri Bam. They exclaimed, ' Blessed 
is this happy day, which brought the Vaishnavas to 
our home' 65. Thus conversing with one another they 
quickly arrived at the shop. Kabir then said to his wife, 
' I will now go back home. 66. The saints are still at our 
home and might suddenly leave. I must hasten to go to 
them to serve at their feet. 67. Do not hesitate in the 
least. Carry out the wishes of the grocer.' Having thus 
spoken, the bhalda Kabir hastened homeward. 68. The 
grocer with his evil desires was sitting waiting for her. 
He thought to himself, ' She came alone tonight, and 
deceiving me, she has gone away.' 69. As this evil-doer 
was thus talking to himself he saw before him the wife 
of Kabir. It made him happy to see that she had kept her 
promise. 70. Sitting in his usual place the grocer said to her, 
'The clouds are pouring down rain without limit, how is it 
that your feet are not covered with mud ? 71. This fact 
perplexes me, so you, good woman, tell me the truth. ' The 
good woman having heard bim say this replied to the 
grocer, 72. ' Listen to me, you good sir. I will tell you 

188 



Gh. XI- 72-84 tflB BEFBNTANT QBOOBB 

«zaotly what happened After having given you my 
promise I supplied the wants of the saints. 73. The 
Vaishnavas were well satisfied. That good deed will go to 
your credit. Your great kiadness to us can never be 
repaid. 74. I call myself a faithful wife. The command 
of my husband is my authority for action. I gave you 
that promise because of the distress in which I was. 75. 
I told Kabir, the lord of my life, what had happened. He 
carried me on his shoulder and brought me to you. 76. 
He then went back. Now put aside your doubts and do 
whatever your mind wishes. ' 77. This mass of goodness 
having thus spoken, the grocer became repentant. He said 
to himself, 'I have come to the state of a human body, but 
I have not accomplished anything thereby. 78. After 
wandering for eight million four hundred thousand births 
I have suddenly attained this human body. Now I have 
taken no proper thought, and have allowed my mind to 
incline to sensual things. 79. Eabir is indiSerent to 
earthly passions and generous, and I have cruelly troubled 
bis wife; just as if a man should take in his hand 
an axe and cut down a tulsi plant; 80. or as if one should 
take a hoe and forcibly tear down a sacrificial building ; or 
•8 if one should push aside all worship of Shiva and 
belabour His emblem with kicks; 81. or as if one purposely 
•pilled a jar of nectar; or as if one purposely crushed the 
Shaligram ( emblem of Vishnu ) ; or seeing a banyan tree 
or pimpal tree, should cut them down with an axe; 82. or 
as if one should cross the Qanges without bathing in it; or 
as if one should revile the Shri BhaguxU; I have committed 
just those kinds of faults in causing this trouble to 
the bhakta Eabir. 83. I have never seen any other 
husband who would thus lend his wife to the use of 
another man. Blessed are you, O mother, mine of good 
qualities, the first mother, mother of the world. ' 84. Thus 
repentant in heart he made her a namashar and said, ' I ajn 

183 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. XI- 84-97 

ytut child, you are my mother. Do not keep in your mind 
my transgression. 85. In my ignorance I, who know but 
little, have troubled you. Forgive me all I have done and 
give me your blessing. 86. Take me as your child by the 
hand and place me at Kabir's feet. ' Thus speaking, he 
placed his hands on her feet again and agaia 87. Hearing 
him say these moving words, she exclaimed, 'O grocer, blessed 
is your mind. I see it as soft as butter. 88. The greatest 
men have expressed the opinion of the Shastras, that though 
one may have constantly committed very many evil deeds, 
if finally repentance is aroused in the heart, those sins at 
once disappear. 89. It is as if one should eat poison and 
then should receive a drink of nectar. By that he escapes 
hann, so all wise men say. 90. So listen to me, you 
courageous man. Just as soon as your heart felt repen- 
tance, the disease of sin in this earthly life ran away from 
you. 91. I will now at once cause you to meet Eabir. * 
Hearing her say this, the grocer was filled with supreme 
joy. 92. He put aside pride and conceit. He abandioned 
all evil qualities. He left seductive illusions and firmly 
held to qualities that are characterized by goodness. 93. 
And so becoming pure in heart, and bright with light, he 
left his shop. He hastened from there, having cut through 
the net of illusions. 94. In company with Kabir's wife 
he arrived at her home in less than a minute, and with 
feelings of reverence and love he made Eabir a prostrate 
namaskar. 95. He said, ' I am an ignorant, stupid child. 
I have truly committed an infinite number of transgre»> 
sions. You must forgive me, your slave, and lay 
your hand upon me and give me your blessing.* 
96. Eabir was a perfect reader of inward thoughts 
and he recognized in the gro(%r the feeling of 
repentance. He then embraced the grocer and saying 
'Fear not 'he gave him his blessing. 97. Such was the 
God- loving bhakta Eabir, always trusting, believing, unde>> 

184 



CJh, XI- 97-108 DNYANDEV INVITES KABIB 

standing, and as for himself he was indifferent to all 
earthly things but full of compassion towards others. 98. 
The grocer having thus repented he began to worship Shri 
Bam. Such is the greatness of association with a saint. 
Even the Vedaa and Shastras cannot understand its full 
power. 

KABIR MEETS DNYANDEV AND NAMDEV 

99. Namdev heard of the very extraordinary reputaUon 
of Kabir. He told Dnyandev of it and the two came to visil 
Kabir. 100. When Kabir saw Dnyandev and Namdev 
he made a prostrate namaskar at their feet. Kabir seemed 
very happy and embraced them with love. 101. He spread 
a straw mat on the floor for them to sit upon and the ejes 
of both of them became filled with nectar of love. 

102. Dnyandev said to Namdev, 'Remember whal 
happened long ago, how God whose home is on the ooean 
of milk gave you a command. 103. You are in reality 
XJddhav, and this bhakla Kabir is the avatar of Shuka, and 
both of you descended into this world of mortals as avatars 
in the heart of a shell, 104. The bhakti marga ( the way of 
devotion ) has become soiled. All mankind was sq^ in 
worldly concerns, and you came to this world of action to 
save them.' 105. When Dnyandev had thus spoken they 
bowed to one another. There was a mutual recognition of 
the facts of their inner condition. 106. Dnyandev said to 
Kabir, 'The sacred city of Pandhari lies in the country of 
the South. It was there that the Dweller in the Heaven 
Vaikunth came to visit Pundalik, 107. Though in the 
absolute form of the supreme Brahm, He took on a 
hiunan form. He performed miracles of various kinds. 
He is the Life of the world. He is Nama's Life of lov» 
and remains standing on a brick. 108. Some day you must 
come and see that ancient sacfed city with your own eyes.* 
Hearing Dnyandev's remark, Kabir fell at his feet 

185 



BHAKTAVUAYA C!h. XI- 109-115 

109. Kabir said to Dnyandev, ' I shall surely come to see 
and worship Him on the eleventh day of the bright half of 
the month of Kartik ( November ).* Such was his prom- 
ise, 110. Dnyandev and Namdev now took leave of Kabir, 
and at once started from there. And now, you good people 
must listen with reverence to the delightful story which 
will now be related. 111. Just as the thirsty man drinks 
water, or a hungry man eats delicious food, so giving 
your mind's attention to these stories of the bhaktas, listen 
with reverence, you pious folk. 112. If you have this feel- 
ing of love in your heart, it will bring infinite gain. 
This is Mahipati's plea to his listeners. May you have joy 
and happiness. 

113. Swasli (Peace!). This book is the Shri Bhaktavijaya. 
In listening to it the Lord of the earth will be pleased. 
Liaten, you God-loving pious bkaklas. This is the eleventh 
very delightful chapter. 



186 



CHAPTER XII 

NAMDEV AND DNYANDEV (Continued ) 

Obeisance to Shri Ganesh. Obeimnce to Shri Gopal Krishna. 

THE STORIES OF THE SAINTS SATISFY THE HEART 

1. To-day the three worlds are in the happiness of plenty. 
For the cloud, the Bhaktavijaya, has moistened the soil from 
the sky above. It has thundered aloud from the heaven of 
intelligence, and has poured down the water of Brahm-joy. 
2, The true-hearted ones who may be likened to the chntak 
bird have already satisfied their thirst. For other men , 
with minds both good and bad, there have grown many 
kinds of grain. 3. For the evil-minded, brute-like men 
there are plenty of weeds. The water which has soaked 
down deep into the soil has become useful for many. 4. 
On the rocky soil of those without any desire to listen the 
rain flowed away as it fell. Those surplus streams, how- 
over, flow on and remain in the sea of knowledge. 5. It is 
there that the wise and pious men swim about as fishes. 
And as the stream of water comes towards them in the 
form of waves of joy they play about with love and happi- 
ness. 

DNYANDEV GETS WATER FROM A DEEP WELL 

6. In the previous chapter the story was told of the 
meeting of Kabir and Nama ( and Dnyandev ). They re- 
mained by the bank of the Ganges for four months and 
then retraced their steps. 7. They visited Gaya and 
Prayag ( Allahabad ) and from there journeyed to Ayodhya. 
Then making rapid visits to Mathura and Gokul they 
arrived at Dwarawati. 8. As they were returning they had 
to pass through the desert of Marwad, and being overcome 
with thirst they searched about for water to drink. 9. 
Suddenly they spied a deep well and as they looked down 

187 



BHAKTAVUAYA CJh. XII- 9-21 

into it they could not determine its depth. They were 
puEzled to know what device to adopt to obtain some water. 

10, Then Dnyardev said to Nama, ' There is a method 
which is possible for me. * Saying this he reduced his own 
size through his yoga powers and went down into the well. 

11. Having drunk the water he quickly came out again. 

WATER COMES IN ANSWER TO NAMDEV'S PRAYER 

Nama was now extremely thirsty but could think of 
no way of obtaining the water. 12. Dnyandevthen said 
to him, ' Why is your heart troubled ? I will bring the 
water and give it to you at once. 13. You know nothing 
of the methods of the mystic yoga power by which one can 
reduce his size. No longer hold in your mind the feeling 
of duality, and drink the water. 14. Do not refuse to 
drink the water taken frran my hand, for the soul which is 
a Cloud of intelligence is one and pervades every living 
being alike.* 15. Nama replied, 'Vitthal is the soul in 
every heart, so, O Swami, why will he not put away my 
distress far from me ? 16. Have patience for a moment 
and see a miracle. ' He then closed his eyes and brought 
the Lord of the Yadavas ( Krishna ) to his mind. 17. 
Nama brought into his imagination the image of Pandu- 
rang and thus prayed to him. ' Rush to my aid, O Husband 
of Eukmini. Why hast Thou forsaken me? 18. Thou 
only art my mother, my father, my dearest friend, my 
brother and uncle. Thou alone art my family deity. Why 
hast Thou forsaken me to-day? 19. Thou art my wealth 
and my property. Thou art my philosophic knowledge. 
Thou art my accomplishment of yoga. I recognize no other 
source. 20. Now hurry to my aid, lest Thou shouldst see 
my end. O Thou merciful One, Helper of the helpless, be 
the Helper of Thy lowly one.' 21. As he was saying 
these things tears flowed from his lotus-eyes. Said he 
•O God, my courage will not hold out any longer. 

188 



Cb. Xn- 21-3 1 KAMA'S PRAYEB 

Without Thee my life is in great trouble. 22. I Thy 
ignorant child am Thine in body, speech and mind. I am 
overpowered with thirst today. To whom shall I go for 
help ? 23. O Giver of blessing to Pundalik, O Husband of 
Bukmini, from birth I call myself one cared for by Thee. 
And now, O Cloud of mercy, if Thou forsakest me, who 
will be the one to be ashamed ? 24. For in the Vedas and 
Puranas Thou art described as the Helper of the helpless, 
and if Thou forsakest me it will become evident at once 
that Thy noble reputation is false. 25. When the crocodile 
seized the Qajendra ( the noble elephant ) Thou, O God, 
Lord of the heart, didst hasten to help him; with the same 
speed come to my help to-day. 26. When Draupadi was in 
distress, Thou didst quickly come to her aid, but it would 
seem tbat Thou hast forgotten all Thy compassion. 27. O 
Husband of Bukmini, when sending me to visit sacred 
bathing places. Thou didst give me into Dnyandev's 
hands. Why art Thou regardless of me today, O merciful 
One, and dost refuse to come ? 28. Thou compassionate 
One, Lord of the earth, do not give me this trouble. But 
hasten to the aid of Nama, overcome with thirst, and des- 
pondent without Thee. 29. If Thou dost not come here to- 
day all evil-minded men will laugh at me. So hasten to 
my help and care for me who am Thy lowly one. ' 30. 
{ In this connection ) let us think now of Pandharpur, that 
heaven upon earth where Shri Hari lives in His temple 
and where His heart's love for His bhaktas is the same for 
ever. 31. For while this compassion was moving in His 
heart, the Lord of the earth said to Bukmini, ' If I can 
only see Nama once more, I will never separate him from 
me. * 32. Bukmini said, ' Daar God, why is it that today 
this tender love has come to thee ? What trouble has come 
to Nama, that Thou shouldst be so sad ? ' 33. Hearing her, 
the Life of world replied, ' Today my left eye throbs and 
my left arm twitches. I therefore feel concerned. 34. I feel 

189 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. XIL 34-^46 

greatly troubled as to which of My bhaktas is in distress. 
I am unable to find out.' So said Krishna. 35. 'May the 
howling wind not affect them, my dear bhaktas. I cannot 
understand which of them is affected by thirst or hunger.' 
36. After Rukraini had listened to His remark, she began 
to give close attention to the thought and just then the 
mournful cry of Nama fell on her ears. 37. Said she, ' O 
Qoi supreme, Nama is overcome with thirst and is crying 
to Thee for help. Rush quickly to his aid. Do not delay a 
moment.' 38. The moment He heard her suggestion He 
hastened more quickly than thought. Just then the well 
with a rumbling noise became filled, and began to over- 
flow. 39. As Dnyandev saw this miracle, he thought to 
himself, ' This is a most remarkable deed. I do not under- 
stand how Nama has made God his debtor.' 40. Tlifn 
awakening Nama to consciousness he lovingly embraced 
him and said, ' Krishna has come to your aid, and has 
shown us this seemingly impossible miracle. 41. The 
monkey made stones float on the water. Vashishtha heat- 
ed his staff. And the son of Gadhi ( Vishwamitra ) created 
a new world by his own power. 42. Bhagirath with great 
effort brought the Bliagirathi river down to the surface of 
the earth. After making Shiva favourable to him, Gautam 
brought down the Godavari river. 43. But in a morft 
wonderful way at Hastinapur he ( Nama ) raised a dead 
cow to life ( see Chapter X ) and now when overcome with 
thirst he has brought up the Ganga from the regions 
below.' 44. In thus speaking to Nama he brought back 
somewhat of his consciousness. Then drinking of the 
water freely Nama said to Dnyandev, 45. ' God always 
supplies that which I earnestly request of Him. When 
I see the iamal dark One then only my eyes 
become cool.' 46. To this Dnyandev replied, ' I have 
seen yogis sitting in contemplation but in seeing 
them my mind never attained a sense of peace. 

190 



Cai. Xn- 47-58 DNYANDEV & KAMA 

47. To you alone my sense of love has become in- 
finite. I cannot think of anything else but you. You, a 
bhakta of Vishnu's personification of love, have made the 
Husband of Eukmini subject to yourself. 48. Krishna 
the Supreme Spirit is beside you. Blessed, O Nama, is your 
family line. I feel the same happiness that a cow feels on 
seeing its little calf. 49. In seeing your noble qualities 
my mind has become filled with the joy of love. As I list- 
en to your praise of God, I no longer care for pilgrimages 
and sacred places. 50. The Vedas, Smritis and the Puravea 
are fully enamoured by the qualities of Hari. And 
seeing your love, the yogi& have cast aside their contempla- 
tion.51. The crowd of Rishis, Gandharvas (celestial singers), 
Brahmadev, Indra and other deities sought with feelings 
of love to fathom the formless One, 52. yet they were un- 
able to attain God. But you made Him subject to your- 
self.' Having said this, Dnyandev embraced Nama's feet. 
53. Tliat well, where Nama became overwhelmed with 
thirst, still flows today in that very place in the Marwad 
country. Pilgrims assemble there in the month of Marga- 
shirsh ( December ) 54. If I should stop to relate the glory 
of that sacred bathing place, it would vastly increase the 
size of this book. Dnyandev and Nama now departed 
from that spot. 

DNYANDEV AND NAMA ON PILGRIMAGE 

55. They saw many sacred bathing places in the 
different countries through which they hastened. They 
visited Badrikashram in the Himalayas and arrived in 
the Himalaya mountains. 56. They visited Jagannath of 
Odliya where God lives in the form of Buddha; and even 
in the Kali Yuga seemingly impossible miracles still take 
place here today. 57. After visiting Onkar andAmaleshwar 
they went on to Kedar. From there they visited Mahskale- 
shwar at Ujjain. 58, After seeing that place, they came back 

191 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XII- 58-69 

and after visiting Paralivaijanath they arrived at Soratisom- 
nath. 59. Their next place was the mountain of ShriShaila 
where the Husband of, Parvati lives ( in a Shiva temple ). 
For sixty years He had been waiting for these bhakcas to 
come there. 60. After visiting this place they hastened 
on to see Gbrishneshwar. I am not able properly to 
describe the great glory of the sacred bathing place Seval. 
61. From there they came to Nasik and Trimbak where 
they bathed in the Kushavart pond. After worshipping the 
five-faced One ( Shiva ) they departed from there ( see page 
88 of Nama's OcUhas). 62. They had a view of the 
western ocean and then arrived at Bhimashankar where 
they worshipped Janardan. From there they started for 
Rameshwar. 63. Thus taking one after another the most 
important sacred bathing places on the surface of this 
earth, among which the most distinguished of them are 
mentioned as well known and with high reputation in. the 
Puravas. 64. Ayodhya, Mathura, Kanti, Benares, Dwara- 
wati, Avanti and Maya, the seven cities as givers of salva- 
tion, were lovingly visited with repentant hearts. 65. To 
this may be added the celebrated twelve Jyofirlingaa. I 
have mentioned only these; still there are many. on the 
earth which remain to be mentioned, but to what length 
should I go in speaking of them in this book ? 66. Just as 
when one looks at the moon, the eye without any effort 
sees the stars ; or if one dug up a tree and gave it to any- 
one, the branches would naturally go with it ; 67. or as 
when drinking nectar it includes every medicine ; or as 
when studying the Vedanfa, one thereby understands the 
meaning of the Vedaa ; 68. or as when worshipping the 
Aahvattha tree, it is the same worship given to eighteen 
bhars (a bhar is 8000 tolas) of vegetables; or as when 
one sees the serpent on which the earth rests, he has 
seen practically all other serpents also; 69. or as when 
offering a garland of tulsi leaves to Vishnu, there is included 

192 



Oh. XII- 69-78 NAMA AT NAGNATH 

in it the sixteen materials of worship; or as when having 
seen the Hiisband of Mridani ( Shiva ) one has seen all 
yogis; 70. or as when one sees the elephant AiravcU, he hat 
really seen every elephant on earth; or as when the 
Husband of Sbachi ( Indra ) becomes pleased, the other 
gods are pleased also ; 71. or as when the son of Yinata 
( the eagle, Vishnu's vehicle ) comes in to one's sight, 
that includes all birds ; or as when one sees the Himalaya 
mountains, the whole stable creation becomes known; 72. 
so, in describing the greatness of the seven salvstion-gjv- 
ing cities, and the greatness of the twelve /mpas, one has 
ttaturally met with the names of the other saored bathing 
places on the earth. 

NAMA AND DNYANDEV AT NAGNATH 

73. After visiting Eameshwar both returned from 
there. The God-loving b?taktas, Nama and Dnyandev, 
finally arrived at Nagnath. 74. The fourteenth of 
the dark half of the moon in the month of Magh 
i February ) is the special night for the festival 
in honour of Bhiva. On such an occasion Nama and 
Dnyandev arrived at that place. 75. Just as on the first 
day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Chailra 
{ April ) the cycle of sixty years comes to one's home; 
ur as when on the second day of the bright half of the moon 
in the month of Magh, Dharmarao ( god of death ) oomos 
to His home; 76. or as when on the third day of the bright 
half of the moon in the month of Vaiahakh one's host of 
ancestors come as one's guests ; or as when the elephant- 
faced god ( Qanesh ) arrives on the four& day known as 
Oanesh Chaturthi; 77. or as on the fifth day of the bright 
half of the moon in the month of Shramn ( August ) the 
great serpent comes to one's home; or as when the Husband 
of Mhalasa ( Ehandoba ) is to be met in the month of 
Margashirsh ( December ); 78. or as when on the seventh of 

B. V. 13 198 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XII' 78-87 

the bright half of Magk ( Febniaiy ) the sun oranas a« a 
goasfc ; or as when the king of the Yadavas ( Krishna ) 
o(xnes at the tims of Janmashtami ( or Ookul Ashtami ) to 
occupy His cradle ; 79. or as when the son of Kausalya 
( Ram ) on HamnaTami day ( the ninth of the month of 
ChaUra or April ) suddenly arrives playing ; or as when on 
the tenth of Vijaya ( the month of Aahvin or October ) the 
Mother of the world ( Parvati ) comes hastening home ; 
80. OT as when on the eleventh of Aahadh ( July ) one sees 
the image of Sbri Vitthal as seen by the God-loving 
bhaktas, who look upon Him with great pleasure and feel a 
joy which their hearts cannot contain ; 81. or as when on 
the twelfth day of the bright half of the moon in the 
month of Kartik ( November ) Shri Krishna comes to 
Yrindavan; or as when on the thirteenth of the month in 
the evening, the Husband of Mridani ( Shiva ) returns at 
the time of the evening worship ; 82. or as when on the 
new moon day of the month of Shravan ( August ) Nandi- 
keshwar comes back to the cows' stable ; just so, Nama and 
Dnyandev arrived on Shivaratri ( Shiva's festival ). 83. 
The bhaktas speak of the holy city Avandhanagnath as a 
second Kailas (heaven). At this place and at this time of 
the festival both arrived with joy of love. 84. After 
bathing in the sacred waters and performing their usual 
rites of worship, they prostrated themselves before the 
great door of the temple with feelings of love. 85. Then 
in their affection they entered into the inner shrine in 
order to see and worship God. Here again they prostrated 
themselves before Nagnath. 86. They said to the god, 
' O Helper of the helpless. Husband of Parvati, Dweller in 
the cemeteries, Holder of the khatvang ( sword ), Lord of 
Kailas, Digambar, Lord of the earth. King of the universe.' 
87. Having thus spoken they touched the god's head with the 
palm of their hands, and knowing their love, Shiva was 
much pleased in His mind. 

194 



C3h. XII- 88-100 KAMA'S KIRTAh 

NAMA'S ^/JJr^AT BEFORE NAGNATH 

88. Namdev then stood before the g^reat door 
of the temple and began a Tartan. He took in his 
hands the cymbals and vina and loudly shouted the 
names of God. 89. Bringing into his mind the image of 
Vitthal he closed both his eyes. He had no longer the least 
consciousness of possessing a body. 90. He put aside 
the thoughts of honour and insult and the proud ways of 
men. He put aside every form of desire and in his love 
performed the Urtan. 91. He put aside all idea of distinc- 
tions. He out off from himself the idea of duality. He 
hroke through the bonds made by the snare of desires and 
danced in his joy and love. 92. Accompanying the sound 
of cymbals, drum and vinuy he performed a Idrtan with 
feelings of love. A great crowd of people came with the 
desire to listen. 93. Just as at the time of the full moon 
the Husband of Rohini (the moon ) looks beautiful in its 
various phases, and the ocean seeing it swells with the joy 
of love; 94. or as when the oil-wick is pushed far forward 
the flame is increased ; or as at a Brahman's oblation the 
flun feels happy; 95. or as when drinking nectar, one's 
body becomes immortal; or as when a generous man 
distributes his wealth, beggars rejoice; 98. or as when 
the rain falls, the grass grows in desert places; or as 
when Brahmans receiving sweet delicious food they become 
supremely happy; 97. so, in listening to Nama's Urtan all 
good listeners became happy. In listening to Qod's 
goodness, in their joy of love, tears fell from their 
eyes. 98. Their throats choked with emotion, their hair 
stood on end, and the hearers for the time being lost 
all consciousness of body. 99. When a king throws aside 
the glory of courage, his army naturally does the same. 
If'the mind drops all shame of sensual things, then the 
organs of sense forget their functions. 100. So when 

195 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XII- 100-110 

Namdev cast aside his oonsciotisness of body the very 
same thing happened to his listeners. As they listened 
to the character and deeds of Shri Hari they all 
lost consciousness of body. 101. As they brought into 
their minds the Lord of the world, they clapped their hands 
in joy, they shouted aloud the names of Vitthal, and their 
minds were unable to contain their happiness. 

BRAHMAN8 ANGRY WITH NAMA 

102. Brahmans just then came from bathing, having 
rubbed ashes all over their bodies. Around their necks 
they had placed garlands of rudrakska. Their dhotars were 
wet. 103. Their hands held the water and the sixteen 
materials intended for their worship. In order to bathe 
the god they came to the big door of the temple. 104. Here 
Nama was performing his kirtan, singing and dancing in 
the joy of love. An enormous number of people were 
assembled there and the Brahmans could see no way of 
getting through them. 105. Outwardly they had perform- 
ed their devotions and baths, but their minds within were 
defiled with wrong thoughts. They said to the peopIe> 
' Look out or you will touch us ; get off to one side.' 106. 
A bad man who has anger in his heart thinks that every- 
body is impure. And as he is fallen into the net of wrong 
thought, he does not see anyone as pure. 107. In the praise- 
services fn honour of Hari there is no such thing as 
being defiled by one another, so in going into an assembly 
of Brahmans to see and worship Shiva and Vishnu, no one 
should think of defilement. 108. Anyone who says the 
Bhagavadgita or the Bhagwat are defiled by touch is a heap 
of sin. He who finds fault with the Vedanta should be 
considered the same. 109. Not recognizing the truth of 
this, these Brahmans were possessed with envy. They 
were filled with anger and spoke roughly to the people. 

110. They shouted at them, 'Why are you singing here 

196 



Ch. XII' 110-123 BEAHMAire' THREAT 

uselessly, clapping your hands and shouting aloud? 
Such doings are acceptable at Pandhari only. Nagnath 
does not enjoy such things. 111. Every one should be ad- 
dressed as he likes. Why should salt be put into 
milk ? If you add sugar to vegetable, you never increase 
the good taste. 112. If you hold a perfume to the ear, it 
cannot smell it. Why tell stories to the eyes ? 113. Show 
a mirror to your tongue and it cannot see itself. If you 
show to your eyes some sweet tasting juice, they cannot 
partake of it. 114. So the Lord of Kailas ( Shiva ), the 
Husband of Uma, is not fond of these kirtans in honour of 
Hari. Go off to Pandhari and dance there putting aside 
all shame. ' 115. When the Brahmans said this, the 
listeners replied, ' You ought to bear in mind that Hari 
and Hara ( Vishnu and Shiva ) are not different from one 
another; 116. just as the water of the sacred bathing place 
and the common element of water are not in the slightest 
degree different; sweetness and sugar are not to be disting- 
uished from one another; 117. a lamp and its light, a 
flower and its honey, are not different; the sun and its rays 
are not different; 118. one should not say that a cloud and 
water are different; one should never try to separate brill- 
iancy from a jewel; 119. how can one point out unlikeness 
between delicious food and its taste ? A musical instru- 
ment and its sound are always without any difference; 120. 
•0 all wise people speak of Shiva and Vishnu as really one. 
As the Slayer of Madan ( Shiva ) listened to the praises of 
Vishnu, He lovingly wagged His head in joy.' 121. The 
Brahmans hearing this reply of the listeners, grew very 
wrath, and said, ' These low people, with pride in their 
hearts, are preaching to us, 122. even to us Brahmans 
who are of the highest caste and who have authority to 
explain the Shastras with full knowledge. We do not 
approve of the principles preached by Nama. 123. Now 
get away from here at once; if not, we shall punish you. • 

197 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XII- 123-136 

To this threat of the Brahmans no one replied. 124. ' We 
have already been delayed in our worship of Shiva and there 
is no way open for us to go into the temple,' said one. Another 
said, 'Beat out Nama at once. 125. If anyone of these people 
touches us, we shall have to go again and take a bath with 
our clothes oxC Saying this, two of them forced them- 
selves into the midst of the audience. 126. Just as when 
gifts are given to those who are worthy of them, those who 
are unworthy are driven away by envy, so these Brahmans 
suddenly walked into the midst of Nama's kirtan. 127. They 
said angrily to Nama, * Why are you needlessly making 
all this noise here ? There is no way open to us for going 
through the crowd in order to see and worship Shiva. 

128. You have cast aside bodily consciousness and made 
everyone else like yourself. In giving these men your 
principles you have hindered the performance of our rites. 

129. Now go and stand at the back of the 
temple, and there you may sing without any shame. * 
Namdev having listened to their demand, bowed to the 
Brahmans. 130. He replied, ' I will do so '. And the noble 
Vaishnava went away from there. The enthusiasm of 
the kirtan immediately melted away; 131. just as when 
some intoxicating liquor should fall into a jar full <bf 
holy water; or as when salt is put into milk it immedi- 
ately spoils it; 132. or as when the paste of sandalwood 
has been prepared, there should fall garlic into it; or as 
when assafoetida is mixed with musk, it naturally destroys 
the latter ; 133. so when the servant of Vishnu ( Nama ) 
arose to go the enthusiasm of the kirlan melted away. 
Seeing this the hearts of the listeners felt extreme sorrow; 

134. just as when delicious food is served on plates, and 
a crow snaps it up; or as when one comes back from 
a journey and he is robbed by thieves on the way; 

135. so the crowd with troubled minds went away from 
here and all followed Nama. 136. In company witk 

19S 



Ch. XII- 136-149 NAMA'S PLEA 

Namdev they retired behind the temple of Shiva, 
and there sat down for the oontinunance of the kirlan. 
137. When the sun sets, its rays go with it; when 
the king goes into the wilderness, his army also 
accompanies him; 138. in whatever direction the 
wind blows, the clouds also move along the same path; so 
all the listeners followed Nama. 139. With joy and 
shouting they clapped their hands at the name of Hari, and 
tears flowed down from the lotus-eyes of the servant of 
Vishnu ( Nama ). 140. Nama cried out, ' O Purifier of the 
sinner, Helper of the helpless. Husband of Rukminir 
hasten to my help. O Life of the world, why hast Thou 
deserted me in this foreign land ? 141. It is to-day as if 
a doe had discarded her young; or as if a bird had for- 
gotten her fledglings; or as if a mother had abandoned her 
child in a jangle ; 142. or as if the c^aA: bird w«re forgotten 
by the clouds ; or as if the moon were angry with the chakor 
bird; or as if the sun were angry with the lotus; 143. today 
it is as if the soul has abandoned the body ; or as if sight 
had turned against the eye ; or as if the five vital airs had 
discarded life ; such is our unhappy condition to-day. 144. 
O Dweller in Pandharpur, Vithabai, family goddess, how 
is it Thou hast forgotten me ? 145. I have wandered all 
over the sea around the continents and with my own eyes 
have seen all the sacred bathing places, but I have no- 
where seen a god such as Thee. 146. With feet parallel, 
with hands upon the hips, beautiful in form, delightful to 
look at, as one sees and contemplates the unclad idol, 
consciousness entirely melts away. 147. While the 
cymbals, the vina and the drum are sounding, and the 
eagle banners create a beautiful sight ; as one looks at 
them the eyelids forget their activity of winking. * 148. 
Thus Nama, choked with emotion, thought of the Husband 
of Bukmini. Just then a most extraordinary thing 
happened. Listen to it, you hcdy, pious oneB..}iti49. Nine 

199 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XII- 149-159 

hundred thotisand banners osme down from heaven 
like lightning and suddenly stood upright where the 
Mrtan was being performed. 150. They were not merely 
nine hundred thousand flags ; they were the fruit of the 
nine forms of bhaMi ; or as if the nine sentiments becom- 
ing personified entered the kirtan performance. 151. See- 
ing this marvel, all men were amazed, and gazing with 
their eyes, stood astonished with no thought of their 
possessing a body. 152. This so filled with joy the servant 
of Vishnu ( Nama ) that he shouted with enthusiasm the 
names of Vitthal, and in his love he danced in the midst 
of the kirlan. 153. The night was one in the dark half of 
the moon ; it was intensely dark, but the banners filled 
with their light every available space. 154 The joy was 
great in Nama's heart. The sound of the clapping of hands 
fiUed the sky. The gods rained down an abundance of 
flowers. The marvel was one beyond conception. 155. 
The people in their joy raised their hands aloft and made 
the sound of handolapping and of the snapping of their 
fingers. The sixty-four arts, personified, seemed to be 
standing there watching the marvel in astonishment. 

NAMA'S PRAYER 

156. Nama then thought to himself, 'Everything seems 
to be favourable here, and made so by the Lord of Pandhari, 
but there seems to be one thing lacking. 157. Nagnath 
is facing the other way. He has turned His back on this 
kirtan in honour of Hari. I do not know what wrong has 
been committed by pie. 158. Were the temple of Shiva 
before us, the enthusiasm of the kirtan would have been 
great. Why does not the Husband of Rukmini come to 
my aid ? Why does He hold His anger against me ? 159. 
Victory to Thee, O Thou who delightest in Thy home on the 
sea of milk, Husband of Lakshmi, most generous One, 
Helper of the helpless, compassionate One, come swiftly to 

200 



Ch. XII- 159-171 A TEMPLE TUBN8 BOUND . 

my help. 160, Victory to Thee, the One who didst free-. 
Gajendra ( the elephant ), Home of mercy, Father of 
Brahmadev, King of the Yadavas, put aside Thy 
maya as I utter Thy name, and do Thou hasten to 
help me. 161. Upamanyu made Thee an obstinate appeal, 
and Thou gavest to him the ocean of milk. In the same 
way be merciful to me and hasten to my aid. 162. In 
order to protect Draupadi from shame, Thou didst make 
her four-handed. Be merciful to me and come to my help. 
163. Thfa Muhammadan king killed the cow in the midst 
of the Aitrton and I then put Thee in trouble, Master. 
Thou didst immediately come to my help and in a moment 
raised the cow to life. 164. When I was thirsty in the 
wilderness Thou didst immediately come to my assistance, 
but now having a hardened heart. Thou dost not quickly 
come, O Vitthal. 165. Shiva is sitting in His temple, with 
His back turned towards me. Now look upon me with the 
eye of mercy and come to my help, O Lord of the universe.* 
166. Thtis Nama, full of love, mournfully pleaded in th« 
midst of his Ax'rton. Suddenly an extraordinarily wonder- 
ful thing happened. Listen to it, you pious bhaJdas. 

THE TEMPLE FACING EAST TURNS WEST 

167. The temple that had faced the east, suddenly turned 
around to the west. All expressed their astonishment. 
Blessed was that time and day. 168, In the joy of love 
they clapped their hands. The whole assembly of bhaktas 
rejoiced. They cried out, ' He who wears the moon on His 
forehead ( Shiva ) has certainly come to the help of Nama. ' 
169. Hearing Nama's kirtan the Husband of Parvati 
( Shiva ), together with the temple, turned their faces to 
the west and listened with love, 170. Seeing how great 
was the bhakti of Nama, the listeners became full of joy. 
Nama remarked to them, ' The doer of this is the merciful 
Shri Hari. ' 171. This most extraordinary kirian of 

201 



BHAKTAVUAYA CL XII- lll-lSl 

Nama was seen as being performed in front of the 
temple with the joy of love. 172. After the Brahmans 
had performed their worship they came outside the temple, 
and lo ! the kirtan of Nama was being performed in front 
of the temple with the joy of love. 173. After bathing in 
the holy water early in the morning, they sought 
to make cblation to the sun. Then they remarked, 
'The sun seems to have arisen in the wes*^, 174. or else 
we have lost all sense of direction. Or perhaps by keeping 
awake, we have fallen into some misconception. Or 
if not that, it would seem as though Shiva had become 
esi)ecially pleased with Nama.' 175. After further thought 
they looked about them, then they glanced to see if the 
sacred bathing place was still the same> but they did 
not see it there. 176. It was the temple alone that had 
turned and was now facing Nama. And those many 
divine bannera shone like lightning. 

PENITENT BRAHMANS 

177. Seeing this, the Brahmans were astonished and 
remarked, ' Even Brahmadev and the other gods could not 
understand the limits of Nama's power. 178. Being proud 
of our own deeds, we have needlessly persecuted him. * 
Thus repentant in heart they came into the place where the 
kirlan was being performed. 179. The Brahmans remarked 
to Nama, ' Blessed are you, God-loving noble Vaishnava, 
the full avatar of Uddhav. This we now truly understand. 
180. You have performed and shown to us what the ear 
has never heard before, nor the eye has ever seen. O 
Nama, blessed is your mother. This assembly is fortunate 
indeed. 181. May your extraordinary praise spread 
throughout the three worlds, so long as the earth, the moon 
and the sun are seen with a form. 182. Until then, may 
the holy bhaklas sing of your life by their lips, for the 
ears which will listen to it will become holy in a moment. 

202 



Ch. XII- 183-193 BRAHMANS AND KAMA 

183. Thus speaking, the Brabmans made a namaskar 
with reverence and remarked to Nama, ' Neither Brahma- 
dev nor the other gods could comprehend the limits 
of your power. 184. Durras, filled with pride, persecuted 
Ambarish. The Life of the world knowing' his distress bore 
the sufferings of birth. 185. When the Brahmans of Pra- 
tishthan(Paithan) persecuted Dnyaneshwar, then he mada 
the buffalo repeat the Vedas. 186. In the same way you ha-^^e 
done a seemingly impossible thing. You have actually 
turned the temple of Shiva round. ' Nama then opened 
his eyes and became choked with emotion. 187. Then 
with love be recited the h3rmn of praise and waved lights 
over the Husband of Bukmini. He lovingly made a 
prostrate namaskar and then distributed the sweetmeats. 

188. At that moment the banners Sew off, and at once 
went to their home in the Heaven Vaikunth. The people 
lifted up their faces and watched the wonderful sight. 

189. The temple of Shiva that was turned round about at 
that time is even today the same. Shri Hari, who is 
proud of His bkaklas, Himself puts away their distr^ses. 

190. Among the gods, the Hxisband of Eukmini is the 
most supreme. Among all Vaishnavas, the bhakta Nama 
stands first. One cannot see in the three worlds anyone 
fit to make a comparison with Nama. 191. What juice is 
there which can be used to make a comparison with nec- 
tar ? What river can be mentioned that would do for a 
comparison with the ocean ? 

192. In the next chapter the Husband of Bukmini will 
cause this book to be written with its extraordinary inter- 
-est. Mahipati simply bears His stamp, and here comes to 
the saints as a suppliant. 

193. Suxuti ( Peace ! ) This book is the Shri Bhakta- 
vjjaya. In listening to it the Lord of the earth will be 
pleased. Listen to it, you God-loving pious bhaktas. This is 
the twelfth very delightful chapter ; it is an offering to 
Shri Krishna. 

203 



CHAPTER XIII 

NAMDEV'S PILGRIMAGE ENDS 

Obaacmce to Skri Ganesh. Obeisance to Shri Oopal Krishna. 

GOD BEJOICSES IN THE STORIES OF HIS BUAKTAS 

1. O hearers, listen to these strange and extraordinary 
stories. To-day your tongues receive supreme nectar, so 
that I see none as fortunate as you are. 2. Among the 
gods, the Lord of the heaven Vaikunth is superior to all. 
He is also fond of His loving bhaktas. And now these 
stories of the bhaktas, very extraordinary as they are, have 
become known for your good fortune. 3. The Husband 
of Rukmini feels very happy as the stories of the saints 
are being sung and listened to ; just as when the moon 
arises the sea of milk rejoices ; 4. or as when one praises 
ihe elephant-faced deity ( Ganesh ), Shiva and Parvati are 
pleased ; or as a sadguru wags his head with love when his 
disciple acquires knowledge ; 5. or when one sings the 
praises of a child the mother feels happy ; or as when des- 
cribing Narad's indifference to worldly things, Brahmadev 
rejoices ; 6. just so, the Lord of the world rejoices when the 
stories of the saints are praised, and becoming pleased He 
gives an everlasting home to both listeners and speaker. 
7. Therefore it is that I have called you fortunate. What 
gain can be greater than the home of Vishnu ? I can see 
nothing greater anywhere. 

DNYANDEV AND NAMDEV GO TO PANDHARI 
8. In the former chapter there was the delightful 
story of how the temple of Avandhya Nagnath was 
turned round, and how when all the Brahmans saw the 
marvel they were overcome with amazement. 9. A.f ter 
Dnyandev and Namdev had made a namaskar to the Lord 
of the heaven Kailas, both left that place and returned 

204 



Ch. XIII- 9-22 NAMA AT PANDHABI 

to Pandhari; 10. just as when a daughter who is living 
with her mother-in-law returns to her mother's home 
her mind is full of joy, so it was with Nama; 11. or as 
when a oow and her calf having been separated the calf 
suddenly sees its mother, and rushes towards her, so it 
happened to Nama; 12. or as when a child is playing 
in the street, and then goes back into the house to its 
mother, its heart is full of joy, so it happened to Nama; 

13. or fts when a young deer has wandered away for the 
purpose of playing about, and then comes back to its mother 
deer, its heart overflows with joy, so it happened to Nama. 

14. Thus rejoicing at heart the two, Namdev and Dnyandev, 
walked rapidly along. As they approached Pandhari, 
they saw the dome from a distance. 15. As soon as they 
saw Pandhari, they made a prostrate namaskar. They 
embraced one another and both felt very happy. 16. Then 
taking cymbals and vina in their hands, they lovingly 
performed a kirian in honour of Hari. As they approached 
the main door of the temple, they again made a prostrate 
namaskar. 17. Just as one lets go of a stick and it 
falls to the ground, so Nama becoming unconscious of his 
body fell on the ground, 18. Dnyandev raised him up 
and brought back a little of his consciousness. He 
took his hand in his and walked forward. 19, When they 
oame to the god's bedroom and made their bow, the Life 
of the world descended from His throne and came forward 
to meet them. 20. The Lord of the world being moved 
with emotion drew Nama to His heart and removed all 
his calamities by waving a torch over him. 21. Nama 
also was filled with emotion and tears flowed from his 
eyes. He placed his head on the lotus-feet of the god 
and spoke with a sweet voice. 22. ' O Lord of the world, 
I am very weary. Look upon me with Thy mercy. 
Without Thee I am in deep distress. I cannot see what 
the end will be, ' 

205 



BHAKTAVUAYA CSh. XIII- 23-37 

PANDURANG XSX) NAMDBV MEBT 
23. 'My mind was in ignoranoe, and therefore I wander* 
ed from house to house, but I have seen no place even in 
my dreams as happy as Pandhari. 24. There are very 
s&cred bathing places with high reputation, but my mind is 
attached to the Chandrabhaga, for, O Merciful to the lowly, 
O Pandurang, Thou causest this earthly existence of Thy 
servants to cease. 25. O Lord of the Yadavas, scruple 
arises in my mind as I see a god without eagle banners. 
26. As I looked at them with my eyes, I was sorrowful 
at not seeing Thee, but bringing Thy form into my 
mind I remained quiet. 27. Thou art my dearest friend, 
brother and relative, and Thou alone art my family deity.' 
Thus speaking, Nama remained perfectly still. 28. To 
this the Husband of Rukmini replied, ' I was very sorrow- 
ful, I could not sleep day and night, while waiting for 
you, 29. When you, Nama, were far away, Pandhari seemed 
a desolate city. But My heart never forgot you a single 
moment. 30. And now. My dear loving bhakta, do not 
separate yourself from my sight. Fasten your eye upon 
My form and sit quietly down. 31. I love you infinitely, 
and you also love Me as sweetness never leaves sugar ; it 
is thepame with the sweetness of love. 32. Just as the 
lotus and the sun are fond of one another, so certain is our 
love for each other, O Nama; 33. or as the chatak bird 
and the cloud never forget one another, so great is your 
love and Mine, O Nama. 34. The moon and the ocean love 
one another infinitely; so, O Nama, to My mind is associa- 
tion with you. 35. A mother loves her infant child and 
never forgets it; so in our minds the idea of duality does 
not enter even in our dreams. 36. Whenever I happened 
to see an itinerant pilgrim, I would ask him about you, 
" Did you see My Nama ? Was he well ? " 37. If he 
should be thirsty or hungry, who aside frDm Myself would 
know it ? Whom would he tell of his soul's secrets ? 

206 



CSb. XIII- 38-51 OOD AND THE SAINTS 

38. Perhape be is in sorrow, and is calling for My help, He 
"knows of no other object of contemplation day or night. 

39. Aside from Me, who will ask Nama whether he is 
weary ? In whose shade will he sit, and rest for a moment?' 

40. Thus the Lord of the world spoke His secrets to the 
saints. ' It may be that Nama may be in distress with- 
out Me and is just holding on to life.' 41. Then the Lord 
of the world bending His arm gave Nama an embrace, 
caressed his face, and with His hands wiped his eyes. 
42. He took off from Himself His garland of flowers and 
tiilsi, and put it around the neck of Nama. This dark com- 
plexioned One looked all over the person of Nama with 
close attention. 

43. Just then some noble Voishnaixts came to see Him ; 
Nivritti and Dnyaneshwar, Sopan, Visoba Kheohar and 
Narahari the goldsmith. 44. Assembling there at this 
time they prostrated themselves on the ground. They 
embraced Nama and shouted, * Victory, victory. ' 45. 
and wagged their heads in the joy of love. 46. The 
crowd of RisMs and Qandharvaa ( choristers ), Brahmadev, 
Indra and other gods also came there at that time, in 
order to rejoice at the sight. 47. Just then Bukmini 
hastened there, bringing the five-lamp platter in her hand, 
and in her love she waved it over these bhaldas of God. 48. 
Holding Nama by the chin she looked upon him with com- 
passion. The Lord of the world again said to Nama : — 

NAMA TOLD TO GIVB A FEAST TO BRAHMAN8 
49. ' O Nama, listen, you have seen all the sacred 
bathing places; in coming to this birth you have accom- 
plished your good, and have satisfied the desire of yoar 
heart. 50. Now in order to complete your pilgrimage, 
bring your rites to a close by feeding the Brahmans. 
Perform what is prescribed and thus wholly complete 
your purpose. 51. You have sufifwred many things. They 

207 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XIII- 51-62 

will bear good fruit. Listen, O Nama, to what I have said.' 
So God spoke to him in love. 52. 'Although one may have 
wandered to many saoied places, yet if the final rites have 
not been performed, it will be as if the most delicious food 
had been cooked, and then finally not eaten; 53. or as if 
one should listen to the reading of many Puranas, yet 
unless they are meditated upon it goes for naught ; or 
like ornaments beautifully formed but useless if not worn; 
54. or as if one in order to have a healthy body should 
take medicine, O Nam a, but if he did not eat digestible 
food, the medicine would not prove of use; 55. so you may 
have seen many sacred bathing places, including Sapta- 
puris [ seven cities, givers of final deliverance : — Ayodhya, 
Mathura, Maya, Kashi, Kanchi, Avantika, Dwarawati ], 
and yet if you do not perform the final rites, your wander- 
ing will be in vain. So say the Shaatras. 56. This holy 
city of Pandhari is a heaven upon earth, far famed, and 
for comparing it nothing animate or inanimate exists. 57. 
It is a place where if one offers food to Brahmans it satis- 
fies to the end of the ages. So collect all the Brahmans 
who live in the sacred city and bring them to the feast. 
58. Worship them with the proper materials and give them 
a feast of delicious things. Offer them also with reverence 
the pansupari and gifts of money.' 59. After saying this, 
Krishna took Nama by the hand and led him into the 
inner shrine. 

60. Then with a smiling face the merciful One and 
Holder of the Sharang bow (Krishna) said to Eukmini, 'My 
love for Nama is very great, I can never be separated from 
him. 61. After having visited many sacred bathing 
places, he is going to complete the final rites to-day.' The 
Life of the world having said this, the Mother of the 
world replied, 62. 'O Lord of the universe, Thy most 
beloved friend Nama has put aside all other loves and 
affections, and in deep love is worshipping Thee alone. 

208 



Ch. XIII- 63-75 NAMA'S DEVOTION 

63. He has abandoned every business enterprise. Who 
then vrill perform the final rites ? By serving Thee he 
has made Thee his debtor, casting aside pride and affection. 

64. Having passed through a great number of births he 
has accumulated some good deeds. All these he has loving- 
ly offered at Thy feet. 65. Just as rivers in great 
volumes of water pour into the sea, so Nama has 
followed Thee with singleness of devotion. 66. And so it 
falls to Thee to perform Thyself everything in Thy 
affection for him.' Hearing her say this, Shrirang ( Krishna ) 
smiled. 67. Rukmini added, ' O good Being, Nama's love 
is extraordinary. Brahmadev would not be able to des- 
cribe it by His lips. It is always new and beyond oo;n- 
parison. 68. So Thou, O Holder of the disk, must now go 
taking Nama with Thee and after inviting the Brahma ns 
come back quickly. 69. If all the siddhis are favourable, 
one will not have to worry ; if Thou, Lord of Pandbari, 
hast the wish to do a thing, what canst Thoii not do ? 70. 
The calf of the wish-cow does not have to go into the 
mountains to feed. The sun never has to light a lamp to 
cause brightness. 71. The ocean does not have to worry 
as to whether it will rain or not. A person who drinks 
nectar continually, what does he have for digestible food ? 
72. Why should the moon make an effort to become cool ? 
How can it be difficult for Sarasvati to compose poetic 
verses ? 73. The elephant-faced ( Ganesh ) does not have 
to labour to put away hindranc3s. Why does one want a 
mirror to see the bracelet on one's hand ? 74. So, O Life 
of the world, it will not take much effort to feast Brahmang 
for Nama. ' Hearing her say this, the king of Vaikuntk 
started on his way. 

KRISHNA GOES TO INVITE BEAHMANS 

75. Taking Nama's lotus-hand, Krishna walked along. 
He assembled and took along with Him with great oeremonr 
B. V. 14 209 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XIII- 75-88 

s crowd of bhaktas. 76. Among them were Nivritki and 
Dnyandev, Sopan, Visoba Kheohar, Chokhamela, Narahari 
the goldsmith,and Vanka the woodcutter. 77.Sanaka and the 
others walked on each side, watching the wonderful sight. 
Behind Nama, the Lord of the Yadavas walked in His 
10V8.78. 1 will tell you the reason why He walked behind 
liTama. It was because the Life of the world wished to 
take the dust of Nama's feet. 

79. Hearing this remark, my listeners may raise a 
doubt: * How is it that God could wish for the dust of the 
feet of a bhakta ?' 80. Know then that in the book called 
Tirthavdi, the Lord of tha world said this very thing through 
His own lips. Taking that as my authority I have written 
the same thing. 81. The Life of the world said with His 
own lips that He was the object of the suppliant. What 
cannot the Ocean of mercy, the Cloud of compas- 
sion, do ? 82. The Brother of the lowly, Helper of the 
humble, is known world-wide as to His reputation. There- 
fore you listeners should never have a doubt in your mind. 

83. Why should I speak any more on this subject ? 
The bhaktas of Vishnu understand its meaning. The 
Husband of Rukraini hastened to give invitations to the 
Brahmans. 84. In order that the Life of the world might 
carry to completion the ambition of His servant He 
acted as a householder, a merchant, a Brahman, and a host 
for His bhaktaa. 85. The king of the Yadavas, along with 
the Vaishnavas, first circumambulated the sacred city, and 
as be saw the Brahmans, the king of Vaikunfh arrived on 
the sands of the river. 86. As soon as he saw the 
Brahmans, He, the Helper of the helpless, the Husband of 
Bukmini, the merciful One to the lowly, the Ocean of 
compassion, reverently made them a namaskxr. 87. The 
Pandits, the Vedic Brahmans, the good and expert listeners, 
tieeing the Life of the world, were amazed. 88. The Life of 

210 



Ch. Xril- 88-100 BRAHMANS QUESTION KRISHNA 

the world had taken the form of a oitisen, and jet the marks 
of His six glorious elements [all-sovereignty, all-goodness, 
all-glory, all-opulenoe, all-knowledge, all-dJapassionatoness} 
were not hidden; just as when gold is mixed with brass, it 
can never be hidden. 89. Pure silver in the midst of tin 
a Qod-loving bhakia in the midst of a business lifo, or the 
touchstone among other stones, can n<jver bo hidden. 
90. Just as the tiilsi plant among other plants ; or as the 
Ganges among other rivers; so among His lihuk'a.-i, the 
Dweller iti the heaven Vaikunth cowld not possibly remain 
hidden. 91. As the diamond c.nn be promiiioiUly s«en ia 
diamond dust, as nectar can be seen ia vt pi.-itt^ of delicious 
food, and as the moon app^^ars brilli:\ut iu tUo midst of 
olufaters of stars, 93. so iu this assembly of I'uishnai'a.-!, the 
Brahmans were astonished to o,^o tho II jIcKt of the Shctrantj 
bow ( Krishna ). Then with a great i \v they spoke very 
sweetly to Him. 93. ' la seeing Thy lorni. Use thrcie kind.s 
of afflictions { that is, Troni deities, or from devils, or from 
fate] have departed. 'l'«;il u^ Tb.v name, and where hast 
Thou come from ? 94. What i.s Thy occupation? What 
business dost Thou conduct ? Whereabouts are Thy lodg- 
ings ? Let us have an aaswer to these questions.* i^S. 
Hearing these questions of the Brahmans, the Holder of 
the disk ( Krishna ) replied, 'Both my family aad oooupa- 
tion are known to these bhai^a^. 96. I am the uuoonquer«d 
One, and the Unassooiated, but in all my infinite number 
of rebirths I have been associated with these in closo 
acquaintance. 97. And now making your feet my witness, 
I am speaking the exact truth. I am the dear friend of 
Nama. 98. If you still have any doubts in your minds, 
then present your sacred thoughts to these saints. With 
your doubts removed you must come to the feast. 99. I 
have taken lodgings in the temple, if you ask rae my 
name, it is Atfanta ( the infinite One }. Perform the right 
of bathing and oome quickly to the feast.' 100. Hearing 

211 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XIII- 100-111 

this nectar reply, the Brahmans rejoiced in mind. Reply- 
ing that they would come at once, the cooking of the feast 
was completed. 

GOD FAR AWAY FROM ALL PRIDE 

101. The Life of the world, having heard their 
reply, returned to the temple, and told Rukmini of the 
things that had happened. 102. He said, ' O Beloved of 
my life, listen to me, I have returned after inviting the 
Brahmans, but some of the conservative and proud did not 
recognize Me. 103. They saw the glory of My form, and 
they felt so happy. They asked Me of my family and of 
My occupation and I told them everything. 104. I spoke 
to them with My own lips that I was accompanying the 
saints and that Nama was My dearest friend. 105. The 
Brahmans asked Me where I lodged and I told them that 
I lodged in the temple. They asked me my name, and I 
told them it was Ananta ( the infinite One ). 1 06. I told 
them the signs by which they could recognize Me. But 
they could not make Me out. ' Thus speaking, the Life of 
the world smiled. 107. Rukmini said to Krishna, 'He who 
always has the idea of differences in his mind, together 
with pride in his own knowledge, will never meet with 
the Saviour of the world. 108. He who says his caste and 
family are pure, has no repentance in his heart; then how 
can he ever meet with the Holder of the disk ( Krishna) ? 
109, To one who has jaundice, the colour of the moon seems 
yellow. He whose body is racked with fever says that 
food is bitter. 110. So those who have pride of their con- 
servative opinions, the knowledge of hhakli will not be to 
their taste. Without reverence towards Thee Thou can- 
never bfc seen by them. 111. Through their good fortune, 
O God of gods, Thou hast been found as the storehouse of 
Vaikiinih. Today by the good fortune of Nama he is 
made prosperoua ' 

212 



Ch. XIII- 112-123 KRISHNA'S GIFTS 

KRISHNA'S GIFTS TO NAMDEV 
112. While the Mother of the universe was thus speak- 
ing, a very novel thing occurred at that moment. In order 
to prepare the feast, all the eight siddhis ( accomplishments 
personified ) arrived. 113. Merely by their own wish 
they came to the great door of the temple. They prepared 
all the materials for a feast and sprinkled the ground with 
water mixed with sandalwood paste. 114. Having sprinkled 
thsm all according to the rules of the Bhagwat they raised 
banners on the altar of lulsi. They planted flags of nine 
di.ferent designs as nine forms of bhakli [hearing, reading, 
calling to mind, washing, outward worship, adoration, 
service, cultivating friendship, consecration of one's self] 
in the heavens and made this miracle visible to the eye. 
115. Having decorated the houses, they remarked, ' What 
holy deeds this servant of Vishnu (Nama)has done that 
by it he has made crazy with love the One without quali- 
ties :* Every one was astonished at the sight. 116. Squares 
of pearls were designed, and decorations of various colour- 
ed powders were drawn. Illuminations were made. In short, 
for the sake of the loving bhaktn { Nama ) an unforeseen 
ceremony was started. 117. There wasavery loud cry of joi^. 
Sweet musical instruments proclaimed their happiness. The 
bhuktas shouted out ' Victory, victory' full of joy. 118. 
Then they gave Nama a bath, and began to repeat the 
ininfras according to religious rites, and commenced the 
day-blessing ( piinyahavachan ) ceremonj . 119. Satya- 
bhama, Rai, and Rukmini came bringing their gifts, and 
they flashed with lightning in the home of the clouds. 
120. Then Krishna with His own hands gave gifts to this 
servant of Vishnu. In His love He put on him garments 
and ornaments without limit. 121. With supreme joy 
men and women gazed at the beautiful and joyful sight, 
and with sincerity they waved the lights over the servant of 
Vishnu. 122. The One whose complexion is dark as a cloud 

213 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XIII- 122-132 

( Krishna ) with His own bands honoured His servant. 
This Helper of the helpless, this supremo Being, this Ocean 
of mercy for all the lowly, did this. 123. And all said to 
Nama, * Blessed is your hhakli. The happiness which yoa 
have attained is unattainable even by Brahmadev.' 124. In 
the meantime the feast had been cooked and all Brahmans 
were invited to it. As they came to the great door of the 
temple they were given seats. 

CEREMONY AT COMPLETION OF PILGRIMAGES 

125. In order to worship the Brahmans, Krishna 
Himself sat amongst them; just as when the gods coming 
together in the heavens said to one another, 126. 'We have 
been deceived; these bhaklas of Vishnu have robbed us of 
our joy; we drink good nectar, it is true, but we miss the 
nectar of love; 127. just as if one experienced the deliver- 
ance called Scdokita [ living in the same place as the 
Deity ], but further on missed the deiiveranco called Sayu- 
jliata [ absorption into the Deity J; or as through intimacy 
with a studied poetic compositioa, one may miss the bless- 
ing of it; 128. or as while doing one's regular religious 
duties, one may easily fail in doing the occasional ones- 
or as when one obtains the means of having a desire fulfill- 
ed, the means slips away for acquiring a desireless mind 
which had been attainable; 129. or as if one should visit 
all the sacred bathing places on the surface of the earth, 
but should fail in the service that should be rendered to 
his mother; or as one may serve the inferior deities and 
yet the iwssible worship of Vishnu ceases; 130. or as in 
giving a feast to invited Brahmans, the uninvited guests 
had to be turned away; so, sitting in the place of the gods 
we have lost the love of bhakti.' 131. Thus the gods in 
the sky conversed with one another. In the meantime 
Krishna seated the Brahmans at the great door of the 
temple for the purpose of worshipping tnem. 132. He 
placed broad seats on which we^e golden designs inlaid 

,214 



Oh. XIII- 132-144 KRISHNA WORSHIPS BRAHMANS 

with jewels and seated the Brahmans on them. 133. Then 
with His own hands the Husband of Rukxnini washed the 
feet of the Brahmans. The Life of the world wiped their 
feet with His yellow robe and in love drew them to His 
heart. 134. He touched His eyes with their great toes and 
seated the Brahmans in their proper line. In his love the 
Lord of the heaven Vaikunia then drank the holy 
water in which their feet were washed and rejoiced 
in the act. 135. He rubbed on them a paste made 
of eight .different perfumes. He put garlands of tulsi 
round their necks. The Lord of the world placed on 
their forehead the mark raado with musk-paste. 136. 
The Lord of Vaikunth ( Krishna ) worshipped them with 
love. He waved before them incense made of ten different 
kinds. In His love He waved before them the lighted 
lamps in a plate inlaid with jew ols. 137. Then arranging 
them in two lines he placed golden plates before them. In 
her undivided love the good Rukmini served them. 138. 
She served with four kinds of divine food. Then calling 
to Nama, the offtrings to the gods were made through him. 
139. The bhaklas shouted aloud, ' Victory, victory, the 
Husband of Rukmini is the enjoyer of this feast.' Thus 
remarking, they made offerings to the five vital airs ( pran, 
npan, vyan, iidan, sainan ). 140. The chief Actor, God 
Himself, became the Fulfiller, the Enjoyer, and the Causer 
of others to act, so there was nothing lacking in all that 
he^rt could wish. 141. In the feast of the sun from whence 
would darkness come ? When listening to the singing of 
Saraswati, drowsiness will not come to anyone. 143. If the 
ocean is married, need one be concerned about the water ? 
In the hot season what need has the moon of a fan ? 143. 
If a touchstone is placed on an iron anvil, it would not 
be necessary to guild the anvil. No one becomes afflicted 
with dicaase who lives in the heaven of Indra. 144. If 
one looks to find something that is doubtful in the perfect 

'215 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XIII 144-156 

book, the Dnyaneshwari, he will not find it there. So in 
the feast given by Nama there was nothing lacking. 145. 
The Husband of Rukmini frequently prayed, and as the 
Brahmans listened to His sweet voica they were made happy. 
146. They said, ' With every morsel one should take fcbe 
name of God, in that way a man's eating will result in 
happiness. ' 147. Thus in the feast the minds of ail 
became filled with joy. The Life of the world 
Himself gave to the Brahmans water for the wash" 
ing of their hands. 14S. Having seated the Brahmans in 
their places, He gave them pansupari made of thirteen 
ingredients At that moment it seemed as if the loving 
desire itself assumed a concrete form. 149. Or one might 
say, ' By the good fortune of Vishnu, it became visible in 
form and came to visit Nama; so that in its love the joy 
with Intelligence ( God Himself ) was enticed.* 150. Then 
joining His hands palm to palm, the Holder of the Sharang 
bow ( Krishna ) said to the Brahmans, ' I feel as though I 
wanted to take your blessing ( in the form of dinner ) in 
your presence. 151. This is what I would love to do. 
Therefore I request the Swaniis to sit for a moment in quiet- 
ness of mind. 152. After I have finished dining, I shall 
quickly make the gifts of money. Accept them with satis- 
fied minds and then depan lor your homes.' 153. Shri 
Krishna thought to himself, ' If I should place in their 
hands the gifts of money before the feast ends, they would 
not remain sitting here, but would depart without taking 
leave; 154. just as the relatives do not leave the marriage 
festival until the marriage gifts have been made; or just 
as the beggars are not satisfied in their minds until they 
have taken the charitable gifts. ' 155. So thinking in His 
mind, Shri Krishna said to the Brahmans, ' Through Naona 
I have been able to serve you. 156. You are the Vedas in- 
carnate, worthy of worship by Brahmadev and others, so 
look upon Me with the eye of mercy. Take care of Me, O 

516 



Ch. XIII- 156-169 KRISHNA'S REQUEST 

noble Brahmans. ' 157. As Krishna thus spoke, it seemed 
to the Brahmans that it was a nectar voice. Then rejoic- 
ing in their minds, they were full of happiness. 158. The 
earth-gods { Brahmans ) replied to Him, * Thou hast work- 
ed very hard, and while Thou hast been worshipping the 
Brahmans, Thy own dinner has been delayed. 159. Thou 
didst everything Thyself, and it was very successful. 
Though we might look to see if anything was lacking, 
we would never see such a thing. 160, We have today 
seen a new thing ; when we look at the Suximi's novel 
raverence, his humility and the respect paid to us, they 
seem beyond all comparison.' 161. Then the Brahmans 
learned in the four Vedas, repeating the great mintras 
over the rice, threw it on His head as their blessing. 163. 
' Mayest Thou be victorious for ever, and be our protector, 
and mayest Thou live until the end of the ages in the home 
of the universa.' 163. Then taking rice in His yellow 
garment. He sprinkled it on Nama's head saying, ' May 
tais love remain for ever in your heart.' 

JOYOUS INTERDINING OF GOD AND HIS BHAKTAS 

164. ( The Brahmans replied ) : ' Now take these 
Vaishnavas to Thy side and eat, O heap of good qualities. 
We will quiet our minds and sit beside Thee.' 165. To 
these words of the Brahmans Krishna replied, ' I will do 
so.' Just then Kukmini arrived with various kinds of 
food served on golden plates. 166. Then Satyabhama 
.came quickly with a golden vessel in her hand, and having 
given them water to sip, a most extraordinary thing 
happened. 167. The Holder of the Sharang bow ( Krishna ), 
then called to His side Uddhav and Akrur, Narad and 
Tumbar as companions in His line of guests.- 168. Nama 
who was standing at the great door of the temple was 
called also. But he had lost consciousness of body and 
his heart overflowed with love. 169. Pandharinath by His 

217 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XIH- 169-181 

Inner light saw him filled with supreme Brahm-Joy and 
rushed to his aid; jnst as a cow, seeing her young one, 
hastens towards it with her teats full of milk. 170. The 
Life of the world lifted Nama up with His four hands and 
gave hira a loving emhrace. He brought him back to oon- 
8ciousne.<»s and caressed him. 171. Then taking him by 
the hand, He seated hira by His plate that he might eat. 
As Nam:» began to sob, the Lord of the world caressed 
him. 172. As he put each joyous morsel into his 
mouth, he saw him as the same Supreme Element as 
Himself, and at once in the form of intelligence He 
assumed the same form. 17v^. Then seizing a flag on the 
eagli^platform, He told Nama one of His secrets. Said He. 
' My dp."vrest, friend, putting aside the shame of considering 
our>=Glvi?s ;!■; different, speak to me. 174 When you turn 
to the p»^crcts of the heart, it is as clear as the heavens 
wit)Knit Any hack or front: .so Nama, you are in the closest 
roiaticni to Me. 175. This h what you recosnize in Me, 
a'ui I reco!:;iii7e the same in you. Recognize in your heart 
that wiJ »rfl of one espenct^ O Nama 176. Turn your 
att««ntion to M«, .and in your heart see that I am your 
deare.«t friend, L who am the TJnm>nif«>st;d, am your-^elf, 
80 I consJdiT. 177. Open your eyes and .see this extraordi- 
nary performance of thp completion of pilgrimage rites on 
your account, O loving hhaklu. for yoit have with you the 
lamp of knowledge. 178. The chief of bhikfrift have come 
to visit you. Speaking to them nectar ward.*, give them 
the /ea-t of joy. 179. Nivritti is the personification of 
supreme joy, and here is Dnyandev the .'-.ssociate of all J03'. 
180. Over thero yonder is Sopan. a ferry to taka men into 
their Ik-youd. O fortunate one, pay liim reverence in 
ueotar words.* 181. Saying this, the Husband of Rukmini 
gave Nama Rh assuring hand, and he in reverence placed 
his head on His feet. 

218 



Cai. XIII- 182-194 MAMA ASKS FOR LOVE 

NAMDEV ASKS FOR THE BOON OF LOVE 
182. Said he, ' In all my rebirths, give me the gift of 
love to Thee. ' Hearing him say this, the Life of the 
world smiled. 183. Thus this Lover of. bhaktas placed 
morsels of food in Nama's mouth, and Gopal Krishna, the 
Mereciful to the lowly, wiped away the perspiration of 
weariness of His servant. 184. The hand of assurance 
which Hari placed on the head of Sanak and the others, 
that very hand of the Enemy of Putana ( Krishna ) 
caressed J^ama. 185. Vanamali ( Krishna ) said to Nama, 
' Drop all your concern, I am near you to give you rest. 
I shall always care for you. 186. You laboured hard 
on your journey, and your body has become emaciated 
by separation from Me; your moon- face has lost its glow; 
your eyes lack lustre for want of sleep. 187. No one has 
paid attention to your thirst or hunger from the time that 
you went away from Me. Aside from you My eyes have 
seen nothing to please Me. 188. As I could not control 
Myself My eyes turned to the ten different directions. I 
said to Myself, "' When will Nama the servant of Vishnu 
return to Me ?" 189. Becoming in My mind impatient I 
looked for you at the eagle-platform. Not seeing you there, 
I used to look for you at the great door of the temple on the 
banks of the Bhima. 190. If you were not at the sacred bath- 
ing place at Padmatirtha, then Hooked for you at the Venu- 
nad, but not seeing you anywhere I was very sorrowful. 
191. As I, the Life of the world, sat down to eat or is each 
day I took My drink of nectar, I remeiabered you, saying 
to Myself that you would hasten to come; 192. that in your 
impatience you would rush to meet Me ; that in your love 
you would give Me an embrace ; and that you would tell 
Me the secrets of your heart. This was the wish I kept in 
My heart,' 193. As the compassionate One said these 
things, there was a full tide of feelings of mercy, just as 
the mother rejoices, when she sees her loved child ; 194. in 

219 



BHAFTAVUAYA Ch. XIII- 194-205 

the same way the king of the heaven Vaikunth rained 
down His love on Nama. Anyone who drinks that divine 
juice never finds it distasteful. 195. In this way, the 
Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) supplies the wish of His 
bhaktas. Then at that moment He performed a wonderful 
deed. Listen to it, you pious folk. 

KRISHNA SHOCKS THE BRAHMANS 

196. Krishna ate with a feeling of fondness what Nama 
had left on his plate. Seeing this, all the Brahmans were 
astonished, and feeling shocked they hung their heads 
down. 197. The Brahmans considered it a strange act, and 
discussed it among themselves: ' What are we to think 
about it ? He has truly violated the caste's religious rules. 
198. His wives served the food, and we know not of what 
caste they are. They were neither Kshafriyas nor Brah- 
mans, neither Vaishnaoas nor Shudras. 199. His doings are 
unfathomable. He seemed different from the four castes. 
How is it that we forgot this when seeing His acts that 
are beyond comparison ? 200. Now we must regard this 
as certain that He is Nama's mother and father, and that 
He loves him in body, mind and speech. 201. He took the 
rice in His yellow garment and sprinkled it over Nama's 
head, and when the offering of food to the god was to be 
performed He made him the leader in it. 202. Disasters 
are continually being created, and such have happened 
now. Now let no one discuss with any other regarding 
this or ever speak of it. ' 

203. In the next chapter the Holder of the Sharang bow 
( Krishna ) will speak, to Brahmans. You wise listeners, 
learned in the sidihanfa ( established facts ), give your 
attention. 204. Just as when a diamond is sunk in an 
anvil it comes out at the sight of the diamond dust, so 
fortunate saints, through knowledge gained by experience, 
know the secrets of God. 205. Hunger is sweeter than 

220 



Ch. XIII- 205-207 CONCLUSlOSr 

food, therefore it satisfies the desire for food. If there was 
no desire in the heart to listen to the stories of Hari, they 
would not seem sweet to anyone. 206. The relator of 
this version of the Tirthamli [ see verse 80 ] is the Husband 
of Rukmini. Mahipati in his love speaks of himself as His 
slave and servant. 

207. Sivasti (Peacel) This book is the Shri Bhaklavijaya. 
In listening to it the Lord of the world will be pleased. 
Listen, you God-loving, pious bhaktas. This is the thirteenth 
deeply delightful chapter; it is an offering to Shri Krishna. 



221 



CHAPTER XIV 

NAMDEVSLIFE 

( Continued ) 

Obeisance to Shri Ganesh. Obeisance to Gopal Krishna. 

THE KITE COMPLETING KAMA'S PILGRIMAGES 

1. My mind is very happy to-day in relating the rite 
connected with the completion of Naina's wanderings, and I 
have invited you, good paople, to sit down in lines for the 
feast. 2. On the golden plates of joy, the delicious food 
composed of the nine juic3s has been served. The Vaishmva 
bhaklas partake of its sweetness and become eternal. 3. 
You may ask who are sitting at this feast. Nivritti, 
Dnyandev, Sopan, Gora the potter, all Vaiihnavas; al-50 
Savata and Narahari, 4- Uddhav, Akrur, Narad, Tumbar, 
and the limitless number of noble Vaishnavat, all of who;ri 
Krishnaeeated in lines. 5. As they tasted the delicious div- 
ine juices, all the saints were satisfied. That which they 
left on their plates has unexpectedly fallen into our mouths. 
6. As soon as we had the great and wonderful favour an 
extraordinary thing occurred, inasmuch as the priceless 
stories of God's hknklas out of love came to our lips. 7. Just 
as whatever seed is planted in the earth, it later yields 
fruit just like itself, so through the favour of the saints we 
have received the stories of their lives. 

KRISHNA ACCUSED OF BREAKING CASTE 
8. Now listen, you hearers. In the previous chapter 
there was described how the Life of the world ate with 
intense delight what re nained on Nama's plate. 9. When 
the Brahmans saw him do this their minds were filled with 
astonishment and they said, ' We do not recognize who this 
violator of caste-rules may be. 10. In eating food at 
his house we have fallen from our religious duty. 

999 



Cb. XIV- 10-23 KBBHNA ACCUSED 

Now let us never accuse oae another. 11. When 
milking a journey, if anyone eats what he has beg- 
ged for, or if in time of famine one has eaten 
the food of a Shudra, or if in the age of ignorance one has 
performed some immoral deed, one should never tell of it. 
12. If a friend tells yoa something -in private, or if a 
miser sees a pile of wealth, or if one's domestic life is 
going on badly, one should never speak of it. 13. If while 
giving a feast to a thousand Brahraans a dog should 
accidentally touch the food, a wise person who sees this act 
should never speak of it. ' 14. Then one of the good 
Brahmans spoke up and said, ' ..f we have not observed our 
religious duties, why should we perform another evil act, 
and hide our true duty ? 3 5. If ignorantly some fault 
attaches itself to us, some penance may be performed. 
After we have confessed our wrong deeds to men, our fault 
does not remain a single moment. 16. If we have any 
faults, we should tell them t( others, but with repentance. 
If any one reviles us for doing fio, that very act destroys 
our fault. 17. So now without any hesitation we should 
turn him out of caste and repeating the Oayatri-mantra we 
shall remain pure. 18. Thing's done in the confusion of 
ignorance are not called a sin. In the Dliarma Shnstra this 
remedy is open to every one. ' 19. Thinking of it this 
way, the noble Brahmans went silently away and the 
Holder of the Sluzrang bow ( Krishna ) then invited them to 
him. 20. The Husband of Rukraini said to them, ' Why is 
your heart in doubt ? With sad faces you are all hurrying 
away. 21. What doubt have you in your heart ? Kindly 
tell Me, an'' in telling Me the secrets of your heart do not 
hold them back in the least degree. ' 22. The Life of the 
world said this, and then gave them gifts of diamonds, 
precipus jewels and gold mixed with the leaves of tulsi, 
as a means of pacifying them. 23. He then lifted Nams 
up and put him at the feet of the Brahmans saying, 

223 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XIV- 23-36 

' Be favourable to him. ' This is what the Energy of 
Mura ( Krishna ) said, 24. and He added, ' If you l^jive 
any other natural doubts, tell them to Me. * As the eagle- 
bannered One spoke these words, the Brabmans said to 
Him, 25. ' They say that Nama is a tailor. This has 
been plainly said to us. How is it that you sat down with 
him in the same line ? 26. Putting aside your duty, you 
ate with him. You ate what was left on his plate without 
giving the matter a single thought. 27. What feelings of 
love have you held in your mind that you should have 
given your love to Nama ? We certainly do not under- 
stand this extraordinary action of your compassion. 
28. As we thought of the matter you seem to us one whose 
actions are merely outward, for your extraordinary and 
strange deeds seem to change moment by moment. 29. We 
do not see in you any observance of the law relating to 
the different castes. Although we have thought over the 
matter, we certainly do not understand it. 30. It would 
seem that in your eyes praiseworthy and unpraiseworthy 
seem to be alike. The idea of a difference never seems 
to have touched your mind. 31. You are acting on the 
understanding that the inhabitants of the world are 
just as you are ; just as to the touchstone, iron and gold 
are alike. 32. To the ocean the water of the Ganges 
and that of a little streamlet are both alike. Water 
regards the tiger and a cow as equal. 33. Three seasons, 
the cold, the hot and the rainy seasons, are the same to the 
sky. To the cloud, a street gutter, a river and a stream- 
let are all the same. 34. To the wish-tree, a prince and a 
pauper are equal. The sandalwood of Mount Maila is 
cooling to everyone alike. 35. The sun shines alike on 
thieves, on immoral men and on good men. So also it 
would seem that praiseworthy men and those to be despised 
ate the same to you. 36. Every one thinks that others are 
like themselves, just as when King Dharma searched for- 

224 



Ok ZIV' 36-48 KBISBKA'S SELF-DEFBNCB 

an evil person he could not find one. 37. You wore the 
sppearsnoe of a Brahman and we pinned our faith on that. 
But your inner purpose, O Swami, we do not clearly under- 
stand. 38. Every one should seek his own good and should 
raise the question in his mind regarding what is 
wrong and what is right; he should establish the truth of 
the Vedaa by acting according to the prescribed rules. 

39. You seem to be learned in all Knowledge You seem 
an expert in all the Shastras. Now pay respect to the 
commands of the Vedas and observe their prescribed forms. 

40. You have cast aside the principles of the Shastras and 
shown great love for Nama. This we see now for a certainty.' 

KRISHNA ANSWERS THE ACCUSATION 

41. The Husband of Rukmini, after listening to the 
remarks of the noble Brahmans, said, ' Do not blame Me 
for having had Nama dine along with Me. 42. The Soul 
that is the Mover and the Pervader of all things, how can 
it be spoken of as either praise\vorthy or worthy of being 
despised ? Neither holiness nor sin is able to touch Me. 

43. I am Pure Intelligence without spot, the All-Pervad- 
ing Soul, the Internal Witnesser, undefiled by anything. 

44. Nama's body is that of a tailor, and is made up of the 
five primary elements [earth, water, light, wind and space]; 
just as when the sky is covered with clouds there does not 
seem to be any separate clouds. 45. What member of 
Nama's body makes him Namdev ? . Give Me your careful 
opinion. 46. If in your eyes there are faults in light, 
water, earth, air or space, then it must be of your own 
creation. 47. You are Brahmans who repeat the Vedas ; 
you are learned in all Shastras ; but you have not yet 
reached the condition of divine knowledge. 48. Your illusion 
regarding essential distinctions has not yet left you, but 
the doubts have grown in your minds. When Nama made 
the offering of food to the gods, you did not take this into 

s. V. 15 22^ 



BHIKTAVUAYA Ch. XIV' 48-61 

consideration. 49. And you did not tell Me that you had 
no right to partake of the food of a tailor, therefore I plead* 
ed with you again and again and told you the secret of 
action. 50. By means of this occasion with Nama, I have 
been able to serve you to-day. Although you heard Me 
say this, you have not understood Me. 51. The rice over 
which TTJGTi/raa were recited was given me as a favour, and I 
threw it on the head of Nama. I am independent of all, yet 
you have called Me dependent. I am desireless, yet you have 
attributed desires to Me. 52. Though I am really not a doer, 
yet you have made Me a doer. And though you have heard 
this explanation of Mine, you still do not recognize Me. 53. 
You partook of the feast without any doubts in your mind, 
and I accepted what remained on your plates.- Now tell me 
what is the prescribed penalty for this in the s;^ripture 
lawbooks ? 54. I have this one purpose, to take on Me 
the dust from the feet of this servant of Hari ( Nama ), 
and to drink the water in which your feet are washed, 
that I may for ever be purified. 55. Aside from these 
means all religious rites, austerities and gifts seem to be 
in vain ', Thus spoke the Life of the world who continued 
thus: 56. ' Only these will I regard as true means. Nor 
shall I ever forget My bhaktas or men in their trouble; 
just as a mother never forgets her infant child; 57. and 
as a miser does not forget his wealth; and as a doe never 
forgets her young; and as the lava bird is always thinking 
of her little ones; 58. and as fishes never forget the water; 
go My bhaktaa are always in My mind, O noble Brahmans. 
59. Bhaktaa are My very heart. In their good fortune they 
don the garment of knowledge and continually partake of 
ihe juice of love, namely, hhakti and indifference to worldly 
things. 60. Association with one another is to saints their 
life-giving neotar; wearing the steel armour of love they 
are ever without fear. 61. My true bhaktas do not bring 
to their sight the four chief ends of the ezistenoe of man 

226 



CJh, XIV- 61-71 KRBH»A GLORIBTES PANDHARI 

[ namely, the acquisition of merit, the pursuit of fame, 
the enjoyment of the pleasures of sense, and the seeking 
and working out of final deliverance]; even the four kinds 
of deliverance are matters for their minds to despise. 
62. To sing My name with joy, this is their eternal musical 
instrument. And the well-known platter of their aim 
has the lights lighted on them. 63. They regard the happi- 
ness of Indra's dignity as perishable ; just as when the 
wise men see the shadow made by a cloud, they do notregard 
it as perpetual; 64. and just as one seeking lodgings and 
seeing a royal palace does not take refuge there; and just 
as when wise men see a fJood in a mirage, they regard it 
as false ; 65. so ( My bhaktas ), becoming indifferent to 
worldly passions, have no desire for the home of the im- 
mortals. For this reason I dwell for ever in their hearts. 

66. In searching for such a bhakta I have seen only Nama 
the tailor ; one who has experienced My love in his heart. 

67. Therefore it was in My love for him that I ate what 
was left on his plate. In comparing it ( My lova ), all 
comparison with divine juices is a faulty one.' 

KRISHNA'S GLORIFICATION OF PANDHARI 

68. (Krishna added): ' Pandharpur, the sacred city for 
deliverance, is the treasure-house of all the sacred bathing- 
places, and if one should look all over the world, 
another like it cannot be seen. 69. A jivanmukta ( one 
free while living ) and a wise man and chief among 
the bhaktas was the Muni Pundalik. He sat down 
for contemplation of the most supreme Krishna. 70. And 
this Bhima river flow^ing towards the south gives 
the nectar of immortality. She is the mistress of an 
abundant joy and shines with the water of that supreme 
joy. 71. Anyone who sees this Chandrabhaga river from 
a distance will not have to return to rebirths. When the 
Bhagirathi river looked at her ( the Chandrabhaga ) sha 

227 



BHAKTAYITAYA Ch, XIV- 71-81 

felt ashamed and hid away. 72. The Bhagirathi feeling a 
sense of fear joined with the ocean, and the Bhogavatt 
hastened with extreme speed to the lower regions. 73. In 
such a sacred city my servants have lived continually 
day and night, and in the joy of their love they un- 
ceasingly shout my names. 74. With ;oy filling his heart 
Nama danced in the kirtans in the name of Hari. When 
•one goes in search through the three worlds for such joy he 
will not see it anywhere else.' 75. The good Being also said 
to the Brahmans, ' He who with his lips repeats My name, 
whether with some desire in his heart or without a desire, 
such an one is my dearest friend and relative. 76. I love 
him more than I love Myself and I will not put him away. 
He is My family deity whom I worship in reverence. 77. 
I Vanamali ( Krishna ), Sacchidanand ( truth, intelligence 
and joy ), am attracted by the family of the servants of 
Hari. In this world My widespread reputation dwells in 
the assembly of bhaklas. 78. I am quite crazy over My 
bhaktas, and the remnants which are left on their plates 
I put into My mouth as I very gladly stand before 
the saints. 79. I think them exceedingly delicious and 
as I partake of them they seem tasty and sweet. By 
taking these remnants that remain on their plates 
My body becomes eternally plump. 80. The brilliant 
childlike lustre of My body, My eternal victory and 
wealth. My prosperity, plumpness and satisfaction, are 
the constant result of My partaking of the food of the 
bhaktas. 81. These saints visit Me like relatives and 
create for Me the joyous festival of Divali ( the festival of 
lights ); just as when the chakyr bird sees the moon, it is full 
of happiness through the joy of love. 82. Therefore it 
was that with a very longing heart I had Nama dining 
along with Me. This is exactly as it happened. Now 
■what is your next thought ? ' 

228 



Ch. XIV* 83-94 KBISHKA MUST OBEY THE VEDAS 

iraCESaiTY OF KEIBHIfA OBEYING VEDIC BULKS 

83, The Husband of Eukmini having said this, the 
Brahmans replied, ' We now understand perfectly that you 
are an ocean of goodness. 84. But the duties which have 
been prescribed in the Vedas should be performed by You. 
According to a man's condition should be a man's conduct 
85. The first duty is the observance of caste rules. The 
rule of constantly keeping himself clean and speaking the 
truth, is the rule applicable to a Brahman. 86. Forgive- 
ness and control of one's stnse are his austerities. He must 
have i)erf ect compassion for all creatures. He should give 
thought unceasingly to the contemplation of Brahma. 

87. In addition to his religious bath, his devotions, 
his worship of God and his constant sacrifices, he 
should study the Vedas with a satisfied mind. 

88. He should perform well the worship of fire and of un- 
invited guests and the offering of food to God and he should 
give such an oblation to God, to Rishis, and to ancestors 
whereby God may be pleased. 89. In this way having 
performed the prescribed rules, he should then eat and in 
the third watch of the day he should listen with a satisfied 
mind to the Puranas. 90. With a mind full of joy he 
should put his trust in the words of the Vedas. You are 
equipped with ail knowledge of goodness. Now think for 
yourself what is for your good. 91. If you throw aside 
what is your special duty, how can mankind be saved ? If 
animals that live in the water leave it, then what ^way 
have they for remaining alive ? 92. If an infant does not 
take its nourishment from its mother's breast, it can have 
no other way of obtaining food. If a bird discards the 
space where can it go ? 93. If the lotus will not look at 
the sun, how will it flower ? If the bee does not partake of 
honey, how can it be made happy ? 94. If a fly leaves the 
heap of sugar, bow can it ipeet with happiness ? So if a 

228 



BHAKTAVIJAYA C3h. XIV- 94t105 

Brahman discards his own special duties, one sees disaster 
before him. 95. So putting aside your pride, make your 
mind pure through repentance. Perform those acts Which 
your reputation will increase in both worlds. 96. Go to 
the Chandrabhaga river, and there bathe accompanied by 
the rites of repeating the mantras. Give gifts of gold to 
the Brahmans and perform the punyahavachan ( day-bles- 
sing ceremony ). 97. Listen, you wise and expert One, 
and cbcumambulate the sacred city. By doing so, your 
family will become holy. 98. Only by doing this will 
your fault of eating what was left on Nama's plate 
be put aw&y.* 

FOUR KINDS OF BATHING 

Hearing these words of the Brahmans, the Soul 
of the . universe replied, ' I certainly will do so.* 
99. HrisMkeshi ( the Lord of the heart, Krishna ) then 
said to the Brahmans, 'Your command is My auth- 
ority, but I have one request to make with my whole 
body and speech.' 100. The One who is dark as a cloud 
( Krishna ) further said to the Brahmans, ' Take care of 
Nama. Though I have searched, I have found no God- 
loving bhakta equal to him. 101. You are righteous 
teachers of the Vedas. The stream of your words has the 
form of sacred waters. O Swamia, I have already well 
bathed in the water of your truthful words. 102. I am the 
Beginning, the Unconquered and the Adhokshaja (the 
Pervader of earth and sky ). But I have faith in you. 
You are worthy of My supreme worship. Indeed, you 
are My supreme deity, 103. You tell me to perform s 
bath. Bathing is of four different kinds. I will explain 
this clearly to you. 104. Know that to hear and meditate 
on the Puranao and Hari-kirtans is superior to all forms 
of bathing. 105. No one has ever declared that any bathing 
was of more value than experience, &an study, or than 

230 



Ch, XrV- 105-117 KRISHNA'S FINANCE 

the vision of the supreme Spirit. 106. The second form of 
bathing is that of making oneself clean within and with- 
out. Anyone who has the good fortune to accomplish 
this, does not require any other means- 107. The third 
form of bathing is to put all your organs of sense under 
control and to destroy all desire. If anyone performs this 
bathing, why should he need other rites ? 108. The fourth 
form of bathing superior to all others, is to have compassion 
on all creatures. Seldom can there be found one good man 
out of a thousand who has performed this bath. 109. If 
anyone should ask Me regarding the fifth form of bathing 
it is the bathing with water. This bathing is spoken of 
as merely for the public eye. 110. Lust, anger, avarice, 
caste-feeling, seductions and hypocrisy are hereditary 
in one's body. They do not leave one by bathing 
in water. 111. So they must first be driveii out 
by means of right thinking, and by a heart indifferent to 
earthly things. This purification of the heart must 
be obtained through association with saints. 112. The 
■fact of the infinite number of rebirths is itself called a 
penance for the person who has the regular rule of repeat- 
ing the names, Ram, Krishna, Govinda. 113. Exactly as 
your mental state is, go will you reap its fruit. To 
My mind Nama si.>ems spotless." 

KRISHNA UNDERGOES A PENANCE 
114. Having said this, the God of gods made the 
following request to the Brahraans, ' Put aside all your 
doubts in your feelir gg. 115. Let us, bhaktas of Vishnu, 
you and all of us, hasten to the Chandrabhaga river, and 
I will accept whatever penance you may prescribe for Me.' 
116, The Husbaftd of Rukmini, who enjoys the drama of 
His own lUa ( acts ), the loved Ornament of His bhaidaSt 
accomplished before His bhaktas marvellous deeds of 
Maya- 117. Then Vanamali { Krishna ), taking Nama's 
hand and pressing it against His lotus-heart, hastened 

231 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XIV' 117-189 

to the Chandiabhaga river with a crowd following. 
118. Men. and women came there to see the marvellouff 
deed. Indra and Brahmadev and the other gods stood 
by looking on. 119. The Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) 
with a crowd of saints walked in front of the procession, 
and the noble Brahmans hastened along in the rear. 120. 
In this way the Lord of the heaven Vaikunth arrived 
at the Chandrabhaga and made a namaskar to Pundalik, 
and the servants of Vishnu shouted aloud God's name. 
121. Krishna then walked around the noble Brahmans and 
began the bathing prescribed in the scriptures. He whcm 
the Husband of Mridani ( Shiva ) is unable to contemplate. 
He took in his hand til seed, the sacred darbka grass and 
flowers. 122. As the Brahmans repeated the mantras 
prescribed in the Vedas, He rubbed on Himself cowdung 
and ashes. Then the Life of the world. Wearer of the 
yellow robe, showed a wonder to His servants. 123. He 
let down His curled hair on His back. With very wide 
and lotus-eyes, the Lover of Rukmini, the One dear to His 
bhaktan, showed them a marvel. 124. This Life of the world, 
the Dweller upon the sea of milk, for whose sake many 
forms of austerities and postures in yoga are practised, He 
lovingly took the penance. 125. He whose name alone 
destroys faults and delivers His bhaktas from rebirths, the 
Giver of the promise to Pundalik, the Lord of the world, 
even He gladly took the penance. 126. One might search 
through the Vedas and Shastras and yet not understand 
His ixjwer — even to that blameless One it was that the 
Brahmans gave the penance. 127. He from whose big toe 
the holy Ganges started. Him they stood in the water and 
gave Him the penance. 128. He who is the Immoveable, 
the Changeless, the Eternal, the perfect One, the Pervader 
of the Universe, the Mass of Intelligence, they gave Him 
the penance of being rubbed over with cowdung and ashes. 
129. The Dweller in Vcdkwnth, Hrishikeshi { the Lord of 

232 



Ch. XrV* 129-135 KRISHKA'S PENAKCE 

the heart), the Ornament of His bhdktas, ths Lord of the 
world, although blameless, was charged with sin and given 
penance. 130. After having properly bathed He clothed 
Himself with the yellow garment. He drank the water in 
which the Brahmans' feet were washed, and in love bowed 
His head to them. 131. The Lord of the world then wor- 
shipped His bliaktas, and having bathed and worshipped 
He thus finished the regular ceremonies. 132. After wor- 
shipping the Brahmans, he gave them gifts according to the 
prescribed rules, and then the Life of the world said to the 
Brahmans, ' You have now patronised Me. 133. I have 
accomplished your most cherished desire. From now on, 
never bring into your minds any doubtful thoughts regard- 
ing Me. 134. I have accomplished all you have asked 
Me to do. Now consider Me as yourselves.'* Listen to 
what the eagle-bannered One did after thus speaking. 

■ KRISHNA RETURNS TO HIS TEMPLE 
135. He gave the Brahmans leave to depart and Him- 

*Three different re idings are found in the Bhaktavijaya, 
Ch. XIV 134, as follows:— 

(1) arrrft 3?iTT<rK^ irRr «?3r. This is the reading in all printed editions. 

and would apper to be quite meaningless. 

(2) ^rirTt 3?R*?^T ^iRr T^r. This reading is found in the Taharabadkar 

and Naik Mss. and is translated as 'Now 
consider Me as yourselves.* 

(3) arrcTt «fT?¥-'"T ^r*?r *J3r. This reading is adopted by Lakshman 

Babu Gokhale in the Induprakasb EditioD 
of 1888, and may be translated as ' Now 
Nama is the most essential thing to me.' 

(4) 3Tr?ri 3TRIi?;t sriirr ^^. This is a fourth possible reading and it is 

tempting to regard it as correct in accord- 
ance with the widely accepted principle 
in dealing with ancient documents, viz., 
the unusual reading is often the correct 
one. This reading would be translated, 
• Now'Nama is My own Self.' 

23S 



BKAKTAVUAYA Ch. XIV- 135-147 

self returned to His temple, accompanied by all the bhaktas 
who in joy shouted aloud His name. 136. Then Satya- 
bhama, Radha and Rukmini broaght different kinds of 
food, and served it befora them. Krishna lovingly sat 
down in the assembly of His bhaklas to tat. 137. Just as 
the moon is glorious with all the clusters of stars around 
it, so the Hu.sband of Rukmini in His joy sat down in the 
assembly of Vaishnauas. 138. In His love the Life of the 
world put morsels of food in the mouths of each one, and 
on His yellow robe in His affection caught whatever food 
fell from their mouths. 139. Having compisted His love- 
feast, Tie gave to the bhaktas the pansupari. Then the Hus- 
band of Rukmini laid down on His bed of ease. 140. The 
Vaishnavas took leave of Him and went to their homes. 
With joy and love they worshipped Him in their heart. 

NARAD VISITS KRISHNA 

141. Just then Narad arrived in haste with a brahma- 
vina in his hand. He was singing with his sweet voice in 
very delightful words, 143. The God-loving bkalda arrivud 
singing of the pure and blessed name of God, then hasteii- 
ed to approach Pandurang, and bowed to Him. 143. The 
Husband of Rukmini suddenly saw Narad, the statue of 
indifference to earthly things, possessor cf the joy of love, 
144. E-rishna lovingly gave him an embrac-?, and said to 
this son of Brahniadev, ' Your singing seems to Mo be- 
yond all comparison.' 145. Hearing Him yay this, Narad 
was choked with emotion.. Tears fail from his eyes. Then. 
with joy he sang of Krishna's good deeds and name. 146. 
Victory to Thee, who gavest the promise to Pundalik, 
Helper of the helpless, Dweller on the banks of the Bhima, 
Husband of Rukmini, Ocean of mercy, overflowing with 
joy, Thou didst personally protect Thy bhaklas. 147. Victory 
to Thee, lotus-eyed Shrlrang (Krishna), Ornament of Thy 
bhaktas, eterually unchangeable, O Saviour of the universe, 

234 



Ch. XIV' 147-159 lUDHA ON KBISHNA'8 FAULT 

Pandurang, assooiaied wltli what has no associate, and for 
ever the same. 148. Victory to Thee, Enjoyer of the sea of 
milk. Father of Brahmadev, King of the Heaven Vaikunth. 
Through repeating Thy name alone, Thou dri vest away illu- 
sory thought from Thy Matoos. 149. Victory, victory to Thee, 
Ocean of compassion, Lord of the earth. Thou dost stand 
upon the banks of the Bhiraa, and when pious bhaklas 
come to visit Thee, Thou dost protect them with Thy look 
of mercy.' 150. Narad sang His praises in this way, and 
then performed over the Hxisband of Rukmini the waving 
eeramony, Having finished this song of praise, he pros- 
trated himself before Him. 151. The god then hung around 
Narad's neck a garland made of ckampaka flowers and the 
■tulsi. The son of Brahmadev having worshipped God, 
departed. 

R.VDHA PEKPLEXEDBY THE CHARGE AGAINST KRISHNA 

153. Radha came to Rukmini and whimpered to her, 
' I am feeliug exceedingly strange in my lotus-heart. 

153. What fault has the Friend of the bhaktas committed 
today, that He had to take penance and purify Himself ? 

154. I hpve this doubt in my mind. Therefore I ask you. 
How can the Unmanifesteil One commit a fault as to what 
is duty and not duty ? 155. Th unusual has happened 
today, such as would be the confining of the sun in dark- 
ness, or of sinking the oceati in a pool of water, or of im- 
prisoning the Ganges in u well, 156. or like the moon 
growing warm, or like the confining of the wind in a cage. 
How could Agasti tremble with fear seeing the ocean? 
157. flow could the sun be hidden by the light of the stars? 
How can nectar die with disease ? 158. If all space could 
be confined in a jar, or a mountain make adamant tremble, 
then only could the Lord of the heart be in any bondage 
to duties, so I think. 159. If seed that had been 
roasted and then sown oan grow luxuriously, then 

335 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XTV* 159-171 

onlyoould the Lord of our life be entangled in the 
bondage of duties, 160, Tell me ever/thing. Who 
has been troubling the dark-complexioned One? You 
are all knowing and my elder. Tell rie, because 
I am ignorant.' 161. Eukmini replied, ' O noble One, the 
eagle-bannered One has put away all shame of lowering 
His greatness and has accepted the performance of penance 
for Nama's sake. 162. Listen, you intelligent One but 
ignorant of facts 1 This Krishna, Helper of the help- 
less, has been attracted through the bhakfi rendered to Him 
and He cannot bear separation from Nama. 163. This 
Sachchidananda (Krishna) has become confused through His 
love for Nama, and so has accepted duties that are auspi- 
cious and non-auspicious. 164. Notice t.-o power of affec- 
tion. What will one not do through it ? This is the uni- 
versal experience. O mother, I will describe it to you. 
165. A child might be blind, lame, dumb and of lisping 
speech, but its mother because of her love always has 
sympathy with it. 166. Crazy for her child through her 
love, she plays only with it. A child of another might be 
more beautiful, but she pays no attention to it. 167. She 
pays no attention to any malformation- in her child, so 
she says to herself, ' Perhaps an evil eye will fall upon it.* 
So she takes that away ( by waving her Lands over it, and 
cracking her knuckles ) and kisses it on ihe face, 168. Just 
so with love ;'n his heart, the Holder of the disk (Krishna) 
cares for his bhaktris. He pays no respect to their caste or 
family. He loves them more than He does His own life. 
169. This debt of love, through His love of body, mind 
and speech, has come down from the infinite rebirths of the 
past. 170. God loves him deeply. He has never been 
separated from Him, Keshav ( God ) has always held 
this love for His dearest Nama. ' 171. Hearing Rukmini 
say this, Radha was quite satisfied. In silence she bowed 
to her, and then went to her home. 

236 



(3h. XIV- 172-183 DOUBTS about KRISHNA REMOVED 

NARAD VISITS SATYABHAMA 

172. In the meantime, Narad arrived at the house of 
Satyabhama. The beautiful one paid him her respects 
and seated him on a couch of ease. 173. The wife of Shri 
Krishna ( Satyabhama ) said to him, ' I consider it very 
strange that the King of Vaikunth. { heaven ) should put 
aside His greatness and dance in the midst of the fdrlan, 
174. In what past birth did He become a debtor to Nama, 
so that now the One dark as a cloud carries out his. many 
wishes? 175. Though His love for Pundalik, Shrirany 
( Krishna ) stood on a brick. Twenty-eight ages have 
already passed since then, but He is not weary of it. 176. 
Although Pundalik made the Saviour of the world stand 
on the brick, He never turned his back on that position. 
The cruel one ( Pundalik ) does not even speak to Him, 
although the Saviour of the universe was made to suffer. 
177. Although it was thus, the Holder of the Sharang bow 
( Krishna ) stood upon the brick, and without giving 
thought to it, continued to protect the door of Bali. 178. 
Seeing their love for Hira, He protected the Pandavas in 
many ways. He felt no shame in His heart while carry- 
ing out the purposes of His bhaktas. 170. Thus Madhav 
( Krishna ) personally performed very marvellous deeds, 
and to fulfil the purposes of His bhaktas He wearied His 
own body, without any necessity for doing so. 180. There 
must be in this agr on the surface of the earth a great 
number of His bhaktas. How can I give you the whole 
list of their names ? 131. Therefore I feel much troubled 
in my mind that His bhaktas, exciting His love, weary 
Him through acts expressing it.' 

SATYABHAMA'S DOUBT ABOUT KRISHNA DISPELLED 

182. As Satyabhama thus spoke, Narad replied, 'Listen, 
O mother, to what I am going to tell you. You must re- 
gard it as true. 183. This Being without form, this Life 

237 



BHAKTAVUAYA C!h. XJTV- .183-194 

of the world, had aS His only reason for becoming 
an avatar, the purpose of protecting His bhaklaa 
through many forms of activities. And for this reason He 
came in bodily fonii. 184. It was as if the earth took form 
in order to bear the weight of things animate and inanimate; 
or it was as if the sun descended to give light to men; 
185. or as if the iuternal digestive fire descended to burn 
and digest the food; or as if grass was made to grow for 
the purpose of removing the hunger of the cow; 186. or as 
if Hnshtkeshi (the Lord of the heart) had created the space 
for birds to fly about in; or as if He had created the night 
in order to give mankind rest; 187. or as if divine jewels 
had been formed to provide the bodies of the beautiful ones 
with ornaments; or as if '.ectar had been created to save 
the life of those whose lite has come to an end; 188. 
so Adhokshaja ( the Pervader of earth and sky ) became 
a Being with qualiti:^ that He might carry out the purpose 
of His bhaktaa. In dropping His greatness He is not 
ashamed and he manifests His lUa ( sports ) with ease. 
189. O you wise one, you know th^t this Helper of the 
helpless, Lover of the bfuik'as, Ocean of compassic.i. Merci- 
ful to the lowly, this dark-compiexioned One, preserves 
His reputation by so doing. 180. The Lord of the heart 
personally suffered births in Ambarishi's place and at the 
same time being indifferent to earthly things He guarded 
the door of Bali without feeling ashaiUed of doing bo. 191. 
He became a slave, and with body, mind and speech this 
mp-'v^iful Husband of yours protected the Pandavas. 192, 
Becoming the son of Nanda He protected the cows in 
Qokul, and taking the food left on the plates by the cow- 
herds He tasted it in love. 193. Seeing a great danger 
approaching, He threw Himself into Ihe midst of it and 
broke the bondage of His bhaktas. Such are His praise- 
worthy deeds. 194. All we His bhaktaa are entirely portions 
of Him, but today He has become a complete avatar iot 

338 



Ch. XrV- 194-203 KRISHNA'S SECRETS 

Naraa's sake, in a visible form, with qualities.' 195. The 
J/km Narad, having explained these things to Satyabhama, 
quickly left. 

KRISHNA'S SECRETS REVEA.LED TO RUKMINI 

Just then Eukmini came to tb'> bed on which the 
Holder of the disk (Krishna) was lying and worshipped Him. 
196. With reverence .she placed her head on His feet, and 
said to Plim, ' O Lord of Paudhari, tell me what You like 
above everything else. 197. O Lover of His bhaktas. Lord 
of Vaikunth (heaven), remove this anxious doubt from me. 
Your mind is notwherethe eight forms of //npa* are through 
which the Yogis obtain their salvation. 198. Where the 
Yogi sits in contem.plation, there Your mind does not take 
pleasure. You have no lovo for Vaikunth ( heaven ), 
This T clearly recognize. 199. Your mind has no fond- 
ness for the happiness ar ^ enjoyments of heaven. Your 
mind is always depressed. Tell me why this is so. 200. In 
giving final deliverance to the Yogis, You have absorbed 
them into that which is without qualities, and I know of 
no one closer to You than they. 201. Your four-faced son 
( Brahmadev ) worships You in His wise way. And the 
four Vedas and the eighteen Puranas describe Your attri- 
butes. 202. But unable to express them fully, they say, 
" It is not this. It is not that." The question is discussed in 
the six Shastras, but your incomparable reputation is un- 
known to them.' 20^. Hearing Eukmini say this, the 
Lord of the heart said to her, ' You call yourself a wise 

*Tlie eightfold yoga: — l.jm = Restraint or government of the senses. 
2. Pn!n? = A religious observance. 3. 37RrT=Posture or attitude. 
4. TrwiTW:: Breathing. 5. iT7'rrfrc = Withdrawing or restraining the 
organs from the objects of sense. 6. •<nT''IT = Suspending the breath, 
abstracting the mind, and restraining all natural vrants. 7. ETnr = 
Profound and abstract contemplation. 8. 5fTiTrf?T = Deep and dev- 
out meditation; restraining the senses and confining the mind to 
contemplation; abstracted or absorbed state. 

239 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. XIV- 203-216 

woman, but you do not knovr the secret of My heart. 
204. Now I will tell you the secret of My heart, that in 
body, speech and mind, dear Nama is for ever in My 
thoughts. 205. I tell ycu these secrets of My heart today. 
It is they whom I love, these *pious, dear bkaktas. 206. I 
am the formless One, One • without attributes, and yet for 
the purpose of My bhaktas I have come, assuming form and 
name. 207. My soul loves My bhaktas. My bhaktas are the 
resting-places of the wise. Know this that the bhaktas are 
the storehouse of My love. 208. Know well that 
My bhaktas are the ornaments of My good fortune. The 
bhaktas are the treasure-house of My goodness. I am 
always subject to them. 209. The bhaktas are My 
victory and praiseworthy deeds. They are My happiness. 
When I meet them they provide all the desires of My 
heart. 210. Know this, that I and My bhaktas will 
never be separated to the end of time. The bhaktas alone 
know the joy of worshipping Me. 211. I repeat the names 
of My bhaktas. I contemplate their form in My imagina- 
tion and it is My pleasure from time to time to look to the 
joy of My bhaktas. 212. It is My bkaktas alone who are 
always thinking o.*" My feet. It is they who sing of My 
good qualities, and worship Me with desireless minds. 213. 
If I give them the four chief earthly gifts, including the 
four forirs of deliverance, they will not so much as touch 
them with their hands. The bhaktas nevor put on Me the 
burden of supplying their domestic wants. 214. I am the 
heart of My bfiaktas. They are My nearest relatives. 
Considered from every side, My bhaktas seem more gener- 
ous than I am. 215. Therefore, I Keshav ( Krishna ) have 
no desire to go away from being near to Nama's heart.* 
216. While the Husband of Rukmini was saying this, the 
sun arose. What then happened further, listen with rever- 
ence, you wise bhaktas. 

240 



Ch. XIV- 217-224 AN INCOMPARABLE CHAPTER 

MANY LANGUAGES BUT ONE MEANING 

217. This delightful story of bhakti without comparison 
has been related in this fourteenth chapter, just as in the 
eleventh section of the Bhagwat Shri Krishna spoke to 
Uddhava, 218. In that book the delightful chapter is the 
twenty-ninth. In it are poured out nothing but divine juices. 
So in this Bhaktavijaiia,nhVa.Q fourteenth that does this. 
219. You may say, 'Your verses are in Marathi, and you 
yet coniptire them with that supreme QUa.' But that is not 
truly so. Listen to my observation on this point. 220. In 
the Tirthavali, Shri Dnyaneshwar has spoken with his own 
lips. I have taken his words as my authority and described 
things as he does. 221. When you turn to the meanings 
of words, the Marathi and Sanskrit are considered by men 
as conveying the same sense, just as the cow has two 
names, gautami (Sanskrit) and gaya (Marathi) but she gives 
only one kind of milk. 223. You use two words in speak- 
ing of the ocean, paycbdhi and sagar, but there is no differ- 
ence in their waters, therefore pandits must not speak of a 
Marathi book as being inferior. 

223. In the next very delightful chapter the Holder 
of the disk ( Krishna ) will be the composer of the book. 
Mabipati having received His gift of assurance will always 
be without fear. 

224. Swasli ( Peace ' ) This book is the Shri Bhakta- 
vijaya. As the Lord of the world listens to it He will be 
pleased. Listen, you God-loving pious bhaktas. This is 
the fourteenth very delightful chapter. 



B. V. 16 241 



CHAPTER XV 

NAMDEV'S LIFE 
( Continued ) 
Obeisance to Shri Oanesh.Obeimnceto Rukmimand Pandurang 
BHAKTAVIJAYA IS FOR LOVERS OF SAINTS 
1, Listen with reverence, you hearers. Today the 
Husband of Rukmini ' is especially pleased with you. 
Therefore He has made the stories of His bhaktaa widely 
known and in detail over the whole of the earth. 2. 
When a cloud has rained for the sake of the chatak bird ; 
or when the moon has arisen for the chakor bird; or r.s fishes 
rejoice when the ocean is dtirred up for their sake ; 3. or as 
the sandalwood descended in order to cool the body of good 
men ; or as the sun arises to make the whole world happy ; 
4. or as if a limitless forest of tnlsi should spring up in 
order to complete fully the worship of Vishuu ; or as when 
the bilva tree grows up to make glad the Husband of Uma 
{ Shiva ) ; 5. or as when in the spring-time flowers appear 
in order to give pleasure to the nostrils ; or as when a 
cloud rains upon the earth in order to make mankind 
happy ; 6. or as when the Godavari river came down on 
the surface of the earth in order to wash away the sins of 
Gautam ; or as if the nectar should appear in the ocean in. 
order to satisfy the gods ; 7. so, for you who listen with 
fondness, these stories of the saints have been composed. 
Listen with reverence, you pious folk, to a summary of the 
previous chapter. 8. The Holder of the Sfiarang bow 
( Krishna ) had sftid to Rukmini, ' I intensely love all My 
bhaklas, but I always .feel a limitless love for Nama more 
intense than for others.' 

KRISHNA AND HIS BHAKTAS MEET 
9. While the Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) was carry- 
ing on this conversation ( with Rukmini ) the sun 

242 



Ch. XV- 9-20 KRISHNA AND IHS BHAKTAS 

arose. Just then all the bliaklas arrived for worship. 
10. They shouted aloud the names of Krishna, and with 
loud cries of ' Victory, victory ', they prostrated them- 
selves before Him. Just as the bee l')vingly buzzes 
over the lotus flower; 11. or just as the little child, 
seeing its mother, coraes to her; or just a.s when the 
doe sees her young, she cannot contain the joy in her 
heart; 12. or just as when a miser finds some hidden 
wealth, his mind rejoices in his love of it ; so these 
Vaishnavas were made happy as they looked upon the form 
of this dark-complexioned One. 13. This form which they 
saw for their contemplation they fixed in their minds. By it 
they had waves of joy and tears flowed from their eyes 
14. In trying to describe the experience of their joy, words 
fail the poats, and in order to illustrate" it how can they 
find the words, though they should hunt all over the 
world ? 15. No one can describe fclu- ciiuracteristios of 
sugar, unless he has tasted of its s'.\\:Mt\\s?.<,, sj it is by 
experience alone that the Vuishiiaoxs know of the joy of 
fellowship with Vishnu. 16. Vaii'iiiKtll (Krishna) then 
embraced His bhuktas and drew them to His heart, and with 
reverence for them He protected all His h^i iki/is by His 
look of mercy. 17. And these bliak'-i.^ of Hi^, as they 
looked upon His lotus-eyes and Hi-: cloud-dark com- 
plexion, enjoyed an incomparable happiiit-ss that cannot be 
expressed in words. 

KRISHNA THINKS OF FEEDING USIAHHANS 
18. Thus the God of gods in His g.moro.sity told 
Rukmini of His feelings, that with love and reverenct 
He should invite the earth-gods ( Brahmans ) to a feast: 19. 
' I went yesterday to the bank of tie Chandrabhaga river, 
and there took penance. It was there that the thought 
came to Me of inviting the Brahmaus fcu a feast. 20. The 
Brahmans who live in the sacreti city and fulfil their 
religious duties, I wish to invite theai all and bring 

213 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XV- 20-3S 

them here to My temple. 21. By merely looking at 
them, sin and affliction are burned up and all desires are 
fulfilled. They rain a very joy of soul. 22. Giving them 
delicious feast, I wish to take away all doubts from their 
minds, and showing them My four-armed form to perform 
marvellous deeds before them. 23. The influenoe of asso- 
ciation with saints is very great, and the praise of it will 
greatly increase in the world.' Such was the Holder of the 
SAarawfi; bow's (Krishna's) explanation to Rukmini in His 
love. 24. The Mother of the world assented : ' Why do you 
worry over the giving of the invitation to the Brahmans 
•when all the siddhis ( accomplishments personified ) are 
favourable to you ?' 25. The Lord of Pandhari smiled and 
then said to Nama. ' Listen to My words. It will be your 
duty to perform the marvel.* 

KRISHKA AND NAMA CONVERSE 

26. As the Life of the world said this, Nama 
replied, ' O Krishna, I alone know the secrets of Your 
heart.' 27. The Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) said to 
Nama, ' Elmbrace Me, dear friend, and from now on 
never go away from Me. 28. As I see your love. My 
mind is not too well satisfied. As I look at you with a 
full gaze, it is a comfort to My eye. 29. My mind is 
absorbed in you. This is a debt acqiiired during many 
rebirths. Therefore this bond of love cannot be broken. 1 
Govinda, am filled with love. 30. I am not aware of 
what good deeds you have performed, what rites, aiisteri- 
ties or religious ceremonies you have carried out, whether 
you have put your body to the saw, or visited sacred bath- 
ing places; 31. whether you have rsjected all ilhisions, and 
held your mind in control. You have made Me, however, 
Bubjecfc to you, and you hold Me in your heart. 32. Al- 
though I might search through the three worlds,! see noth- 
ing which I could give to you in return. 33. Dear bhakta, 

244 



Ch. XV- 33-47 KRISHNA CONFORMS TO RITW 

you have made a sacrifice of your body and mind and 
have done many unselfish acts for Me. 34. I Shrirang, 
coll Myself your slave, but you have no need of anything," 
35. Nama replied, ' Thou art the Helper of the help- 
less, the Advocate of Thy Miaktas, therefore, O God, it is 
Thy good pleasure to bestow Thy love upon rae.' 

KRISHNA CONFORMS TO CEREMONIAL RITES 

•36. Then the lover of His bhaldas, Hrishikeshi (the Lord 
of tae heart ), with His own miud froe from fear, took His 
bhildas with Him and started to give the invitations. 37, 
This object of contemplation by the Yogis, the object of 
worship for all gods, arrived at the kundal bathing pool. 
38. All the earth-gods ( Brahman:-; ) had assembled thera, 
greait and small. They said among themselves, ' Our hort 
dcies not come quickly to see us. 39. When taking the 
penance yesterday, he promised to give the Brahmans a 
feast, but even the invitation has not yet arrived.* 40. Joat 
then Vamimall ( Krishna ), along with the assembly of 
bhiiktas, arrived, and seeing the Brahmans with His lotus- 
eyes. He prostrated Himself ou the ground before them. 
41. The Life of the world said to them, ' Discarding all 
doubts and without hesitation you must come to the feast. 
43. You gave Me your assurance that I should not fear. 
You must fulfil My wish. Complete your bathing and devo- 
tions and quickly come.' 43. Hearing this kindly worded 
invitation, the Brahmans were pleased. Listen now with 
revarence to the reply they raada: li. ' Regarding it as 
perfectly true that we live under Thy protection, in 
living in this sacred city we give Thee our blessings- 
45. Thou art always protecting cows and Brahmans. Every 
one .speaks of Thee that Thou, O Swami, art merciful to the 
lowly. 46. Thou art King of kings; we Brahmans are Thy 
priests, and with Thy look of mercy Thou constantly 
carest for us. 47. In describing with Thy lips Thy rever- 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XV- 47-58 

ence for us, we can truly make no comparison. It 
is Thy good pleasure always to show respect for the 
commands of the Vedas. 48. Thou, O God, in all good 
faith, must keep Thy promise. Thou must grant love to 
Nama's mind through Thy favour.' 49. Hearing this, 
the Brother of the helpless, the Root of every life, 
the Ocean of happiness for all His bhaktas, the Joy of 
Yogis, 50. with a mind overflowing with joy, quickly 
returned to His temple, and with exceeding love told 
Rukmini of all that happened. 51. * This day is a blessed 
one, a golden day has arisen. I have therefore arranged 
it as a festival to My bhaktas, which will truly be with- 
out comparison. ' 

BRAHMAN8 FEASTED BY KRISHNA 

52. The Life of the world said to Rukmini, ' I have 
invited all the Brahmans. As soon as they perform 
their bathings and devotions, they will come quickly 
to the feast. 53. Today's novel and incomparable marvel 
is the glorification of humility. ' Thus speaking, the 
Gk)d of gods smiled. 54. Hrishikeshi ( the Lord of the 
heart ) said to Rukmini, ' Their good deeds have come to 
their fruitage. Therefore without effort on their part you 
will be seen by the noble Brahmans. ' 55. The noble 
Brahmans, having completed their regular ceremonial 
duties, came to the temple. The Holder of the Sharang bow 
( Krishna ) made them a namaskar and gave them seats. 
56. Then Krishna took the lead in worshipping the 
Brahmans. With His own hands He washed their feet 
and bowed His head to the water in which their feet were 
washed. 57. The dark-complexioned One lovingly gave 
the Brahmans sandalwood paste and the black paste, the 
garlands of flowers, incense and lights, the fragrant black 
powder, the tulsi and many kinds of perfumes. 58. Shrv- 
rang (Eiishna) having put plates before them, served 

246 



Ch. XV- 58-70 BRAHMAN8 FEABTEID 

them with solid and liquid foods. Taking water, He 
made the o£fering of food to God. 59. He gave to the 
noble Brahmans water to sip and then praying to them,, 
the Dweller in Vaikuntka ( Heaven ) said to them, ' As you 
eat, remember Govinda ( God ) at every morsel 60. 
He who remembers God with every morsel that he 
takes into his mouth, although he has dined yet he will 
be regarded as having fasted.' So said the Husband of 
Bukmini to^the Brahmans. 61. All the Brahmans were 
full of joy and all were satisfied. Water to wash their 
hands and the pansupari were given to all by Krishna. 
63, Then Shripaii ( Krishna ) waved over the Brahmans 
lights in a platter inlaid with jewels as they sat in lines 
on their own seats. 63. The Holder of the Sharang bow 
( Krishna ) then joined both His hands together and said 
to them, ' The event of today will never occur again. 64. 
Through the millions of good deeds belonging to My credit 
I have met you here today, and the universe is filled with 
supreme joy.' Thus spoke the Lord of the world. 65. ' Now 
I Myself and the saints will sit down in one line and eat. 
Put your minds at rest, and sit quietly for a moment.' 
66. Thus speaking, the Performer of the marvellous deeds 
called to Him the assembly of the bhaktas, and the Brah- 
mans saw at that time a remarkable wonder. 67. Brah- 
madev and other gods sitting in their chariots of light, 
and Indra with many other gods, also arrived. 68. The 
Yogis were disturbed in their minds saying, 'We have not 
the joy of bhakti which the Husband of Rukmini, pleased 
with Nama, has given him with love.' 

KRISHNA WORSHIPS HIS BHAKTAS 

69. The Holder of the Sharang bow ( Krishna ) then 
invited to His own line Nivritti, Dnyaneshwar, Sopan, the 
great bhakta Savata, Jagmiira who was ( Krishna's ) very 
dear friend, 70. the great bhaktas Asand, and Sudama, the 

247 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XV- 70-81 

God-loving Vaishnav Visoba Khecbar, also Savata and 
Narahari the goldsmith, all of whom came to the feast ; 
71. Chokhamela and Vanka and Janaka who is as dear to 
Him as His life, and for whom the Lord of the Yadhavas 
had never-ending love. 72. Then there was the potter 
Gora, who was a veritable Mount Mem of indifference 
to every form of earthly things, whom the Holder of 
the Sharang bow ( Krishna ) used to call His dearest child. 

73. So the Lord of the Uuiktas, having invited ail of 
them, great and small, worshipped them in His love. 

74. He who is the Life of the world, superior to every- 
thing, even He worshipped His hhaktas. Nama was amazed 
at this and lovingly questioned Him : 75. ' O God, ray 
mind feels surprised at this. It is as if the ocean wor- 
shipped the river; or as if the moon circumambulated 
the stars ; 76. or as if the Eagle ( Vishnu's vehicle ) should 
sit down to worship other birds; or as if the Husband of 
Parvati (Shiva ) should pray to the Numii ( the bull, Sliiva's 
vehicle ); 77. or as if a king should worship his subjects; 
or as if Indra should pray to the gods; in that very same 
way. Thou, O Life of the world, dost pay respect to Thy 
servants.' 78. The Husband of Rukmini smiled and said, 
' It is you who have ascribed greatness to Me. If rivers 
were not created, how would the ocean have grown to its 
present size ? 79. If there were no stars around the moon 
it would not have its present beauty. If the birds had not 
been created, no one would have called the Eagle the 
noblest of birds. 80. If Nandi had not been cr^attd, who 
would have been Shiva's vehicle ? If there had act been 
three hundred and thirty million gods, from whom would 
Indra have received reverence V 81. It is the subjects who 
make the king great. So it is you who have given Me My 
name and form.' Hearing Him say this, the hearts of His 
hhaktas were overcome with amazement. 

248 



Ch. XV- 82-92 BRAHMAK8 TALK ABOUT KRISHNA. 

KRISHNA DINES WITH HIS BHAKTAS 

82. Just then Satj^abhama, Rshi and Bukmini brought 
many kinds of food and served it before them. You may 
ask in what way Krishna shone in the midst of His bhaktas- 
83. It was like the ocean of milk in the midst of the seven 
oceans, or as the moon among the stars, or as the Kaustubh 
jewel stands chief in all ornaments ; so He was effulgent 
through His own form and brilliance. 84. Just as gold 
among the ^ight chief metals, or as a jewel in the midst 
of a lime heap, so the Life of the world appeared in 
the assembly of His bhaklas, glorious in His six great 
characteristics [ see ch. 13 verse 88, p. 211 ]. 85. The 
Husband of Rukmini put morsels of food into the mouths 
of all, and whatever fragments of food fell from their 
mouths He caught them on His robe. 86. As Brahmadev 
saw that happiness He licked His chops and said. The 
Lord of the world is pleased with Nania and does not even 
look at us.' 87. In this friendly way the feast was soon 
over, and all the saints were satisfied with the divine 
juices. 88, The gods then sitting in their chariots of lights 
shouted ' Victory, victory * in their jcy, and rained down 
an abundance of flowers. 

BRAHMANS CONVERSE ABOUT KRISHNA 

89. The whole sky was unable to contain their par- 
fume. The Brabmans were astonished and said, ' Injury 
to life ( from the abundance of perfume ) seems to have 
come. 90. Extraordinary enthusiasm has arisen. This is 
not the way of knowledge. This is not an evil indiflfer- 
ence to earthly things. It is the goodness of bhakti 
that has taken fonn.' 91. One of them said to the other, 
' What you say is true. This is truly Pandurang Him- 
self. How can a human being possess great and seem- 
ingly impossible good fortune? 92, He is absolutely free 
from the three qualities. He is free from actions. How 

249 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XV- 92-105 

can He be given penance ? 93. An outcaste and a 
Biahman both bathe in the Ganges, but one must never 
say that the Ganges has been defiled thereby. 94. 
There are various castes in the world and they have 
voluntary relations with one another. They have no 
division of inferior and superior. The Holder of the 
Sharang bow ( Krishna ) is like that. 95. He is like the 
sun when it arises. It gives equal light to all. So this 
Life of the world is the same, 96. When the rain falls 
upon the earth, the land and the mountains are the same 
to it ; just so, this noble Yadav is alike to all creatures. 
97. So this Holder of the Sliarang bow ( Krishna ) in His 
quality-less form has no recognition of "mine" and "thine." 
He has no thought whatever of caste or family. 98, When 
considering His relation to the six enemies of the 
soul [lust, anger, covetousness, affection, pride, envy J, they 
never apply to Him. Even the very words " Wrong think- 
ing " have no relation to Him. 99. In body, mind and 
speech He is the dearest relative of the lowly. With His 
generous mind He loves His hhaldas without limit. 100. 
If anyone follows Him He breaks his net uf illusions, and 
he does not allow His God-loving bhaktas to get entangled 
In the net of worldly affairs. 101. The mother of Nama 
in our very presence entered into much discussion and 
became greatly troubled in her mind. 102. The Hrishi- 
keslii ( Lord of the heart ), the Performer of wonders, held 
Nama to His heart and embraced him. 103. As one looks 
upon His beautiful form, one forgets one's own body. As 
one remembers His feet, the mind becomes fully absorbed 
in Him, 104, He who goes to Him as a suppliant with 
an undivided heart, has his rebirths ended. ' The Life of 
the world, hearing these words of noble Brahmans, smiled. 

GOD IN HIS SAO UN FORM 

105, Then He changed His form from that of a 



Ch. XV- 105-116 KRISHNA DESCRIBED 

citizen, and showed the form in which His attributes are 
manifested. He gave Nama an embrace and lovingly 
held him to His heart. 106. Hrishikeshi ( the Lord of the 
heart) gave the Brahraans His blessing and showed them 
also His true form. Even Sharada { the goddess of learn- 
ing ) finds it impossible to describe the beauty of that 
form. 107. The noble Brahmans looked upon Him with a 
crown of jewels on His head, with a mark of the musk- 
paste on I^fs forehead, dark-complexioned, and beautiful 
to look at. 108. He wore a head-dress of peacock feathers, 
and beautiful earrings shaped like crocodiles hung from His 
ears. This Husband of Rukmini looked with compassion 
on all His saints. 109. He who having seen the abundance 
of Pundalik's good deeds, took a sacjun form. This Enjoyer 
of the ocean of milk, this Dweller in the heaven 
Vaikunth, God supreme, 110. His pure face was smiling. 
His teeth sent forth a lustre like that of jewels. This 
dark-complexioned Form gives peace to the eyes of those 
who look at it. 111. The God-loving hhaktas alone h&ve 
authority to possess that joy. As they bring into their 
imagination the Lord of the Yadus, they acquire many 
forms of joyous love. 112. This Merciful to the lowly wore 
the iTaws/j^M jewel and the Vaijayanti garland. 113. On His 
breast was the Shri Vafm mark which was his ornament 
of love. His dark-skinned body had been rubbed over with 
sandalwood paste. His lotus-eyes were beautiful. 114. He 
had in His hand the conch-shell and the disk. His hands 
were placed on His hips. His dark-complexioned body was 
clothed in a yellow robe. It is this appearance which 
rests in the hearts of His bhaktas. 115. Shri Hari along 
with His wife Lakshmi had His feet placed parallel on the 
bricket. The limitless number of foofc-ornaments were, so 
to speak, so many demons ( named daiiyas and danavas ). 
116. When this divine light manifested itself, it lighted 
up the whole universe. Even the sun, seeing that light 

251 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XV- 116-128 

hid itself. 117. The saitits and all the Brahmans quietly- 
stood and looked upon that four-arined sayun form. 

KRISHNA IN HIS UNIVERSAL FORM 

118. The noble twice -born ( Brabmans ) looked about 
and saw birdj, injects, animals, men, rocks and trees, 
and all seemed to them in tbe form of Vitthal. 119, 
As the Brahmans looked on water, light, the heavens, 
tbe earth, the air, in all these five elements they saw 
the form of Vitth:^]. 120. The many kinds ot animal 
life, th , .~:j:i, i]v3 mo:^ii, .ill t':ie st-^rs, the many and 
wonderful deities, all appeared in the form of Vitthal. 
121. The hall of as.sembly, the slab before the gud, the door- 
keepers, Java and Vijaya, the pillar with the Eiigle, and 
the great door of the temple, all these appeared in tbe 
form of Vitthal. 122. The Eagle-banners, the dome of the 
temple, the cymbals, the drums, the shouting aloud of 
God's name, the steps, and the pilgrims' outhouses, 
appeared in the form of Vitthal to the nobis Brahmans. 
123. As they brouRht to their minds [the three (jums : raja, 
tamu,satti [life, intelligence and mind], they all appeared 
in the form of Vitthal. 124. It was ay, if a single seed of 
the banyan tree wa.'; sown, and tlien taking root it spread 
out into an infinite numbc-r of forms, just as the light of 
the sun alone spreads over the wholo oi the e;>rth; 125. 
and just as there iy water in every iaic'> ; and iu«t as there 
is but one ".ir that parvads;-; the universe ; or as in all 
living bodies V.ir-^ digestive firo fills thom. 126. There are 
infinite nuaii.'ors of eye-:-, Imt .sight i;: oiij; one tune, but 
many notes; th,^ mind pervades the ten organs of seaso as 
it appears to one's sight; 127. likewise the one Being, the 
Husband of Rnkmini, appeared in many forms. And aa 
the noble twioe-born (Brahmans) looked at Him, they 
were overwhelmed with astonishment. 128. The Life of 
the world took the form of the universe. Who else can be 

252 



Ch. XV- 128-139 BHA KTI ALL-POWERFVL 

found out to give an illustration of this except Krishna, the 
Lover of the heart who was encircled by the Oopis ? 
129. When they came ( to complain ) to Yashoc ^, they saw 
Krishna in an infinite min-iber of forms. Just so the 
Brahmans saw Him in the form of the universe. 130. The 
Lord Keshav (Krishna) alone pervaded the universe and no 
other was to be seen They naturally lost the conscious- 
ness of body, and any shamo of being so left them. 131. 
The knowledge of supreme joy manifested itself. Every oiie 
felt the joy. The whole idea of duality was put aside, and 
every one had his heart filled with gladness. 132. Looking 
from outside, He pervaded the three worlds. But looking 
into the heart, the form of Shri Krishna had hidden itself 
there. 

BHAKTl ALL-POWERFUL 

The Brahmans looked with love at Him who is the 
Yogi's happiness and rest. 133. With feelings of love 
the saints and good men embraced one another. 
They were full of love and shouted out ' Victory, 
victory. ' 134 Every one, seeing this limitless joy and 
rest, became absorbed in it. Shripati ( Krishna ) made His 
servants experience the divine joy in His love for them 
135. The Life of the world brought to consciousness those 
twice-boTU ( Brahnir.n:; ) who haJ lost consciousness of 
body, lie raibtu Xaiii.; up and placed him at their feet 
. 136. Thi? Lover of His bhakla.-!, this Lord of the world, 
looked with compas^iion on every one. And sitting closer 
to the Brahmans, He wbii^pered to them His secret thoughts. 
137. Keshaaaj ( Krishna ) said tu the Brahmans, ' Listen 
to the secrets of My heart. My bhuktas have put aside 
their earthly concerns and have followed Me. 138. Beoom- 
ing their debtor through their service rendered Me, I am 
fully bound to them. Being subject to My bhaktas, I have 
no independence of My own. 139. Nivritti, Dnyander 

253 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XV- 139-151 

ai\d Sopan worship Me in every creature. Paying very 
little regard to their bodies, they have made Me subject to 
them. 140. This Jagamitra ( Friend of the world ) here, 
giving up all worldly things, has become my supreme 
friend. Hiding Me in the temple of his heart, the con- 
sciousness of body does not come any more to him. 141, 
This servant of mine, Savata, the gardener, putting his 
faith in My worship, in his love sees Me alone in every 
creature. 143. When this Vasara, was twelve days old 
his mother threw him in Venunad, and the child realizing 
the non-iduality of his nature began to worship Me. 143. 
These My hhaktas, Visoba Khechar, the goldsmith Narahari 
and Gora the potter, have worshipped Me without inter- 
ruption. 144. Leaving home, wife and everything else, 
each has torn away from him the net of illusions. And 
so this God-loving bhakfca, Sudaraa, is the object of my 
compassion. 145. Chokhamela, Vanka and Janaka, are 
My loving bhakfas. They have uo close friends aside from 
Me. 146. They have put aside every other association, and 
with a feeling of unity with Me have followed Me. 
Aside from Me, they have no love for any other deity. 
147. To what extent can I recount the kindness of each one?" 
Thus remarked the Holder of the Sharang bow (Krishna) to 
the Brahmans in describing the joy of His love. 

BRAHMANS REPENT 

148. The twice-born ( Brahmans ), hearing that the 
God-loving and chief of all bhakfas, Nama, was the 
dust of the feet of all the hhaktas, were astonished. 
149. They, a full ocean of good fortune, said very 
sweetly, ' O Vitthal, Thou hast become our real 
mother-home. 150. And now Lord of Pandhari, we 
have only this to ask of Thee, that Thou break from 
us the desire of earthly things, and so help us, that 
we may never be separated from Thy feet. 151. We 

254 



Ch. XV- 151-162 BRAHMAN8 REPENT 

do not need any earthly enjoyments or the different forms 
of final deliverance. We want neither money nor property, 
but give us, O Shripati ( Krishna ), associatioa with the 
good during all our re-births. 152. Even while studying 
the Vedas and Sluistras, our minds have turned to the 
objects of sense, and pride has unsteadied our hearts. 
153. Should one not understand Thy secret of love, 
down, down with such knowledge. If it were not for Thy 
mercy, public honour deserves to be set on fire. 154. We 
are Brahmans of the highest caste. We have been seized 
by that illusion. Thereby we have been separated from 
the sweetness of Thy love. The bondage of pride is very 
great. 155. O Lord of Pandhari, all this illusion ig of Thy 
creation which has deceived us. We have needlessly been 
swept along by it, but now, O Lord God, Thou hast 
delivered us. 156. We have committed very many millions 
of transgressions, but Thou, O Lord of Pandhari, merciful 
One, hast become our Protector. 157. Thou hast been 
called the Helper of the lowly, and Thou hast made true 
that reputation today. Thou hast given us a sight of Thy- 
self, and hast saved us sinners. 158. Because of our good 
deeds stored in our numberless rebirths, Thou hast given 
this sight of Thyself, and has spoken to us in Thy love, 
159. These accumulated seeds of deeds were sown- 
and on them was sprinkled the water of association 
with saints, so that now, Lord God, these seeds ha ve 
grown to maturity, and have produced an infinite number 
of fruits. 160. Thou hast torn the exceedingly strong net 
•of seduction and made us conform to Thy beautiful 
essential form. In attempting to describe Thy lila (sports) 
the Vedaa and Shastras have found it beyond their power. 
161. The three forms of affliction were burning us up like 
a forest fire, but Thou didst quickly put it out. O SuKimi, 
Thou didst forcibly feed us needy ones with the nectar of 
Thy love. 162. Now, O Lord of the world, we have only 

2oo 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XV- 162-175 

this to ask of Thee, that we may always see Thy form as 
it is now, and that we may constantly meet with the 
saints. It is this desire that we bold in our hearts. 163. 
May Thy love be continually ia our hearts. May we love 
to worship Thee, then we shall never grow weary of our 
rebirths. 164. Thou alone, Lord of the infinite universe, 
art the Doer, and the One who causes others to act. The 
Vedai* and Shaslras wearied themselves in describing prop- 
erly Thy goodness. 165. So now, O ffriahikeski ( the Lord 
of the Heart), do not keep in mind our faults. Call us 
Thy own, and give us into the care of the saints, O merci- 
ful One. 166. May we become the servants of Thy 
servants. We have no other wish in our hearts. So make it 
tl»t the dust of their feet shall rest upon us. 167. This in 
itself will take the place of our austerities, religious 
ceremonies and deeds. May we love Thy worship and 
repeat Thy names with affection.' 

BHAKTJ THE SUPREME SECRET 

168. Hearing this reply of the twice-born 

( Brahmans ), the Holder of the f^harang bow ( Krishna ) was 

pleased. He showed His limitless compassion and embraced 

all of them. 169. After embracing the Brahmans, the 

Dweller in Vnikunth (heaven ) said, ' Whatever Dnyandev 

may tell you, keep his thoughts in your mind. 170. This 

Dnyandev is My very goul, O chief of all knowing 

ones. Whatever he may tell you of the experience of 

his heart, hold to it with reverence. 171. If you trust 

to him, those thoughts will naturally be easier for you. 

So, hold tightly in . your heart what he tells you, and 

carefully preserve it. 172. If that knowledge is kept close 

to you, you will not have to wander to sacred bathing 

places; you will never have to study the Vedaa and 

Shaslras. 173. You wi}l not need the austerities of the 

Yogis. You will not have to torture your body, if yoa 

256 



CSi, XV- 173-185 THE SHAKTI SECRET 

pin your Mth on association with saints. Your faults will 
be dMtroysd in a moment, 174. You will not have to sit on 
iron spikes. Such efiforts are in vain. You will not have to 
live in the caves of the mountains. 175. Why perform cruel 
auirterities? The repeating of mantras is not at all neces- 
sary. Through association with the saints the three forms 
of affliction will all disappear in a moment. 176. You 
will not have to cover your body with ashes. You will 
not have to grow long matted hair. You will never have 
to act a& hypocrites before men. 177. One should be filled 
with kindnefis towards all creatures. One's tongue should 
■have the neotar of Gktd's name ; in less than a moment's 
time the mind will ocHne back to its true state. 178. One 
may make the effort of performing one's duties, but without 
love in one's heart one becomes disgusted with them. 
This is not the way to the knowledge of the soul. That 
is a needless effort for those who cling to the old 
way, 1 79. This is a very easy way, without having to use 
the various means. Praise God with love and repeat 
' Ram, Krishna, Govinda. ' 180. What are sacred bathing 
places, religious rites and severe austerities? Poor things 
compared with the singing of God's praise. Putting aside 
their pride iif greatness, all of them have to hide their 
head.s in sham*?. 181. This well-known and royal road i^ 
superior to all. One should therefore, without ceasing, hold 
to the asscx'.istion with saints and keep the name of God on 
his lips. J82. Do not let a course of wrong thinking come 
into your minds. With all your heart and reverence go as 
suppliants to the saints. ' 1S3. Thus the Lord of tha earth 
whisperc!:! His secret to the Brahman?, The Brahmans 
assented, iind worshipped the feet of God. 184. The Husband 
of Rukmini aaid to Dnyander, 'I have left these twjee-born 
( Brahmans ) in your care. Place your hands upon their 
heads, and give them the everlasting blessing. ' 185. 
Dnyaneshwar replied, ' I will do so, ' and in reverence he 
B. V. 17 257 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XV- 185-198 

bowed to the Husband of Rukmini. I am truthfully telling 
you of the experience which the chief of rtshis possessed, 

NAMDEV'S LIFE THE CREAM OF BHAKTl 

186. This supreme secret should be considered as the 
secret knowledge of the Vedas, the life of indifference to 
earthly things, and as the characteristic of the sphere of 
intelligence. 187. It is the mystic power of pure know- 
ledge, the seed of final deliverance, the king of all mantras. 
the treasure-house of joy manifested in the world. 188. 
Nama's extraordinary love was for a time hidden in his 
heart, but his story has made it known world-wide. 189. 
This story of Nama's is the height of hearing the highest 
contemplation for the mind, and the loved object of medi- 
tation. 190. It is the summing up of thought, the centre 
of one's intelligence, the revelation of one's essence to 
the world. 191. It is the marvellous doing of bhakti, the 
soul of reverence, the glorification of honour manifested 
in the world. 192. It is the noble light of victory, it is 
life beyond the beyond, the extending of God's praise 
coming to stand before us. 193. It is the life of all 
religious duties, it is the purifier of the pure, or the store- 
house of joy. 194. It is the nectar of yoga accomplishment, 
the joy of bhaktas and the full life of desirelessness. 195. It 
is the festival of God and His bhaktas. It is nectar brought 
to its perfection. He who will drink of it with fondness 
will without effort go to everlasting life. 196. Those who 
listen to this story of the Tirthavali [ Nama's wanderings 
to sacred bathing places ] will not have to be born again. 
Therefore, you should listen to its description. 197. One 
must not speak of it as a common story. It is not memoriz- 
ed poetry. In it the substance of the Upcmishads and the 
manifestation of the divine sweetness appear. 198. Here 
is not the place where that knowledge is to be recognized 
which none should claim for themselves. One should 

258 



Ch. XV- 198-205 THE TJRTHAVALI QUOTED 

leave the desire for pedantry and listen with reverence, 
199. This is the method adopted by the good. The enjoyers 
of it are the saints. Suoh is the gubstanoe of the words 
Dnyandev has written in the Tirthavali. 300. Bringing 
his verses to my mind, I have written in my own uncouth 
way; so the wise should not find fault with it. 

201. In the next chapter there will be the exceeding 
delightful and significant story of the life of Eurmadas. 
Listeners must keep their minds in a quiet state and listea 
with attention. 202. The Pervader of the universe, the 
Husband of Rukmini, the Life of the world, is the One 
who relates the story and the One who causes it to be 
related. This holy book the Bhaktavijaya is being com- 
I>08ed at His desire. 203. When oil and a wiek 
are placed in a lamp, a brilliant light appears; so 
the eagle-bannered One, giving light to the mind 
causes this book to be comipossd by His love. 304. 
He who is the Purifier of the sinner, the Helper of the 
helpless, He has saved an innumerable number of the dull- 
minded. Mahipati is His stamp and he worships Him 
with love. 

205. -Sioasrt( Peace!) This book is tho Shri Bhakta- 
vijaya. In listening to it the Lord of the earth is pleased. 
Listen, you God-loving, pious bhaktas. This is the fifteenth 
dedply delightful chapter; it is an offering to Shri Krishna . 



259 



CHAPTER XVI 

KURMADAS THE CRIPPLE 
Obeisance to Shri Oanesh. Obeisance to Shri Kriahna. 
STORIES OF BHAKTAS THE CREAM OF GOOD DEEDS 
1. Today is a happy day of blessing. For if anyone 
xeads the love-inspiring stories of God's bhaklaa be reaps 
vithout special effort the blessing which can be had by- 
visiting the -sacred bathing places and by observing the 
festival days. 2, That is equal to three hundred and sixty 
performances of ceremonial rites, according to the prescribed 
rules ; ox as if one hundred horse-sacrifices had been made 
with hearts free from desires and full of devotion; 3. or as 
if many rigorous austerities had been performed ; or as if 
all the deities had been prayed to; or as if in time of famine 
gifts of food had been made without effort on their part to 
&e hungry ; 4. or as if one had adopted the life of a 
aanT-yasi according to the prescribed rules: or as if one had 
given water to drink to those suffering from thirst; or as if 
ODe had given full service with an abundance of love to 
one's mother and father. 5. All the good deeds mentioned 
above have been received today by hearers of tbe stories of 
God's bhaktas without effort on their part, and HrishikesM 
( the Lord of the Heart ) being pleased thereby gives them 
eternal life. 6. Therefore all wise men must give their atten- 
tion to me and in their love \» ag [or nod] their heads ; just as 
serpents do when they hear the piping of the juggler ; 7. or 
as when a deer absorbed in listening to a song, forgets all 
thought of its body; thus the Life of the world is Himself 
pleased in listening to the stories of the bhaktas. 

KURMADAS LONGS FOR PANDHAKI 

8. There was a Brahman by name of Kurraadas, a 
man of supreme piety- He had neither hands nor feet. 

260 



Ch. XVI- 8-22 KURMADA8 RIDICULED 

He lived at Pratlshthan (Paithan). 9. He wa« the 
aoaiar of the charioteer of the sun, who in order to 
worship Hari became a full avatar in a Brahman 
family. 10. He was born without hands or feet. 
Gradually he grew up to manhood. One dny hearing the 
/cir^an he hastened there to listen. 11. Hearing there the 
cymbals, the vina and the drum giving out their music, the 
Vaishruivas singing with love, his own hsart had great 
feeling of great joy and he sat down with love to listen. 
12. The Haridas ( preacher ) was describing in his love the 
delightful glory of Pandhari, and as Kurmr- las listened 
his mind was filled with happiness. 13. Then joining 
together both hands he spoke sweetly to the singers, ' If I 
should go to Shri Pandhari, I should s.; e thf Husband of 
Rukmini. ' 14. Hearing him say this 3il the people began 
to laugh. ' You have neither hands nor feet. We cannot 
understand how you could go. 15. If a bird has no wings, 
how can it fly through the air ? If a man ha-j no eyes, how 
can he climb a mountain ? 16. If a man «aanct hear, how 
can he perform a Hari-kirtan ? If one's 'oico becomeB 
hoarse, how can he sing ? 17. If one possf^ssfis no money, 
those who beg of him cannot be made happy. If one has 
not acquired knowledge, how can he receive tha respect of 
men? 18. If the mind is not under self-control, how can 
it perform the yogic practices ? If one doe? not have the 
entire favour of his aadguru, he cannot attain self-know- 
ledge. 1 9. So, you have no hands nor feet, and yet you 
talk of going to Pandhari. Hearing you say this, our 
minds become somewhat perplexed. 20. We had sufBcieat 
wealth, our bodies were in good health, and yet we have 
never been on pilgrimage even up to our old age. 21. And 
yet you have conceived this desire, which we do not fed 
confident you can carry out. How will you be rible to go? 
As you have no hands or feet we do not understand. ' 
ii. Zurmadas replied to them, ' Without any effort on my 

261 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XVI- 22-36 

part I have obtained this human body. Now if I do not 
go to Pandhari, I cannot escape the eighty-four millioa 
rebirths.' 

KURMADAS CRAWLS FOR FOUR MONTHS TO PANDHARI 

23, Therefore with a penitent mind, he at once set off 
and crept along for two miles beyond his village. 24, He 
went first into the temple of Maruti and there lodged for 
the night. He became very hungry and thirsty and his 
mind was full of concern. 25. He then prayed, ' O Lord 
of Pandhari, Husband of Rukmini, care for me, the help- 
less one. Aside from Thee, I can see no one to be a 
brother or uncle, a mother or father. 26. Thou art the life 
of my heart. Who can provide for me in my hunger and 
thirst ?' Hearing the pitiful cry of Kurmadas, the Life of 
the world approached him. 27. The Lord of Pandhari in 
the form of a merchant suddenly approached him. The 
Lord of Vaikunth ( heaven ) then spoke to Kurmadas. 
28. ' You have neither hands nor feet. Where are you 
journeying to ? Tell me what your name is.' 29. Kurma- 
das replied, ' I have the desire to go to Pandhari. You ask 
me my name. It is Kurmadas.' 30. Hearing this, Shripati 
( Krishna ) was highly pleased and said, 'Without any effort 
on your part your good fortune has brought me into your 
OHnpany.' 3L Kurmadas replied, ' I am without bands 
and feet, how can my company be of any use to You ? 
32. Tell me where You are going. And tell me Your name.' 
Hearing him say this, the Lover of the heart replied, 33. 
' The whole world speaks of Me as the merchant Vithoba. 
My shop is at Pandhari, and I must go there.' 34. Kurma- 
das said to him, ' You will be able to go rapidly. I cannot 
quite understand how I can keep in company with You.' 
35. The Holder of the Sharang bow ( Krishna ) said to him, 
* We are going slowly. We do business on the way in 
buying and selling. 36. After going a mile or two, we 

262 



Oh. XVI- 36-50 GOD HELPS KURMADAS 

lodge quietly for the night. I will not allow myself to be 
separated from your company.' 37. At this reply of the 
Ij^lder of the disk (Krishna), Kurmadas was made very 
happy. Preparing the evening meal, He ( the merchant ) 
gave him to eat. 38. The lotus-eyed One gave Kurma- 
das a garment to wear and said, * Holy bhaktas live in 
the sacred city of Pandhari.' 39. During the night the 
Lord of the universe whispered His secret thoughts to 
Kurmadas: ' You have become tired by walking a long 
way and you cannot stark at once. 40. Wherever you go 
tomorrow, we also- shall come there. Do not be at all 
troubled about food and drink. 41. We wander about for 
this very reason, to remove the weariness of the helpless 
and lowly who are going on pilgrimage, aflfa to enquire 
regarding their hunger and thirst. * 42. Thus replied the 
Husband of Rukmini. The sun now arose. He lovingly 
awakened Kurmadas and said to him, 43. ' I will point 
out to you the path. Hasten your going. We shall certain- 
ly come to your lodgings at eventide.' 44. The Husband 
of Rukmini having said this, He suddenly became invisible 
and Kurmadas started on his way. 45. Kurmadas crept 
along until sunset, and having come near a village he 
waited there for the Brahman. 46. Quickly the cloud- 
dark complexioned One arrived and began to care for 
him as usual. In this way the Merciful to the lowly cared 
for him. 47. If there was no town near by. He created 
a new village. God would not allow His bhaktato become 
weary. 48. In this way Kurmadas crept along for four 
months. Finally in the month of Kartik ( November ) he 
arrived at Lahul. 49. It was on the tenth of Kartik and 
the pilgrims were going on to Pandhari. Kurmadas seeing 
this band of pilgrims, he was greatly troubled in his mind. 
50. 'I shall not be able to arrive in time for the festival 
on account of my being without hands and feet. He 
who is the Merciful to the lowly is no%v lost to me. 

263 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch, XVI- 5l-6i 

51. Tomorrow is ehachshi ( the eleventh of the month ). 
The Vaishnavaa will move along rapidly. I am lame 
and am alone in this foreign land. 52. Had I but hands 
and feet, I would have gone along with this pilgrim 
band. ' Such was the deep anxiety of his mind. 53. A lame 
man cannot walk along with those who are able to walk 
quickly. A miser is never able to give with the lavishness 
of one who is generous. 54. How can a sick man eat with 
the same appetite as a hungry man ? How can the moon 
equal the sun in brilliance ? 55. How can any other metal 
equal gold in value ? How can badly cooked food seem 
to the taste like daintily prepared food ? 56. The ordinary 
animal cannot possess the glory of the wishcow. How 
can an ordinary tree equal the wish-tree ? 

KURMAPAS SENDS A MESSAGE BY PILGRIMS 

57. It was because Kurmadas was unable to walk along 
with the same rapidity as the band of pilgrims that his 
mind became troubled. 58. Thinking over the matter he 
decided to send a message. ' Tell the Husband of Rukmini 
that I send to Him my reverential namaskar. 59. I am a 
lowly, helpless man without a protector. I am without 
hands and feet. I see no possibility whatever of seeing You 
on the eleventh. 60. From Lahul, Pandhari is fourteen 
miles. I shall have to travel seven days in order to reach 
Pandhari. 61. O Lord of the world, protect me by Thy 
look of compassion. My heart is indeed troubled thac I 
cannot meet Thee( on the eleventh). 62. Just as the chatak 
bird wishes for a cloud, or just as the chakor bird looks 
towards the moon, so I without ceasing look to meet Thee, 
63. Just as the calf seeks for the mother cow, and just as 
the little fledging looks towards the mother bird; so I, Kurma- 
das, am thinking of Thee in my heart. 64. I have not the 
support of a family or of any wealth. Aside from Thee, 
I have no one, O Vitthal. I see no wealth of money oar 

264 



Oh. XVI- 64-75 NAMDEV8 KIRTAIT 

property except in Thee. 65. O Holder of the Sharang bow 
( Krishna ), Thou osllest Thyself the Helper of the helpless; 
O Sea of compassion, come as far as this and save Thy 
lowly one.' 66. So he sent a piteous message, requesting 
the band of pilgrims to convey it to the Holder of the 
Sharang bow ( Krishna ) a ad to send Him back there as 
soon as possible. 67. The Warharis [ pilgrims of a special 
order ] replied that they would carry the messf^e, and 
started to walk along rapidly to PandharL As they walked 
they shoute^ aloud the names of Vitthal. 

N.IMDEV'8 KIRTAN AT PANDHABI 

68. At that time Namdev happened to be performing 
a kirtan at the great door of PandharL With cymbals in 
his hand and love in his heart and accompanied by a band 
of singers he danced and shouted aloud in his joy. 69. 
Using the beloved names of Bam and Krishna, and 
becoming unconscious in body, he sang of the goodness of 
Shri Hari. 70. Ha laid aside every thought of pride and 
holding his ears he danced. He kept in his heart the 
appearance of the image of Vitthal. 71. Lovingly he 
brought to his mind the noble qualities of Shri Hari, His 
birth. His name and His deeds, and sang them in joy. 

72. He who is naturally the resting-place of His bhaMaa^ 
He who is the secret of the wise and the root of final 
deliverance, and who is called the Giver of deliverance; 

73. Krishna, the cloud-dark complexioned One, Mukunda, 
Murari, the good Being, Achyuta, Narahari, the cloud-dark 
complexioned One, O victorious Bam, O BaghupatL 74. 
Victory, victory to Thee, Saviour of Mount Gk>vardhan, 
Victory, victory, to Thee who takest compassion upon the 
hhaklaat Saviour of the lowly, Pandurang. 75. Victory, 
V iotory to Thee who hast in Thy hand the giving of every 
blessing, Breaker of the bonds of sin, O HrUhikesK 
< Lord of the heart ), Lord of the gods. Lord of all» 

265 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XVI- 75-8? 

Possessor of eternal guise, Thou whom destruction cannot 
reach. 76. Thou who art Supreme Joy, Shripati, Thou 
art the beginnng and the middle and the end, Thou art the 
joy and the wealth of goodness unattainable except through 
Thee. 77. O Brother of the lowly, Lord of Pandhari, 
Thou art my hearer as well as the speaker, Thou art the 
giver of joy founded on love, given to me a helpless one.* 
78. Thus Nama at that time brought to his mind Shri Harl 
and said, ' Shri Hari, O Govinda, quickly remove me from 
the sorrows of this earthly life.' 79. Then the Husband of 
Rukmini was pleased. With His four arms He embraced 
Nama with His lotus-hands. He caressed Nama's face and 
thus the Life of the world addressed Nama. 

KKISHNA'S BHAKTAS 
80. The cloud-dark complexioned One said to the 
saints, 'He has been given the name of Namdev. He 
has experienced my love and according to the laws 
of the heart he has obtained peace. 81. Moreover I love 
the saints and the Vaishnavas more than I love my 
own life. They have plunged into my form and 
become united with me. 82. Nama, I see that your 
good qualities are superior to those of all the others, 
and the joyful cloud of the nectar of love is seen more 
and more in you. 83. This Dnyandev here also is my 
very life. He is the ornament of theoretical and experi- 
mental knowledge. Nivritti my servant is a mountain 
of vairagya. 84. This noble bhakta Sopan is the full sea 
of soul-knowledge. My bkakias also are Rohidas, Visoba 
Khechar, and Gora the potter, 85. My bhaktas are also 
Paramanand Joga and this .Tagamitra Naga Vinatarama, 
Vateshvar Changa. I, Krishna, am very fond of the saints. 
86. I am especially fond of Asand, Sudama, Keshavdas, 
the goldmith Narabari, and Bbanudas. Still there is no 
limit to my love for you. 87. Bhishma, Rukmangad, 
Akrur, Uddhav, Arjun, Pralhad, the noble Druva, Narad 

266 



Ch XVI- 87-98 KURMADAS' MESSAGE 

and Tumbar, know my heart. 88. They are for ever 
indifferent to every earthly thing, and without effort will 
become Jivanmuktaa (free while living); but O Nama, I see 
your most unusual and fortune-blest glory. 89. All these 
love me dearly. They have accompanied me all through 
their infinite rebirths. But your devotion appears to my 
htart as superior to that of all others.' 

90. While Hari was carrying on this conversation, 
suddenly jkhe bands of Warkari pilgrims arrived. There 
were musical instruments and banners in their hands, and 
they were shouting out * Victory, victory.' 91. With them 
were a great number of banners, with the design of an 
eagle upon them. Innumerable drums were being sounded, 
and loud shouting of God's name, making the banks of the 
Bhima reverberate. 92. The God-loving bhakta Pundalifc 
understood the pure joy of such an occasion. Just as the 
chakor bird alone enjoys the nectar of the moon ; 93. or just 
as it is the infant alone that understands the joy of taking 
the nourishment from its mother's breast; or just as no one 
aside from Upamanyu can understand the glory" of the sea 
of milk ; 94. or just as the royal swan is able to separate 
the milk that has become mixed with water ; or just as the 
wise understand by experience the praise of bhaktaa who 
are God-loving; 95. or as it is the bee alone that under- 
stands how to drink the honey in the lotus-flower; so it 
was the bhaJda Pundalik who enjoyed the supreme joy of 
the sacred city of Pandhari. 

PILGRIMS CONVEY THE MESSAGE OF KURMADAS 

96. With feelings of love the Warkari pilgrims pros- 
trated themselves at the great door of the temple. In their 
love they embraced one another. 97. Then as they gazed, 
they saw the idol of the Holder of the Sharang bow 
( Krishna ). Both His hands were on His hips and He was 
clothed in a yellow robe. 98. As the Life of the world 

267 



BHAKTAVHAYA Oh. XVI- 98-111 

was thus standing, these bkaktas rejoiced. They embraced 
one another in their love and then worshipped at His feet; 
99. just as a little girl in the home of her mother-in-law, 
rejoices when she sees her own mother; so these bhaktas 
became full of joy as they saw His glorious face. 100. 
They then bowed their heads to the two feet that were 
placed on the brick. They lost all sense of themselves 
and became absorbed in Him. 101. They said to them- 
selves, ' Seeing Thy glorious face, we have forgotten all 
the sorrows of our infinite number of rebirths. Thou art the 
giver of all joy, and there is no other. ' 102. Then one who 
remembered it gave to the Lord God the message that had 
been given to them by Kurmadas. He said, ' Kurmadas 
has asked You to come to Lahul to him. 103. He has neither 
hands nor feet, so he cannot come here rapidly. With a 
great desire to see You, he is waiting for You to come. * 
104. As the Lord of Pandhari heard this message. He 
prepared Himself in a hurry to go, saying, ' When shall 
I see Mj bhakta Kurmadas ? 105. In the meeting of saints 
are fulfilled My heart's longings. Aside from them I 
cannot see any dearest friend or close relative. ' 106. God 
then called Namdev and Dnyandev to come dose to Him, 
and told them of His heart's feelings. 107. ' With an 
Intense desire Kurmadas wishes to meet Me. Let you and 
Me go at once to that place. ' 108. The Lord of Vaikuntha 
i heaven ) then took both by the hand and walked rapidly 
along. 109, He whom the Vedas and Puranas describe as 
reclining upon the serpent Shesha on the sea of milk, the 
Husband of Lakshmi, and the Life of the world, walked 
on foot. 110. He, the dust of whose feet Brahmadev and 
the munis naturally long after, the Husband of Lakshmi, 
whose banner is the eagle, walked along on foot. 111. Ho 
whose form does not easily come into the imagination of 
Yogis who are sitting on iron spikes, He, seeing the 
devotion of Kurmadas, walked on foot. 

268 



Oh. XVI- 112-125 8AVATA HIDES KRISHNA. 

8AVATA HIDES KRISHNA IN HIS STOMACH 
112. Ab the Lord of the world walked along the path, 
He noticed the village of Aranbhendi. He suddenly had 
a great desire to meet Savata the gardener. 113. So the 
Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) hurried to meet him, 
thinking, ' I must this day show a marvel to Nama. ' 114. 
Krishna said to Nama, ' I am exceedingly thirsty. ' Saying 
this, Adhokshaja ( the Pervader of earth and sky ) entered 
into the garden. 115. He left Dnyandev and Nama 
outside: ' I ^ill come out quickly after drinking some 
water. ' After saying this, Shri Hari met with Savata. 
116. The latter was sitting with his eyes closed and was 
contemplating in his heart the form of Sbri Vitthal, and 
singing with his lips the praises of God's name unconsci- 
ous of his body. 117. When the Holder of the Sharang 
bow ( Krishna ) saw him thus, He placed His hand of 
assurance on bis head, and awakening him He embraced 
him. 118. When he saw the Holder of the disk (Krishna), 
he embraced His feet. Tears of love flowed from his eyes 
and he felt a joy that his heart could not contain. 119, He 
exclaimed, ' Blessed is this day. I have seen with my eyes 
my mother and father. Thou beautiful, cloud-dark com- 
plexioned One, Thou hast come here walking. ' 120. Then 
the bhakta Savata again placing his head at His feet 
spoke thus: ' O Lord of Pandhari, in caring for Thy lowly 
ones Thou hast greatly wearied Thyself. 121. Now sit 
here quietly resting, while I worship Thee. ' When the 
Life of the world heard this, 122. the Husband of Rukmini 
said with an appearance of fear, ' There are two thieves 
following me. They will arrive here very soon. 123, Out 
of fear of them, I have come in here to hide myself. I 
think it is very strange that you should wish to worship 
Me. 124. When the sun is in eclipse it does not care to be 
given oblation ( worship ). When an enemy is besieging 
a city, the king takes no delight in his throne, 125, Whea 

269 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XVI- 125-138 

a man's mind is full of concern, he does not care for 

enjoyment. When Agasti was near the sea the tide would 

not come in. 126. You say you will worship Me, but My 

mind is not at ease. How protect My life somehow or other, 

O chief of My bhakias. * 127. Savata said to Him, ' There 

is no place in all the three worlds, even if searched for, 

that would contain Thee. 128. One cannot confine air in 

a cage; space cannot be confined in a jar; and how can one 

confine the sun in the darkness, O Govinda ? 129. As the 

Lord of Kailas ( heaven ) among the Yogis, as the eagle 

among the birds, as Indra among the other gods, can never 

be hidden; 130. as musk in earth, or the sandalwood tree 

among other trees, or as the lion amongst other animals, 

cannot be hidden; 131. O God of gods, how can the 

UchchaUhrava ( Indra's horse ) be hidden among other 

ordinary horses ? How can the touchstone be hidden in 

an iron box, O Madhav? 132. So also, O Shri Hari, 

Thou art supreme. In Thy womb there are infinite worlds, 

and on the earth Thou canst not be concealed anywhere. ' 

133. The Life of the world replied, ' This is no occasion 

for philosophic knowledge. Hide Me somewhere at this 

time. ' 134. As Hriahikeshi ( the Lord of the Heart ) said 

this, Savata thought to himself, ' The Dweller in Vaikuntk 

{ heaven ) can in His love dwell in my heart. ' 135. He 

then took his sickle and ripped open his own stomach. The 

Enemy of Mura ( Krishna ) immediately entered into the 

chamber of his heart. 136. Savata thought to himself, 

* The thieves may see the cloud-dark complexioned One 

even here.' So he wrapped his blanket around his stomach. 

137. The Lord of the Universe spoke His secret thoughts 

to Savata from the temple of his { Savata's ) heart: ' I see 

nothing in all this universe with which to repay you for 

your kindness. ' 

THE HUMAN HEART A3 GOD'S TEMPLE 
138. Hearers will remark on this strange event, ' How 
270 



Ch. XVI- 138-150 GOD IN THE HEART 

can God be contained in the human heart ? We have this 
doubt at this time. ' 139. Hearing the listeners* question, 
the Speaker replied giving illustrations. ' The Holder of 
the disk (Krishna) who assumes any form that He wishes, 
is able to do the seemingly impossible. 140. At the time 
when Krishna was an avatar, the beautiful Yashoda was 
once in her house churning. Shri Hari entered into the 
ohuming-oan and ate the butter quickly. 141. A certain 
gopi said ^bsent-mindedly in her love, " I have brought 
some Krishna to sell." Then in order to make her assertion 
true, God entered into the milk-jar. 142. The Holder of the 
disk ( Krishna ) seeing the love of Savata, made his heart 
contain Him. So my listeners should not harbour any 
doubts in their minds.' 

143. That was what the Lord of the Earth said, when 
He told Savata of His secret thoughts, ' I see nothing in 
all the world with which to repay you for your kindness. 
144. Now become My very form, or become everything to 
Me, for I do not see anything aside from this to give to 
you. ' 145. The bhakta Savata replied, ' Merciful One, now 
I will not separate Thee from myself for eternity. * 146. 
After this, God and His bhaMa became one in heart, just 
as the Bhagirathi and Yamuna rivers became one in their 
love; 147. or just as water mingles with milk; or as the 
life pervades the body; so the lotus-eyed One sat with great 
pleasure in the heart of His bhakini 143. or just as an 
immense amount of the wonderful nectar is stored up in 
the moon; so the Lord of Vaikunih ( heaven ) sat in the 
heart of His bhakta, having become one with him; 149. or 
just as the honey lies lovingly hidden in the bud of a 
flower; so the Husband of Rulcmini in this state of unity 
had hidden Himself in the heart of His 6Aaifcta. 

NAMDEVS anxiety about KRISHNA 

150. In the meantime the bltalUa Nama outside tb« 
271 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. XVI- 150-161 

garden became greatly concerned. He said to himself, 
* Why does not the Lord of Pandhari come outside ? He is 
delaying a very long time. 151. I have been impatiently 
waiting for Him for very long. Where is it that my Suxmd 
has become entangled and has abandoned me in this 
forest? 152. Thus Pandurang is my life. I do not 
know now who will let me see this storehouse of 
every joy.' 153. With his voice filled with emotion he 
sobbed in his love. He could not support himself so as to 
hunt for the footsteps of Yithoba ; 154. just as when one 
overcome with thirst hunts for water in the forest ; or just 
as the child when overcome with hunger waits for the 
ooming of its mother : 155. or just as the little deer that 
has missed its mother-deer hunts for her in the forest ; or 
just as the miser, having lost his money, makes a diligent 
search for it with his mind full of concern; 156. so with 
his voice full of emotion, and tears flowing from his eyes, 
Kama began to beat his breast with his two hands and 
threw himself on the ground. 157. He exclaimed, ' O 
Yithoba, if Thou dost not come immediately, I shall be 
quite overcome with concern. Do not go away leaving me 
here. It would not be proper for Thee to do so.* 158. Hold- 
ing on to the hem of Thy yellow robe, I will forthwith 
come along with Thee, O Pandurang; but O Husband of 
Buk mini, I have not known the intention of Thy mind. 
159. While Nama was thus expressing his sorrow, he 
oaugbt sight of the bhakia Savata who was full of joy and 
in his love was repeating God's names. 160. He embraced 
his feet and said to him, ' Where has the Lord of the World 
gone ? I am anxiously waiting to see Him, and I am 
gr«atly troubled.' 

KAMA FIKDS OOD IN SAVATA 

161. Then Savata came to be without bodily conscious- 
ness, and being absorbed in the fonn of Harl He had no 

272 



Ch. XVI 361-174 KRISHNA IN SAVATA'S HEART 

sense of distinction left to distinguish between ' me * and 
*mine.' 162. As lie noticed certain indications he said to 
hitnself , ' Vithoba must be with him. I see him jurt as 
I have previously experienced His form.' 163. Just as 
when the adulterer and an adulteress see one another, they 
understand the signs that they make ; or when a thief sees 
another thief, he understands the other's mind ; 164. or as a 
clever and wise person understands the loving heart of a 
speaker; or as when a treasure is invisible to othere it is 
seen by one who is born with his fuet foremost; 165. or as 
the Fo^t alone understands the customary practice of 
the Yogis; so it was that Nama understood that the Lord 
of the Universe was within the heart of Savata. 166. He 
said, ' How is it, O Savata, that you have swallowed the 
treasure of one so helpless as myself ? My soul loves that 
place of rest with all its joy. 167. Show Him to me only 
once and I will hold His form in my heart. My soul has 
become overcome with grief. Save me, O you merciful 
one. 168. Look on me with an eye of kindness and tell me 
something which will benefit me, and cause me to meet 
with the Lord of the world. I shall then accept it as an 
auspicious event. ' 169. The Life of the world hearing 
Nama's pity-arousing words, said to Savata, ' Cause Me to 
meet Nama, My dearest friend. ' 170. The Husband of 
Rukmini thought to Hiraaelf, ' I have got Myself caught 
here in Savata's heart. Now I am not able soon to get out 
.of here. 171. Just as an insect in the cocoon makes its 
own bondage, and then it cannot come out, so it has now 
happened to Me; 172. or as the parrot sits upon a oatoh- 
perch and is not able to fly away, so it has happened to 
Me; I have got Myself caught in Savata's heart. 173. 
Because of its love for the lotus flower, the bee stops there, 
hut when the sun sets, it gets itself caught in it; 174. so I, 
Vcmamaii [ wearer of a garland of wild flowers ] have got 
Myself caught in the heart of Savata. Standing outside, 
B. V. 18 27S 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. XVI 174-184 

Kama is overcome wiiih conoern, jasi; like the fish when 
outside the water. ' 175. Hriahihfahi ( the Lord of the 
heart ) then said, ' Nama seems as though he were help« 
less, so he has become overcome with grief for Me. Meet Me 
with him for a moment. ' 

WHY KRISHNA WAS CHARMED WITH NAMDEV 

176. The bhakta Savata then said, ' O bkakta of Vishim, 
awake. A feeling of pity has come to the Lord of 
Pandhari, He will now meet with you. 177. The 
Husband of Eamala has become impatient to meet you. 
He will meet you and give you peace. In His love 
for you, you will see Him very near to you. Let your 
heart sorrow no longer. 178. What heaps of good deeds 
you have done : It is that you have worshipped God in 
all things. And so Hrishikeshi ( the Lord of the heart ) 
who is merciful is pleased with you without eflfort on your 
part. 179. By the force of bhakti, you have made the Lord 
of Pandhari your debtor. Seeing this strange thing, I ain 
overcome with amazement, O chief of bhaMas. 180. Is it 
that with a banner upon your-shoulder, and with its design 
of an eagle, you went on pilgrimage to Pandhari ? Or is 
it that you took upon your head the dust from the feet 
of saints, and therefore Shri Hari is pleased with you ? 
18!. Or is it that on the tenth of the month you led a band 
of singers, and imitating the cowherds and taking Hari's 
name, you described Him in your services of praise ? 182. 
Did Gtovinda, become pleased with you on seeing your joy, 
and so the infinite ocean of compassion, the Brother of the 
lowly, felt gratified ? 183. Or was it that you felt a sei\se 
of repentance during your infinite rebirths when you may 
have put your body to the saw ? Or did you practise pain- 
ful austerities ? Or did you visit a great bathing place ? 
184. Or was it that you spent your life in benevolent deeds? 
Or when you performed aervioes of praise on the Ehadaahi 

974 



OtL XVI 184-197 KAMA nfPATnOrr to tSEK KBIBHKA 

( the eleventh day } was the Life of the world gtanding 
there and so became pleased with joa. ? 185. The Lord 
of Pandhari is the only one who understands yotir extra- 
ordinary good fortune.' Thus speaking, the bhafda Savata 
prostrated himself at the feet of Nama. 186. Kama replied 
to him, * You are partner in my joy, O noble Vai^mava. 
Giver of my life, I see no one your equal. 187. You told me 
of the auspicious event ( of meeting with Krishna ). At 
onoe make it true. Enable me at once to meet my Yitthal. 
188. Listen to me, O you God-loving chief of the bhaklaa. 
I cannot hold in my impatience. Seeing my unhappy con- 
dition, why does not compassion enter into your heart? * 189. 
Then seizing a sickle he (Savata) ripped open bis stomach. 
The moment Fandurang came outside, Nama grasped His 
feet. 190. The cloud-dark Slrishna filled with compassion 
and emotion embraced Nama, and with the hem of His yellow 
robe He wiped the forehead of Nama. 191. Then the Lord 
of Pandhari smilingly said to Nama, ' Why have you made 
your heart so sorrowful ? Tell Me at once.' 192. Nama 
grasped the feet of the god, and spoke in a sweet voice, 
* Thou art my father and mother. Thou wilt be my Helper 
through all eternity. 193. O Thou Supreme Brahm, the 
cloud-dark ccmplexioned One, by what allurement dost 
Thou preserve Thy love ? I do not understand. O merciful 
to the lowly, O Pandurang ! * 

KRISHNA GOES AND MEETS KURMADAS 

194. Then the Life of the world, smiling, said in soft 
words to Dnyandev, ' Let us hasten to meet SZurmadas. 
195. If I do not meet him. My heart will not be satisfied. 
The day that I meet My bhaktas, thslt day is a happy one 
and My eyes exi>erience a sense of peace.' 196. Then the 
four walking together, namely, Dnyandev, Nama, Savata 
and the Lord of Pandhari, they joyfully journeyed along 
the road. 197. Hearing all this you may feel Boeae 

215 ''^ 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch, XVI 197-208 

dodbi, because there is mention of so many names, 
Imt the King of Pandhari himself mentioned them and 
tecorded them as they really occurred. 198. You wise 
lihaktas must not blame me. Hari proclaims Himself to be 
the Saviour of the sinner and Advocate of His bhaktas. 
199. In the compound word ' Sinner-Purifier," the word 
'Sinner* comes first to the lips, and is followed by the word 
'Purifier,* the Ocean of compassion. Therefore it is that in 
▼oraes the names of his Bhaktas appear first. 200. Thus 
along with His Bhaktas the Life of the world joyfully 
walked. 

In the meanwhile Kurmadas experienced some very 
good omens. 201. Just as when a cloud rains upon the 
earth, the lightning flashes in the East, and from the north 
a gentle wind blows, 202. so, because the Cloud of joy 
{ Krishna ) was coming to meet him, his right eye began to 
droop, and every now and then his arm twitched. Such 
were the omens that Kurmadas experienced. 203. Just as 
the mother cow with her udders full of milk rashes to her 
calf, so the Lord of Pandhari came to him and He could 
not contain his joy in His heart. 2C4. As Kurmadas 
saw the Life of the world, he reverently prostrated himself 
on the ground and God embraced him, holding him by His 
four arms. 205. After the bhaktas had met one another, 
the Husband of Rukmini said to Kurmadas, ' Whatever 
gifts you may ask of Me I shall give to you. ' 206. Hear- 
ing Him say this, Kurmadas replied, ' I have only this to 
ask of You, that You give me Your blessing, and never 
depart from this place.* 207. The dark-complexioned One 
zeplied, ' I will do so, ' and He has remained there always. 
The Gtod-loving bhaktas know Lahul as the sacred place 
«qual to that of Pandhari. 208. In the months of Ashadh 
( July ) and Kartik ( November ) pilgrims gather here, and 
sincere bhaktas cc»ne here to see Qod. 

276 



C!h. XVI 205-211 OOHC!LUED[OK 

209. In the next chapter there are interesting stories. 
Hearers must give close attention. Just as a miser when 
he sees a store of wealth, lovingly becomes absorbed in 
it, 210. so give attention to this stoiy and reverently 
listen. Mahipati, who is the dust of your feet, lovingly 
worships at your feet. 

211. Suasii (Peace!) This book is the Shri Bhakta- 
vijaya. As the Lord of the earth hears it He will be 
pleased. liisten then, you Grod-loving pious bhaktas. This 
is the sicteenth very delightful chapter. 



877 



CHAPTER XVn 

RAKA AND GORA THE POTTERS 
Obeiaanoe to Shri Cfanesh. Obeisance to Shri Kriakna. 

BHAKTAVIJAYA IS LIKE SPRING 
1. A very extraordinary thing happened today. The 
Bhaktavijaya has come in the form of Spring, and its glories 
ean be seen in the forest of good men. 2. lite meaning (^ 
BhaJdamjaya is the spreading of the glory of Spring. Its 
enlightenment brings a flow of the cool breezes. The first 
thing to appear on the trees are the buds, consisting of 
thosewhodesireknowledge. 3. Themeaningof Bhaktavijaya 
is that new leaves and brauches and flowers of knowledge 
have appeared. The priceless and eternal fruit of experi- 
mental knowledge has appeared. 4. The forest thus 
adorned seems exceedingly beautiful. Men who feel the 
heat of the three forms of affiction come here, and sit in 
the shade. 5. The royal swans (the superior Yogis) who are 
JttxinTnuAitos (free while living ) come here to enjoy them- 
selves, and satisfy themselves by the exceedingly inter- 
esting stories of the bhaktas. 6. There are ignorant people 
who look at the forest from afar and as they see the beautiful 
flowers and fruit their minds feel a sense of peace. 

RAKA, BANKA AND VANKA 

7. In the previous chapter there was the beautiful story 
of how the Lord of the universe met Kurmadas, protecting 
him with His eye of compassion. In His love He spoke to 
him of things that brought him joy. 8. Now among the 
chief of those who were indifferent to worldly things was 
Raka the potter, a wise Vaishnava. Listen, you pious hearers, 
to his delightful story. 9. His wife's name was Banka. She 
was an exceedingly pious and dutiful wife. They had a 
beautiful daughter named Vatika. 10. He ( Raka ) was a 

278 



Cb. XVII 1(HS2 KriTBNSIN A IIBX 

Oujftrsti potter. He was living in PandharL He nwd to 
sell his baked olay jars and at the same time he wotdi^iped 
Shri Hari 11. Many days passed in this way and tlwn a 
wonderful thing happened. He had dried the freshly made 
olay jars and had pUed them up in the central apartment of 
his house. 12. In the meantime a oat had a litter of kittens 
and she brought her little ones and plaoed them in one of 
the jars. By day and night she used to visit the litter and 
feed them. 13. One day she had wandered away to oatok 
some rats. I'he potter not knowing of the litter of kittens 
carried away the clay jars ( in order to be baked }. 14, 
Among the jars which were to be burned was the one 
holding the little kittens. He placed wood around the jars 
and set it on fire. 15. When the fire began to blase, the 
oat returned from her wandering. At first she looked 
about in the house, but she could not find her kittens. 16> 
Coming outside she rushed around the furnace. 

RASA'S CONOBRN OVER THB BURNIKQ ErTTENS 

The potter underatood what it meant, and with hisiiand 
he beat his forehead. 17. ' Alas, Alas, ' he cried to his wife 
' I have committed a great wrong.' She hurried to the scene 
and asked him what had happened. 18. Overcome with 
emotion-Baka said to his wife, ' There were kittens in the 
jars and without knowing it I have burned them. 19. Hie 
mother-oat mews loudly, and rushes back and forth to Hie 
house. What shall I do in this time of distress ? ' Say- 
ing this he threw himself to the ground. 20. Both Ridka 
and Banka cried out, ' O Lord of Pandhari, rush to our 
help. Just as Thou didst preserve the sons of Pandu in the 
lacquer-house, so protect us. 21. A little frog once fell in a 
frying-pan and underneath was kindled a hcA fire; realift- 
ing its danger the frog thought of Thee. 22. Tbaa, Qim 
Husband of Rukmini, didst ocnne to its help and the wator 
Tefnsed to be heated. In the same way, O Lord of 

879 



BHAXTAYirATA C3l. XVII S2-S4 

Pandlutri, come here ai this time of distre8& 23. O 
Mother ( Qod ), we have put Thee into an extracnrdinary 
difSculty, bat what Is there Thou canst not do ? Thou did^ 
protect Pralhad when thrown into the fire as he remembered 
Thy feet. 24. The cat species has an evil propensity and 
it will never think of Thee. Bat Thoa art an Ocean of 
mercy and a Cloud of intelligence. Preserve the life of 
these kittens.' 25. The wife said to her husband, ' Make 
some vow to Grod and by doing so, HrishikesTd ( the Lord 
of the heart ) will quickly come to our help. ' 26. Raka 
said in reply, ' If Thou wilt preserve these kittens from the 
fire, I shall never again engage myself in worldly affairs. ' 
27. Thus thinking in their minds, both prostrated them- 
selves upon the ground and cried out, 'O Shri Hari, rush to 
our help and remove the distress of Thy lowly ones. ' 28. 
Oopious tears flowed from their eyes, all their limbs lost 
strength, their bodies became covered with dust, and just 
then a strong wind blew. 29. The fire blazed in the furnace 
which made both cry out. In thinking of Hari they lost 
all their self-consciousness. 30. (Their condition was) like a 
woman who is determined to immolate herself on the 
funeral pyre of her dead husband; she loses all bodily con- 
soiousness and accompanies her husband. 31. For two days 
ttie fire of the furnace continued. In the meantime the 
the potter lay lifeless on the ground. 32. With the hope 
that Shri Hari would come to their help because of their 
vow, Banka too continued weeping and crying out, *0 
Yitthal. rush to our aid. ' 

RAKA'S PRAYER HEARD AND KITTENS SAVED 

33. On the third day the fire burnt out, and when 
all the Jars were visible, the cat, loudly mewing, 
walked around the furnace. 34. The Husband of Ruk. 
mini did what was seemingly impossible. Listen, you 
fortunate hearers. Hearing the voice of their mother^ 

280 



cai. Tvn 34-46 xiTTieire savxd 

mothet, the kittens mewed from the midst of the farnaoe. 
35. The ix^er and his wife looked in, and among the pile 
of jars in the furnace they happened to see one that had 
not been baked. 36. There were in thb jar three little 
kittens which they saw alive. They exclaimed, ' The Hus- 
band of Bttkmini has come to our help, the Ornament of 
His bhaktas, the merciful One.' 37. As they had taken no 
food for three days their faces were wan, but now they bo- 
came bright with joy ; 38. just as a lamp seems like a mass 
of light when it receives oil and a wick ; or as grass grows 
when a great cloud rains upon the earth ; 39. or as the 
tortoise will not feed her young, but destroys their hunger 
by her mere looks ; or as when a miser finds some hidden 
wealth, his mind is full of joy ; 40. or as when the sun 
rises in the East and the lotus-flowers lie open on the 
lake; so the heart of Raka rejoiced. 41. All the people of 
Pandhari said, ' Blessed is this loving bhakta. for the Hus- 
band of Rukmini has come to him in bis distress. A seeming- 
ly impossible thing has taken place.' 42. Raka said to his 
wife, ' I had made a vow to the Lord of Pandhari, that if 
He saved the kittens from the fire, I would no longer en- 
gage msrself in worldly pursuita 43. The Life of th* 
world did come to me in my distresSj so why should I now 
think of any worldly affairs ?' With contrition in hia 
mind he called togetLor the Brahmans of the town. 

BAKA AND HIS WIFE BANKA AS FORESTERS 

44. With pure feelings in his heart he had the 
Brahmans plunder his house. He dressed himself in a 
loin-cloth and gave one to his wife. 45. For his 
stomach's sake he gathered faggots in the forest, 
and with these buying their food they also gave food 
to uninvited guests. 46. Whatever was left over, the 
three, including the daughter, ate together. Continually 
in their love ttiey remembered Psndurang in their heart. 

281 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ob. XVIl 46-59 

47. They ooUeoted the ngs from off the roads and wound 
'these around fiieir body. If anyone gave them any other 
olothing, they would not eveti look at it. 48. While he was 
gathering rags one day in front of a tailor's house the tailor 
said to him, 'What has brought about such indifference to 
worldly things ? 49. We want these rags for the purpose of 
making wicks.' So said that miser in his ignoranoe.50. Baka 
said to his wife, 'Pick up a rag which is uselessly lying upon 
the ground, and use it for covering your body.' 51. After the 
Brahmsns had eaten they threw outside the plates of leaves 
on which they had eaten. These they ( Raka and Banka } 
fastened around their hips. 52. There are very many 
Vairagis, but none has lived as these two did. Poets In 
trying to find illustrations, find themselves unable to do 
so. 53. Just as there is no balance great enough to weigh 
the earth,.so in singing the praise of God's bhaktas the 
mind becomes crazy. 54. One may be able to hold the sun 
in his fist, or the wind in a cage, but the extraordinary 
condition of God's bhaktas is such that speech cannot 
describe it. 55. "^Vho has given up his worldly life in 
order to save the life of others ? Some pray to the inferior 
deity for a son and for wealth; 56. ' I will distribute at 
least a quarter of a seer of sweetmeats, O Bhavani, if you 
give me so much wealth as would enable me to maintain 
elephants; ' another vows to give to the Brahmans sweee 
carrots equal to his own weight, and at the end of life h 
wishes to sit in a chariot of light. 57. Raka was not thus 
worldly-minded. He made a seemingly impossible vow 
which perplexed the Lord of Vaikuntha ( heaven ), yet He 
came to the help of His bhakta. 58. Their repentance was 
very strong, the equal of which no one has ever had. In the 
meantime their beautiful daughter Vanka went to b athe 

DAUGHTERS OF RAKA AND OF NAMDEV QUARREL 

59. Just at that moment the daughter of Nama was 
washing clothes on the bank of the Bhima. She was beat- 

282 



Ch. XVII 59-70 KAMA'S SOtTBTS ABOUT KAKA 

log the clothes upon • stone slab and the sprays flew about. 
60. Yanka said to her, ' Beat the clothes gently on the 
slab, O friend; I hare just bathed, and have seated myself 
for mental worship (marua-puja).' 61. The latter replied, 
'You are of the potter caste, and yet you seem very paitic- 
iilar. Ton have all abandoned the happy domestic lifei 
and now you are wandering from house to house begging* 
€2. Your father is a bhakla because of some desire in 
his heart. He made a vow to the Lord of Pandhari. 
He has placed the Husband of Rukmini in a difficult 
position in becoming disentangled from bis domestic life. ' 
63. Vanka said to her, "The sobbing ^artia is well known 
amongst men. Although the Holder of the disk (Krishna), is 
in the form of Buddha I mute ] he forced Him to speak by 
breaking his own head.' 64. Thus talking to one ano&er 
they returned to their homes. Meanwhile Nama returned 
home after pleasing the Husband of Hukmini by his ser- 
Tice of song. 65. The quarrel that had taken place on the 
bank of the Bhima, his daughter reported to Nama, saying 
that Vanka had blamed him. 66. She said, ' Though in the 
Kali Yuga, God has assumed the avatar of Buddha ( mute ) 
yet Nama the bhakta went to the temple and by breaking his 
head he forced the Husband of Bukmini to speak. 67. But 
my father ( Eaka ) is one who truly has no desires in what 
he does. He gathers a load of dry faggots and by selling 
&em in the bazaar he earns his living.' 68. When Namdev 
heard the report given by his daughter, he was very much 
perplexed. He went to the great door of the temple and 
prayed to the Holder of the disk (Krishna ). 69. He said* 
' O God, listen to me. Tell me whether Raka the potter. 
Thy bhakta, is with or without selfish desires.' 70. 
Listening to this question of His loving bhakta, the cloud- 
dark Surishna smiled and said, ' In all the world I see no 
one 10 indifferent to worldly things.' 71. Nama replied, 

283 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. XVII 71-84- 

* O Lord of Vcdkunth ( heavea ), show me the oondUIon of 
his mind.* Saying that He would do so, He lovingly took 
the hand of the servant of Vishnu. 72. Bukmini, Nama, 
and the dark-complexioned One walked together. The sun 
was now overhead, and its twelve phases gave out intense 
beat. 73. They saw Baka in the jungle gathering faggots 
with bis own hands. The Husband of Bukmini, unseen, 
viewed the novel sight. 74. Banka his wife, supremely 
pious anddutifnl, took her daughter with her and the two 
walked in the jungle. 75. There they suddenly saw two 
sticks lying together. Thinking someone might have left 
them there they would not touch them. 76. If the wood was 
still connected with a tree, they would not break the branch 
and take it away with them; but if it fell of itself they 
would carefully gather it. 77. Lest he should step on an 
ant and kill it, Baka the potter walked very carefully. 78. 
Seeing this novel sight, Hrishikeshi (the Lord of the heart) 
was astonished. Motioning to Bukmini He said to Nama, 
79. 'See how indifferent to all earthly things is this bliakia 
of mine, Baka the potter. He is truly without hypocrisy 
and worshiiB Me without any selfish motive. ' 80. Nama 
replied, ' O Mother Bukmini, give him something and 
then watch him. ' Rukmini then took off her bracelet from 
her arm and gave it to Nama. 81. It was a bracelet that 
not even Brahmadev could have made, being set with 
priceless jewels. Even if the three worlds were given as 
equivalent, still they could not equal it. 82. Such was 
the bracelet that Bukmini took off her arm and threw in 
the jungle. The mother of the universe lifted up some dry 
sticks and placed them over it. 83. Krishna, Bukmini and 
His bhafda Nama, the noble Vaishnava being invisible to 
Baka, watched the scene as it happened. 84. Baka and his 
wife went on gathering faggots and accidentally lifted up 
the sticks which covered the gold bracelet. 85. They gazed 
at the bracelet with its jewel setting in gold, and as they 

S84 



Ch. XVII 8S-98 BAKA FROVKD TRXTB 

gazed at this prioelesB ornament they knew of nothing in all 
the three worlds equal to it. 86. Baka the potter, abeolatdy 
indifferent to worldly things, pushed the stloks aside and 
said to his wife, ' Look at this, the root of disaster. * 
87. She replied, ' This brings a hindrance in oar 
worship of God. I wonder what siddhi ( acc(»cplish- 
ment personified ) has oome across our worship, and 
given us this bracelet. 88. We cast aside all worldly 
things and came as suppliants to the Lord of Pandluuri. 
What do we want with a useless gold bracelet?' 89. So they 
not only left the bracelet but also the wood that was placed 
upon it ; just as a Brahman will never take food that a dog 
has touched; 90. and as the Chatak bird will not drink water 
which is on the ground, regarding it as defiling; and as 
a fly will not touch the body after oil is rubbed upon it; 
91. so Mother Eukmini being pleased with her bhaktas had 
given them this bracelet, but the two left both it and the 
stick which covered it, and went on their way. 92. Nama 
then said, ' O Life of the world, O Pervader of the universe, 
O Ornament of His bhakfan, Raka the potter is truly absorb- 
ed in Thy worship with feelings of love. 93. Give him a 
direct vision of 'Ihyself.' The Husband of Rukmini hear- 
ing him say this smiled; 94. and said, 'You have now had 
experience of Rasa's mental condition. It is just as I told 
you. If you still have any doubts let me know.' 95. 
Nama replied, 'Raka the God-loving bhakta is evidently 
without selfish desires. J^ven ray mind cannot be equal to 
bis.' 96. Nama, Hari and Rakmini then directly appeared 
to him. They called Raka the potter to them and gave him 
this direct manifestation. 97. Raka saw with his own eyes 
the four-armed Hari, the dark-complexioned One, beautiful 
in His yellow robe, with his crown and earrings, and 
garlands of wild flowers. 98. Raka and Banka then 
embraced the god, grasping tightly His feet, and bowed to 
the Holder of the disk ( Krishna). 

885 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XVH 98-110 

GOBA THK FOTTEB TRAMPLES HIS CHILD TO DEATH 
99. Among the Vaishnavas, those who are completely 
indifferent to worldfy things, was the Gtod-loving 
bkakla, Oora the potter. You bkaldaa listen with love 
to his extraordinary history. 100. His property lay in 
the town of Tardhoki by name [near Pandhaipur]- 
Hare he had his house, his wife and his domestic life, and 
at the same time he worshipped Shri Hari. 101. As he ate, 
as he walked about, as he rose up, as he rested, as he oarri. 
ed on his occupation as a potter, he was all the time repeat- 
ing the names of the Lord of Pandhari. 102. While listen- 
ing witii his ears to the stories of ordinary life, while look- 
ing at things animate and inanimate, and while realizing 
the working of his ten senses, he had. at the same time the 
thought of the Lord of the world continually. 103, Of good 
and evil, of joy and sorrow, of praise and criticism, he 
thought nothing. The prince and the pauper he regarded 
as equal. 104. One day while his wife had gone for water 
she left her child to play in the front yard. 105. Gora had 
raised a border of earth and within it had made the clay. 
With his eyes closed,Gora trod the clay in his ecstatic mood 
106. Now thinking in his heart of the form of Vitthal, tears 
of love flowed from his eyes. He had no recollection of hsi 
body and became so utterly absorbed as to be identified with 
the Invisible. 107. While the child was playing about the 
yard it came creeping along near the clay, and ( the ecsta- 
tic ) Qora trod on it with the clay. 108. When his wife came 
back bringing the water, she thought of her child as 
her breast filled with milk. She looked about in the yard 
for her child but could not see it. 109. She then came 
near to her husband and asked him about it: ' I went 
to bring water, leaving the child with you. 110. I see the 
the child nowhere. Tell me at once, Oh lord of my heart, 
where is it ? ' Looking about her, she suddenly dis>- 
oovered some blood. 111. Then she noticed in the mud 

386 



CJh. XVn 110-124 G0KA.'8 CHILD TRODDEN TO lOtATB 

a, oolleotion of bones and fleeb. Beating her breast she 
cried out in her agony. 112. She oried out to her husband. 
' You have trodden on the child in the clay. Tou seem 
to have lost all self-consciousness. What is this awful 
thing you have committed ? 113. You have disorarded 
your worldly affairs, and have devoted yourself to the 
finding of Gk>d. I mean to go at once from here and commit 
suicide.' 114. Listening to her harsh rebuke, he slightly 
regained oonsoiousness and said to his wife, ' You have 
interrupted my contemplation without thinking what you 
are doing. 115. The Husband of Rukmini was sitting in 
my lotus-heart. You confused my mind and you drove 
away the Lord of Pandhari.* 116. With his heart full 
of anger, he seized with his hands the handle of the wheel 
and came near to his wife in order to beat her, 117. Full 
of fear she said to her husband, ' For Vithoba's sake, mind 
if you as much as touch me with your finger.' 118. Hearing 
her utter this oath, Gora sat down quietly and with peace 
and forgiveness in his heart he began to repeat the names 
of God. 119. Men and women assembled in the yard, and 
began to talk to one another about the event. ' The child 
has been trodden into the clay ; we have seen this great 
wrong done.' 120. One said, ' He is utterly crazy. How 
did your husband become such ?' A second one said, 'That 
is always the effect when one gives himself up to the wor- 
ship of Hari,' 121. Thus different people reviled him in 
many ways with scornful words. But he would not listen 
to what they said and continued his worship of Hari; 122. 
just as when an elephant walks on the royal road, many 
dogs begin to bark, but he gives no attention and keeps on 
walking at his pleasure; 123. or just as in the assembly of 
pandits, fools make their impudent remarks, but without 
listening to them the pandits continue their discussion on 
the meaning of the Sfiasiras; 124. or as when the ocean saw 
the Bishi Agasti it began to roar in mockery, but the JRishi 

287 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XVII 123-137 

paid no attention to it and continued his religious cere- 
HQonies; 125. or as a serpent hisses in the presence of an 
eagle, yet the eagle feels not the slightest fear; 126. 30> 
although the men and women who were gathered there 
reviled him, Gtora paid no attention to them, and steadying 
his mind he repeated the names of the Husband of 
Rukmini. 127. It did not even enter into his thought that 
he had trodden his child into the clay.Bringing Shri Vitthal 
to mind he paid no attention to the sorrows of this world. 
QORA AND HIS CHILDLESS WIFE 
128 After some days bad passed, Gora's wife began think- 
ing to herself, 'Though I continue refusing to speak to my 
husband, it will not mean the end of this affair. 129. If a 
king commits a wrong what can the subjects do ? I have 
o authority to punish my husband. ' 130. So one day she 
came near him to wash his feet. Pushing her away be said 
to her, 131. ' You have laid me under an oath in the name 
of Vitthal that I should not touch you with my fingers. 
Know that such an oath in the name of my Vithoba I will 
not break. ' 132. The wife said to her husband, 'I spoke to 
you as I should not have done. Please forgive me. You 
must accept my service. 133. Busy in my daily duties, I 
may have said what is good or bad. But if you sit there 
obstinately refusing me, what will the end be ? 134, When 
jars are placed in the furnace, they naturally touch one 
another, so when I am busy with my domestic life I say 
sometimes what I ought not. ' 135. Qora said to her, ' The 
sun may rise in the West, but I have made a fixed deter- 
mination which I shall never give up. 136, One might 
fcusten the air in a cage, or one might confine space in a 
jar, but my determination will never be broken. 137. One 
might hide fire in a load of hay, or the wind in fear might 
run away from the clouds, but I will never break the oath 
Ihat has been made in the name of the Husband of 
Bukmlni. 138. A pumpkin might sink in the ocean; the 

S88 



Cb. XVII 138-150 GOBA'S SECOND WIFE 

god of death might fear the ghoet; but my determination 
is immovable, it will endure for ever.' 139.As the Vaishnava 
bhakla continued thus talking, his wife remained quiet. 
But as she now had no child, her mind was full of concern. 
140. As she thought of this by day and night she said to 
herself, 'I must bring about a second marriage for him. In 
that way he will be pleased and my family will i,T?ow.» 
She then went to her own mother's house. 141. She told 
her mother and father all that had happened. She said, 
' My husband has discarded me, and our family line will 
now disappear. 142. Relatives were looking for some 
fault, and that is just what God has done. Evil ones 
among our relatives are laughing at us. " Hi-> family line 
has ceased," they say. 143. He has already discarded me, 
and I must bring about a second marriage for him. But 
who would give him another wife, since the first one is 
living ? 144. Now give to my husband as a wife your 
youngest virgin daughter.' Saying this she grasped the 
feet of her mother. 145. Begging this from her mother, 
tears flowed from her eyes. ' I am asking .for only a 
jacket as it were, and you must meet my request.' 146. As 
she spoke so piteously, her father and mother replied, ' We 
grant your request' Then having called a Brahman they 
decided upon the marriage. 

GORA MARRIES HIS LIVING WIFE'S SISTER 

147. Returning to her home she made all necessary 
garments, adornments and ornaments. 148. She sent in- 
vitations and collected all the relatives in her family line. 
The marriage procession then started, and the bands were 
playing loudly. 149. The wedding guests thought with 
concern amongst themselves on the way. They said, ' O 
gentlemen, we cannot approve of the strange fact that he 
should abandon his wife for the sake of Qod. 150. 
Muhammedans do not like the worship of the OaycUri 
B.V. 19 289 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. XVII 150-162 

Mantra. Donkeys would not enjoy having the ssndalvrood 
paste put upon them. So man who ara Vakhnaias are not 
liked by those who revila thena. 151. A sinful man does 
not like good ooniuot. An out-casta does not like to 
fix hirf thoughts on the Shastraa. Ghosts do not enjoy 
the rausio of tha kirlau, nor doss a fool give thought to 
reason. 1 52. The sick do not like mil'i. Thieves do not like 
the bright moonlight. Misers-do not like giving away of 
wealth. The deaf do not enjoy hearing eiaging. 153. Those 
who eat flesh have no kindness. Those who kill are not 
fond of compassion. The poor through their fate do not care 
for the shads of the wish-trea. 154. So those who are not 
bhaktas do not like the devotion of those who are hhaktas.' 
Weil in this way they went on quickly to the marriage. 
155. The wedding daieias were installed; all were feasted' 
and holding the marriage curtain the Brahmans repeated the 
eight versas of blassing. 156. Thinking of the Husband of 
Lakshmi, the (officiating) Brahman said, ' Beware, Beware.' 
Just as they dropped the marriage curtain, the loud music 
from the instruments began. 157. The marriage ceremonies 
continued for four days. The prooassion marched through 
the town. The mother-in-law and f *ther-in-law then thought 
to themselves, 158. ' He has been given the eld st and the 
youngest of the daughters. Ha has taken a dislike to one 
of them, and men will now laugh at us. 159. "Just as both 
your eyes are alike to you ; in the same way consider both 
of them your wive-i" — in this way putting our son-in-law 
under oath, we must make him accept her hand.' 160. They 
then said to Gora, ' Both these wives now belong to you. 
Care for them and treat them alike in your domestic life. 
161. If you do not treat them kindly, Vithoba will be 
your witness." Hearing them say this, he told them that he 
assented. 163. Said he,' If the Lord of the world is merciful, 
the bondage of this life will break of itself- He will 
not allow His bhaktas to be influenced by worldly passions.* 

290 



Ch. XVir 163-177 GOBA CUTS OFF HIS HAND 

163. Thus happy in his mind, he quickly returned to 
his home, and gave exactly the same garments and 
ornaments to hii t^vo wives. 164. Just exactly as he 
regarded his elder wife, so he ragardod his younger wife. 
Seeing him so ragard her, the elder wife began to feel 
concerned. 165. She asked Gora, ' Why d )e3 not the 
young3r wife pkase you V, He replied, ' Yuur father placed 
me und^r an oath, 166. namely, that I would not treat 
you two oartially. He put me und r an oath to Vithoba. 
and this is the oath und^r which my fatber-ia-law placed rae. 
And I have his words f? inly fixed in my n)iad.' 167. Hear- 
ing her husband say this, the yotjngGr wife began to cry. 
Said she, 'O si-ter, why did you get me entangled in this? 
168. Then the elder sister said to har younger sister, 'O my 
dear sister, do not be troubled about this. When night comes 
we shall tast his heart.' 169. When it was night, seeing 
the bhaki.i of Vishnu asleep, his two wives cima near him, 
and slept at his sida. 170. Edch of them took one of his 
hands, and placed it on her breast. Whan he awoke he 
began to wonder. 171. Said he, 'Although my mind was 
not thinking of any sensual pleasure, it was my hand that 
broke tne vow.' Thus repenting in his heart, listen to what 
he did. 172. Ha took a sword and fastened it to a post, 
and with a firm heart ha cut both hands off. 173. As he 
sat there worshipping, the sun now arose. The wives 
seeing him now without hands, bagan to cry out loudly. 
174. Said they, ' A graat disaster has happened. Wno will 
now carry on our domastie life? Every whare tha evil- 
minded will laugh at us, seeing what our conduct has 
been. 175. Wa had him parform. a secon I marriage in 
order to inoraasa our family line. But what can wa do 
before tha wrath of God?' 176. Gara than said to both bis 
wives, ' You mourn needlessly. If the Hdsband of R ikmiai 
is your Protector, why should you so- row? 177. No ooe 
who recaivds tha wish-cow naed be troublad as to how ha 

291 



BHAXTAVnAYA Ch. XVII 177-189 

is to get bis liTclihood. 178. If one is sitting under the 
wish-tiee, how can 'there be any lack of food or ornaments 
to him ? So if the 'Husband of- Hukmini is bestowing 
Bis favour, why should there be bondage to things of this 
life ? 179. If anyone gets a touchstone in his band, what 
can he lack of money and property ? So if one's Ibveis 
given to the repeating' of names of Vitthal, he cannot be 
injured by entanglement in worldly affairs. 180. Just as 
all diseases clear away when one drirVs all he can of 
nectar, so no diseases of this earthly life can injure anyone 
who is repeating with his lips the names of Ham, Krishna, 
HarL' 181. Thus explaining things to his wives, he 
continued happy in mind. • He was continually repeating 
the names of God, and never stopped for a single moment. 
182. Then came the tenth day of the month of Ashadh 
(July), and Gora with joy in his heart came to the sacred city 
of Pandhari together with his two wives. 183. They bathed 
in the Chandrabhaga river and paid their respects to 
Pundalik. They circumambulated the sacred town and 
then arrived at fihe great door of the temple. 184. Along with 
him his two wives reverently prostrated themselves on the 
ground. They embraced the god and with reverence wor- 
shipped His feet. 185.-Nan]a was standing at this time 
by the cagle-platform. With cymbals and a band of 
singers and with love and joy he was performing a kirian, 
and with enthusiasm was repeating the names of God. 186. 
With the sound of the tina and the drum, there was great 
enthusiasan in the kirian. He danced before Fandurang, 
Destroyer of the earthly bondage, the merciful One, 187. 
Nivritti, Dnyandev, Savata, Sopan, Jagamitra the beloved 
; sat listeni ng to the stories related by Nama. 188. There were 
)al.so present many saints, Mahants, and good men. Many 
Vaiahnaxas had gathered there. With the joy of love they 
wonbipped, and in their love listened to the Idrian. 189. 
Then Namdev lifted up his bands ard motioned them like 

292 



Oh. XVII 189-202 GOBA'8 HAKDS & CHILD RETUBir 

banners, and with his lips he told everyone to raise his 
hands like banners in a similar manner. |190. With the joy 
of lo7e clapping their hands, they shouted aloud the names 
of Hari. Tears novr floired from the lotus-eyes of Gora. 

GORA'S HANDS AND CHILD RESTORED AGAIN 

191. Gora said, ' God, Husbahd of Bukmini, why 

hast Thou deserted me now? As I put my armless hands 

up, I feel ashamed. 192. O lotus-eyed* One, O Husband of 

KamalSyThou alone art my wealth and my property .Aside 

from Thee I see no one in all the three worlds. 193. I have 

put all my burden upon Thee, and I have no other support 

but Thee.' Thus Gora the potter pleaded pifceously before 

God. 194. Hearing his piteous cry, the Husband of Rukmi ni 

came to his help. Hands like his former ones sprang from 

( the stumps of ) his arms. 195. With great joy he now 

clapped his hands while repeating aloud the names of God. 

All the bhaktas cried aloud, ' Victory, victory,' as they saw 

the wonderful sight. 196. They said, 'Among all the 

bhaktas, the noble Vaishnavas, Gora the potter is the noblest 

bhakta. The Husband of Rukmini is pleased withj him, and in 

the kirtan of Hari his hands sprang from (the stumps of) his 

arms.' 197. Seeing the wonderful sight, Gora's elder wife 

arose and joining her hands palm to palm before the Lord 

of Pandhari, 198. she said, 'Lord of the world. Thou hast 

looked with favour upon Thy servant. I have bee n very 

sorrowful without a child. Why dojt not Thou have any 

pity for me ? 199. Thy bhaktas describe Thee as the Ocean 

of mercy and the Life of the world. We are sorrowful 

without the sight of an infant child. 200. Tak ing Thy 

name, Lord of Rakoaini, my husband became uncons cious 

of body and trod our child in the clay. Thou surely dost 

remember this.* 201. Hearing this piteous cry the Holder 

of the disk ( Krishna ) showed His favour. Oat of the 

assembly a little child came creeping suddenly. 202. See- 

293 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XVII 202-207 

ing the child, everyone wsb filled with astonishment. The 
mother rushing towards it in her love, held it to her heart. 
203. Then the Mother Eukmini said { to Gora ), * From to-* 
day you are free from the oath. Do not now ahandon your 
wives. Our command is your authority.' 204. As the 
daughter of ( king ) Bhimak ( Bukmini ) thus spoke, all in 
the assembly of the bhaktas rejoiced. They clapped their 
bands crying ' Victory, Victory,' and wagged their heads in 
the kirtan. 205. Then repeating the hymns of praise, they 
waved lights over the Lord of Rukmini. 

In the next chapter hearers are asked to lis'^en with 
reverence to an intere>ting story. 206. The Husband of 
Rukmini will Himself relate the beautiful stories of His 
bhaklas. Mahipati is merely His servant, as he calls him- 
self in his love. 

207. Swasli {Vs9.ce\) This book is the Shn Bhakta- 
vijaija. In listening to it the Lord of the world will be 
pleased. Listen to it, you God-loving, pious bhahtas. This 
is the seventeenth very delightful chapter, it is an offering 
to Sbri Krishna. 



294 



CHAPTFR XVIII 

LIFE OF NAMDEV 

( Continued ) 

Obeisance to Shri Ganexh. Obtdsir.ce to Shri Kri-'hna. 

BHAKTAVIJAYA DEPICTS NINEFOLD BHAKTI 

1. The darkness of ignorance has disappeared. The 
jBAi/c'aW'/ai/i has ariaan like the sun, and the clusters of 
stars in the form of duality are hidden because of the sun'a 
brilliansy. 2. By ttia light of its kuowladge the ( follow- 
ing ) nina forms of bhakli have become available. Those 
seeking salvation should therefore give dua thought to the 
subject and ( i ) walk on the path provided by the hearinj^ 
of the Bfiaklavijaya 3. (ii) Some walk along the path of kir- 
taps. (iii) Some assiciite themselves with the God-loving 
bhaklas; in that case the dull-minded and the fools are saved, 
and they make Shriptiti ( Krishna ) subject to them. 4, (iv) 
Some look to the path of contemplation yet they mix 
with thi world. ( v ) Some sit with concentrated mind in 
the cave of thinking. 5. ( vi ) Some prefer service at God's 
feet, and they walk along that path. ( vii ) Some ob<f rving 
the city of worship walk thitherward. 6. ( viti ) Some 
pick the path i>f suppUcation and walk rapidly on that, 
(ix) Others in their love pick out the paths of seJf-cansacra- 
tion. 7. So the sat-kers of salvation have made these nine 
possible ways exceedingly clear. Other God-loving iikj/das 
also have walked the same paths. 

GORA TESTS NAMA 

8. In the previous chapter there was the extraordinary 
story of how hands sprang from Gora's arms and f ow the 
Husband of Bukmini brot)i,'bt back the daad child to life 
and gave it back to its parents. 9. Gora then joined hi» 
hands palm to palm, and said to the saints, ' Come to my 
home and purify my abode. * 10. Seeing his great desire 

295 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XVIII 10-24 

the saints replied that they would oome and they at 
onoe set oS. 11. The Vdishnavca walked along to the 
home of Gora, and were filled with joy, while with love in 
his heart he( Qora ) bowed to them with love. 12. Gora 
gave them grass mats to sit upon and began to wash their 
feet. And as he drank the water in which their feet were 
washed his mind felt satisfaction. 13. Worshipping them 
and using the sixteen materials, he gave them all a meal of 
six juices, and the tulai leaf for the purification of their 
mouths. 14. Nivritti, Dnyandev, Sopan, Nama, Savata 
and other Vaishnavas, also Muktabai the store-house of all 
goodness, all sat in their appointed places. 15. Dnyandev 
now said to Gora, ' You have placed the jars ( the saints ) 
on their seats. Now separate those that are unbaked from 
those that are baked, and tell me your experience.' 16. 
Dnyaneshwar having said this, by his own reason Gora 
understood what he meant. Gora then took in his hand 
the potter's paddle, 17. and with it he rapped the skull of 
all the saints who were present. All accepted it in silence. 
18. But when he reached Nama, he ( Nama ) cried out, 
'Why do you strike me needlessly ?' Gora replied, ' This 
vessel is as yet raw and unbaked.' 19. Muktabai said to 
him, ' O Gora, how did you know this ? You are good, and an 
expert examiner. I have without a doubt discovered that- 
20. Jewellers are expert in their examination of jewels, so 
also a potter by a mere glance recognizes a jar (as baked or 
unbaked ). 21. A person sick with disease is easily rec- 
ognized by a doctor, so you by a mere glance know what 
is baked and what is not baked.' 22. Listening to what 
she said, all the saints broke out into a hearty laugh. But 
Nama was sorry at heart and was much troubled. 23. 
Therefore rising from the assembly, Namdev came to 
Pandharpur, and there meeting the Husband of Bukmini 
he began to tell Him the secrets of his heart. 24. His 
Ouoat choked and tears flowed from his eyes and he said 

296 



Oh. XVIII 24-38 KAMA'S OOMPLAIHT 

to the god, 'I have been greately insalted. My heart is full 
of ang r.' 25. The Life of the world laughed and gave 
Nama an embrace. Said He, ' Who insulted you ? Please 
tell me without hesitation.' 26. Nama replied, * O ffmW- 
keahi ( the Lord of the heart ), one should tell others of the 
praise he receives, but the criticism he receives should be 
kept to himself.' 27. The Husband of Rukmini replied, ' I 
know the feelings of your heart. But I see no one so good 
and dear to me, aside from you. 28. Do not be ashamed to 
tell your secreis to your dearest friend,' Thus spoke 
Adhoksha]a (Krishna) to Nama in love. 29. Nama replied, 
'Listen to my story, O God. Gora the potter. Thy bhakta, took 
all the saints to his house, and he did a very astonishing 
thing. 30. He seated them upon grass mats and lovingly 
worshipped them. Then Dnyandev motioning to him said 
something to him. 31. Gora then took his potter's paddle 
in his hand and rapped everyone on the head. All received 
it silently, and no one replied to him. 32. But when he 
oame to rap me I was afraid, O Lord God. I said to him, 
after remembering Thy feet, " Go away. " 33. Hearing 
me say this, all the saints laughed, and Dnyandev together 
with Muktabai began to make fun of me. 34. Gora then 
said about rae, " He is still raw and unbaked, " and all the 
saints still laughing I became ashamed. 35. 1 then arose 
quickly and came to tell Thee. ' As Nama said this, Hriahi- 
keshi ( the Lord of the heart ) replied. 

NEED OF A aURU 

36. The Life of the world said to Nama, ' What he has 
said about you is quite true. He who does not go as a 
suppliant to a guru is spoken of as* one who is not ripe. * 
37. As the Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) said this to him, 
Nama's spirit gave way. Just as salt dissolves in a 
moment when water is poured upon it; 38. or as when 
water is poured upon sugar it at once dissolves away; so at 

297 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XVIII 38-52 

the words of the cloud-dark One ( Krishna ), the God-loving 
bhakli became very troubled in thought. 39. When a storm 
oomes from the South, the clouds melt away; so at the 
teaching of the Lord of the world Nama became sad, 40. 
He then replied to God, ' I came hera to tell Thee my com- 
plaint, because I thought Thou wouldst take away my pain. 
41. But Thou hast shown me disfavour, and hast talked to me 
as they did. Now OLord of the world, I know of no place to 
go to. 42. If the earth feels troubled, where should the trees 
go ? If a mother oa«ts away her child, who will care for it ? 
43. If » tortoise will not look at its 3?oung, in what way will 
their lives be preserved ? If a kiag does not act rightly 
and justly, how can his subjects be happy ? 44. But Thou, 
O Holder of the disk ( Krishna ), hast made rae very sad 
to-day. In all the three worlds I see no one aside from 
Thee to help me". 45. The Lord of Pandhari then said to 
Nama, ' Your heart and mine are one. Just as honey is 
stored ia a flower, there is no duality between them, 46. so 
you ara My very life. Do not say that you are sad. Go 
now as a suppliant to a good (jtiru and pnt an end to your 
thoughts on duality.' 47. Nama said, ' O God supreme, 
why do I need a Sudgiirul When Thou, O (Krishna) 
Keshav, art so rear to me, how can there be any bondage 
to my soul? 48. To engage ia religious ceremonies, 
austerities, sacrifices and offer gifts and go as a suppliant 
to a Sti'lifUru in ordsr to gain Thy love, seem so un- 
necessary. 49. If one sudd'^nly happens. to obtain sugar, 
why go to the bazaar for any ? If nectar should fall in 
one's nouth. why go to the mountain to graze? 50. If 
without effort one gets some tasty food, why do any cook- 
ing ? If at home one has a pile of money, then why 
wander about for it ? 51. So Thou, the Ouru of the worldi 
art so near to me. Then why do I need a Sudguru ?* Listen- 
ing to Nama's talk the Holder of the Sharang Bow 

( Krishna ) replied, 53. ' Nama, listen to Me. When I was 

«)aft 



Ch. XVIII 52-65 NEED OV A OLRIT 

the avatar Ram, I went as a suppliant to Vashishtba in 
order to question him on self-knowledge. 53. When I 
was the Krishna airatar, I went with reverence to 
Sandipani and from him I obtained self-knowUdge. 54. 
So if you will listen to Me, you will be acceptable to ail 
the saints.' As the Life of the world said this, Nama grasped 
His fett. 

GOD CHOOSES VISOBA KHECHAB AS THAMA'S aUJRU 

55. Nama said to Krishna, ' To whom shall I go as sup- 
pliant ? ' Hrishikeshi ( the Lord of the heart ) bearing 
him say this, replied to him, 56. 'Visoba Khtchar is now 
asleep in the temple of Shiva. In all the three worlds I know 
of no one who is so wise or so indififerant to earthly 
things. 57. So go at once there and become a suppliant to 
that chief of Shadgurun. ' Nama then embraced His feet, 
and tears flowed from his eyes. 58. Nama replied, ' OGod, 
I cannot for a moment be without Thee. If Thou desirest 
any pro<f of this, I will swear to it by Thy name.' 59. The 
Holdirof the Saranf/ Bow (Krishna) then paid to him, 'Pro- 
tect public custom. If you do not go to a Sadyuru, how can 
ignorant men be saved ? 60. The Holder of the disk 
( Krishna ) having said this, Nama arose at once, very sad 
in heart. How tad he was, listen. 61. Just as Shri Krishna 
gave knowledge to Uddbava in the eleventh chapter, when 
he sent him to Badrikashram and made him sad, 62. so in 
the Kali Yuga Namathe 6/.«A:/a became hisato/ar. Therefore 
so using his illustration I hnve applied it exactly to him- 
self. 63. It is like the eleventh day among religious observ- 
ance?, or like Hri-hikei<hi ( the Lord of the heart ) among 
the gods, or as there is no other river that can be compared 
with the Chandrabhaga. 64. Those who wander to an 
endless number of sacred bathing places find their pride 
growing. But when they see the Chandrabhaga, even at a 
dietanoe, they become pride less. 65. How can I fully dl»- 

29y 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch, XVIII 65-75 

oribe the greatness of the Chandrabhaga ? Warhari pilgrims 
who come to Fandhari reoognize the greatness of the 
Bhimarathi, a greatness which does not belong to any 
other sacred bathing place. 66. Saoh a sacred bathing 
place as the Chandrabhaga, and such a sacred city as Fandh- 
ari, and such a holy bhakta as Nama, cannot be found in 
all the three worlds. 67. Though going to meet with his 
Sadguni, he could not bear separation from God. Then 
bringing into his hearC the Lord of the world, he suddenly 
arose and went along. 68. Nama came quickly into the 
temple of Mallikarjun and looked about him. Here he 
saw Visoba Kheohar asleep. 69. He had put on his shoes 
and had placed both bis feet upon the emblem of Shiva. 
When Nama saw this, he was filled with astonishment. 

70. ' How is it that the Husband of Rukmini has given me 
such a Sadguru as tbis one ? He has arrogantly placed 
his feet on the emblem of Shiva, and has fallen into sleep.' 

71. Coming as he ( Nama ) did to find a Sadguru, the first 
thing he found in him was a fault ; just as when one takes 
the first mouthful of food and then finds a fly in it; 72. or 
as one setting out on a journey ( to make a fortune) should 
come across ( a woman carrying ) an empty jar ( of water, 
a bad omen ); or as if at the beginning of a book, the first 
letter should not be written; 73. or-as when one comes to 
look at the sun and finds it in eclipse ; or as when one 
comes to examine the horoscope of a bride and a bride- 
groom and discovers that both of them were born in the 
same course of the star ; 74. or as when looking for the 
moon on the second of the bright half of the month, the 
sky is covered with clouds ; so when looking for a guru, 
he ( Nama ) saw at first his fault. 75. The servant of 
Vishnu came near and said to Visoba, ' You call yourself 
a aadhu and a saint. But what is this improper thing you 
are doing ? 76. You have placed your, feet upon the 
emblem of Shiva, the Husband of Parvati. Now I know 

300 



Ch. XVIII 76-90 VI80BA INSTRUCTS KAMA 

what your knowledgre of Brahm ja worth. ' 77. Visoba 
replied to Nama, ' I have indeed made a great mistaka So 
place my feet where Sadashiv ( God ) ia not. 78. My body 
is weak and I have no strength to rise. You, a servant 
of Vishnu, oame as a friend to meet me and to tell 
me what is right. 79. Place my feet where the Husband 
of Parvati { Shiva ) is not. ' Nama hearing what he said, 
came near to him. 80. Then as Namdev himself lifted up 
Visoba's feet/ the whole place seemed to take the form of 
the emblem of Shiva. 81. Whichever way he turned his 
feet, there he seemed to see the emblem, he found no place 
empty of God whatever and his mind became perplexed. 
82. The bell, the drum, all took the form of Shiva. The 
men and women who were thereto visit God, they all seem- 
ed like ( Shiva ) the Husband of Paxvati. 83. As he look- 
ed at his Sadguru's feet they also seemed to be Shiva; and 
after some consideration as he looked at himself he found 
that he himself appeared like Shiva. 84. In his love he 
looked all about him. The temple and all that belongsed 
to it seemed like Shiva the Lord of Kailas ( Heayen ). 
Nama was overcome with astonishment and placed his 
head on the Sadguru's feet. 85. The Sadguru replied to 
him, ' I feel very much troubled. O bhakta of Vishnu, 
quickly- place my feet on the earth.' 86. Hearing this 
Nama replied, ' You are an ooean of knowledge, a cloud of 
intelligence. As I was serving your feet, O Swami, every- 
thing seemed to be in the form of Shiva. 87. Every where 
I saw ( Shiva ) the Lord of Kailas ( Heaven ). There seems 
to be no place whatever without Him. Amazed at this, I 
have placed my head at your feet.' 88. Visoba replied to 
Nama, ' Listen to the forms in which Shiva appears. ' Then 
speaking in the Nanda [ Kanarese ] language he removed 
all his doubts. 89. ' His five faces, His three brilliant eyes 
and His ten adorable hands: I will describe to you His 
form. 90. As you look at Hia head it reaches up to heaven 

301 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XVIII 90-102 

and His fpet touch the hottam of the saventh hell. 91. The 
six S'l isftas iti sttampting to dasoribe His power felt asham- 
ed at their inabilitv. Tha four Vedas in describing the 
full meaning, bscama crazy in their vain attainpts. 92. 
The eightoan Pumnn wera not able to describe Hi.n, and 
so the thousand-hoodsd One ( tha Sarpent Sh''sha ) came* 
to describe His qualities. And each of his tongues was 
divided in two. 93. Thus His limit cannot be dafined. ' 
Then he { Visoba ) joined his two hands palra to palm, 
and said, ' I am the servant of Dnyaneshwar. I am 
devottsd to his feet. ' 94. As Naraa listenad to the words 
of liis Sndyurj, they made a deep impression on his mind; 
just as whan God showed Himself in the form of the whole 
universe to Arjun, the whole scene enterad into his 
experiaace. 95. Nama then said, ' mother Sadguru, your 
feet are tha means of my salvation. In bowing to your 
feet, all seems to me to be as but one in form. * 96. Visoba 
then arose and placed upon Nama's head his hand of 
blessing. Nama then recognized in his lotus-heart that 
Visoba was the Husband of Rukmini. 

97. It happened on a cartain day that all the saints 
gathered together at tlie eigle-platform and saw the Lord 
of Paudhiri embracing Naiua. 98. They said to Nama, 
' Since you have adopted a Salguru you never saem to care 
for U3. How is it that yuu have hardened your heart and 
continually remain with him ? ' 99. Nama replied to them, 
* Thy forfti, O 6' utyuru, my Lord, is in my heart. No longer 
do I see a difference between Thyself and myself. ' 100. 
Hearing the words of Nama, the Husband of Rukmini was 
pleased. The Life of tha world then spoke to all the saints 
as follows.— 101. ' No longer should you call Nama raw 
and unbaked. ' Ad tha Life of the world said this, 
Dayandev beoama aware of what he really meant. 

PABIS.1 BHAQAVAT THE BRAHMAN 
102. Now listeners, hearken with reverence to another 
302 



C!h. XVIII 102-115 PAEISA OBTAINS A PARISA 

most interesting story, Parisa Bbagavat in performing 
Busterities prayed to Mother Rukmini. 103. The Primal 
Mother being pleased, with her eyes of compassion she 
showed him her full mercy, and placed over him tne shadow 
of that mercy. 104 She mat him in the visiblo form and 
held him to her heart. She said to Parisa, 'W^lateve^ good 
desire you hold in your heart, tell me what it is.' 105. 
Paris* Bhdgavat thought for a while in hb heart and then 
replied, ' Mother, I wish my heart to be uninterruptedly 
steady in my ^worship of Thee 106. May no thought of fear 
come into my heart. Such id my thought. O Mother, 
gratify my longing*.' 107. She immediately brought a 
parisa ( touchstone ) and placed it in his hand. She then 
said to him, ' O Parisa Bbagavat, never let this touchstone 
be sep-jrated from you. 108 Whatever pieces of iron you 
touch with this skone, you will have that amount of gold. * 
Hearing these words of the Mother he had a feeling of 
satisfaction. 109, Just as when one has performed a 
hundred sacrifioes he enjoys the dignity of Indra; or a 
when the ten-headed One ( Ravana) having performed his 
austerities found himself the Lord of the golden city 
( Lanka ). 110. With a mind comforted, Parisa made an 
obeisance to the Pi imal Mother. Ha gave the touchstone 
to Kamal vji his wife. 111. She then brought some pieces 
of iron andapplied to them the touchstone,andthey immedi- 
ately turned into the highest kind of gold. 112. Kamalaja 
was very much pleasad and said, 'One cannot know the limit 
of Thy power, O Mother of the world. Aside from Thee 
who is there who will come and help us weak ones in our 
necessities? 113. We have often fallen into the sufferings 
of poverty but today Thou hasb bupplied all our needs. ' 
Thus both husband and wife felt great satisfaction. 114, 
Parisa then took his wife aside and said to her, ' Tell no 
one of this. If the saints should hear of it they would laugh 
atme. ' 115. Being of one mind in this matter they both 

303 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XVIII 115-125 

enjoyed the very best food but in outward appearance 

they showed poverty. 116. They plaoed all their wealth 

in the cellar and dined every day on the daintiest food. To 

people, however, they showed themselves as indifferent to 

earthly things; 117. just as deceivers shave off their hair 

and then rob the unwary pilgrims on the road; or like 

actors who assume a variety of forms and act like 

the sannyasi Shripad; 118. or just as a gilt coin seems very 

brilliant on the outside; or as when an adulterer seeks 

to give people the impression that he is of a specially high 

moral standard; 119. or just as the flowers of the Pungala 

Vlne( a bad smelling shrub ) seem very beautiful to the 

eye from a distance; or as one recognizes the moral character 

of a miserly friend from what he shows in his outer life; 

120. or as in the case of one who is not possessed by & 

deity, on the outside to the eye he pretends to be possessed 

by a god; or as a peacock which has feathers with eyes 

all over but has no sight; 121. so Farisa Bbagavat 

appeared to people as one indifferent to earthly things, 

but in his home he had a vast amount of wealth as any 

observant person could recognize. 122, Just as by looking 

at anyone's face, we recognise whether he has dined or 

fasted; and from their language we judge whether men 

are sincere or irritable; 123. and whether a lamp has a 

wick and oil in it can be recognized from the light the 

lamp gives; and by insight one can recognize whether a 

man is wise or foolish; 124. and whether a person has done a 

thing successfully or not is recognized by the wise from the 

way he acts; or as a speaker can easily recognize whether his 

hearer has a troubled or a quiet mind; 125. in the game way 

clever and wise people recognized what the indifference 

of earthly things of Parisa. Bhagavat really was; for good 

qualities and bad qualities can never be completely hidden. 

304 



CSb. XVIII 126-138 KAMALAJA'8 BAD ADVICiB 

KAMALAJA AND BAJABAI 

126. Parisa's wif e Eamalaja was one day going for 
water. She filled her vessel from the water in the Chandra- 
bhaga river and was returning to her home: 127. Eamalaja 
accidentally met on the way Bajabai the dutiful wife of 
Namdev. 128. Bajabai said to her, ' I am going to fill my 
vessel with water, and will return at once. Until then re- 
main in this place, dear friend.' 129. Saying this shehastened 
and filled her vessel and returned and then the two persons 
again met each other. 130. 4.s she saw Rajabai was 
full of concern because she ( Rajabai ) was without 
food and raiments, she said to her, ' Tell me at once your 
personal secrets. l31. One should never be ashamed to tell 
one's secrets to a friend, but should put away all thoughts 
of difference between them and treat each other as one.' 132 
Rajabai then said to her friend, ' Listen to my secrets. The 
lord of ray home has put away all shame and has devoted 
himself to the Qod of the eagle banner. 133. He has no 
idea either of the honour paid to him or of criticisms. He 
has not the slightest concern regarding public affairs. He 
brings into his mind the Husband of Rukmini and is wor- 
shipping all the time. 134. At home we have the very 
least of food and raiments and yet we have a very large 
family. Tell me at once what I am to do.' 135. After 
listening to her Kamalaja replied, ' Has not He Whom 
•Namdev worships become pleased'with him and given him 
everything? 136. If a tree does not bear flowers or fruit, 
why give it water ? If the Lord of the heart ( Hrishi- 
keshi) does not give him anything to eat why does Nama 
give himself to His worship ? 137. Why labour in vain 
digging when no water is reached in the well ? So if the 
Husband of Rukmini is not pleased with one why give one- 
self to His worship ? 138. If anyone is determined to give 
no gifts at a wedding, why invito such a relative there? 

B. V. 20 305 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. XVIII 138-151 

So, if the Husband of Rukmini is unwilling to show His 
favour, why be His worshipper ? 139. If a medicine gives 
no good resuU<>, why trouble the tongue with taking it ? 
So, if the Husband of Rukmini is not pleased, why should 
one worship Him? 140. Or if a field produces no crop why 
labour in vain there ? So if the Husband of Rukmini is not 
pleased, why spend tima in dascribing His good qualities?* 

SECRET OF THE TOUCHSTONE DISCLOSED 

141. 'Dear friend, my husband made Mother Rukmini 
pleased with him, and She gave us a touchstone in Her kind- 
ness to us. 142. By bringing it in contsot with iron we have 
created an immense amount of gold at our home. Because 
of this, we dine every day upon the choicest food.* 143, 
Rajabai repliad to her, ' How does a touchstone look ? * 
Kamalaja replied, ' Come to ray ho:ne and I will show it 
tovou there. ' 144. Thus after conversing with oae another 
the two women went to their homes. It happened now one 
day that Rajabai osuna to Eamalaja's home. 145. She 
quickly brought the toaohHtone aad showed it to hor friend. 
' Take it away for a very short tima, and with your own 
hands apply it to pieces of iron. 146. Create a heap of gold 
at your home and drive away the sorrows of poverty. Then 
bring it back to me. 147. Do not let yoar husband or mine 
know of this matter. ' Raiabai having heard this was 
greatly gratified. 14S. She retarnad to her home for pieces 
of iron and quickly applied tha toachstone to her needles, 
her scissors and her spiniing wheel. 149. She took the 
gold into the bazaar and exchanged it for money which she 
gave to the merchants- and brought home all the m>tterials 
she needed. 150. She bought garments and ornamt'nts and 
the best of cooking vessels, also a great quanti:;yof food 
materi'tls. Full of joy she beg'inher cooking. 151. About 
noon Namdev returned and asked the news of his wife. 
, Tell me,' he said, ' where did you bring all thes^ thinsB 

306 



Ch. XVIII 151-164 NAMA THROWS TOUCHSTONE AWAT 

fiom ? ' 152. She replied, ' Eat your meal. What is tbe 
use of asking me such questions ? From today your mind 
must have no worries about your domestic affairs. ' 153. 

NamdeY then said to her, ' Not until you tell me will I eat.* 
Bajabai saw there would be trouble ahead, so she told him. 
154. She said, ' A Brahman by name of Parisa Bhagavat 
jmade Bukmini pleased with him, and being so pleased She 
gave him a touchstone. 155. Tou are constantly repeating 
the nameft of Pandurang, but here at our home we have not 
a scrap to eat, and our children are always suffering frcm 
lack of food. 156. Kamalaja, Pariaa's wife, gave me the 
touchstone for a short time; I touched it to iron and have 
stored some gold in our home. 157. As she and I are 
naturally friends, she lent me the touchstone. I have now 
accomplished what I want and now I am going to take 
it back and give it to her.' 158. Nama said to his wife. 

Show me what a touchstone is.' She went into the house 
and brought it and showed it to him. 

NAMDEV THROWS A TOUCHSTONE INTO THE RIVER 

159. Nama took the stone from her hand, took it 
to the Ohandrabhaga river and threw it into one of its 
deep pools. While doing so he kept repeating the names 
of Vitthal. 160. Without any concern about what he had 
done, he sat down repeating the names of God. But 
Bajabai was greatly troubled and sat down weeping. 
161. Just then Parisa Bhagavat returned to his home. He 
had kept the touchstone in his box but he did not see it 
there now. 162. He said to bis wife, ' You have become a 
fool, for you have lost what it takes a whole lifetime to 
obtain. Though men might make tbe most stupendous 
efforts, they could never acquire such an opportunity. 
163. She said to him, ' Bajabai asked for it, and took it 
for a moment to her home. I lent it to her because of her 
poverty.' 164. Parisa said to his wife. 'That is just what 

307 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch, XVIII 164-178 

I was afraid of. Hurry now to her home and bring it 
back here immediately.' 165. Eamalaja at once set o£f to 
the house of Namdev and said to Bajabai, ' Where have 
you put that thing of mine ? ' 166. The other replied, ' O my 
friend, I have committed a great fault. My husband 
returned home and then took it away. 167. He will soon 
come hack from his bath and then I w ill give it back to you.' 
But Kamalaja said to her, 'Give it to me at once.' 168. Raja- 
bai now became greatly troubled and said, 'Let us go to 
where he is.' Hastening to the Bhima river, they arrived 
where Namdev was. 169. His eyes were shut. He was 
thinking of the form of the Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) 
and in his love he kept repeating the names of Vitthal. 
170. Nama's wife said to him, ' ■\Vhere have you put the 
touchstone ? Kamalaja has come to ask for it. You must 
give it to her. ' 171. The bhakta of Vishnu listened and 
then said, ' I have thrown it into the water. ' Hearing him 
eay this, both women became furious with anger, 172. and 
in grief they beat their breasts. Men and women came to 
see what the matter was and asked what had happened. 
173. Rajabai told them everything. Parisa Bhagavat 
learning what was taking place, and beating bis breast, he 
also came where Nama was. 174. He told the people, 'Nama 
had wished for the touchstone, and now he tells us that he 
has thrown it away into a deep hole in the Chandrabhaga 
river.' 175. The different classes of people now began to 
revile both of them, yet the pious bliaktas continued to 
praise Nama. 176. They said, ' Gold and clay seem the 
same in value to this servant of Vishnu. He could never 
have desired to possess this touchstone.' 177. The crooked- 
minded, however, remarked, ' A deceiver puts on a garland 
made of tulsi. If he desired the touchstone belonging to 
the Brahman, how can you call him a good man ? ' 178. 
Parisa full of emotion, said openly to Nama, ' God and 
His bhakta are both deceivers. Why have you ruined my 

308 



Ch. XVIII 178-191 PEBBLES AS TOUCHSTONES 

home ? 179. You call yourself one who is indifferent to 
esrthiy things. And yet you had a longing for this touch- 
stone. Think it over in your mind whether the saints will 
approve of this. ' 180. To this the servant of Vishnu re- 
plied, ' Why should you want this touchstone ? Outwardly 
you call yourself indifferent to these worldly things. 181. 
So I threw the touchstone away in one of the deep holes of 
the Chandrabhaga river. If you regard this as untrue" 
go into the water and look for it. ' 183. Hearing Nama's 
words, all the people broke out into a laugh. ' We cannot 
think of any expert who would be able to recognize it in 
the sand.' 

NAMDEV TURNS PEBBLES INTO TOUCHSTONES 

183. Nama then Is-aped into the water and did a re- 
markable thing. He took a handful of sand in his hand 
and said, ' I have here many touchstones. 184. Choose the 
one that belongs to you.' Hearing the words of Nama, all 
the people began to laugh and said, 185. 'To his sight peb- 
bles and touchstones look alike." Others remarked, ' Let 
us prove what he says.' 186. Some of them therefore took 
a handful of needles and applied them to the pebbles, and 
all the pebbles turned out to be touchstones. All the people 
were astonished. 187. They now remarked, ' The hand of 
Nama, as it touched the pebbles, turned them all into touch- 
stones.' Everyone now rejoiced and cried out, ' Blessed is 
Nama.' 188. In the joy of love the assembly of hhaklas 
now cried out, ' Victory, Victory.' Those crooked people 
who had reviled him now had to look on the ground in 
shame. 189. Seeing such a miracle as this, Parisa Bhaga- 
vat began to repent. He said to Nama, ' There is no one in 
the world who is as blessed as you. 190. I had prayed to 
Rukmini, and asked her for a touchstone. I was ready to 
give my very life for it, not knowing your power. 191. 
Wherever your feet touch, there all power is to be found, I 

309 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XVIII 191-199 

have no desire now for tbia touobBlone. I desire only yoar 
hand of blessing.' 192. He then threw back into the water 
the touchstone which ICamdev had brought out, and Parisa 
Bhagavat beoame a suppliant of Kama's as one attached to 
him. 193. In listening to the teachings of the servant of 
Vishnu, one acquires divine knowledge. 

The interesting stories which will be related hereaftet 
will give great joy to the listeners. 194. This special book 
of the Bhaldavijaya is really nectar. Those who drink of it 
with pleasure will never be harmed by the diseases of this 
earthly life. 195. Or you might think of the Bhaktavijaya as 
the full moon and in the mind of the VcMhTucva Chakor 
there is supreme joy. 196. Revilers who are not bhaktas, 
and who are haters, have no love for its divine light. There- 
fore, having no trust in their hearts, they revile this book. 
197. In describing them the goddess of speech in vain be- 
comes needlessly wearied. So now, you good and noble- 
minded bhaktas, give attention in your love. 198. The 
Husband of Rukmini abides by the Bhima river, and 
pervades and overflows the three worlds. It is by His favour 
that Mahipati is writing this descriptive book. 

199. SuxaH. ( Peace ! ) This book is the Shri Bhaktor- 
vijaya. In listening to it the Lord of the world will be 
pleased. Listen to it, you Qod-loving pious bhaktas. This 
is the eighteenth very delightful chapter; it is an offering 
to Shri Krishna. 



310 



CHAPTER XIX 
JAGAMITRA NAGA : GOD PROTBOTS HIS OWN 
Obeimnoe to Bhri Oaneah. Obeiaance to Shri Radha Krishna 
A DBSORIFTIOK OF PANPHABI 
1. Today is the festival of the eleventh day in the 
month of Kartik (November). A crowd of saints has gather- 
ed at PandharL VananuUi (Krishna) Himself has also arriv- 
ed in company with His bhcMas. %. The Chandrabhaga 
and Bhimarathi rivers are, as it were, peace and forgive* 
nesa; vdi the Pnshpavati, the river that flows by Gopalpur, 
is, as it were, compassion. 3. Venunad is joy itself where tbe 
Root of joy (Krishna) played. Pure devotion is in the form 
of Pundalik, that very well-known saint, whose deeds are 
b^ond one's ken. 4. This book, the Bhaklavijaya, so inter- 
esting and delightful, is the temple of Pandurang. Having 
seen this beautiful spot, Krishna, the cloud-dark complex- 
ioned One, remained in it. 5. The altars of tulsi plants are, 
as it were, the noblest of good qualities. On them are raised 
banners proclaiming His good fame which produce a beauti- 
ful appearance. 6. Mother Rukmini is, as it were, seen in 
skill, wisdom and noble qualities. It is through Her 
favour that tbe mind rejoices in love. 7. Pious people come 
here to visit this holy sacred city, so absolutely pure. And 
patting aside all thoughts of honour or pride they act as 
jivanmuktaa ( free whil%living ). 

JAQAMITRA NAGA'S REVILEBS 

8. There was a Brahman at Parali Vaijanath by the 
name of Jagamitra Naga. He was a man of supreme 
piety and a Vaishnava. He lived there with his family. 
9. He mfde his daily begging trips to the town and 
brought back to his home whatever food he collected. Thus 
he provided the food necessary for his family. 10. He 

311 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XIX 10-21 

pul aside the snares of desires and every night he perform- 
ed a kirtan with enthusiasm. People of the town, being 
fond of his kirtans, were accustomed to attend and listen. 
11. Seeing his indifference to earthly things, every one felt 
very kindly towards him. They remarked, ' Pandxirang has 
in him descended as an avatar, so he is indifferent to earthly 
things.' 12. But while gaining this high reputation revilers 
were greatly disturbed in mind, and so they planned many 
things in order that he might be dishonoured. 13. They 
were like fireflies that are needlessly irritated when 
they see the sun with their eyes; or as the vessels of the 
laundry-man feel when they hear the roar of the Ganges; 

14. or as when the tulsi plant is being properly worshipped 
the bhang plant seeing it becomes angry; or as the sindi 
plant becomes angry at the constant power of the wish-tree; 

15. so, when the revilers listened to the praises of Jaga- 
mitra, they became very angry. They said, 'We must 
devise some plan which will bring about the loss of his 
reputation. ' 16. Thus with many evil thoughts in their 
mind, they indulged in reviling him. Although Jagamitra 
heard what they said, still he had not the slightest evil 
thought in his mind. 

HIS HOME BURNT UP 

17. One day after the performance of his kirtan, 
Jagamitra Naga was asleep in his nome. These evil men 
came suddenly and set his hut on fire. 18. All his children 
were asleep in the house. In the midal: of this disaster he 
thought of the Lord of Pandhari, 19. and cried out, ' O 
Husband of Rukraini, rash to my help. O Brother of the 
lowly, O Helper of the helpless, who is there to protect us 
apart from Thee ? ' 20. The Holder of the disk ( Krishna ), 
hearing his piteous cry, quickly arrived on the spot. He 
had in His hand His Sudarahan disk and protected them. 
21. The house blazed furiously and the townspeople watched 

312 



(3h. XIX 21-33 JAQAMITBA'S HUT BURNED 

it. Pious bhaktas came near and wept aloud in their 
sorrow. 22. They said, 'O the bhakla of Vishnu, Jagamitra \ 
Someone has burned up this bhakta. Although seeing this 
distress, the Lord of Pandharl has not como to help him. * 
23. After all the woodwork of the house was burnt up, the 
fire was extinguished, and just then the san suddenly arose 
in the East. 24. Rumour spread throu!?h the town that 
Jagamitra had been burnt up in the fire. So vory early in 
the morning people came to see what bad happened, 25. 
They saw that the hut had been burnt up and that the fire 
had now been extinguished ; and yet not the slightest ashes 
or coal had fallen down. 36. There was Jagamitra with 
his family, worshipping Shri Hari. Seeing this wonder, 
all were greatly astonished. 27. ( They said ), 'LVhen an 
attempt was made to burn the Pand^v.-s in cho house that 
was lacquered, Hari came there to protect them. So also 
the Enemy of Mura ( Krishna ) no'/ came to protect 
Jagamitra ; 28. just as when Prahlad v'a:^ thrown into the 
fire he was not burnt ; so the Lord o* Par.dhari came at 
this time to protect Jagamitra; 29. or ;\3 when, forest fires 
suddenly blazed about the cows aud the cowherds, Shri 
Krishna protected His bhaktas at ibis time. ' 30. Thus 
remarking to one another they made tiieir namaakar to 
Jagamitra and said to hiai, ' You ar-3 an avatar of God. 
Now we know this for a certainty. ' 31. The people of the 
town now assembled together and planned among them- 
selves, ' Let us give Jagamitra a written deed of land as a 
gift. 32. In this way he will be able to carry on his 
worldly affairs and we shall have performed a vary 
great religious deed, and thus being ;>lea3ed the Good Being 
will remove perplexities of our ea'ithly life. * 33. Thus 
thinking of the matter they came to tell Jagamitra. 

JAGAMITRA REFUSES A GIFT OF LAND 

He replied to them, 'What T'eed have I of this 
313 



BHAKTA.VUAYA Ch. XIX 33-46 

bondage? 3i. In my begging trips into town I am 
able to provide for my family. I bave no need tbat 
you should give me a deed of land. 35. When the 
chcUak bird is thinsty, a cloud immediately appears. 
So the Lord of the heart { Hriahikeahi) gives to His 
servants food and raiment. 36. When birds are hungry 
they find grains of food in all sorts of places. In the same 
way He protects His servants. 37. And so, when one i» 
under the protection of the Life of the world, Whose family 
is the universe, what need have I of the gift of land ? 38. 
If anyone has a boat to sit in, why should he have to 
grasp the side of a swimmer ? Why leave the light of the 
sun and depend upon that of a light ? 39. If at one's home 
one has a wish-cow, why have a goat there ? If one has the 
water of the Ganges,.wby dig a well ? 40. What need have 
I of your land when I would have the sacred food from 
begging ? ' 41. Hearing him say this, all the citizens 
pleaded with him as follows: ' The land will be dseded in 
your name and anyone may live on it, and whatever grain 
the earth will bring forth will be used in charity. * 42. 
They therefore wrote in the deed, ' That one acre of land is 
hereby given as a gift to Jagamitra of the town of Parali 
Vaijanath. ' 43. All the farmers then joined together and 
worked in the field and raised the crops. They brought all 
the grain that was produced by the land and applied it to 
charitable purposes. 

PERSECUTED BY THE HAWALDAB 

44. Many days passed in this way and then there came 
a • hindrance to these religious acts. A new ofiBoial 
( Hau,cddar ) was appointed to the town. 45. All the in- 
habitants of the town came at once to meet him because he- 
bad confiscated the land given to Jagamitra. 46. They 
pleaded with the official saying, ' We gave this land to him 
of our own free choice. You evil fellow, why have you 

314 



Ch. XIX 46-59 JAGAMITEA'8 PRAYER 

placed yourself in opposition to this leligiooB deed ? ' 47. 
Although they thus pleaded with him, his mind was not 
moved, for Muhammadsns are a very obstinate clan and 
will not listen to anyone. 48. The official came to the 
house of Jagamitra and said to him, ' You call yourself a 
friend of the world. Now for the installation of a god I 
draire a tiger as divinity. 49. If you will give such a 
tiger to-day before the setting of the sun, your name 
Jagamitra ( friend of the world ) will have its true 
meaning. 50. If you are not able to do this, I shall take 
back that acre of land the value of which you have eaten.' 
Such were the words used by that evil-doer in his talk to 
the bhakta of Hari. 51. Assenting to this demand he at 
once went into the jungle. He brought to his imagination 
the Lord of Rukmini and in his love began to sing His 
praises. 52. He said, ' Victory, Victory, Brother of the 
helpless. Giver of mercy, Lover of His bhaklas. Ocean of 
compassion, Purifier of the sinner, Per^ader of the uni- 
verse, Saviour of the lowly. Ram, Krishna. 53. Victory 
to Thee, Lord of Pandhari, Husband of Rukmini, Mover of 
the universe, the Image of life, listen to my heart's plea. 
O Shripati ( Krishna ), hasten to my help. 54. The daugh- 
ter of my friend, the Muhammadan Hawsldar, is about to 
be married. He truly desires the tiger deity for installa- 
tion. 55. O God supreme, hasten to come for the wedding. 
If Thou dost not do so, I will give up ray life at Thy feet.' 
GOD APPEARS AS A TIGER 

56. Hearing this earnest plea the Holder of the disk 
( Krishna ) immediately arrived there. Taking the form of 
a great tiger, 57. He said to Jagamitra, ' Who indeed has 
been troubling you ? Show him to me, and I shall cer- 
tainly devour him.' 58. Hearing him say this, the bhakfa 
replied, ' My intimate friend, the Muhammadan Hawaldar^ 
has invited you to come at once to the marriage of his 
daughter. 59. So dear Keshava, be patient, and let us go 

315 



BHAKTAVXJAYA Ch. XIX 59-73 

togetlier to fulfil his purpose. You are my most intimate 
friend. I have no one to trust aside from you.' 60. After 
listening, the Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) replied, ' Take 
hold of me and let us go together to his house. Go into 
the village, and I shall show before your eyes something 
marvellous.' 61. JagaUiitra then tied his upper garment 
around the neck of the tiger and taking hold of him there 
they went together into the town. 62. When they were 
seen by the cowherds they immediately rushed into the 
village. As thsy ran their courage gave out, and they 
were unable to say anything. 63. Rushing into the city, 
they gave the news to the people that Jagamitra, holding a 
tiger by the neck, was coming to the official's home. 64. 
Hearing what they said, everyone was astonished and ask- 
ed, ' Where could he have brought a tiger from ? You are 
telling us what is false.' 65. One said, ' What is there to 
be wondered at ? God is his Debtor. Remember that 
when his hut was set afire, he was saved.' 66. While they 
were thus talking to one another, another report reached 
them, ' Jagamitra is bringing a large tiger into the town.* 
67. All the men and women were frightened and closed the 
gate of the village as the people looked down from the 
walls of the town. 68. When men and women saw th 
tiger they were full of fear and every door of their dwell- 
ings they closed, they remaining inside through fear of the 
tiger. 69. Some of them on the roof looked at the tiger 
from afar, and remarked, ' How is it that Jagamitra has no 
fear at all ?' 70. Listening to this remark the wise one 
said to them, ' How is it that you do not understand 
matters ? 71. We see the tiger with our eyes, but he may 
be the Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) Himself. Perhaps 
when he heard of the distress of His bliahta He rushed to 
his help.* 72. Another one remarked, ' Your suggestion 
cannot be true. It looks like a real tiger. He has come 
to devour the Hawaldar.' 73. Still another remarked, 'That 

S16 



Ch. XIX 73-87 A TIGER IN THE TOWN 

could not; be bo ; he may eai; us all ; the Hawaldsr ia com. 
mitting a wrong has brought death upon us all.' 7i. Then 
calling to the wicked one, the people of the town said to 
him, ' By persecuting Jagamitra, you have brought destruc- 
tion to our town. 75. When Sahasrarjun troubled Renuka, 
disaster came to all Kshatriyas. So by our association 
with you, death has come upon us all. 76. When Ravan 
kidnapped Sita all the giant monsters met with death. So 
by troubling this Vaishnaoa you have brought this disaster 
to the town. 77. When Duryodban persecuted Diaupadi, 
that noble woman, all the kings suffered destruction. The 
same is happeninf» to us today because of our association 
with you. 78. Just us by association with a bee-hive a tree 
is set on fire, so, O evil one, through you we are all suffering 
disaster.' 79. Hearing what all the people said, this evil 
one became frightened and with all his children he hid 
himself in a hut ; 80. just as a scorpion after stinging 
hides underneath a clod of earth ; so that mine of sin be- 
came frightened in his mind. 81. Very soon Jagamitra 
arrived with the tiger. Seeir g the gates of the town closed, 
he was greatly troubled. 83. He said to the tiger, ' How 
are we to go into th« city ?' Hearing him say this, the 
Advocate oi His bha/das performed a miracle. 83. He gave 
one great roar and the gates of the city fell down. They 
entered the city and the men and women looked at them 
from a distance. 84. One began to cry out aloud and 
another bogan to beat his mouth. All exclaimed, ' The Lord 
of Kallas ( Heaven ) is angry because we have been as«o- 
cialed with this evil man.' 85. Hearing this outcry, Jaga- 
mitra gave the peoflo an assurance: ' Let your minds be 
at rest, and watch the marvel that is now to take place. 
86. A man reapn according to his deeds, why then should 
any of you be concerned ? Let your minds be without 
fear, and worship the Husband of Rukmini.' 87. Hearing 
him say this all the people were pleased and remarked, 'He 

317 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XIX 87-101 

has brought the tiger in order to take the life of the 
Hawaldar.' 

THE PAMIC-STRICESN HAWALDAR 
88. Jagamitra and the tiger now quickly arrived at 
the house of the Hawaldar. The evil one seeing this be- 
gan to tremble. 89. Seeing the big tiger he dosed the 
door of his hut, and plaoing his wife and children behind 
him he felt fear and concern. 90. Then Jagamitra said, ' I 
iiave come bringing your deity. Why do you hide your- 
self in your hut ? Tell me quickly. 91. Seeing the deity 
in person why have you closed the door in your confusion? 
Tell me what you intend to do further. 92. You perform 
various visits to the sacred bathing-places, religious cere- 
monies and savere austerities, still you cannot obtain the 
sight of Qod. But when actually seen, you foolish one, 
you close your door. 93. He who cannot be attained even 
by the eightfold yoga rites, when that deity comes to your 
home, why do you hide yourself away ? 94. The riakia per- 
form many forms of yoga, still He cannot be easily attain- 
ed. Wheti that very deity comes to your home why is it 
that you are afraid ? 95. That which is very much ooole r 
than the moon and is like nectar itself, when you see such 
a deity why do you let fear come into your heart ?' 96. 
The tiger now roared and beat his tail upon the ground and 
when the evil one heard it he was terribly frightened. 
97. The tiger forcibly sprang up and started as if to devour 
the reviler. Jagamitra seized hold of him just as showmen 
seize their monkeys. 98. In that same way the Life of the 
world became subservient to His bhikta. Failing to bring 
to His mind Hid own divinity He showed His deeds to 
men. 99. Showing greac auger, the tiger ju-uped about as 
if saying, ' Let me devour this evil one.* The Hawaldar 
was in his house with hb ohildran. 100. His wife said to 
him, *Qo at once outside, otherwise your children will die 
together with you. 101. Naturally your end must soon 

ai8 



Oh. XIX 101-111 THE PENITENT HAWALDAR 

come through age. So go outside, and let our lives be 
saved.* 102. As this conversation fell upon the ears of the 
people, all marvelled. They clapped their hands and began 
to laugh. 103. The Hawaldar joined both his hands to- 
gether and began to ask for mercy, ' O merciful One, have 
compassion on me and save me. 104. I am now receiving 
the fruit of my evil heart. My bad reputation is spreading 
all over the earth and cannot at all be described. 105. You 
call yourself the friend of the world ( Jagimitrs ). My 
mind recognizes it now as true. And so in humility I ask 
your compassion and give me the gift of life.' 108. Hear- 
ing his piteous cry, Jagamitra took the tigar with him and 
hastened to go back into the forest. 107. When all alone, 
ihe Life of the world took His form of four arms, and witk 
qualities He embbacad Jagamitra in His love. 

108. The next chapter is full of extraordinary interest. 
Let the hearers make their minds attentive. Just as when 
misers counting out their money, their minds become ab- 
sorbed in it, 109. in the same way give attention and 
listen to the book. The Husband of Rakmini who abides 
by the Bhima river will be pleased with you. 110. This 
Being of ancient days ( purani purusfu, Vishnu ), the Life 
of the world, is the relator of this book. Mahipati comes 
as a suppliant and in love worships His feet. 

111. 8w28li (Peace 1) This book is the Shri Bhaktavijtf/cu 
In hearing it, the Lord of the world will be pleased. Listen 
to it you Ood-loving, pious bhakteia. This ii the nineteenth 
deeply^ delightful chapter.; it is an offering to Shri Krishna, 



CHAPTER XX 
JOGA PABAMANAND, 
NAEAHARI THE GOLDSMITH AND NAMDEV 
Obeisance to Shri Oanesh. Obeisance to Shri Oopcd Krishna 
THE STORIES OF THE SAINTS AND THEIR 
INFLUENCE FOR GOOD 
1. Listening to the interesting stories of the saints, all 
sorrows automatically depart. The Pervader of the 
Tiniverse is pleased with the hearers and gives them the 
highest form of deliverance. 2. Peace and forgiveness 
come and live for ever in the heart. Pure moral goodness 
comes at once in love. 3. Lust and anger run away from 
the body and all sins are burnt up, if one without a sense 
of shame and pride describes Hari's qualities in a kirtan. 

4. Even if riddhi siddhi (the accomplishments) and the place 
of Indra may come to him through deeds in a former birth, 
he does not regard these as of any value. Pure indifference 
to earthly things will come to his mind without eflFort. 

5. The Good Being becomes pleased at seeing the regular 
worship given Him, and gives him love for his praise 
service and puts away the illusion of this earthly life. 6. 
The enemy of Tripur ( Shiva ) told Parvati all the supreme 
sweetness of these stories of the saints. So wise bhaktas. 
give attention with all your devotion. 

JOGA PABAMANAND OF BARSI 
7. The bhakia Joga Paramanand lived in the town of 
Barsi. He was always without concern and possessed of 
indifference to earthly things. 8. He was all the time wor- 
shipping Ram Krishna and Narayan. He daily made hie 
begging trips into the town and thus provided for his 
family. 9. He found peace in his continual worship, paid 
no attention to honour or dishonour when rendered to bim 

320 



CJh. XX 9-21 JOGA PAEAMANAND'S BHAKTl 

and destroyed the snares of desire by worshipping Shri Hari. 
10. He would perform his baths and then worship by using 
the sixteen materials. He daily made to God seven hundred 
naniaskara. 11. He would repeat a verse of the BhagavaJgita, 
and then bow prostrate on the ground. After complying 
his devotions in this way he would sit down to his meal. 
12. It is said in the religious' law books that anyone who 
eats a meal without having performed his daily devotions, 
that man is like a hog. 13. Birds and animals, as they 
wander here and there, perform neither sinful nor good 
deeds. There is no law given in the Shastras for insects, 
ants or animals. 14. But when one suddenly acquires a 
human body, one shoald make full use of it. Without 
association with the good, there is no obtaining of know- 
ledge with this human body. 15. You may perhaps ask 
how can one find leisure for these regular acts of devotion 
while one carries on one's daily occupation ? I will tell 
you one way of solving the problem. Listen. 16. There 
is one means which is superior to all bathings in sacred 
waters, religious ceremonies, austerities, making of gifts, 
religious observances and bodily torture : it is the worship 
of Shri Hari. 17. In this Kali Yuga no means have been spe- 
cially designated, aside from the repeating of God's names. 
Just as at the time of death, nectar can bring back life 
to every one, 18. so anyone who is carrying on his daily 
business and at the same time is constant in his thoughts 
of Hari, the Life of the world comes and sits beside him 
in his love. 19. But what is the use of saying more 
about this? Every one knows the power of God's name; 
and no one is over impressed by that love which is outside 
of experience. 20. Thus Joga Paramanand indulged in his 
habits of worshipping Hari. Thinking of Govind in his 
heart, he was always full of joy. 

JOGA AND TflE SILK GARMENT 
21. On a certain day a merchant came on business at 
B. V. 21 321 



BHAKTAVUTAYA Ch. XX 21-33 

the great door of the temple. A oloud bad rained upon the 
earth and the ground was exceedingly muddy. 22. But in the 
mud Faramanand was making his namashar to Pandurang. 
In his heart he was thinking of the delight of Bukmini, 
and the destroyer of the earthly hindrances of his bhaktas. 
23. When he saw such devotion on the part of Joga, the 
merchant's heart was deeply moved. He exclaimed, * Who 
is this bliakta of Vishnu ? I see in him indifference to 
earthly things. ' 24. He then took out {rom among his 
goods a silk raiment, and giving it at once to Joga made 
him a namaskar. 25, He said, ' O Swami, ocean of compas- 
sion, first put on this raiment. I come to you as suppliant, a 
dull-minded person to plead with you. ' 26. Joga replied 
to hiifl, ' What need have I for a silk garment ? If you 
have some old clothes, you may give them at once to me. 
27. Putting on some old raiments, going to beg and 
bringing back some food, enables me to carry on my 
worship without hindrance. 28. You have brought a silk 
raiment for me, but dress the god in it instead, and by 
doing so, the Husband of Jlukmini will show an unlimited 
kindness. ' 29. Although he thus spoke to him, still that 
i gnorant man would not listen. He was not able to realize 
what was an especially suitable gift. 30. One should give 
water and grain to birds. One should give grass to 
animals as a religious act. Those who are wise give 
money to those who are worthy of it, 31. If water is 
placed at the roots of a tree, it gives joy to the tree. Food 
and raiment should be given privately to one who does 
not ask for it. 32. But the merchant did not understand 
this, and used force in fitting Joga with the silk raiment. 
From there the merchant went to another part of the bazaar. 
33. Joga put on the brilliant clothing and tucked up its 
lower part. In order that the garment might not be soiled 
hy the mud he made his prostrate namaskar ( dandavat ) 

322 



Ch. XX 33-45 JOQA'B SILK OABMENT 

very carefully. 34. Before he began to wear this 
garment he had made his prostrate namaskcar without 
any concern. But now he had lost all his aspirations 
and his usual practice was hindered by his desire 
to keep this garment unsoiled. 35. By noon time it had 
become exceedingly hot, and Joga had become overcome 
with hunger. So on that day he was unable to make the 
complete number of namaskars. 36. Seeing the drops of 
perspiration on his body, he became very unhappy, and 
said to himself, ' Why is it that I find it so hard to make 
my namaskars today ? I do not understand it.* 37, Then 
letting reason work in his heart, he thought. ' I see my 
enemy in this silk raiment. By having to look after this 
raiment, I have failed in my worship. 38. Just as the 
full' moon is swallowed up by the monster Rahu, so it 
would seem that it is because of this silk raiment that I 
have lost my aspiration. 39. It is as if one should serve a 
plate of dainty food, and then suddenly a dog should come 
and lick it. So this putting on of a silk raiment has 
brought a great hindrance to my worship of Hari. 40. As 
if a pimpal tree planted on the bank of the Ganges should 
be uprooted by a great gust of wind, so it seems to me that 
it is this silk raiment that has become my enemy. 41. Or 
as if a farmer should raise a crop on his land, then sudden- 
ly there should fall upon it a swarm of locusts, so this silk 
raiment has become a hindrance to my good deeds. 42. Or 
as while a sannyasi is performing his austerities there is 
suddenly sent to him some food from the king; so this silk 
raiment has become an enemy to my devotion. 43. I 
wonder how this wrong was committed by me. What 
shall I do to punish my body ? I will at once go into 
the forest and surround myself with five fires 44. Or I 
will burn myself with fire. Or I will go and sit alone in 
the mountains. Or I will go at once and perform th» 
eightfold yoga. 45. Or I will go to the junction of th^ three 

323 



BHAKTAVUATA Ql. XX 45-5S 

craatrivera [ Ganges, Jumtis and SaiaswatiJ andthare 
pat my body to the saw. By doing so, at least the Hosband 
ef Rukmiui will come and meet me there. 46. Or begging 
for food just Bu£Soient to cover the palm of my hand go and 
visit all the sacred bathing places; by doing so, at least the 
Life of the world will have mercy upon me. 47, Or I will 
hasten and go to the Himalaya mountains and there I will 
spand my life. By that means at least the Lord of Pan- 
dbari wfll surely meet ma 48. Or discarding food and 
drink, nt on my mat and fast ; by that good deed at least 
the Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) will come at onoe and 
meet me. 49. Or g3tting myself devoured by fire, perform 
the penance of daath ; by that means the Lord of Pandhari 
will have mercy upon me.' 50. With repentance in his 
heart be thus thought over the matter. Then he went out- 
side the temple and sat down. 

JOGA'S SELF-INFLICTED SITFFERINO 

51. Just then a farmer was passing by driving two 
fiery oxen. Thare was a yoke on their necka and the far- 
mer was taking them intu the forest. 52. Joga seeing him, 
called him to come near him. Because of his repentance, 
tears were flowing from his lotus-eyes. 53. He then said 
to the farmer, ' Give me these two oxen. I will give you 
in exchange this brilliant silk robe.' 54. The farmer 
thought to himself, ' The silk garment will bring me twice 
the value of these oxen.' So he replied, ' I accept your 
offer.' And he gave Joga the oxen. 55. In a humble voice 
Joga said to the farmer, ' Take a rope and fasten my feet 
to the yoke. 56. Then pretending to be furious with anger 
lash the oxen. You go to your home and have no more 
concern about me.' 57. The farmer then consented and 
fastened Joga's feet to the yoke. As the farmer lashed the 
oxen with his whip the oxen began to run towards the 
forost. 58. Pebbles, thorns and stones hurt JogS's body in- 

324 



Ot. XX 58-70 JOGA'S PXNANCK 

tenmly. All his skin was torn away from him. 59. The 
frightened oxen nn rapidly ; just as a d8«r runs wheQ see* 
ing a huntor.in the same way the oxen ran hither and 
thither in the great forest 60. Joga with repentance 
in his heart paid nu attention to his bodily s--iQ::x;ugs. He 
said to himself, ' This bodily torture is a proper ending for 
the wrong I have ccxnmitte^ to4ay.* 61. Comforting his 
mind with this thought he continued repeating the names 
of God: *0 Shri Hari, Ram Krishna, Narayan, Purifier of 
the sinner, and Ocean of compassion, 62. Victory to Thee, 
delight of the heart of Rukmini, Dweller upon the sea of 
milk, Recliner on the serpent (Shesha), Advocate of "Riy 
bhaktcts, Treasure-house of all goodneas. Life of the world, 
Pandurang.' 63. Taking Gk>d's names this way, hU throat 
choked with emotion. In the meantime kud oxen were run- 
ning about in the forest and dragging him along. 64. All Us 
skin was torn off; bones alone remained upon his body and 
his suffering went to such extremes tb:;'' he was at the 
point of death. 65. But full of joy ^«eu at <^uch a time. 
Joga continued his worship full of love. Then the ixird of 
Pandhari, hearing his piteous cries, rushed to his aid. 66. 
When ( the elephant ) G^ajendra cried out piteously for help, 
Krishna rushed to his aid. When Draupadi was troubled 
by Dusshasan, the Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) rushed to 
her help. 67. So seeing Joga's extremities the Holder of the 
disk ( Krishna ) came rushing to help him. He took off the 
yoke from the oxen and let them go free. 68. Then un- 
binding Joga's feet with his own hands. He gave him an 
embrace and as He gazed at bim with His look of compas- 
sion, Joga's body assumed a divine form. 69. When the sun 
arises no darkness is to be seen; so when the Lord of the 
universe shows His favour, all fear of bodily sufferings 
passes away. 70. The Husband of Rukmini said now to 
Joga, ' Why did you attempt >aeh great sufferings? Tou 
have punished your body when you have done no wrong 

M5 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XX 71-81 

71. When you eat or drink it all goes into my . mouth. 
When you go and come that is circumambulating Me. 

72. If you speak to anyone that becomes My praise. When 
you lie down In peace and happiness that is a prostrate 
tjamasfcir made to Me.* 73. That being so, My dear6^*fa, 
why did you go to such extremes?' Joga placed his head 
at the god's feet, and said, 'Place me in the shadow of Thy 
compassion.' 

74. On a certain day Qod assembled together all his 
bhakias in Pandbari and told them all that had happened to 
Joga. 75. As the Lord of Vaikunfh ( Heaven ) told them 
in detail, all were greatly astonished. Dnyandev said to 
Hrishikeshi ( the Lord of the heart ), 'There is no end to 
Thy wonderful deeds. 76. One excelling the other Thou 
hast created Thy bhaktas. Thou alone, O cloud-dark One 
( ELrisbna ), canst experience the delight arising from 
their love and happiness.' 

NAEAHARI THE GOLDSMITH 

77. Now you clever hearers, listen to the story of 
Narahari the goldsmith, a bhakta of Shiva who prayed to 
Shiva and made the god Shiva pleased with him. 78. He 
would arise early in the morning and go to bathe in the 
Bhimarathi river. After that in his love he would worship 
Mallikarjun (Shiva). 79. Although he lived in the holy 
city of Pandbari he never went to the temple of Vithoba. 
He placed his trust in one deity alone and worshipped 
Him with joy. 80. Just as the cha(ak bird will take no 
water from earth, not seeing the clouds with his eyes, so 
Narahari would not worship any other deity but Shiva; 
81. or as the lotus-flower, although it sees many clusters of 
stars, will not open until the sun appears to its sight, and 

* In oh 20,71-78 there is detoribed what is known as ^nnr m^ 
( utnral devotion ). See also EknatM Bhagwat, Cih. 11.770-77lt. 

326 



Cb. XX 81-94 NABAHABI THE SHAIVITB 

then immediately beoomes full of joy ; 82. or just as an 
infant child has no liking for any other beautiful woman 
except its mother; or just as to a dutiful wife, no other 
person is her deity or object of her reverence except her 
husband; 83. so with body, speech and mind Narahari wor- 
shipped Mallikarjun ( Shiva ). He would not even look f KMn 
a distance at the pinnacle of the temple of Shri Pandurang. 
84. Just as men and women do not look at the moon on 
Ganesh Chaturlhi ( festival of Ganpati ); so Narahari the 
goldsmith would not even look at the dome of the temple 
of Vitthal. 85. A certain merchant came to Pandhari and 
planned a vow in his mind, ' If a son is given to me of 
noble qualities, I will offer to God a waistband. * 86. The 
Husband of Rukmini had accepted his vow, and the man 
had come to Pandhari. After visiting and worshipping 
the God in love, he put the question to the priest: 87. ' Is 
there a clever goldsmith here who can make golden sett- 
ings in a waistband and place in them diamonds and 
other jewels ?* 88. The priest replied, 'There is a goldsmith 
here by name of Narahari. Go at once to him and enquire 
of him.' 89. The merchant carried with him some diamonds, 
jewels and gold and gave them to Narahari, who said, 
' Measure the size you want and give it to me. 90. If it 
should turn out to be more or less, do not blame me. ' The 
merchant hearing him say this was much astonished: 91. 
'Although God is near to him, he doas not like to look at 
Him. Still what does that matter to me ?' So he brought 
and gave him the measurement. 92. Narahari with great 
cleverness placed the diamonds and jeweb in their settings; 
and having prepared the waistband, he brought and gave 
it to the merchant. 93. The merchant bathed the eagle 
bannered One with a shower of water and worshipped Him 
with sixteen materials used for worship. He put the waist- 
band around the idol but it was not large enough. 94. He 
brought it back to Narahari and he very cleverly lengthen- 

327 



KAXTAVUAYA Oh. XX M-105 

«d it. Wlien It was again brought to the god it aiHTMured to 
b« too large. 95. When inoreaied in length it became too 
long; and when made of the exact measurement it was not 
long enough. The merchant became greatly concerned. 
'Why has the Husband of Rukmini become angry with 
me ? %. He docs not regard my pure intention. Krishna 
will not accept this waistband.' The merchant came back 
to Narahari and patiently requested bim, 97. saying to 
Narahari, ' Come to the temple yourself, look at the Holder 
of tiie disk ( SIrishna ); and with your own hand place 
the waistband upon Him and then you may come back '. 

THB LESSON NARAHARI LEARNED ABOUT THE ONENESS 

OF KRISHNA AND SHIVA 

98. He ( Narahari ) replied, ' I am observing a vow 
and I have never thus far been to see Krishna in His 
temple. I have never as yet looked upon any deity except 
Shiva. ' 99. Narahari covered his eyes with a doth and 
went to the temple. Seeing him blindfolded, the citizens 
of the place laughed and thought it exceedingly strange. 
100. They said, 'It is as if a poor man should close his eyes 
when he sees a treasure in the ground, such we understand 
to be the point of view of Narahari. 101. Or he is like 
one who leaves his Chtntamam { wish-stone ) jewel at home 
and in vain wanders about to different bathing places. 
So is this closing of his eyes and going to look at the god. ' 
lOi. Others remarked, ' Just as one with fever is not fond 
of dainty food, so the Dweller in Vaikunth ( Heaven ) docs 
not ocnae into the thought of Narahari. ' 103. Others 
remarked, ' Each one knows his own case best. What is 
his case to us ? ' Thus the various classes of men talked 
among themselves. 104. With his eyes blindfolded, the 
goldsmith Narahari came to the great door of the temple, and 
the merchant held him by the hand and guided him inside* 
105. Some one laughed and said, 'Make a prostrate namasArem 

388 



Ctu ZX lOS-115 8BIVA AHD XBIBHVA OHB 

to th« god '. Anoilher remarked, * He does not even look. 
at Him. How then oan he wonh^ the god's feet ? 106. If 
one will not Rive a seat to onewhooomee to hishoos^ will 
one give him daintily cooked food ? If anyone will not 
listen to the mantraa at the bath, will he make religious 
gifts? 107. Anyone who will not give water to a lulsi 
plant, will he take the trouble to circumambulate it? 
Anyone who will not make a bow to a good man will 
certainly not take him to his own home. 108. He who 
will not tell a traveller the way, will certunly not give 
him a place in his home. He who with his lips reviles 
god's bhak:as will certainly not go to listen to praise- 
services in honour of Hari. 109. He who will not listen 
to the praises of the Qanges river will not take a bath in 
it with all his clothes on. So, if Narahari is unwilling to 
look at the god, he surely will not makea^iamosAartoHim.* 
110. Well, such were the remarks passed by the men and 
women. Narahari entered into the temple and groped for 
the god with his hand. 111. He groped for a form with 
ten arms and five facea Around the neck He was adorned 
with a serpent-shaped ornaments. On the head was a 
beautiful mass of matted hair and hie whole body was 
marked with the sacred ashes. 112. He wore the skins of 
an elephant and a tiger. It appeared to Narahari as 
though it was the blue-throated Shiva who vna actually 
standing on the brick. 113. He said to himself, ' This is 
the very deity whom I worship, then why have I in vain 
closed my eyes ? ' Thus full of repentance in his heart he 
removed the coverings from his eyes and lodced at the 
god. 114. That dark-blue-complezioned One was land- 
ing upon a brick with a very brilliant crown upon His head. 
Hia glorioiu face shone with intense purity and on His 
neck was the garland Vaijayanti and the Eaustabha jeweL 
115. In His ears were earrings shaped like orooodilGB. His 
breast w9b wide. His waist was thin. Both hia brilliant 

8S9 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XX 115-125 

hands weze placed upon His hips. Around His waist He 
was enyel(Q>ed by His yellow raimenb 116. Seeing His 
parallel feet upon the brick, Narahari was astonished. 
Then again blindfolding his eyes, he found his hands 
touching the form of Dhurjaii ( Shiva ). 

NARAHARI'S REPENTANCE 

117. Immediately opening his eyes again, he saw 
the Husband of Rukmini, and with his heart full 
of repentance he made the god a namaskar with 
love. 118. Said he, 'Victory, "Victory to God Sup- 
reme, the Life of the whole universe! Victory, Victory 
to Shiva, O Keshav ( Krishna ), I have come as a 
suppliant to Thee. 119. Victory, Victory to Thee who 
dvrellest ia Kailas ( Heaven ). Victory, Victory to Thee, 
Lord of Vaikunth ( Heaven ). Victory, Victory to Thee, 
Lord of the bhaklns. Form without duality, O Guru of the 
world. 120. Victory to Thee, Enjoyer of the ocean of 
milk. Victory to Thee, the blue-throated One, blue-oom- 
plexioned and the Dweller in the cemeteries. Victory to 
Thee, Lover of Thy bhaklas. Lord of P&ndhari. Remove 
the illusions of Thy bhakias. 121. Not recognizing Thy 
greatness, I thought that the two names implied two 
deities. Now Thou hast removed from me, O cloud-dark- 
complexioned One, the very thought of duality and hast 
increased my love for non-duality. ' 122. Listening to 
this praise, Krishna said to Narahari, ' I want you to be 
My bhakta and that is why I have adopted this method. 
123. Now do not regard Shiva and Krishna as forming 
two deities. ' As Hrishikeshi ( the Lord of the heart ) 
said this, Narahari embraced His feet. 124. From that 
time forth Pandurang held on His head the emblem of 
Shiva. For Shrirang ( Krishna ) never disappoints His 
servants. 

125. Hearing this story of Narahari, listeners may 
330 



Ch. XX 125-135 KRISHNA AS A DOQ 

raise the queetion and say, ' In the feast given by Nama, 
saints were invited in order to please Nama. The saints 
-were invited to dine. 126. Among the guests we had 
heard with our ears the name of Narahari the goldsmith. ' 
But Shiva had brought him along with him on that occasion. 
127. Just as a father brings along his son when going to 
a feast, so Shiva also had brought His hhakta along with 
him. 

GOD TESTS NAMA's BELIEF THAT GOD IS IN ALL 
CREATURES 

128. On a certain day the Lord of the earth took 
Nama aside and said, ' Let it be a fixed thought in your 
mind, that I live in all creatures. ' 129. The servant of 
Vishnu replied, ' O Lord God, why dost Thou feel any need 
of telling me this ? Through Thy favour I have compas- 
sion upon every class of being. ' 130. Then in order to 
test the heart of Nama, the Lord of Pandhari assumed the 
form of a dog. On. the twelfth day the dog wandered 
about among the pilgrims. 131. When anyone had seated 
himself in order to eat, Hrishikesld (the Lord of the heart) 
would go near to him, but no one would so much as throw 
him a morsel of food. Instead, they would say, ' Drive 
away the dog ' 132. He would put his nose into the flour 
of some, but they would attempt to beat him then and 
there. But the Lord of Pandhari could not be touched by 
their hands and ran away. 133. When anyone was sit- 
ting at their lunch, the cloud-dark-complexioned One would 
come near them and if he attempted to snatch a bit of 
bread they would beat Him. 134. Whenever Brahmans 
sat to eat, there Hrishikeshi ( the Lord of the heart ) was 
sure to stand. No onei. would throw him a single morsel 
and he wondered at it. 135. Seeing the special purity of 
those who bad come back from the great pilgrimage, the 
Holderof the disk (Krishna) would oome near them and 

331 



BHAKTAVUAYA Cb. XX 13S-149 

touch them while they were eating. 136. One remarked, 
' The dog has defiled you. ' Another said, ' But the dog is a 
black one, and we have heard of a law in the religious 
lawbooks that black dogs do not defile anyone*. 137. While 
some farmers were sitting down to eat the Life of the 
world came near them. As He snatched up their food and 
tried to run away with it they took it back from Him. 138. 
He wandered about among all the pilgrims and tested 
them also. But He did not see that anyone's belief was 
certain, that Qod was in every creature. 139. Some 
exclaimed, ' This is a dog; drive it away from among the 
pilgrims. ' "When the Life of the world heard this remark 
He adopted the following method. 140. The Lord of the 
world came near to Nama with a leap and seized a piece 
of bread in His mouth and began to run away. 141. 
When the servant of Vishnu saw this he took in his hand 
a cup of melted butter and said to the dog, ' Why do you 
eat a piece of bread dry ? ' 142. Nama then went to the dog 
and put a morsel of bread into His mouth. The Husband of 
Bukmini, the dog, lovingly sat down to His meals. 143. 
Seeing this rather strange sight all the people laughed at 
Nama. They made motions to another, and said as follows. 
144. Some said, ' Nama has become crazy. Look how he 
feeds a dog. All animals are alike to Him. He sees no 
superior or inferior among them. 145. Just as the earth 
does not regard some trees as superior and others as infer- 
ior; or just as water equally regards a cow or a tiger. 146. 
The full moon shines equally bright over all beings. We 
know that such is the heart of Nama. 147. To the royal 
swan and the falcon the air is the same. So it seems that 
the heart of Nama is' the same, regarding all things as 
alike. 148. Or just as when the sun arises it regards kings 
and subjects as alike, so this servant of Vishnu puts away 
all thought of duality, and in that belief lives among men>* 
149. The dog now laughed and said, ' How did you reoog- 

33S 



Ch. XX 149-159 KAMA'S KARTIK FAST 

nise me ? Nama replied. ' It was Visoba Ehechar who 
pointed out to me signs by which I should recognize Thee. 
O Lord God. ' 150. After doiag this marvellous deed the 
Husband of Rukmini became invisible. Everyone was 
astonished and exclaimed, ' Blessed is Nama s devotion. 
151. Without any effort on our part we have met with the 
Life of the world in the form of a dog. We did not give 
it anything to eat. We were led astray by our bad deeds 
in our previous births. * 

GOD INVITES NAMA TO EAT 

1 52. It happened on the eleventh day of the month of 
Kartik ( November ) that Namdev was fasting. Hrinhikeshi 
(the Lord of the heart) said to him, * Come quickly and 
eat. ' 153. The servant of Vishnu replied, ' One should 
never eat food on this day. By doing so one is able to appro- 
ach Thy feet during all future rebirths. 154. Just as Thou, 
Hrishih'shi (O Lord of the heart ), art superior to all gods, 
just as the tulai plant is superior among the plants ; so 
among all religious festivals that of the eleventh day. It 
is highly honoured by us Vaiahnavaa. ' 155. To this the Life 
of the world replied, ' Nama, listen to My words. Just as 
Bukmangad and Ambarish observed this festival with 
devotion, 156. so now no one seems to have the deter- 
mination to fast on the eleventh day of the month. They 
hypocritically show their observance of the day before 
men. 157. But when there is no determination in the 
heart to perform the religious ceremonies properly they be- 
come vain actions, just as without moisture the seed which 
is sown will not sprout. 158. If one should eat without 
feeling any hunger, how can that food be properly digested? 
No one can wander to ditferent sacred bathing places if he 
has no feet to walk about with. 159. He whose organs of 
sense are not under his control cannot adopt full means 
to obtain spiritual life. If a man has no sense of 

333 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. XX 159-171 

generOBity in his heart he will not make gifts to those 
who are worthy of them. 160. If a man has no 
courage he will not be able to give his life on 
the battlefield. So without ability there can be no fame in 
the world. 161. So my dear bhakta, in the same way, if 
one has no longer belief in fasting he should not observe 
the festival of Ekadahsi ( the eleventh day )'. 162. When 
the Holder of the Sharang Bow ( Krishna } had said these 
things, Naraa replied, 'If Thy favour is upon me, then there 
will be no lack of a fixed determination. 163. A roasted 
seed might sprout. An ocean might be contained in a well. 
But, O Grod, my heart will never lose its determination. 
164. A fire could be hidden in the midst of grass ; the 
earth might be weighed ; but, O Ocean of compassion, my 
mind will never give up its fixed determination. 165. Seed 
might change its character when planttid in the earth; the 
air might be confined by a closed door; but, O Ornament of 
Thy bhaklas, my mind will never have a wrong belief. 
166. A tiger might have a feeling of gentleness, and come 
and sit quietly in a sheepfold, but, O Pandurang, I shall 
never give up my purpose.' 167. Hearing Nama's words, 
the Life of the world laughed and said, ' Over your good 
deeds I must wave salt and the idinb leaves.' 168. Having 
said this the Destroyer of Madhu thought to Himself, ' I 
must further test Nama, and see for Myself, whether he is 
true to his belief.' 

KAMA'S BELIEF TESTED REGARDING THE ELEVENTH 
OF THE MONTH 

169. On the Eka-iashi day ( the eleventh dap of every 
fortnight ) therefore HrisUkeshi ( the Lord of the heart ) 
assumed the form of an aged Brahman and went to the 
house of Nama. 170. He had a staff in his hand and old 
clothes on His body. He said, ' I am very hungry, and 
have come to ask for food. 171. You, a bhnhta of Vishnu, 

334 



Cb. XX 171-183 KAMA TE8TBD 

oall yourself a generoos man. So you must give me 
some food to eat.' Saying this to Nama He sat down 
by ttie door. 172. Thebhakta of Vishnu seeing the Brahman 
there, bowed prostrate before Him. ' What is the wish 
you have which has brought you here, O Swami Y 
173. The Lord of the world replied, * I am in distress from 
laok of food. So give to some one the materials needed for 
cooking aod get me a meal.' 174. Hearing this answer of 
the Brahman, the servant of Vishnu replied to Him, ' This 
is the EkadasU day (the eleventh day.) It is not right to 
give cooked food. 175. If you will accept dates, fruit or 
roots, I will bring them at once and give them to you.* 
176. Hearing him the Brahman said, ' I am not satisfied 
with anything other than cooked food. For this reason I 
have naturally come to your door for charity. 177. If you 
drive Me away I shall at once give up My life and the sin 
of having murdered a Brahman will fall upon your head. 

KAMA'S RESOLVE 

178. Nama replied, 'I am a bhakta of Vishnu. I am 
without good as well as sinful deeds. I have placed my heart 
at the feet of Pandiirang, and have become a Jivanmukta 
( free while living ). 179 He who cherishes in his heart 
no desire even for good deeds, how can sinful deeds do him 
harm ? He who does not love intensely, separation brings 
him no sorrow. 180. If anyone has discarded all love of 
money he will not be afraid of thieves. And if one has put 
away all desire to be honoured, how can he feel dishonour 
shown him? 181. He who feels no happiness in being 
praised by men, how can he feel any pain when he is reviled 
by men ? He who feels no pleasure in mere gain can feel 
no sorrow when he makes no gain. 182. When one looks 
upon the beautiful form of youth, and yet does not feel 
any pride of his own youthful appearance^ how can he be 
troubled by the thought of old age ? 183. So, Brahman, I 

33d 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XX 183-195 

have de8tr<9«d all opportunity for sin as well as good deeds. I 
•hall never have to go to hell because of sin.' 184. Hearing 
Nama say these things, the Brahman replied to him, *Tou 
have no tenderness in your heart for (^hers, and you go 
about preaching your philosophy. 185. I am a Brahman 
in distress from lack of food. If you do not take away my 
hunger, I shall immediately lose my life. Enow this for 
certain, O bhakta of Vishnu. ' 186. Nama said to him, ' If 
you give up your life, the same thing will happen to me, 
O Brahman. ' 187. Hearing him say this, the Holder of the 
disk ( Krishna ) did a very remarkable thing. He rolled 
His eyes about and fainted away, falling on the ground. 
188. The servant of Vishnu seeing Him thus, went close 
to him and looked. The Brahman was no longer breath- 
ing, he was dead. 

FEOPLB REVILE NAMA 

189. Hearing about this affair, men and women 

gathered together in the house. They said to Nams 

' How is it that you have caused this murder of a 

Brahman at your very door? 190. The Brahman was 

asking some cooked food of you. You did not give it to 

him. And so it resulted in this great disaster. In what 

way can the consequence be avoided ?' 191. One remarked, 

'This bhakta dt Hari preaches very verbosely his own 

knowledge of divine things but he never gives even a 

morsel of food to anyone. ' 192. Thus all reviled him. 

But Kama's determination was unchanged. He lifted up 

the corpse of the Brahman and carried it to the banks of 

the Bhima. 193. He erected a funeral pyre and placed the 

corpse upon it. He laid himself by the side of the eoorpse 

«nd set fire to the pile. 194. Every one was astoniebed at 

what Nama did. They remarked, ' l%e determination of 

Nama is very great. We see no noibld FatsAnavo on this 

earth eqpial to him. ' 195. The Brahman was not really a 

336 



Ob. XX 195-203 GOD'S TEST 07 NAMA 

Brahman. He was Shripali ( Krishna ) and, as He died, 
true devotion led the Vaiaknava Nama to be immolated 
with Him in his fixed determination. 196. Just as the fire 
began to blaze, the Brahman immediately sat up and 
assuming a form of four arms he embraced Nama. 
197. He said to hiaa, ' If I should hunt through all the 
three worlds, I would not find a bhak'a like you. 
Your determination to do your duty is greater than 
that of Ambarish and Bukmangad; 198. who took 
their whole city to Vaikunth ( Heaven ), but you are born 
as the saviour of the world. ' Saying this, Hriahikeshi (the 
Lord of the heart) embracing Nama held him clcae to His 
heart. 199. He said to him, 'Ambarish observed the festival 
and for his faith I suffered ten rebirths. You made Me 
speak, although I was in my Buddha avatar ( mute ); and 
although I was without body you made me assume a 
visible form.' 200. After saying this, the Holder of the 
disk (Krishna) immediately became invisible. People 
wondered in their minds and fell at the feet of Nama. 

201. O Dweller by the banks of the Bhima, the Hua- 
band of Bukmini, Thou wilt further cause me to relate the 
stories of the saints. Aside from Thee thera is no one to 
illuminate the heart. 202. It is by Thy favour that words 
proceed out of the moush. Mahipati co.ues to Thee and 
worships Thy feet with devotion. 

203. Suxi'^li ( Peace ! ) This book is tbo Shri Bhakta- 
vijaya. In listening to it the Lord of the world will be 
pleased. Listen to it, you God-loving, pious bhaklas. Thia 
is the twentieth very delightful chapter. 



B. V. 22 337 



CHAPTER XXI 

NAMDEV AND JANABAI 

Obeisance to Shn Oanesh. Obeisance to Radha and Krishna. 

GOD THE HELPER OF HIS BHAKTA8 

1. Victory to Thee who dweJlest on the ooean of 
milk, toTbee who reclinest upon Shesha, to Thee who as- 
sumest human body at will. Husband of Rukmini, who 
possessest a visible form, the Ornament of Thy bhaktas, a 
mine of goodness, Shri Vitthal. 2. Victory to Thee, who 
has assumed an infinite number of avatars. Thou who art 
in the form of Intelligence, Home of compassion, Protector 
of the gods, Lord of Pandhari, Thou who drivest away the 
illusions of Thy bhaktas. 3. Victory to Thee, Pervader of 
all things. Thou who art beyond all things. Saviour of the 
elephant Gajendra, Lord of Vaikunth ( Heaven ). Aside 
from Thee there is no one who can give joy to Thy bhaktas. 
4 Victory, Victory to Thee, Mover of the heart. Cloud of 
intelligence. Advocate of Thy bhaktas. Slayer of Daityas, 
{ demons ), Giver of the promise to Pundalik, Husband of 
Rukmini, Life of the world, O Pandurang. 5. Thou who 
art the Father of Brahmadev, although a Doer of all things 
Thou art stiU a non-doer. There is no space even as large as 
an atom that is without Thee. 6. Do Thou now have compas- 
sion upon me and through me relate the stories of Thy 
saints. A helpless one like myself has no helper aside 
from Thee, O Lord of the world. 

JANI THE LITTLB MAID OP KAMA 

7. In the preceding chapter we had the specially in- 
teresting story of God's servant Paramanand Joga. 8. The 
well-known bhnkla of Shiva, Narahari, was also made 
to worship Hi:n. The Holder of the disk (Krishna) 
brought trouble to Nama and thereby tested his 

338 



Ch. XXI 8-21 HISTORY OF JANABAI 

mind. 9. It happened one day at Pandhari, when lfo« 
place was filled with pilgrims, in the month of Kartik 
( November ), that a little girl from amongst the pilgrims 
came and sat by the great door of the temple. 10. She 
said to her mother and father, ' I intend to remain h«re 
always. I will not come back with you to our home.' 
11. Hearing the little girl say this, every one was astonish- 
ed. They Remarked, ' Being only seven years of age, how 
has she obtained such spiritual knowledge ?' 12. The 
mother and father were greatly troubled by her resolve 
but she would not listen to anything. When Shri Hari 
casts upon anyone the eye of compassion, the love of that 
which is one's own does not arise in the heart. 13. Seeing 
her determination, however, her parents wore comforted. 
They left their daughter at the great door of the temple, and 
returned to their own home. 14. When Nama saw this little 
girl, a feeling of compassion arose in his heart. He said 
to her, * Who are you, sitting here alone in a country not 
your own, and without your mother and father ? 15. Wh«^ 
town does your father belong to ? Tell me your name. 
What difSoulties have your parents experienced, that they 
should have abandoned you here' ? 16. The little, girl 
replied, 'I am called Jani. The Holder of the disk (Krishna) 
is my mother and father. I have no one aside from Him.* 
17. Hearing her words, pity arose in Nama's heart. He 
took the little girl by the hand, and brought her to his 
home. 18. Nama told Qonai of his finding the girl and 
how the child had been lost among the pilgrims. 'Without 
her mother and father she seems to look very unhai^y. 
We must protect her. 19. At the time of Krishna's ouiftir- 
ahip he bad a maid by name of Kub'}a(the cripple). She bad 
now appeared as an avatar in this Kali Yttga. So she has 
come on a pilgrimage to Pandhari, and is absorbed in the 
worship of Hari ' 20. Day by day she grew in steture, and men 
and women said to her, 'Tell us truly who you are.' 21. Jani 

339 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXI 31-3S 

would reply to them and say, ' I am the devoted handmaid 
of Nama. I have no mother nor father aside from him.' 32. 
While performing her domestic duties she was for ever 
repeating the names of Hari. When at night she listened to 
the praise-services of Hari she used to meditate upon them. 

KRISHNA REPAIRS NAMA'S HUT 

23. A very strange thing happened one day when Nam- 
dev was asleep. Five ghatakas of the night had passed and 
a dark cloud covered the sky. 24. A violent wind blew 
and carried Nama's hut away. When this was known to 
the Husband of Rukmini, He sent His sudarahan disk. 25. 
He said to it, ' Go to the home of Nama and revolve your- 
self for a moment around it, and I shall soon follow you.* 
26. The bhakta of Vishnu was sleeping with his wife and 
children in his bouse. The disk of Vishnu made its visit 
there and revolved itself rapidly. 27. A great rainstorm 
raged around Nama but not a drop of water fell on Nama's 
hut- When one of God's servants devotes himself to li is 
bhakti. He puts away from him all evil. 28. Having done 
this the Husband of Rukmini came quickly to that spot. 
With His own hand He rebuilt the walls of the hut and 
retbatched its roof. 29. Wise listeners may say, after 
hearing this story, ' If Krishna came, and in His own 
parson thatched Nama's house, why did He not make it a 
more beautiful home ?' 30. But Krishna does not permit 
His servants to become entangled in their domestic life. If 
He should give to them great wealth it would destory their 
character of indiflference to earthly things. 31. Duryodhan 
was created as an enemy of the Pandavas. He was 
constantly giving them trouble, yet when they fell into 
trouble the Life of the world would Himself rush to 
their help. 32. He said to Himself, ' If I should allow 
them to live without fear they will not remember Me 
in their hearts. ' Yet the Enemy of Mura ( Krishna ) 

340 



Ch. XXI 32-44 NAMA'S HITT RETHATCHBD 

will not allow His servants to be drowned in the sea af 
worldly existence. 33. ' If I should give my bhaktcus a 
very beautiful house they would fail in their worship of 
Me. ' Therefore it was that the Lord of all things gave to 
Nama a thatched roof. 34. Lest the cooked food should 
harm a child, the mother gives it a very small morsel. So 
the Pervader of the universe never gives great wealth to 
His bhaktas. 35. If too much water is given to plants 
their leaves will turn yellow. Therefore the gardener 
gives the plant only as much water as it needs. 36. So the 
Lord of the universe gives to His bhaktas sufficient of focnl 
and raiment as their bodies may need. By one means or 
other, he keeps their minds indifferent to earthly things. 

37. Returning now to the story just now told, the Life 
of the world came and in His love gathered straw and 
rethatched Nama's hut. 38. When His bhakia awoke he 
looked outside and he saw a brilliant yellow garment 
shining with the brilliancy of lightning. 39. He then 
quickly came outside and in his love grasped Krishna by 
His feet and said, 'O God, what art Thou doing in 
coming here so late at night ? * 40. The Life of the world 
replied, ' A terrible storm was raging and your hut was 
carried away. I have been here and rethatched it. 41. 
You have abandoned all thought of worldly things and in 
love are devoting yourself to My worship. Therefore, I 
( Krishna ) Husband of Shri ( the goddess of wealth ) 
re-ereoted the walls o* your hut. 

KRISHNA AND NAMA DINE TOGETHER 

42. If I had not quickly come, your children would 
have felt the cold. Gonabai would have become very 
angry with Me and would have spoken to me harshly. 43. 
Therefore, My dear bhakia, I have hastened to you at night.* 
"When Gonabai heard Him say this, she immediately fell 
at His feet. 44. Talking there with Nama, and telling 

Ul 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XXI 44-5« 

him His secret thoughts, the Lord of the world remained 
there pleased. Jani at once canae and began to rub God's 
baok. 45. She exclaimed- * O Ocean of mercy, Delight of 
tke mind. Home of compassion, Life of the world, by Thy 
effort in Thy very person Thou hast protected us in many 
ways.* 46. Hrishihesfd ( the Lord of the heart ) said to 
Nama, ' You must be hungry- Arise quickly and eat. 
And place Me alongside with you.' 47. Serving on a 
pilfer some daintily cooked food, Qonabai quickly brought 
it to them and all four at once sat down to eat. 48. Govind, 
Vitthal, Narayan and the fourth, Mahadev by name, were 
Nama's sons. The Lord of the world sat down beside them 
to eat. 49. Gonabai and Bajabai were seated near Nama 
by themselves, and Krishna, placing His hhakta beside 
Kim, sat down to eat. 



50. Seeing this going on Jani felt deeply griev- 
ed in her heart. She exclaimed, * O Merciful to the 
lowly, O Holder of the disk ( Krishna ), why hast 
Tliou abandoned me ? 51. Thou hast placed all beside 
Thee and hast seated Thyself to eat. O Hrishikeshi ( Lord 
of the heart ), I am of very low birth, therefore Thou hast 
atwndoned me as one without a protector. 52. Just as the 
cook in preparing food removes grapes from the rice, or as 
straw is removed from the sugarcane, 53. so without any 
feeling of compassion for me Thou boldest in Thy heart 
disfavour'. Thus the little maiden girl, Jani, became deeply 
grieved because the Lord of the world felt no pity for her. 
54b Hearing her complaint, the Life of the world said to 
Nama, ' This food today gives me no pleasure. I do not 
understand the reason.' 55. The other replied, ' O Holder 
of the disk ( Ejrishna ), Jani stands outside in great grief. 
Hearing her cries of suffering Thy mind is overcome ; 56. 
jHUlt as when a calf cries out loudly, the mother cow does 

343 



Oh. XXI 56-68 KRISHNA EATS WITH JANABAI 

not enjoy her food ; or as when an infant is crying in the 
cradle, the mother does not enjoy her food ; 57. or as when 
a bird is collecting grain in the jungle, she remembers her 
little ones in the nest ; or as when a doe does not see hear 
young even for a momant, she does not enjoy her food ; 
58. or just as when wealth is beyond the reach of one 
who loves it, daintily cooked food even is not enjoyed by 
him; therefore, because Jani is not comforted, Thou art not 
able to enjoy thy food.' 59. As God put away His hand 
from the food, all who were sitting there stopped eating 
also. When Rajabai saw this she was very much astonish- 
ed. 60. The Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) washed His 
hands and then sat quietly on His straw mat. Gk>nal»i 
called Jani and gave her the plate on which Krishna had 
left some food. 61. Brahmadev and other gods, desiring the 
same favour, are never able to obtain it. That favour Jani 
at once obtained because of her association with Nama. 
KRISHNA. EATS THE LEAVINGS WITH JANABAI 
62. Jani then quickly covered over the food that was so 
desired. She waited in her own hut exclaiming, 'O Lord 
of the world, hasten now to my help.' 63. Nama and 
Krishna were at that time lying upon one bed. The 
bliakia was asleep. The Saviour of the world then arc»e. 
64. The Life of the world walked very softly and in very 
humble voice said to Jani, ' I am hungry and therefore I 
have come to you. 65. I was eating with Nama but I had 
not invited you there. For that reason, removing My 
hand, I left the food.' 66. Jani replied to the Holder of 
the Sharang Bow ( Krishna ), ' O Ocean of mercy. Husband 
of Rukmini, I have nothing to give Thee in my hut except 
pure faith. 67, Gonabai brought me what Thou didst 
leave on Thy plate and gave it to me. About giving it to 
Thee, O Krishna, I feel a hesitation in my heart.' 68. The 
Husband of Rukmini replied to her, ' Bring and give it to 
Me just as it is. One should not hesitate about serving to 

343 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXI 68-79 

another that which is his own. 69. A while ago I stopped 
eating, but I was Ijungry for it. Now bring Me that 
same food and give it to Me. ' 70. Pleating these words 
spoken with love, you listeners will needlessly have a 
doubt. You will say, ' "Why did the Lord of the world 
remain hungry, in order to eat later the food he had left 
on His plate ?* 71. It was in order to enable Jani to carry 
out fully her purpose. For she had no other food with her 
to give to Him. Hence the life of the world asked her *o let 
Him eat that which He had left on His own plate. 72. Then 
Nama's little maid seated Hrishikeshi ( the Lord of the 
heart, Krishna ) and at once bringing the plate with the 
food which had been left upon it placed it before Him. 
73. Then the Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) seating Jani 
beside Him began to eat. When Mother Rukmini heard 
of this she became perplexed in mind. 74. He who finds 
His delight on the ocean of milk. He whose Banner is the 
eagle, He who dwells in the heaven Vaikunih, He, placing 
Himself beside the maiden, is eating that which was left 
on His plate. 75. He of whom the Vedas and Shastras are 
continually singing, and He whom the Lord of Kailas 
( Heaven ) is always contemplating. He sits in the hut 
away from the others and lovingly eats what Nama had 
left on His plate. 76. Even when many saorifioes are 
made. He who will not accept the offering thrown into the 
fire, He, the Life of the world, then said to Jani, 'I have 
eaten and am fully satisfied.' 77. He then quickly washed 
His hands and laid down to sleep. Gonai oame outside 
where Nama was and said to him, 78. 'While you were 
sleeping, God arose and went away. He went to the hut 
of Jani and there lovingly ate that which He bad left on 
His plate.' 

KRISHNA 0ISREGARI« CASTE 

79. The servant of Vishnu said in reply, 'O Mother, the 
344 



Ch. XXI 79-90 KRISHNA HELPS JANI 

Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) is a lover of His bhaktaa. If 
anyone has pure heart, He comes rushing there to help him. 
60. He does not enquire as to caste or family. This merciful 
one to the lowly, seeing a person's faith, immediately 
rushes to his help without wasting a moment. 81. The Bhil 
woman plucked the fruit from the tree and first tasted it her- 
self. The Lord of the world, recognizing her love, lovingly 
ate it. 82. So seeing the bhakli of Jani, He ate that which 
He Himself had left on His plate. O Mother, what is there 
in this to be wondered at ? How shall I explain it further ?' 
83. The Life of the world after listening to Nama'a and 
Gonabai's conversation came at once beside Nama, and 
with love He laid down beside him on the same mat. 84. 
Only one prahar ( three houra ) now remained of the night. 
The Holder of the Sharany Bow ( Krishna ) came, and 
sitting upon Jani's bed told her to arise at once. 85. ' O 
Jani, it is getting late. Arise at once and do your grind- 
ing. I have dusted the mill and I am waiting for you, * 
86. The Lord of the world placed His hand under her neck 
and lifted her up. The Husband of Rukmini then placed 
the skirt of the garment on her head. 

KRISHNA HELPS JANI AT GRINDING 

87. Then he plaited her hair and seated Jani near 
the mill and placed the basket of grain close by. 
88. The Husband of Rukmini then said to her, *I will 
turn the mill. Place your hand upon the handle of 
the mill, pretending to grind, and lovingly sing 
songs.' 89. While Hrishikeshi ( the Lord of the heart) wag 
saying this, Jani the little servant girl became awake. 
Full cf joy in her love she began to sing verses relating 
io the saints. 90. ' Nivritti, Sopan, Dnyaneshwar are my 
dear relatives. It is through their favour that the Holder 
of the Sharang Bow ( Krishna ) shows His mercy to me. 

345 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XXI 91-10$ 

91. The Vishnudaa ( Nama ) is my father, Rajabai is my 
■rery dear mother, Qora the potter is my dearest uncle, and 
Kabir and Savata are my brothers, 92. He did seemingly 
impossible things. Dear friends, how can I describe them 
all ? They made the Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) subject 
to them, and became satisfied with the water of supreme 
spiritual joy. 93. Dnyaneshwar, troubled by the Brahmans 
at Pratishthan, also did a seemingly impossible thing. He 
made a young buffalo repeat with its own lips the whole 
of the Ved(a. 94. Gora the potter, Thy bhakta, because 
absorbed in the thought of the Husband of Rukmini, trod 
his infant child into the mud and was unaware that he 
was doing so. 95. Because he had broken his vow made to 
Vithoba he cut off his hands. Thus while listening to Nama's 
service of song, the Life of the world came to his help. 
96. Ab hands were being clapped, suddenly a little infant 
child came creeping in. That story seems impossible and 
one thinks of it with amazement. 97. Vanamali (Krishna) 
went to meet His bhakta Savata. He ripped open hia 
abdomen and hid God in bis lotus-heart. 98. Hari who 
has an infinite number of universes in His heart hid 
Himself in the heart of Savata. Nama came and drew him 
outside. 99. Then there i3 the story of brother Kabir, who 
lives in the far off country, Banares. Hrishikesfu ( the 
Lord of the heart ) sat beside him, and did his weaving. 
100. On the night of the festival to Shiva, Nama per- 
formed a kirtan in honour of Hari. Nine hundred thousand 
banners suddenly came down from heaven. 101. The 
Dweller in the Heaven Kailus turned His temple to the 
West for him. Such extraordinary deeds are indescribable 
even by the Vedas and the Shastras.' 102. In this way, while 
continuing to grind, she sang her verses in love. The Lord 
of Pandhari, listening to her, wagged His head in love. 

GONABAI'S REPENTAKCE 
103. When Gonabai heard Jani singing, she hastened 
346 



Oh. XXI 103-114 GONAI REBUKES JANI 

to her hut and questioned, ' Whom did you call here to 
help you grind ? 104. Tell me quickly whether you brought 
h«re a hired woman or a neighbour. ' Jani did not reply a 
single word. She remained in perfect silence. 105. Then 
Gonabai, with great anger in her heart, took a cane and 
entering into Jani's hut demanded of her to whom she had 
been speaking. 106. 'Our domestic affairs are in a very 
weak condition and we have not enough floiir in the house. 
What hired woman did you bring here? You give her 
grain from the grinding, constantly stealing it from us- 
107. She struck Jani, but it fell on God's head. He imme- 
diately remarked, 'My name is Vithai. I come here early in 
order to help Jani to grind. ' 108. When Nama heard of the 
conversation he u nderstood its true meaniuK. ' That was the 
Life of the world whom you struck, ' Nama said to his 
mother; 'you do not know this.' 109. Hearing him say this, 
GK>nabai felt ashamed. She said, 'I struck Hrishikeslu, ( the 
Lord of the heart),' Froni there she then came back to her 
home. 110. She said, 'The good fortune of Jani is exceedingly 
extraordinary. She has made the Husband of Rukmini sub- 
servient to herself. Without realizing what I was doing, I 
went there and did what was wrong. 111. He who is never 
seen even by Brahmadev and the other gods. Him I beat 
with a stick. Accursed be my worldly thoughts.' Thus speak- 
ing she became very repentant. 112. The beautiful cloud- 
dark-complexioned supreme Brahma, the Husband of 
Bukmini, Whose sight cools the heart and eyes, shows pity 
to Jani 

113. Turning now to Jani, the handmill of indiffer^ 
enoe to earthly things was turning around the pivot of this 
earthly existence. She ground in love in the mill an 
immense amount of grain in the form of deeds done in 
former births. 114. All that appeared in the shape d 
names and forms she ground in the mill. She mixed 

547 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch, XXI 114-124 

together the visible and the invisible and sat there uncon- 
cerned. 115. Krishna then filled a basket with the flour 
and placed it aside. There was still a little time left of the 
night and so He laid down on the easy bed. 116. As the 
Life of the world was speaking to Jani He fell asleep. 
When the dawn began to appear in the East, 117. Nama's 
maid came to Him and said, ' O Hriahikeshi ( the Lord of 
the heart), rise quickly. Thy worshippers will come to Thy 
temple, and will not see Thee there. 118. If the very early 
morning songs of praise of wick-light-waving are not 
sung, there will be an outcry in the city.' The Lord of the 
world hearing this hastily arose. 

KRISHNA USES JANABAI'S BLANKET 

119. In His hasty departure the Life of the world 
had not thought of what He was doing. He forgot His 
own costly woollen garment and clothed Himself in Jani's 
blanket. 120. The brilliant cluster of nine jewels which was 
fastened to a string of pearl», the Lord of the world also 
forgot and hastened to His temple. 121. As the door was 
opened His bhaklas came to see and worship Him, bring- 
ing the materials for worship. There they saw the Life of 
the world standing on the brick clothed In Jani's blanket, 

122. All who saw Him thus were astonished. They said, 
* He Who is dark-blue-complexioned, like the leaves of the 
tamal tree, has done a very strange thing. Whose blanket 
could He have brought ? We have no idea whatever. ' 

123. Another one remarked, ' He is a great mimic. He is 
very proud of His bhaUas. He rebukes those who trust 
only to deeds and sets them on the way to acquire self- 
knowledge. * 124. So one said to Him, 'O Life of the 
world. Ornament of Thy bhaklas. Husband of Rukmini, 
Dweller upon the sea of milk, Reoliner upon Sheaha, this 
blanket is not becoming to thee. ' 

348 



Oh. XXI 125-136 JANI SUSPECTED OF THEFT 

JANI SUSPECTED OF THEFT 
125. Another remarked, ' Reasoning over the 
thing, I think Jani the maid of Naraa is a very 
clever girl. She must have deceived the Holder of 
of the disk ( Krishna ) and confused His mind. ' 126. Still 
another exclaimed, ' Just as the cripple servant-girl, 
Kubja, is described in the Shri Bltagwaf, so are Jani's deeds. 
You should all know this. ' 127. Yet another remarked, 
' Go and tell Nama. He will restrain his servant-girl. 
She has confused the mind of the Holder of the Skarang 
Bow ( Krishna ), and deceived Him. ' 128. Thus in 
different ways all the people reasoned in their minds. The 
priest went near to the image, and taking the blanket ofl^ 
began to examine. 129. They saw that the cluster of the 
jewels and the pearl necklace were not to be seen upon 
His lotus-breast. They remarked, 'The generous Vanamali 
( Krishna ) has given them away to someone. * 130. Some 
made humorous remarks that Jani had done a very clever 
thing in offering the blanket to the god, and keeping the 
cluster of jewels and the garland. 131. It is as if one 
offered God some milk, and asking His favour brought home 
butter ; or as if one offered God water from an earthern jar 
and brought back nectar to his home ; 132. or as if one 
gave crystals to the jeweller and had them exchange for 
diamonds ; or as if one offered to the Husband of Rukmini 
a black garment and then took to bis home His yellow 
robe -, 133. or as if one should offer fruit of rut to Maruti to 
please him, and take from him nectar fruit ; 134. so at this 
time, offtiritig her black blanket, she pleased Vanainali 
( Krishna ), and has taken for herself the cluster of jewels 
on the pearl garland to which the nine forms of jewels are 
joined. 135. The priests then exclaimed, ' What shall we 
do ? There is no one we can blame. All the doors being 
looked how did the Lord of Pandhari go away from here f 
We do not understand.' 136. Another remarked, 'Let 

349 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXI 136-148 

us go at once to the house of Nsms, and call the servant- 
girl Jani, and ask her in regard to this.' 
JANI THREATENED 

137. With this thought in their minds, they hastened 
to Nama's house and said to Jani, 'The Lord of Rukmini 
has taken to being with you. 138. We do not understand how 
you have confused Him thus. He takes no pleasure in our 
worship and offering. You have been guilty of some trick 
or other and have deceived the Life of the world. 139. The 
dark blue-cloud-complexioned One is in love with you. And 
our good deeds are all lost. Last night the Merciful one to 
the lowly came to you. 140. You took His cluster of jewels 
and pearl necklace, and in their place gave Him your 
blanket. Bring it at once or we shall punish you. ' 141. 
Hearing them say this she swore by an oath, ' If I have 
taken the cluster of jewels, may my eyes burst. ' 142. As 
they began to investigate, they found the garland of pearls 
in the raiment. They then said, ' She must immediately be 
impaled upon a rod of iron. 143. She has really to-day stolen 
the ornament of the supreme Brahm, the eagl&-bannered One- 
All the Brahmans said, ' She must be punished. ' 144. 
They immediately seized Jani and carried her to the bank 
of the Ohandrabhaga river. There she brought to her 
remembrance the Lord of the world and pleaded for His 
compassion. 145. She cried, ' O Purifier of the sinner, 
Holder of the Sharang Bow ( Krishna ), Helper of the help- 
less, Husband of Rukmini, Lord of His bhnktas. Ocean of 
mercy. Saviour of the humble. Lord of the world; 146. I 
am without a protector, helpless and lowly. Who is there 
to rush to my help ?* Hearing Jani's pity-arousing words, 
the Life of the world came to help her. 147. The iron rod 
( for impaling her ) had been well fastened in the ground. 
It suddenly turned into water. Seeing this wonderful 
miracle all were astonished. 148. The priests were puzzled 
and exclaimed, ' Blessed is Jani's bhatdi. The moment she 

350 



Ch. XXI 148-158 KBISHNA ADMIBE6 JANI 

brought to her mind the Husband of Bukmini, He ruabed 
to her aid in her trouble.* 149. The aesembly of hhakta* 
now gathered together, and clapped their hands at the cries 
of ' Victory, Victory,' and said, ' Vanamali { Krishna ) 
rushes to the help of His servants when they fall into 
trouble.' 

KRISHNA WRITES DOWN THE VERSES OF JANI 
150. , A very strange thing happened one day. The 
servant-girl Jani was sitting in her hut. In her mind she 
was composing verses in which she made mention of the 
Holder of the disk ( Krishna. ) 151. The Holder of the 
disk ( Krishna ) then took a pen and ink, and as the 
poetry of Jani fell upon His ears He wrote it down 
with His own hands. 152. You will say, ' How could 
words from the house of Nama reach God's ears while He 
was seated in His temple ? This is what our minds ques- 
tion.' 153. But the Pervader of the universe, the Life 
of the world, Witnesser of the thoughts of the heart 
Cloud of intelligence, is the all knowing One, who 
knows the thoughts of His bhaklas. 154. Dusshasan 
troubled Draupadi. She pleaded with Him while she was 
at Hastanapur ( Delhi ), and how could her words reach 
His ears at Dwarka ? Yet He at once rushed to her help. 

155. When Qajendra pleaded piteously, God heard his 
voice in Vaikunth (Heaven.) The Lord of the world through 
His inner light of knowledge at once heard Jani's words. 

156. The Lord of Pandbari alone understands the thoughts 
of His bhaklaa. So the listeners must have no more doubts 
in their hearts. 

KRISHNA ADMIRES JANl'S VERSES 

157. The Lord of Rukmini then thought to Himself, 

I enjoy the verses of Jani.' Therefore He took a pen in 

His hand and sat writing them down. 158. Just then 

Bnyaneshwar suddenly came to the temple to mak» 

351 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XXI 158-171 

his namaskar to the god. The Holder of the Sharang 
Bow ( Krishna ) seeing him gave thought to what he was 
doing. 159. He hid away His ink, pen and paper. The 
supreme Brahm, the Root of all joy, now manifested 
8 most wonderful deed. 160. Dnyandev came to Him and 
placed his head upon the god's lotus feet. He exclaimed, 
* O VanamcUi { Krishna ) sitting here by Thyself, what 
art Thou writing ? ' 161. Hearing his question Pandurang 
replied, ' I am writing down the verses of Jani, ' As 
Skrirang ( Krishna ) said this Dnyandev burst out laughing. 
162. He said, ' Victory, Victory.totheHusbandof Rukmini. 
Jani is composing verses in Thy praise. Thou art writing 
them down in a book. I am much surprised at this. 163. 
Although one has visited many sacred bathing places, and 
has given much wealth in charity, performed many aust- 
erities, and observed several religious vows, yet to speak 
of them very much with one's own lips is not proper. 
164, Thy wonderful deeds, O Vanamali (Krishna), must 
be many in the world but thou should.st never write 
them down on a piece of paper. 165. O Husband of 
Rukmini, it is Sarasvati who writes of Thy deeds. The 
Vedas and the Shaslras proclaim Thy goodness. The 
Puranas honour Thee with song. 166. Vyas, Valmiki 
and other great poets have described Thee and then attain- 
ed their final bliss. And now if Thou dost write down the 
yetses of Jani the poets will laugh at Thee.' 167. Hearing 
him say this, the cloud-dark Krishna replied, ' The verses 
of Jani are full of love. I feel them today exceedingly 
interesting. 168. And as they fell upon My ears, I sat 
down to write them. But the moment I saw you I felt a 
hesitation in my mind. 169. And bo I made hast-i and hid 
the paper and ink. But I do not understand how you under- 
stood what I was doing ?' 170. Dnyandev replied, ' O Life 
of the world. Ornament of Thy b/takftis, aside from us there 
is no one who knows Thy inner thoughts. 171, It is a 

352 



Ch. XXI 171-182 KRISHNA IND SAINTS AT NAMA'S 

dutiful wife alone who understands the thoughts of her 
husband. Only an infant can understand the love of its 
mother; 172. just as the delightful words of the poet are 
appreciated only by an expert; and as one who has know- 
ledge understands the knowledge of philosophic books 
through experience. 1 73. O cloud-dark complexioned One, 
as it is the chakor bird who fully understands the moon, 
so it is the mind alone, O Krishna, that understands the 
objects of the sense organs. 174. So we always easily 
know Thy secret thoughts.' Dnyandev having said this, the 
god laughed. 

KRISHNA AND DNYANDEV GO TO NAMA's HOUSE 

175. Dnyandev then exclaimed, ' Lord of the world, 
let us go to meet Nama. I will fcell him how great Thy 
love for Jani is. ' 176. The Husband of Rukmini replied, 
' I agree. That was already in My mind.' Then taking one 
another by the hand they hastened along. 177. Dnyandev 
and the Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) came to the house 
of the Vishnudas Nama. They embraced one another 
and sat down upon an easy mat. 178. When Vaivamali 
( Krishna ) arrived at Nama's house an assembly of 
saints had already gathered there; just as when a king 
comes and sits in his assembly hall, his whole army 
gathers there ; 179. or as when hearing that Indra is seated. 
He becomes surrounded by the group of gods ; or as when 
in their love the performers of austerities surround Shiva; 
180. or as whenever Indira ( Lakshmi, goddess of wealth) 
sits there, all siddhis gather together; or as when God-lov- 
ing bhaktas come rushing in their love to listen to enthusi- 
astic A:/r/ar»s; 181. or as wherever precious jewels are to be 
found, there all experts gather together; or as when bum- 
ble-bees gather around the lotus; 182. or as when their 
eyes discover a generous giver, beggars gather around him; 
or as when ants come rushing to wherever there may be a 

B. V. 23 353 



BHAKTAVIJAYA C!h. XXI 182-195 

pile of sugar. 183. So, seeing the Lord of the world 
( Krishna ) seated in Nama's house, all the sftints full of 
joy gathered there. 

JANI INTRODUCED TO SAEJTS 

184. The Lord of the world, having embraced all 

who were there, said to Nama, ' Call Jani and bring her 

here, in order that she may be introduced to the saints. * 

185. Qonabai remarked then to Rajai, ' Jani is out in thtt 

fields, making dung cakes. Go and tell her that the 

Husband of Eukmini is calling her. ' 186. Hearing this 

request, she hastily went and told her, * The Holder of 

the disk ( Krishna ) has come to our house and calls for 

you. ' 187. Jani quickly washed her hands and came to 

Nama's home, and as she saw the Lord of Pandhari she 

bowed prostrate before Him on the ground. 188. Dnyandev 

remarked to Kama, 'I have seen a most extraordinary thing 

to-day. I saw the Lord of Vaikunth ( Heaven ) writing 

down the verses of Jani with His own hand. ' 189. The 

Ornament of His bhaktas said, * The writing down of the 

verses of Jani has brought Me no loss of dignity. 190. I 

declare by an oath, and make your feet a witness to it that 

you must-regard the jMarathi version of Jani as containing 

happy thoughts. 191. I, Govind, take the paper of puro 

goodness, and with divine knowledge and joy of a happy 

experience I sing her verses in love. 192. If anyone reads 

her verses I shall stand waiting upon him in his yard. * 

Such were the words that Elrishna used in the house of 

Nama: 193. 'He who continually sings the verses of 

Jani, will suffer no calamities in his family life. Finally 

I shall certainly give him at his final end the highest 

form of deliverance ( Sayi^jyata ).' 194. When Vanamali 

( Krishna ) had said this, Dnyandev burst out laughing 

and clapped his bands. All shouted ' Victory, Victory. ' I 

will tell you who were there. 195. There was Eablr who 

354 



Ch. XXI 195-205 AVATASS OF KAMA AND JANABAl 

had oome from Benekres. There w&b OhokhamelB the great 
bhakta, and there was Bohidas the shoemaker. The noble 
Vaiahnavaa were seated there. 196. There was Sajan the 
Pathan, Qod's bhakla. Baya the butcher who was exceed- 
ingly indifferent to earthly things. There was Kamal the 
gardener, a great saint and always Ml of joy; 197. and 
Mukundaraj the sifter of goldsmith's ashes, who always 
remained at the great door of the temple. There were 
Gonabai and beautiful Bsjai continually crying out 
' Victory, Victory. ' 198. Then there was Nama, the very 
dear bhakla of God. The Husband of Rukmini sat in the 
midst of them, just as a king in the midst of his army 
outshines all in glory. 

AVATARS OF NAMA AND JANABAI 

199. Dnyaneshwar said to Jani, ' Namdev has assumed 
four avc^ars: Fralliad, A.ngad, and Uddhav, and made 
Krishna subservietit to bim. 200. During what birth did 
you especially pray to God ? Tell us everything. Do not 
at all hesitate. ' 201. When the maid of Nama heard this 
she became ready to speak. She said, ' When the Lord of 
the heart became Hayagriva [ a certain avaiar at 
Vishnu 1, I offered myself at His feet. 202. Then He as 
the Advocate of Ambarish assumed ten avatars. As the 
fish, the tortoise and the great boar, he came to kill 
the all-powerful daityaa. 203. After becoming Narasinha, 
Vaman and Parashuram, He finally became Ram the son 
of Dashrath. Now Shri Hari, the resting place for all, 
has become the avcUar of Buddha. 204. When God took the 
form of these various avatars I was with Him.* Whan 
Dnyandev heard her say this, his hiind was full of aston- 
ishment. 205. Said he, ' Blessed is this servant girl JanL 
By her limitless good deeds she has made HrisUk^shi ( the 
Lord of the heart ) favourablo to her. His sight is unobtain- 
able even to Brahmadev and other gods. ' 

3&5 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XXI 206-217 

KRISHNA APPOINTS WRITERS OF THE SAINTS' POEMS 

206. The Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) then said to 

<he saints, ' Now make appointments among those who 

are to write down the words that come from the lips of the 

saints. 207. Sachchidanand the Brahman will write down 

the jewelled words of Dnyaneshwar. Sopan who is the 

full Qf ifctr of Brahmadev will write down the words of 

Nivritti 208. Dnyandev will write down the verses of 

Muktabai. Visoba Khechar will write down the verses of 

Joga Paramanand. 209. There is also the Vaishnava 

bhakla, Ssvata the gardener. Let his writer be Kashiba 

Gurav. God Supreme appointed Sudev as writer foi 

Kurmadas. 210. Anant Bhat the Brahman should be the 

writer for Chokhamela. And the Husband of Rukmini will 

Himself write down the verses of Naraa's Jani. * 211, 

Thus appointing a writer for each one, the Holder of the 

disk ( Krishna ) said to Dnyandev, ' Now you should have 

no hesitation in listening to the verses of Jani. ' 212. The 

noble Vaishnava hearing Him say this replied, ' If amighty 

person accepts anyone there can be no one who can blame 

him on the earth. 213. If the sun should take a blind 

man by the hand, what will he not be able to see? If 

Ssrasvati is pleased with a dumb man, he will be able to 

repeat the Veda-\ 214. Similarly, if Thou art favourable 

to Jani the maiden, who will call her a slave ? ' As the Life 

of the world heard him say this, He smiled. 215. Then 

Nama took some water and washed the feet of all. With 

the sixteen materials of worship be lovingly performed the 

worship of the Husband of Rukmini. 216. He then gave 

van-supari to each one and made a prostrate namaskar to 

eftch one. Shripati ( Krishna ) then took leave of Gonabsi 

atid quickly "hastened away. 217. Vanamali (KrishnB) 

^king an ssi;embly of bhak'as with Him entered into His 

temple. Here He told Rukmini bII that had happened. 

356 



Oh. XXI 218-320 KRISHNA THE REAL SPEAKER 

218. The Holder of the Sharang Bow ( Krishna ), the 
Brother of the helpless, the oompassionate One, the Lover 
of His bhaktas, Ocean of mercy, and Ocean of compassion, 
219. He, the lotus-eyed One, is the Speaker here and the 
One causing the stories of His servants to be described. 
Mahipati is a mere puppet. All the wise saints know this. 

320. Swaafi { Peace ) ! This book is the Skri Bhakta- 
vijaya. In listening to it, the Lord of the world will be 
pleased. Listen, you God-loving bhaktas. This is the 
twenty-first very delightful chapter; it is an offering to 
Sbri Krishna. 



357 



CHAPTER XXII 

MATSYENDRA.NATH, GORAKHNATH 

AND CHANQDEV 

Obeisance to Shri Oanesh. Obeisance to Shri Krishna. 

STORIES OF SAINTS LEAD TO EIGHT KEEUNGS 
1. To-day you fortunate listeners have seated your- 
selves around the wish-tree. Therefore the longings of 
no heart remain unfulfilled. 2. When the touchstone 
touches iron, no blackness whatever remains in it. So in 
listening to the delightful stories of the bkaktas no doubt 
remains in the mind; 3. as when bathing in the sea it is 
the same as having bathed in all the sacred bathing places; 
or as it is by the light of the sun that all objects become 
visible; 4. or as when one obtains nectar, all diseases flee 
away; so those who listen to these stories of the saints 
cannot be troubled by the sorrows of this earthly existence. 
5. If the moon is pleased with anyone, he will not feel 
any heat; so the wise one who listens to the stories of the 
saints will find that no lust or anger enters into his heart. 
THE GURU ANCESTRY OF DNYANDEV AND NAMDEV 

6, In the previous chapter we were told of God 
praising Jani, and that all saints expressed their astonish- 
ment and cried out, ' Victory, Victory. * 7. Having 
heard this statement the listeners asked this question, 
' It is through association with Nama that Krishna 
joined Himself with Jani. 8. Now what was his guru 
descent ? We do not know about it. ' Such was the ques- 
tion asked by the saints. Listen now to the description of 
it. 9. It happened at a certain time that Shiva was sitting 
on the ocean of milk. He was contemplating the essential 
forms of Ram and repeating His name. 10. Parvati 
said to the Lord of Kailas (Heaven), 'Whose name are you 

358 



Oh. XXII 10-21 SUPERIORITY OF RAM 

repeating ? What God is there superior to you ? This is a 
thing about which I have some doubt.' 11. After listening 
to her, the Lord of all things replied to her, 'The deity who 
is superior to me is Shri Ram, the Husband of Janaki 
12. O Bhavani, Brahmadev and Vishnu, develop from Him 
along with me. I was meditating that very form in my 
mind and I am constantly repeating His name.' 13. When 
the Destroyer of Tripur (Shiva) said this, Ambika (Parvati) 
was much astonished. She exclaimed, ' How is it that I 
being half of your own self have not been thinking right- 
ly ? 14. Frogs are always near to the lotus-flowers, but 
they know nothing of the pure honey that is in the flowers. 
15. Musk perfume is found in the navel of the deer. Still 
it wanders needlessly through the jungle. So, although 
Shiva has knowledge, I do not know it.' 16. Then joining 
both her hands palm to palm, she made a namaskar to the 
blue-throated One. Said she, ' You make your heart pure 
by continually repeating the name of the noble Earn, 
17. Please tell me the most secret thoughts of your heart.' 
Hearing her say this the King of Kailas ( Heaven ) natur- 
ally in love replied to her. 18. And finding her alone, 
Shiva said to Parvati, ' I will truly tell you whose name I 
continually repeat in my heart.' 19. He ( Shri Shanker ) 
then placed His assuring hand upon her head and began 
to instruct her, by which Parvati became bodily uncon- 
scious and could not remember her own self. 

BIRTH OF MATSYENDRA 

20. While Shiva was giving her instructions the fair- 
complexioned One was unconscious. Just at that moment 
there was a foetus in the womb of a crocodile. It replied 
from there that it understood the instructions being given. 
21. In the midst of the violent waves of the sea this foetus 
remained hidden in the womb of the crocodile. Hearing 
the instructions given by Shiva to Parvati, it held it in its 

359 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXII 21-33 

memory; 22. just as when Kayadhu was in a prison, and 
Narad came suddenly there and kindly gave her instruc- 
tions, Pralhad still in the womb heard it ; 23. so now as the 
Enemy of Madan { Shiva ) was instructing Parvati, His 
words reached into the womb of the crocodile. At that 
moment, Matsyendranath was born, a saviour of the world. 

24. He was in truth the avatar of Shiva. He was the very 
mount Meru of those indifferent to earthly things, an ocean 
of intelligence, descending as an avaiar to save the world. 

25. Matsyendranath was supremely wise in all divine 
knowledge. He was the wish-tree giver of the highest 
form of final deliverance, the internal Witnesser of 
every life, or the second "Vishnu Himself, 26. the home 
of the qualitiless One in the form of intelligence, a moon 
becoming a full moon. 27. Although He came with a 
body. He was separate from it. He was a statue of the 
•upreme Brahra, the essence of the highest form of happiness 
made manifest to this world, 28. ks He came out of his 
mother's womb He did not forget that he was the suprems 
Brahra. He was not touched by the violent winds of 
ignorance. He at once came out of the water. 29. He 
began to think to Himself,'! want to see all the sacred bath- 
ing places ' From there, therefore, Matsyendra wandered 
•bout as he wished. 30. He wandered about from town to 
town and ate whatever was given to Him. Afterwards He 
was accustomed to go into the jungle and sit by Himself 
•lone. 31. Thus indifferent to all earthly things, twelve 
years of his life passed away. On one occasion, however, 
he arrived casually at a certain town, 

MATSYENDRANATH'S BEGGING TOURS 

32. He begged from house to house but remained 
before them only for a moment. One day he happened io 
■tand before the house of a merchant. 33. He cried out 
• Alakh ' at the door of the house. He spoke very rapidly, 

360 



Ch. XXII 33-46 MATSYENDRA'S BOOH 

' If you have anything to give me, give it to me at once, 

mother. ' 34. Hearing His sweet voice, the wife of the 
merchant was astonished. She exclaimed, ' Blessed is the 
mother of this guest that she should have borne such a 
person. ' 35. As she came out of the house with her offering 
she saw a divine form before her. There were two earrings 
in His ears with a shining cluster like that of the stars. 
36. The beautiful brilliancy o2 His form was like that of 
gold. He^had rubbed white sacred ashes all over His 
body. He wore a brilliant waist cord. His elongated eyes 
were beautiful. 37. Seeing His form she bowed to Him 
in her love. She exclaimed, ' O Sivami, where have you 
come from ? Tell me. ' 38. Hearing her Matsyendra- 
nath replied, ' The country of the supreme Brahm is My 
country. He who understands this has a right to the 
happiness which comes from the union with Qod. ' 39» 
The merchant's wife said to Him, ' I have no child. 
Although we have in our home every form of wealth, yet 
our house seems empty because of this ; 40. just as the 
night without the moon, just as the earth without trees, or 
just as rivers when there is no water in them causing a 
frightful appearance ; 41. just as the rainy season is 
fruitless without a cloud ; or as fatness when there is no 
strength in one's body; 42. like a king without any power; 
like acquaintance with scriptures but failing in duty ; like 
a lamp without oil or wick does not look well ; 43. wisdom 
without luck ; planting the garden without water; so to 
possess wealth but to have no child, seems to be a vain 
possession. 44. Give me therefore the knowledge whereby 

1 may have an increase in my descendants. ' Hearing her 
words on this occasion in private, Matsyendranath was 
pleased. 45. Then taking some of His ashes and repeating s 
mantra over them He at once gave them into her hand. 
He said, ' The moment you eat this, you will certainly 
have a son. 46. You will see in living form the avatar 

361 



BHAKTAVLTAYA Ch. XXII 46-58 

of Vishnu. Tell no one of this, and aooomplisb your 
purpose.' 47. Telling her this, Matsyendranath departed 
rapidly. The wife of the merchant took the ashes and 
placed them in the god-room. 48. She then called her 
friends to her and said, ' Listen to my secret, dear friends. 
A mendicant came into our yard, and I went out and gave 
him some food. 49. He was glorious and brilliant to the 
sight. He was unconcerned and indifferent to all earthly 
things and full of holiness. Seeing such a form as His, 
my mind felt great satisfaction. 50. I told Him that I had 
no child. He then looked towards me with a look of fav- 
our, and gave me ashes over which He repeated a mai^ra, 

51. He said to me, ' The moment you eat this, you will 
conceive a child.' After telling me this He hastened away. 

52. Now tell me truly whether you think the doing of this 
would prove true or false. I have none more intimate 
than you, dear friends.* 

MERCHANT'S WIFE DISCARDS MATSYENDRA'S FAVOUR 

53. One woman amongst these friends replied, ' What 
is the xise of placing faith in the split-ear sect ? They 
perform many tricks and thus deceive people. 54. If you 
trust to them you will lose in your domestic affairs. Wish 
a long life to your husband and you will prosper well in 
your family affairs. 55. The split-ear sect give ashes, 
making the one to whom they give it a dog, and make the 
dog run after them. At night they turn the dog into a 
woman and enjoy her. Such is their custom.' 56. Speak- 
ing to her in various ways they put doubts in her heart. 
Then they exclaimed, ' Throw these ashes at once into the 
fire. 57. By listening to the words of neighbours, a quar- 
rel arises between the daughter and her mother-in-law, 
enmity ensues between brothers and they separate them- 
selves and leave their mother and father. 58. It is a quar- 
rel in the home that is the direct cause of loss to men ; lust 

362 



Oh. XXII 58-69 ABUSE OF MATSYENDRA'B BOON 

SB when gruel is thrown into milk, it is at onoe destroyed, 
59. And as when gold is covered with a metallic cement, it 
once appears tarnished, so, through the thoughts of otherst 
evil character comes to one of good family.' 60. Therefore 
the woman at onoe threw into the fireplace the ashes given 
her by Matsyendranath; just as one might call nectar 
poison, and empty it on a heap of stones; 61. or as one 
might have found a book containing the Vedanta, he might 
think it ^n immoral book and throw it away; or as one 
might throw away pearls thinking them to be glass beads; 
62. or as one might throw into the fire the seed of the wish- 
tree; or as the daughter of the ocean, Lakshmi ( the 
goddess of wealth ), is driven away by force; 63. or as 
when Kaikeyi ( Ram's stepmother ) obtained the remains 
of the ( fire ) sacrifice, but with doubt in her mind she 
threw it away; so through her fate the woman did not eat 
the favour given by Matsyendranath. 

MATSYENDRA AGAIN AT THE MERCHANT'S DOOR 

64. Twelve years passed after this event. Suddenly 
Matsyendranath the Yogi in His wanderings appeared 
again at her house. 65. Wandering at will from house to 
bouse in the city. He had come to the house of the merchant. 
There at the door He cried out ' Alakh. ' 66. Just as soon 
as the lady of the house heard His sweet voice she at once 
oame out bringing her offering. The moment she looked 
at Him she remembered what had happened long ago. 67. 
Matsyendranath said to her, ' Allow Me to meet at once 
the son who was born to you after I had given you the 
ashes. * 68. The wife of the merchant having heard Him 
say this, her heart was filled with fear. She thought, ' If 
I should tell Him the very truth, He will curse me and 
turn me to ashes. ' 69. So she remained silent, and would 
say nothing. Matsyendranath again repeated, ' Tell Me 
at onoe whether you ate the ashes or whether you threw 

363 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXII 69-82 

them awsy somewhere ? ' 70. To this the wife of the 
merchant replied, ' Listen to the exact truth. Listening 
to the advice of others, a doubt arose in my mind. 
71. Believing that you had some deception in your mind 
I threw the ashes into the fireplace. Such was the 
writing of Brahmadev ( on my forehead ) when foretelling 
my fate.' 72, Matsyendranath said to her, ' Where did 
you throw the ashes ( of the fireplace ) ? Tell Me quickly.- 
Do not hesitate.' 73. 'I took them to that large place from 
where the farmers removed the manure, and have dug a 
ditch where for twelve yestfs cowdung has been thrown. * 
74. Then going outside with Him she showed Him the place 
and said, 'It is here that for many days we have thrown 
ashes, O Sivami. ' 

THE BOY GORAKSHANATH COMES OUT OF DUNGHILL 

75. Matsyendranath went to the heap of manure and 
stood there, and as He cried out ' Alakh ' a wonderful thing 
happened. 76. ' O Guru Adesh' such a sound came from 
the ground. As every one heard it their minds were filled 
with astonishment. 77. Then Matsyendranath told her 
to have the earth removed by men. Suddenly they saw 
the form of a twelve-year old boy glorious in appearance. 
78. As the fullnioon, so was this beautiful and resplendent 
form, a boy with thirty-two points of excellency who was 
the very avatar of Vishnu. 79. His face was beautiful and 
he had elongated eyes. Earrings adorned his ears and 
without a support he sat constantly repeating the names of 
(Jod. 80. No earth had soiled his body. People seeing this 
were astonished. Then Matsyendranath came quickly to 
him and awoke him up. 81. As Matsyendranath placed 
his assuring hands on his head, he made Him a prostrate 
namashar. Matsyendra took His young boy by his hand 
and quickly started away. 82. Because the boy had 
lived in the dung and the ashes that had become mixed 

364 



Ch, XXII 82-93 BIETH OF GORAKH 

during the twelve years, therefore the name lovingly given 
to him was Gorakshaknath/ 83. The merchant said to his 
wife, ' Oar great treasure was almost in our hand; but the 
workings of fate did not allow it in the case of our fortune.* 
84. Maisyendranath hearing his pity-arousing words, 
blessed him and said to him, 'Know this that you certainly 
will have another son.' 85. Saying this to the couple, he 
took Gorakshanath by the hand and started for a visit to 
sacred b{(thing-places. 

QORAKSHANATH'S PILGRIMAGE 

86. As they walked hastily along, Gorakshanath said 
to Matsyendra, ' Place your hand on my head and instruct 
me with the mantra that will be my saviour.* 87. His Ouru 
replied to him, ' You have not yet served Me. I have there- 
fore no authority to teach you and make you my disciple. 
88. One should not tie up in his cloth coins without examin- 
ing them. So wise and clever men should not give instruc- 
tions even to a good disciple at once. 89. One should not 
sow in a land that has not been ploughed; so before I have 
examined you I cannot accept you as my disciple.' 90. Hear- 
ing him say this, Gorakshanath made him a prostrate namOF- 
skar. Joining his hands together he said, 'Your command, O 
Swami, is my authority.* 91. As they hastily walked along 
they suddenly came to a city. Seating themselves outside, 
Matsyendranath sent Gorakshanath into the town to beg 
for food. 92. Before each house he cried out, 'Alakh.' As he 
begged for food from house to house, there was one in which 
Brahmans were being feasted. 93. The lady of the house 
came out and placed in his cloth a wheat-cake and fried 
hot cakes. She said to herself, ' This split-ear seems to 
be a very good man, he did not sit doggedly for more 

" <?o = a cow; raAsA = protection; the story being that during th« 
tvelve years the boy had been fed by a oow with her milk at the 
dunghill. 

365 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXII- 93-107 

food. 94. A man who is satisfied with a little food is 
truly an rtvatar of Qod.' Such were also the remarks 
people made to one another. 95. Then going outside the 
city, Qorakshanath prostrated himself before Matsyendra> 
He selected all the best of the food and placed it before 
his sadguru. 9<J. Matsyendra was pleased and said to 
Goraksha, ' These fried hot cakes taste very delicious, and 
I am satisfied with them. 97, So tomorrow going again 
into the city, bring me the same kind again.' He replied 
that he would do so and made a namaskar. 98. The. next 
dayTery early in the morning Gorakshanath took his 
wallet and went into the town. 99. Thinking to himself he 
said, ' If I should hasten to other homes, my promise will 
not be fufiUed. So I had better go to where the Brahmans 
were dining.' 

GOBAKH'S PERTINACTTY 

100. Gorakshanath then went and sat down at 
the door of the Brahman's house. There he called out, ' O 
mother, give me at once in my cloth some more fried hot 
cakes.' 101. The lady of the house came out and said to 
Gorakshanath, ' There are no fried hot cakes at all left in 
my house. 103. Yesterday the Brahmans dined in my 
house, therefore I was able to give you food. If you ask 
of me now the same food, tell me where I am to obtain it. 
103. I can give you a pice ( a small copper coin ) or grain, 
but I have no fried hot cakes in the house.' 104. Goraksha- 
nath said to her, ' I have no other wish. If you should give 
great heaps of money, they would look to me as if but clay. 
105. Even if riddhis and siddfds ( the aooompHshments ) or 
a royal fortune, or the dignity of Indra, should come into 
my hand, or indeed all the four forms of deliverance, I 
value none of them. 106. I ask you to fulfil the wish of 
my sadguru. Therefore I ask you for fried hot cakes. If 
I leave here before I obtain them, I swear by him.* 107. She 

366 



Ch. XXII 107-119 GORAKH'S DEVOTIOK 

replied, ' You are using force on me, while I am doing a 
charitable action it is interfered with by my ill luck. You 
are not a guest. You are a supreme deceiver. You are 
asking for the daintiest of food. 108, Sometimes one throws 
bread to a dog and it then comes again and again to the 
door in the same way to get the food. So it was with you. 
I understand you now.' 109. Qoraksha replied to her, 
' We are even inferior to dogs, but unless I take these 
fried hot cakes, I will never leave this place.' 

GORAKH GIVES AN EYE FOR HOT CAKES 

110. She said, 'You obstinate fellow. You have seated 
yourself here with obstinacy; ( but if you like to have it 
satisfied ) take out one of your eyes and at once give it to 
me.* 111. Hearing her, Goraksha replied, *I will give you 
one of my eyes." She replied, ' Talking without correspond'- 
ing action is useless. 112. Mendicants like you give others 
knowledge and themselves act unreasonably in their ignor- 
ance ' 113. Hearing her say this, Goraksha putting his 
finger into his eye, quickly took out one of his eyeballs 
and placed it on her hand. 114. Seeing this the lady of 
the house became full of fear. Said she, ' If the officials 
should hear of this affair, they would take from us all we 
have.' 115. Then through fear she closed the door. She 
made a namaskar to Goraksha, and said, ' I spoke merely 
from a casual point of view. I did not know your fixed 
determination. * 116. The blood that flowed from his eyes 
she wiped away with her garment. But Goraksha said to 
her, ' Let there be no fear in your mind.' 117. If Goraksha 
had become angry, then the whole universe would have 
burned up with his curse. But he is a tree of peace and 
forgiveness. He never is angry. 118. Wherever his 
footsteps fall all the ^ddhia ( accomplishments ) come and 
^nd before him there. But he does not care for them and 
continues begging from house to house. 119 A sannyasi 

367 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XXII 119-131 

may perform many austerities, and yet be subject to lust 
and anger losing thereby his store of good deeds. This 
saying must be regarded as true. 120. Or if he should 
suddenly have a great desire for the riddhis and siddUs 
(accomplishments) he would lose the supreme spiritual riches 
and become entangled in great hindrances. 121. Therefore 
the son of Matsyendra quickly conquering his lust 
and pride, kicked away the riddhis and siddhis and lived 
a life indifferent to worldly things. 122. The lady then 
went into her house. She collected the materials for 
making hot cakes. She ground the dcU with her own 
hand and added salt and cummin seeds. 123. She fried 
the cakes in melted butter. She then brought them outside 
and placed them at the feet of Goraksha, making him a 
prostrate namaskar, 124. She put the cakes in his knapsack 
and joining her hands together palm to palm, respectfully 
said, 'Let no one outside learn of this matter. ' 125. ' I will 
not, ' He replied. ' Let your mind be without any fear 
about this. ' He covered his eye with his lotus-hand and 
came back to Matsyendra. 126. He bowed to Him with 
reverence, and said, ' I begged for food and have brou|;ht it 
here. So let the Swand show his favour to me. Let him 
est it according as may suit his taste. ' 

GORAKH REGAINS HIS EYES 

127. Mateyendra asked him, ' How did you lose your 
eye?' Gorakshastood with hands joined together and told him 
all that had happened. 128, 'While begging for the hot cak^, 
she asked for my eye. Then with my hand I took out one 
eyeball and gave it to her, O Swam. ' 129. Matsyendra 
replied to him, ' Blessed is your courageous act. Now then 
take out your other eye, and give it to me. ' 130. Goraksha 
replied, ' I will do so; ' and at once took out his other eye. 
Matsyendra seeing him do this was astonished, and said, 
* 7oa traly are the bhakta of your sadguru. ' 131. Then as 

368 



Oh. XXII 131-141 DNYANDEV AND CHANGA CONVERSE 

he waved his hands over his eyes, he immediately appeared 
with brilliant eyes. Matsyendra then gave instructions 
to Qoraksha in spiritual knowledge. 132. After he had 
eaten with love some of the cakes he gave the remainder 
as a favour to Goraksha and said, ' Never have I seen 
Buch a disciple as you are. ' 

LINEAGE OF THE NATH SECT 

133. Goraksha seeing that Shambhav was worthy of it, 
he gave him instructions and made him his disciple. 
That instruction fixed itself in his mind and through 
his favour all doubt flew away. 134. Advayanand 
came with reverence as a suppliant to Shambhav. 
Hb showed him favour and placed his hand upon his 
head. 135. Advayanand showed Prabhav his favour and 
gave him spiritual knowledge. He in turn explained the 
way of ycga to Gaininath. 136. Gaininath gave his instruc- 
tion to Nivritti and he in turn gave it to Dnyandev. Vlsoba 
Khechar b^cama the disciple of Dnyandev, giving him 
coniplate reverence. 137. The Vaishnava bliakta Namdev 
wetit as a suppliant to Visoba. Namdev's hand of blessing 
as a Vishnudas was placed on Jani. 

138. The hearers [ referred to in verses 7 and 8 above ] 
listening to this explanation felt great satisfaction. They 
exclaimed, ' Our doubts have been removed, O speaker.' 

DNYANDEV AND CHANGDEV SPEAK TOGETHER 

139. On a certain day Dnyandev went to the temple 
and said to God, ' Give me leave to go to Alandi.' 140. 
Making his ruxmaslxir to the Husband of Rukmini ho start- 
ed from there. He arrived at Alandi and worshipped 
Siddheshwar. 141. Dnyaneshwar was the direct am/ar of 
Vishnu. This reached the ear of Changdev. So he hasten- 
ed to meet Dnyandev. 

B. V. 24 369 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XXII 142-153 

STORY OF CHANQDEV 
142. You may ask who Changdev was and wheie he 
came from. Listen to the description of him. Listeners 
must keep their minds peaceful and listen attentively. 
143. In the first watch of Brahmadev's day fourteen Indras 
were born. All these fell into prison. Such were the 
wonderful deeds of fate. 144. On a certain day the 
son of Brahmadev, the storehouse of all knowledge of 
bhakti, by name Narad, a noble Vaishtiava, suddenly ap- 
peared. 145. The moment the fourteen Indras saw him 
they made him a namaskar. The celestial rishi with a smil- 
ing face began singing full of love. 146. Among them 
Changa was a noble Indra. Wearying of his many days 
of imprisonment he joined his hands to Narad and asked 
him a question. 147. He said, ' Tell me please, what 
means I can employ to obtain my release from this world ? 
Tell me of that means of deliverenoe by which rebirths 
may be avoided.' 148. The son of Brahmadev, hearing 
him say this, replied, ' There is no such means in this 
world, but go into the world of mortals, and, O Changa, 
become an avatar there. 149. There is there a great sacred 
and holy city by name of Pandhari. You will find there 
a heaven on earth and the supreme Brahm will appear 
there to you standing on a brick. Know this to be true. 
150. There you will enjoy the association of saints and 
the singing of kirtans, and all the citizens, men and women, 
are jivanmuktas ( free while living ). Go and become an 
avatar in the world of action and bring about your salva- 
tion. 151. Without going to the world of mortals, those 
who live in the city of gods and in the Heaven of Brahma- 
dev can have no final deliverance. ' 153. Hearing the 
words of Narad he made him a prostrate namaahar, and 
said, ' Use such methods as will free me from this body. * 
153. Narad at onoe gave him a mairtra with twelve 
syllables and he at onoe became free from his body. 

370 



Ch. XXII 154-166 CHANGA DEFIES DEATH 

CHANGA AND THE GOD OF DEATH 
134. The Marudgan ( Indra Changa ) then became an 
avatar at Punyastamba ( modern Puntamba ) on the bank 
of the G«nga ( Godavari ), as the son of a Brahman. 155. 
Both Vithoba and Bukmini were very aged Brahmans. In 
having this pleasure of a son, they had supreme joy. 156. 
The child wsts glorious and brilliant. As soon as they saw 
it their hearts were filled with love. On their son's eighth 
year he was invested with the sacred thread and then 
he was married. 157. Whenever a thought came into 
his mind he would carry it out. By a mere wish he 
could go through the air. If he pronounced a bleffiing- 
with his lips, it immediately took effect. 158. Wherever 
his footsteps fell, all the siddhia ( accomidishments ) 
were there to serve him. He knew all the fourteen 
kinds of learning and the sixty-four arts. 159. He knew 
how to hold the mind in control. When a hundred 
years of his life were completed the hour of death oame. 
160. He placed his soul at the crown of his head and deck- 
ed the god of death. He evaded the moment of death and 
then again brought back his life into his body. 161. Many- 
days thus passed. Fourteen hundred years passed. Still 
he did not suffer the stroke of death. 162. He never be- 
came aged. His reputation in the world grew great. He 
was accustomed to go regularly to Pandhari to perform 
kirtaii'i and to dance in them- 163. In joy and peace he 
lived in his hermitaga by the banks of the Tapi river. 
He then used to coma for his bath regularly to Puntamba 
on the banks of the Godavari river. 164. He accepted 
many disciples. They numbered fourteen hundred. He 
took all these together with him. He used to go with them 
upwards through the air. 165. Although he had this power, 
still he had not adopted a sadguru. He was accustomed 
to teach knowledge to his disciples and receive services at 
their hands. 166. Just as a physician eats whatever ha 

371 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch, XXII 166-178 

likes but prescribes a strict diet to others; or like a Brahman 
who without a bath tells others the viantras for bathing; 
167. so, showing the power of siddMs, Changder won a 
following of many disciples. But he himself never became 
the d^iple of a sadguru. 168. He said, ' I have searched 
through all the world of mortals, but I do not see a sadyuru 
worthy of me. I do not see anyone my equal in power.' 

169. But indirectly he heard a rumour that Dnyandev, 
a direct avatar of Vishnu, was living in human form at 
Alandi. 170. Changdev then thought to himself, 'I will go 
as a suppliant to him. But first I will send a letter to 
Dnyandev and receive a reply from him. ' 

CHANGDEV'S IJiTTER TO DNYANDEV 

171. He then took in his hand a pen and inkpot. After 
considering what to write he thought, 'I cannot address him 
as my younger, for I want to receive his instructions.' 172. 
He thought to himself, ' If I should wTite to him as to my 
elder, yet Dnyandev is younger than I am. ' Therefore he 
sent a blank page by the hand of his disciple. 173, Dnyan- 
dev was seated as usual by the temple of Siddheshwar at 
Aland! He was bringing the Husband of Rukmini to Ms 
mind and worshipping Him with love. 174. Suddenly by 
a path in the sky the disciple of Changdev arrived. 
Dnyandev understood why he came. 175. Before he told 
him his errand he ( Dnyandev ) said, ' Changdev has sent 
you.* He ( Changdev's disciple ) made a namaskar to him 
and placed the letter before him. 176. When he opened 
the letter, he siw that not a single word was written in it. 
He then said, ' Although fourteen hundred years have 
passed, he himself is still a blank; 177. iust as if a 
nectar tree should grow to be gree^ without besiring any 
fruit; or as if a lake were formed without any water in it ; 
178. or as if a wife has grown to adult age without bear- 
ing a child; or as a man without strength is useless ; or as 

372 



Ch, XXII 178-189 CHAHGA VISITS DNYAHDKT 

a woman is useless who puts on adornments and yet does 
not possess the good fortune of having a husband ; 179. or 
like one becoming a sannyasi, but without indifference to 
earthly things; or like a high house belonging to a miser; 
or like the stored wealth of a man without generosity, it 
deserves to be thrown into fire only ; 180, or if one has no 
compassion in his heart, of what use is his talking of 
mercy to all creatures ? If a cloud showers no water, it 
rolls through the sky in vain ; 181. so, as he ( Changdev ) 
has not gone as a suppliant to a sadguru, his life is in vaift. 
Although living for these fourteen hundred years, what of 
any value has he accomplished in them ? ' 

DNYANDEV'S REPLY 

182. Having said these things. Dnyandav wrote 
this reply with his own hands: "The soul pervade* 
all things, and is the same in all creatures. 183. There 
is no such thing with it as elder or younger, or of being 
with family or alone. And the soul is not long or short. 
It is never far away and never near. 184. When the sky 
is densely filled with clouds, space is just as it was before. 
Whether the size of anyone's body increases or grows 
small, the soul remains the same. 185. Wbatfjvir is seen 
in the universe, that substance is in our bodies. Maya or 
ignorance is guileful. It does not permit of a dear sight. 
186. Because of ignorance, we of ourselves fall into confu- 
sion. Thinking rightly, however, we should remember all 
former things. 187. Whatever is the seed of the whole 
universe, you too have.' So Dnyandev wrote in his letter 
in order that Changa might understand the truth. 
188. Having written the letter he quickly despatched it. 
The moment Changa read it he experienced its teaching. 

CHANGDEV VISITS DNYANDEV 

189. He thought to himself, ' I must go to meet at ones 
one who is such an ocean of knowledge.' Then riding upon 

373 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXII 189-201 

s tiger he showed his great power. 190. Changa moved 
along taking with him his company of fourteen hundred 
dbciples. At that time Dnyandev was at Alandi sitting 
upon a wall. 191. People came and told Dnyandev, ' A 
Tery distinguished guest has come. He is seated upon a 
tiger, and uses a serpent for his whip.* 192. Hearing this 
information Dnyandev understood its meaning. He 
remarked, ' I think this coming guest must be Changa.' 
193. He then gave a command to the wall on which he was 
sitting. He remarked to it, 'Changdev, sitting upon a 
tiger, is coming quickly to meet me. 194. When aadhus or 
saints come to my house, you also must go forward to 
welcome them.* Listening to Dnyandev's words, a very 
extraordinary thing took place. 195. The wall on which 
he was sitting began to move with great speed. As men 
and women saw this miracle they were full of astonish- 
ment. 

CHANGDEV'S PRIDE HUMBLED 

196. Just as Dnyandev had come out of the village, he 
(Changdev) recognized him from sfsr. He thought to Him- 
self, ' Blessed is the power of the aadgnru who can make an 
inanimate thing walk. 197. Of what value is it, that I 
should sit upon a living tiger, and go to meet him?' So 
he dismounted from the back of the tiger and prostrated 
himself on the ground before Dnyandev. 198. All the 
pride that was in his heart at once passed away; just as 
when medicines see nectar they flee away ashamed; 199. 
or as when seeing the heroism of Bharat, Maruti was 
sma^d in his heart; or as when Rukmini took the form of 
Sit^, Satyabhama became ashamed; 200. or as when in 
Jambavati's marriage Shri Krishna made a bear sing, and 
hearing it sing, the pride of Narad immediately left him; 
201. or as when Brahmadev stole the cows and cowherds 
and todc them to his Heaven, Shri Krishna created others 

374 



C!h. XXII 201-214 CHANGA HUMBLED 

jusfc like them and Brshmadev felt ashamed in his heart; 
202. BO as Dnyandev caused the wall to move, Changder 
was full of astonishment. He thought to himself : ' He is 
indeed Fandurang in bodily form. ' He held a reverent 
heart towards him. 203. Then underneath a banyan tree, 
both of them met together. Hearing what Dnyandev had 
to say, Changdev was full of joy. 204. Even to this day 
the i>eople call it the banyan tree of rest. Those who go 
there and sit even for a moment, they reach the highest 
state of JSnal deliverance. 205. Dnyandev then took 
Changdev by the hand and brought him to his home. 
Muktabai happened at that time to be performing a bath. 

206. When (Jhangdev understood this he went away. Then 
Muktabai exclaimed, ' Confound you, you without a guru.' 

207. But having heard her say this, Changa came rushing 
and grasped her feet. He said to her, 'Tell me, Q 
mother, how you were able to know this ? ' 208, Adimaya 
I Muktabai: See chap. 8. 186 ] having heard him say this 
replied, ' From your turning back I understood it. 209. If 
the favour of the guru was upon you, such unworthy 
thought would not have come into your mind. There are 
niches in a wall. Just so, you would have taken my body 
and come forward. 210. Cows wander about among men 
and in the jungle do they put on clothes ? I am just like 
one of these animals. Why did this not come in your ex- 
perience?' 211. Hearing Muktabai's words, Changdev 
quickly grasped her feet and then went as a suppliant to 
Dnyandev. He took the mantra and became his disciple. 

212. When the hand of him who was the supreme Brahm 
touched his head, Changdev became entirely indifferent to 
earthly things. He put aside every longing of his body. 

213. All pride went away from his mind and it became 
spotless. Changdev embraced the feet of Dnyandev and 
praised him greatly. 214. Blessed is that place Alandi ! It 
is heaven itself, situated in the world of mortals. Or it 

375 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Oh. XXII 214-216 

may be called another Psndhari created in this world. 
215. For the devotion of Dnyandev there oame the Husband 
of RukminL This fact Msbipati always contemplates in 
his heart. 

216. Sivasti ( Peace ) ! This book is the Sfiri BhaMa- 
vijaya. Hearing it the Lord of the world will be pleased. 
Listen to it, you god-loving, pious bhaktas. This is the 
twenty-sacoad daaply delightful chapter. 



376 



CHAPTER XXIIl 

CHOKHAMELA, NAMDEV, JIVA AND TATVA 

PLEASURE FROM THE STORIES OF THE SAINTS 

Obeisance to Shri Ganesh. Obeisance to the Slayer of Kanx. 

1. Today good fortune comes rushing to the homes of 
those whb listen. The wise bhaktas who listen to the 
stories of saints have realized this in their experience. 
2. Just as when one eats sugar, one finds it sweeter and 
sweeter ; so the joy of listening to the stories of the saints 
fixes right thoughts in the heart. 3. Just as when one 
drinks freely of nectar all diseases flee away, so the moment 
the sweetness of the stories of the bhaktas is felt hy anyone, 
ignorance no longer troubles such a man. 4. There are a 
great number of these stories and they are the nectar fruit 
of the trees cf peace. God-loving bhaktas know how to 
drink it as they cast aside all wrong thoughts. 5. Those 
who say, ' Let us listen to the stories of the saints,* do not 
become subservient to kal ( death ). 

CHOKHAMELA AND HIS REVILERS 

6. In the previous interesting chapter there was related 
the instruction given to Changdev. It now happened that 
all the saints on the Ekidashi ( the eleventh of the fort- 
night ) proceeded to Pandharpur. 7. Chokhamela was a 
Vaiskruiva bhakta and chief among the out-castes. The dark- 
complexioned One showed His favour to him, seeing the 
loving emotion of his heart. 8. Pandhari was his birth- 
place and there he lived with his family. He had con- 
tinually the Husband of Rukmini in his heart and was 
constantly repeating His name. 9. He was accustomed to 
bathe by the bank of the Bhima and to circumambulate 
the whole of the city of Pandhari. Then he would come 

377 



' BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXIII 9-21 

to the main door of the temple and prostrate himself 
there. 10. He had no authority to go within the temple, 
and meet the god; bo bringing the Life of the world into 
his thoughts he worshipped Him from afar. 

11. On one occasion he w%s seated at the great door of 
the temple and some evil-minded people aaw him there. 
Listen to what they said to him: 12. ' If Vithoba had any 
love for you he would have taken you into the temple. 
H you do not actually see the Husband of Rukmini, why 
do you worship Him in vain ? 13. When the dainty food 
has been cooked in the house of a Brahman, dogs are not 
allowed to sit by the ceremonially clean plates. So out- 
castes have no authority to worship Pandurang. 14, How 
can beggars enter into the pleasure-house of kings ? There- 
fore Chokhamela should not go into the temple. 15. Just 
as an unfortunate man wanders about in the jungle, but 
does not see there a wish-tree, so Krishna is not seen by the 
eyes of Chokhamela. 16. Just as any man whose life is 
coming to an end, in vain licks his chops with the desire 
ofseeinga wellof nectar, so although the Lord of the 
world is in His temple, He will never meet with you.' 
17. Hearing them say this, he prostrated himself before 
them, and said, ' My mother and father, why should I want 
in vain so great an honour ? 18. Although the sun is one 
hundred thousand towns [ or miles ] high, yet from that 
distance it cares for the lotus. So Krishna being in His 
temple. He cares for me from there. 19. The moon is two 
hundred thousand towns [ miles ] away, yet its intense 
love is upon the chakor bird; so He who is the Helper of the 
helpless, and the PersoniSoation of compassion, He remem- 
bers me. 20. Just as the mother-tortoise cares for her little 
ones from afar, so Krishna looks upon His servants with a 
look of compassion. 21. Though seeing one who is continu- 
ally near Him, yet if that one does not love Him nothing 

378 



Ch. XXIII 21-34 CHOKHA IN THE SHRINE 

whatever is accomplished by a still closer contact. * 
22. Saying this he hastened back to his home, but he was 
remembering the Husband of Rukmini in his heart, and he 
continued worshipping Him with love. 

KRISHNA TAKES CHOKHA INTO THE INNER SHRINE 

23. Now when it was night the Lord of Pandhari said 
to Chokhamela, ' I intend tonight to take you into My 
temple. ' > 21 The Husband of Bukminl having said this 
He took him by the hand and lovingly led him into the 
innermost shrine. 25. The eagle-bannered One then spoke 
to Chokhamela of His heart's secrets. He said to him, ' I 
cannot endure a single moment without you. 26. I might 
be eating with Nama, or drinking nectar with delight, but 
even at such times the memory of you is in my heart. ' 27. 
Krishna having said this, Chokhamela fell at His feet and 
said, ' You call yourself the Helper of the helpless and 
fulfil the desires of your servants. * 28. The priest who 
was sleeping near the door heard this conversation and 
full of amazement he arose. 29. He called others to come 
and bear witness to this, and told them all that had happen« 
ed, ' Some one very much like Chokha is speaking to 
Krishna. 30. The Dweller in Vcukunth ( Heaven ) is 
evidently the supreme Brahm and yet an out-caste has 
touched Him. The locks on the doors are just the same. I 
cannot understand how he could }iave entered. 31. If a 
inan of low- caste can touch the god on whom are garments 
and ornaments, then our duties as Brahmans will cease. 
What shall we do ? 32. Just as at full moon its brilliancy 
is at its highest, then it is that the monster Rahu comes 
and in love embraces it; 33. or as when the sun in the 
dark half of the month rolls around in the heavens, the 
monster Ketu suddenly appears and dims its light; 34. so is 
the Husband of Bukmini glorious in His six qualities. That 
Ho Who is described in the Vedas and Shaalraa should in love 

379 



BHAKTAVUAYA C3h. XXIII 34-48 

be embraoed by an out-oaste going into th« shrine at night 

35. how can this be remedied ? How can this hindranoe be 
put away ? ' One remarked, * Let us oall him and ask him. * 

36. Then removing the look of the door they questioned 
Chokha in reference to the whole affair. They said, ' How 
did you come into the temple ? Tell us exactly bow it 
happened.' 37. Hearing them say this, Ghokhamela 
replied, *I am your child. The dark-complexioned One 
took me by the hand and forcibly brought me into the 
temple. 38. Forgive me of wrongdoing and let your eye 
of favour rest upon me. ' Saying this be at once started 
to depart. 

PRIESTS ORDER CHOKHA OUT OF PANDHARI 

39. The priests said to him, ' You should remain no 
longer in Pandhari. For if you are here the Lord of 
Pandhari brings you into His temple. 40. So you must 
dwell on the other side of the Chandrabhaga river a short 
distance away. If you do not do so we shall certainly 
punish you. 41. You have done a very great wrong. You 
have defiled the supreme God and because of all this sin 
you will have to experience hell. ' 42. To these words of 
the Brahmans, Chokha replied, ' That I have defiled the 
Husband of Rukmini is a false charge. 43. If an out- 
caste and a Brahman both bathe in the Ganges, one should 
not blame the Ganges. 44. The earth is regarded as pure 
«nd on it all castes walk. How is it defiled ? And in 
what Shastra is it written that it can be defiled ? 45. If 
the wind strikes an evil man, his evil qualities will not 
attach themselves to the wind. It is a wrong thought to 
blame the wind. 46. If space fills the washerman's vessel 
and an earthen jar, still it is quite detached from the two. 
It is not entangled in them. 47. So to God supreme, the 
Lord of Rukmini, all castes are alike. How can you 
think that He is defiled? 48. The Lord of Vaikunth 

380 



C2l XXIII 48-60 CHOKHA. SXCOMMUNIOATED 

(heaven) fills all the universe but is unattached to it. 
You therefore have wrong thoughts in your mind and 
have become worthy of blame. ' 

INSULTED BRAHMAH8 EXCOMMtTNICATE CHOKHAMKLA. 

49. While he was thus speaking and giving illustra- 
tions, the Brahmans became full of rage and said, ' He is 
£rom a low and dirty caste and yet he teaches us know- 
ledge. '50. A locust proud of itself, tries to teach an eagle 
how to fly. A shepherd comes and gives knowledge to 
Brihaspati ( the guru of the gods ). 51. Or it is like a thin 
coating of tin showing its bright qualities to the gold. It 
is like common serpents showing their jewels before the 
gireat serpent Shesha; 52. or as when other elephants show 
oflf their gait before the elephant Airavat ( Indra's eleph- 
ant); or as if before Shiva His servants should perform th© 
tanriav ( dance) to show Him how it should be done; 53. or 
teeing the sun, the firefly shows off its brightness; or as if 
the ocean, on seeing the 7n?<nJ Agasti, should begin to roar. 
54. We are Brahmans of high caste. We are expert in 
every Shaslra, but you are of low caste, and though an 
out-caste you are attempting to give usknowledge. 55, So 
now go to the other side of the Bhima river and live there. 
If on the morrow you are seen here we shall give you 
a good punishment.* 56. Hearing these words of the 
Brahmans, Chokhamela replied. He said, ' Mother, father, 
I am your servant and truly call myself your sweeper. 
57. You have taken care of me for many days but now 
you drive me off.' Having said this his eyes became full 
of tears. 58. He then exol aimed, ' O merciful Mother 
Vitthal, from today I am separated from Tby feet. My fate 
is very powerful. What am I to do ? ' 59. Saying this he 
hastened as fast as he could to his home, at the same time 
remembering the form of Hari in his heart and in love 
repeating His name. 60. He kid his wife all that had 

S81 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXIII 60-71 

happened and said, ' The Lord of Pandhari has neglected 
us. Let us now go to the other side of the river and there 
we shall live.' 

CHOKHA IN EXILE 

61. Then looking for a spot straight in front of the 
iemple, on the other side of the river, he built there 
a pillar for lights. There it was that Ctiokhainela 
lived contemplating the cloud-complexioned Krishna in 
his heart. 62. Even today, when anyone goas on a 
pilgrimage to Pandharpur he sees there the pillar for lights. 
At that place then the chief of bhaktas lived indifferent to 
all earthly things. 63. Bringing the Husband of Rukmini to 
mind he continued to worship Him with love, sayintj ' God 
has abandoned ma and cast off His love ; sd it ssems. * 
64. On a certain day this God-loving bhakta Chokhamela 
was eating his meal when suddenly the cloud-dark One 
( Krishna ) appeared and sat down beside him, 65. Under- 
neath the nimb tree there was a dense shade. Sitting in 
this shade Vanamili ( Krishna ) ate along with Chokha. 
66. Just then a priest suddenly came on some business or 
other and for a moment stood looking at the astonishing 
sight. 67. At that moment his wife was serving curds to 
the god and the food rose up and fell down. Chokha said 
to his wife, ' A great fault has bsen committed by you. 
68. The Husband of Rukmini is dining with us and you 
have soiled His yellow roba.' Hearing this conversation 
the Brahman was full of amazement. 69. Chokha turnsd 
to a crow in the tree eating the fruit of the nimb tree and 
throwing it down and said, Vanimctti ( Krishna ) is sitting 
here and it is falling on His body. 70. Go at once from 
here and sit on another branch.' While the bhakla of 
Vishnu was saying these things the priest became very 
angry. 71. Said he, ' Seeing me here, he is talking at 
random. For how can the Lord of the world have dined 
with one who is an out-caste ?' 

382 



C!h. XXm 72-M CHOKHA RECEIVED BACK 

CHOKHA RESTORED TO THE TEMPLE 

72. The Brahman hastened to oome near Chokha and 
slapping him over the mouth he immediately went away. 
73. Then after bathing by the bank of the Bhima, the 
Brahman went into the temple of the god and there saw s 
most wonderful sight which astonished him. 74, There 
was Krishna standing on the brick but His yellow robe was 
all soiled' with curds. Seeing this the Brahman looked 
straight at the god's face. 75. He saw that the cheek of 
the god was swollen. His eyes being closed by the swel- 
ling, the Brahman was full of astonishment as he came 
to understand the meaning of it. 76. Said he, ' I have 
persecuted Chokha and God has made me realize this. 
Just as when an evil man troubles an infant and this 
troubles the mother, 77. so when anyone persecutes a 
bhakta the Life of the world becomes sorrowful. Then 
punishing the ones who are not bhaktas He increases the 
glory of His servants.* 78. Thinking thus in his mind the 
priest oame back to the bank of the Bhima and there said 
to Ch(d±s, * Come with me into the temple. 79. I did not 
know the glory of bhakti. I have persecuted you needlessly, 
just as if one should hammer a diamond on an anvil and 
only weary himself. 80. I punished you but the Lord of 
Pandhari felt the force of it in His temple. When I saw 
that His cheek was swollen, I became full of fear. 
81. Therefore O dear bhakta of His, come at once with me. 
Perform some means or other and reconcile the Lord of 
Pandhari to me. 82. Then taking Chokha by the hand the 
priest came into the temple and there seeing the Lord of 
Pandhari, his ( Chokha's ) mind became filled with peace. 

83. When he embraced the god, his heart felt great comfort. 
The face of Hari that was swollen now lost its swelling 

84. The Lord of Vaikunth ( heaven ) had become weary, 
through the strain of separation from His bhakta but jaA 

383 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch, XXIII 84-97 

as soon as He met hitn again, His joy was unlimited. 
85. From that time Chokhamela began to go into the 
temple always, just as when the Ganges accepts a streamlet, 
it becomes holy. 86. All the saints, sorfAzM and Vaishmvas 
became full of joy and said, ' The Life of the world takes 
pride in His saints. ' 

HOW GOD HELPS HIS BHAKTAS 

87. Now listen to another story. The Lord of Vaikunth 
said to Eukmini, ' I am very weary today. Massage Me for 
a moment. ' 88. Krishna having said this, Rukmini laugh- 
ingly replied, ' What exploit have You performed and come 
back so soon to our house ? 89. Have you been weeding the 
garden of Savata, and therefore are wearied, O Lover of 
bhaktas ? Or were you weaving a gold bordered scarf at the 
loom of Kabir, showing your love and compassion ? 90. Or 
was it because you were thatching Nama's house ? Or 
because You have hastened back here from Lahui ? Or were 
You wearied by drawing the wall on which Dnyandev was 
Bitting ? 91, Did you draw the dead cattle for Chokha 
and thereby your hands and feet are wearied? Oris it 
that you rushed to the help of Joga and have turned back ?' 
92. Hearing these words of Rukmini, the Life of the world 
replied, ' It has taken Me from early morning to finish the 
grinding for Jani. 93. A great many sadhus and saints had 
come to the house of Nama ashis guests. And so I hastened 
to perform whatever was necessary. 94. Because of the 
abundance of work to be done, Jani had to make great 
haste, so I took her wattr jar and carried a great amount of 
water for her. 95. As the maiden Jani swept, I filled a 
"basket with the refuse and threw it outside. I washad 
the clothes with My four hands and pounded rice for 
her. ' 96. As Vanamali ( Krishna ) thus replied, Rukmini 
was astonished. She placed her head at His lotus-feet and 
looked with love into His face. 97. On a soft bed of flowere 

384 



Ch. XXIII 97-110 KRISHNA AS NAMA'S CHORUS LEADER 

Shri Hari lay, while Rukmini sat by His side and massag- 
ed His feet with her hands. 

KRISHNA I.EADS IN KAMA'S CHORUS 

98. Now listen to another story. On- a certain day 
Namdev stood by the eagle platform performing a kirtan. 
99 As there was no one to stand behind him and help him, 
Shri Krishna at onoe appeared on the scene. He took the 
cymbals in His own hands and stood there sounding them. 
100. Seeing this the Vaishnava bhaktaa were astonished in 
their hearts. Indra and other gods came and showered flowers 
upon Him. 101. Krishna also took, another form and danced 
on the kirtan stage. Accidentally His yellow robe slipped off 
and fell to the ground. 103. The Life of the world was orer- 
come by His love, and Ha was lost to all consciousness of 
body, while all the Vaishnams were overcome with astonish- 
ment yet no one spoke a word. 103. Dnyandev then took 
the god with his arm and stood Hiru up. He laughed at 
the god and listen to what he said, O clever and devoted 
ones: 104. 'You call Yourself all wise and clever and yet 
You dropped Your yellow robe in the kirtan. Now wake 
up and put on Your garment, O Lord God.' 

BHAKTI MAKES KRE^HNA FORGET HIMSELF 
105. Hearing these words the Life of the world said, 
I know nothing of honour or of dishonour. 106. Dropping 
shanio and the idea of " I " and " Thou, " dropping all con- 
sciousressof body, dropping all pride of being God, I dance 
on this kirtan stage. 107. Whatever form the love of Nama 
takes, I Krishna become that form, just as in a mirror the 
face appears as it is. 108. The sky appears according to the 
three seasons and in the same way, I, the Lord of Vaikunth 
( heaven ) become like My bhaldas. ' 109. While this con- 
versation was going on, suddenly the bhakta Kabir appear- 
ed. The noble Vaishnavas all stood up and embraced him. 
110. The saint Kabir in Banaras and the bhakla Hama in 
B. V. 25 385 



BHAKTAVLTAYA Ch. XXIII 110-lEI 

Pandharpur were both intensely loved by Qod as He eaw 

the purity of their trust. 111. Blessed is Pandhari the 

city of Vaikunth ( heaven ) where Nama performs his 

enthusiastic Idrtans, where all the men and women are 

jivanmuktas ( free while living) in their love. 112. Here ia 

Pandhari banners with eagle emblem wave, kettle drums 

are sounded, mnas are played with their sweet music, and 

men clap their bands and wag their heads with joy. 113. 

Then lighting thefivewickedplatterof lights as if they were 

the five vital airs, Rukmini came and performed the service 

of praise. Namdev waved the lights over Shri Krishna and 

lovingly prostrated himself before Him. 114. Krishna then 

said to His bkaklas. There was great enthusiasm in today's 

kirtan: 

. GOD'S PRESENCE CREATES ENTHUSIASM 
Dnyandev hearing him say this, replied to Him, 115. 
'It was because You Fandurang took the cymbals and 
standing behind Nam& helped him in the chorus. There- 
fore the whole kirtan became one of enthusiasm, seeing the 
love of the heart of the bhaktas. 116. If the sun should hold 
a torch in its hand, what lack would there be of light ? If 
the moon should use a fan, what opportunity would there 
be for heat ? 117. If the ocean were to pour water into a jar 
there would be no lack of water. Where there ia a heavy fall 
of rain no place remains dry. 118. Where Laksbmi performs 
cooking, all tastes are to be found there. If the wish-cow 
should perform the churning, there would be enough cream 
for the three worlds. 119. So when you, the Husband of 
Rukmini stood behind Nama and led the chorus, then why 
wonder nt the enthns!",sm that was aroiisad ?' 120. Hearing 
these words of Dnyandev, the Life of the world began 
to laugh and said, 'You now understand the secrets of 
My heart.' 121. Then the Husband of Rukmini, after dis- 
tributing sweetmeats to all who were present, re-entered His 
traaple. Here the bhakla Kabir came privately and in his 

386 



Oh. XXIII 121-132 OBTHODOXy DEFDBD 

love prostrated himself before the god. 122. Taking lesve 
of the Husband of Bukmini, Xabir started for Bameshwar 
and as he walked along the road he was bringing Shri 
Bam into his mind. 

JIVA AND TATVA DEFY ORTHODOX CUSTOM 

123. As he ( Eabir ) walked along the road he saw a 
certain city and here the noble Vaishnava lodged. By 
night he performed an enthusiastic kirtan with his heart 
full of joy. 124. Many people came to listen to him and 
all who listened became absorbed in his performance. 
Among them were Brahmans, one by name Jiva 
and another by the name of Tatva who were supremely 
wise. 125. They exclaimed, ' Blessed is Kabir Vt» 
Vaishnava servant. He is especially wise in all philoeo- 
phio knowledge. So with reverence let us go to him and 
let us both receive his instructions. ' 126. Jiva and Tatva 
both came to Eabir and with reverence prostrated them- 
selves before him. They said to him, ' Save us. ' 127. 
Seeing that their purpose was pure he had compassion on 
them and placed his hand on their heads, and immediately 
made them his disciples. 128. The bhakla Kabir after 
seeing Bameshwar and the other Southern bathing-places 
returned to Benares with a feeling of repentance. 

129. Now all the Brahmans began to revile the two 
brothers, Jiva and Tatva, and would not go to see them. 

130. They were thrown out of caste. The Brahmans said 
to one another, ' Those who form connubial relations with 
them will be considered as belonging to the Muhammadan 
caste. 131. Kabir himself may be wise, though evidently 
he is a M uhammsdan. But the moment these became his 
disciple.s they began to revile the religious deeds of 
BrahraHnu *'^^ have become possessed of spiritual 
knowIe<ite ' 133. Thus spoke all the evil-minded, but 
these ( Jiva and Tatva ) would not listen to theii- words. 

387 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XXIII 132-144 

They said, ' If one prays at the feet of the aadgwru, what 
is the need of different castes ? ' 133. In the naeantime 
the son of one of them and the daughter of the other 
became of marriageable age. They therefore became 
deeply concerned and could not think what to do. 
134. Seeing that they could not find a husband for their 
daughter, nor find a bride for their son, they went to 
Benares and told Kabir. 135. The father of Kamal ( Eabir ) 
through his power of inner sight understood what had 
happened without their telling him. Thought he to himself, 

* They have received my instructions and have been turned 
out of caste. ' 

KABIR'S ADVICE TO DISREGARD CASTE 

136. The bhakta Kabir then said to Jiva and Tatva, 

* Listen to my advice. You two become the relatives of one 
another. 137. Lose all fear of such a deed and make one 
another your relatives.* To those words of their sadguru 
tiie Brahmans replied, ' We will do so.' 138. Kabir said 
to them, ' If you will trust my word all your trouble will 
at once vanish and you will reach final deliverance.' 
139. Worshipping the feat of their sadguru, the Brahmans 
at once started back. Returning to their country they 
decided to perform the marriage. 140. Appointing the 
day for the marriage they at once began to collect the 
needed materials. When this news was heard in the city 
all were astonished. 141. The parents repeated the mantras 
with their own lips, invested the son with the sacred thread, 
and the marriage of the two was decided upon for the next 
day. 142. Then all the Brahmans came together and asked 
them for information. They said, ' Whom have you 
appointed as your relatives that you have determined on 
Remarriage for tomorrow?' 143. To these words of the 
Brahmans they replied, 'We have a bride and a bridegroom 
at the house. 144. Just as in the case of animals and birds 

388 



Ch. XXIII 144-151 BRAHMANS RBCOMOILED 

such is the custom of our oaste.' Hearing them say this, 
all the Brahmans were astonished. 145. They said, 'If we 
turn them out of oaste, then there will be a mixture of 
castes. The blame will fall on us, and Qod will surely 
be angry with us. 146. Trusting to the feet of their sadguru 
they have oast aside all orthodox customs. Thus by testing 
their minds we hare disoorerad the full facts.' 147. All 
the Brahmans then called Jiya and Tatva, and said to 
them, ' We will provide relatives for you gladly.' 148. So 
choosing a bridegroom for the daughter and a bride for the 
son, all the Brahmans helped and the marriages were per- 
formed. 149. Both of them went to Benares and told the 
whole story to Kabir. Hearing their words the stdguru 
was well satisfied in his mind. 

150. In the next chapter, there is a story with deep 
meaning containing the very purifying history of Fadma- 
nabh. Mahipati says, ' Let the fortunate and wise bhak'an 
give attention to it.' 

151. SuxisH (Peace)! This book is the ^AaA:&nx;aya. In 
hearing it the Lord of the world will be pleased. Listea^ 
you God-loving, pious bhaktas. This is the twenty-third 
very delightful chapter ; it is an offering to Shri E^rishna. 



389 



CHAPTER XXIV 

PADMANABH AND KA.BIR 

Obeiaance to S/tri Ganeah. Obeiacmce to Gopad Krishna. 

THE IMAOB OF EBI8HNA DBSCBIBED 

1. Vietory to the Husband of Rukmini, Dweller 
upon the banks of the Bhima, Protector of His bhdktas, O 
Narayan, Saviour <A the ignorant, Purifier of the sinful, 
Life of the world, and the Primal Being. 2. Thou, O Lord 
of the earth, hast remained standing with both hands upon 
Thy hips. Thy eyes directed to the tip of Thy nose. And 
thus dost Thou wait for Thy bhafdas. 3. In order to be the 
Advocate of Ambarish, Thou didst assume the form of ten 
amlars. Thou didst perform limitless deeds, according to 
Thine own pleasure. 4. But now, O Krishna, Thou, art 
standing with Thy hands placed on Thy hips revealing the 
glory of Thy bhakias. Thou hast turned the minds of the 
ignorant to Thy contemplation. 5. Thou dost not look to 
caste or family. Thou didst dine with Nama. Thou didst 
drag the dead cattle for Chokha. Thou didst weave a 
scarf for Kabir. 6. It is Thou who didst cause their most 
wonderful lives to be recorded. So now, hearers, give 
attention and listen with love. 

KABIR'S BHAKTI 

7. In the preceding chapter there was related the 
story of two Bra^mans, Jiva and Tatva, how they went to 
Benares, and there told their affair to Eabir. 8. Kabir was 
a bhakta with intense love for Qod. He was always 
nnoonoerned, and indifferent about worldly things. He 
jmt away all the troubles of his mind and devoted himself 
constantly to the worship of Raoa. 9. He had no snare of 
desire in bis heart. C!ow<dang and gold were alike to 
him, as were also diamonds, jewels and pebbles, th«y all 

390 



csl xxiv 9>21 the hofklbss lbpkr 

seemed alike to Eabir. 10. Bialamader and an ant. Mount 
Mera and a fly, all memed to him alike. A apeaker like 
Brihaspati ( the guru of the gods ) and a dumb idiot were 
alike toEabir. 11. Day and night when awake, when 
dreaming, and in dreamless sleep, he was worshipping 
Shri Ram. There never was a moment without his 
worshipping Ram. 

THE HOPELESS LEPER 

12. There was a certain merohant, supremely pious 

and extremely generous. He had fire sons grown up and 

evary kind of wealth in his home. 13. His money and 

grsia were without limit. His wife was beautiful and of 

noble family. He was honoured by all his relatives, 

friends and family conneotions. 14. Although this was 

so, and everything was favourable, yet ha was attacked by 

leprosy. His whole body became filled with worms. T\^ 

was the result of deeds in some former births. 15. A person 

who has in his bouse wealth, health of body, sons, and an 

excellent wife, and has compassion on all creatures alike, 

is seldom found. 16. One learned in the Shaslraa, expert 

as a speaker, and yet without pride and of a high caste, 

and who does not find fault with others, is seldom found 

17. He who is not obsequious, to whom a prince and a 

pauper are alike, and to whom all other women are as hb 

mother, is seldom found. 18. One who edways performs 

acts of benevolence, whose mind puts aside all oonoarn, 

and is always worshipping Shri Hari, such an one js sd- 

dom found. 19. He who has property and wealth and yet 

to whom all is as clay, and who in time of famine gives 

food, such an one is seldom found. 20. But aooording to 

the life one has lived in his former births he reaps ftoit in 

oonf ormity to it ; and so the body of the merohant had b*- 

oome very diseased. 21. His whole body was filled wfth 

worms and the stench from him spread everywhere. No ona 

391 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXIV 21-38 

oould even look at him, every one became disgusted. 2*2. 
Those tor wh<xn he had oared and whom he had fed during 
his life, now when he was about to die, put him off at a 
distanoe. He had not remembered in his heart Shri Hari, 
the Lord of heaven. 

FAILURE OF REMEDIES 

23. Physicians called it a very serious disease. They 
gave him all kinds of medicines, but Pandurang did nol 
show him favour and his disease only grew worse. 24. 
Astrologers told of adverse planets and how they were all 
disturbed, therefore to recover his health they told hitn to 
propitiate these by repeating their manlras. 25. The sorcerers 
said, 'The goddess must have become angry,' so if you will 
go and'beg in her name, you will certainly be restored 
to health. ' 26. He heard all these various remedies and 
yet became worse and worse. If one has not the feet of 
Shri Hari in his mind, in his case even nectar becomes 
poisoa 27. 4 Brahman came to his house and told him to 
repeat the name of Malhari Another said, ' Divide all 
your wealth today among the Brahmans. * 28. Another 
said, * Read the Sapiashati and the goddess will then make 
you well. ' His sons did for him according to the various 
remedies suggested. 29. One said, ' You must worship the 
sun by ablutions of water. You must repeat the Oayatri 
memtra regularly.' 30. Another said, ' You 'must propitiate 
^liva by a shower-bath of mdharudra, ' Another said, ' You 
must circumambulate Hareshwar. ' 31. Another said, 
* You must make the elephant-faced god ( Ganpati ) favour- 
able to you. You murt observe the Sankashti chaturthi (the 
trouble-removing festival of the fourth day ) and offer to 
Him sweetmeats.' 32. Another said, 'You must quickly try 
the remedy of a man/^tt-understanding person.' Still 
another said, ' You must worship Eal Bhairav that he may 
•dvoeaie your cause.' 

392 



Oh. XXIV 32-45 THE LEPER THINKS OF SUiaOB 

THE LEPER THINKS OF SUICIDE 

33. Others said.-'Cal! Br&hmans and give them the 
gifts of elephants.' Another said, 'You must have 
yourself weighed and according to your weight give 
money to the Brahmans.* 34. He listened to every 
one, and at once used the remedy each one suggested. 
He spent all his money in order to regain his health. 
35. But day by day the merchant became worse and 
the stench spread far and wide and no one came near. 36. 
His whole body became full of worms. He was in great 
misery. Finally he thought to himself, ' I must offer my 
body to the Bhagirathi.' 37. The merchant called his sons, 
his wife, his relatives and his neighbours and said to them, 
' Take ray body and throw it into the river Bhagirathi. 
38. You have suggested many remedies, but my karma 
( fate ) is opposed. Now I will perform a penance by 
drowning in the Bhagirathi '. 39. Hearing him say this 
they mourned because of their love for him. They then 
lifted up the merchant and took him to the banks of the 
Ghinges. 40. An innumerable crowd of people assemble 
to see the marvellous act, saying, ' The merchant is about 
to give up his life because his disease is so terrible.' 41. 
On the banks of the Bhagirathi there was an unimaginably 
dense crowd; men and women viewed the scene and greatly 
wondered. 42. One remarked, ' He never thought to com- 
mit suicide '. Another said, ' How is it that his sons and 
wife have become indifferent to him?' 43. One replied to 
tbd other, 'Our end might beoome like that. One should 
now therefore give attention to the worship of Stiiri Hari.* 
44. Hearing what the people said, thje merchant replied to 
them, ' Now push me at once into the Bhagirathi river. 43. 
I cannot endure this intolerable disease.' All agreed to 
his request. They brought four water jars and fastened 
them to his hands and feet. 

393 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXIV 46-57 

PADMANABH'S ARRIVAL AT THE CRISIS 

46. Just then the Brahman Padmanabh oame there in 
ordtar to bathe. With his lips he was repeating the names 
of Gtad, ' Rama, Krishna, Oovind.' 47. He was a disoiple 
<^ Eabir and with real love for God he was ropeating 
His names. The bhakta of Vishnu came there with a 
Sarlandof^u^«( beads around his neok. 48. Hera by the 
banks of the Bhagirathi a crowd of men and women more 
dense than would seem possible was viewing the sight, and 
because of their love all were full of sympathy. 49. Padma- 
nabh asked tbsm. What is t!ie unusual thing which you 
are looking at ?' They then told him all about the affair. 

50. Hearing what the people said be at once came near the 
merchant and said to him, ' You should not commit suicide. 

51. You have passed through eight million four hundred 
thousand rebirths. And now at last you have a human 
body. If with it you commit suicide you will never get 
free from your rebirths. 52. As men are born in this world 
of action, it is only by the worship of Hari that births and 
deaths can be certainly ended.' 53. The merchant replied 
to Padmanabh, 'iTorma (fate) is very powerful and utter- 
ly impossible to withstand, I have made use of very many 
remedies in order to regain my health. 54. But all my 
"body is full of worms. The stench from my body extends 
everywhere. All my relatives are in trouble about me. 
All means that have been devised have failed.' 

rami's name heals the LEPER 

55. Padmanabh then said to him, ' One remedy remains 
to be tried. If you repeat the name ' Rama, Rama, ' three 
times, your disease will entirely depart from you 56. If any- 
one should listen to the Veda9 and Shastras or the Puranaa 
or pronounce marUras or perform austerities, and yet if the 
name of Rama does not come into his speech, everything 
will be in vain. 57. One might worship the various 

394 



Ch. XXrV 57-68 LEPBR HBALBD 

deities, perform saorifioes and give the offerings, and yet 
if the name of Hari does not come into one's speech, every- 
thing done will be in vain. 58. One may make himself 
thorongbly wearied in going to saored bathing-places, one 
may have performed all the religious ceremonies, but if the 
name of Rama doeR not come into his speech, then all these 
acts are in vain. 59. One might sit on iron spikes, might 
give away cows, land, jewels, and food, but if Rama is not 
remembered in the heart, all goesi for naught. 60. At the 
beginning of an act the name of Eeshav and Narayan are 
repeated, and at the end the name of Vishnu is repeated, 
and all one's acts are brought to full completion. 61. Now 
repeat the name ' Rama, Rama ' and all your pain will at 
once depart. ' So said the disciple of Eabir to the merchant. 
62. To the great crowd that had gathered, Padmanabh said, 
' If you will repeat the name of Rama three times, all the 
diseases of this earthly life will at once depart.' 63. Hear- 
ing these words of the bhaklas of Vishnu, every one began 
to repeat the name of Rama. As they repeated His name 
three times an ext.'aordinary thing took place. 64. As the 
sound of repeating arose, the merchant's body became 
divine. That is due to the great glory of the bhaktas. Even 
the chief of the gods do not understand it. 

RAMA'S NAME HEALS THE WHOLE CROWD 

65. People who assembled there to see the great sight, 
as they repeated the name of Rama, all their troubles at 
once disappeared. 66. Of all the people there with diseases 
not a single person remained with a disease. Every kind 
of trouble at once disappeared. 67. Some had chills and 
fever, some were suffering from tuberculosis, but as they 
repeated with their lips the name 'Rama, Rama' their bodies 
became free from disease. 68. Some were suffering ftom 
•ar-Bches, some bad a swollen jaw, but as they repeated 
with their lips ' Rama, Rama ' they were freed from thb 

395 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXIV 68-80 

oonditioiv 69. Some were sujfering from guinea-worm 
and some were footsore, but as they remembered the 
Husband of Janaki their disease disappeared. 70. Some 
had pain in their abdomen and some had weak knees, but 
as they repelled the name of ' Rama ' their bodies became 
healed. 71. Some had the skin disease, the itch, and others 
had white leprosy, but as they repeated the name of 
'Bama, Rama' their diseases fled away. 72. Some were not 
able to see and some were deaf, but as they repeated the 
name ' Rama, Rama * ( the Holder of the bow ) they at 
once became free from their troubles. 73. Those who were 
afflicted with coughs, colds, leprosy, and diseases of the 
spine, they also in remembering the Lord of Ayodhya were 
at once without their troubles. 74. Some who were troubl- 
ed by being possessed of devils and had to resort to many 
kinds of maiitras and remedies, they also in remembering 
Rama became at once healed. 75. Well, enough of such 
long descriptions. The one hundred and eight severe dis- 
eases fled away at the sight of Padmanabh. 76. The 
merchant now healed, quickly arose and made a prostrate 
Ttamaskar to Padmanabh. He exclaimed, 'Blessed are you, 
O noble Vaishnava. You have been born to be the saviour 
of the world.* 77. All the people of Benares now worship- 
ped the feet of Padmanabh, and in their joy they worship- 
ped Rama contimially. 78. In their working moments, in 
their dreams and in their dreamless sleep, they continually 
worshipped Shri Rama. 

PADMAKABH OAVE THE WHOLE OF BENABES 
THE FORM OF SHRI RAMA 



t\ 



r9. All the people came and told Eabir what had 
happened. They said, ' The Brabman Padmanabh is your 
disciple. 80. He caused the people to repeat the name of 
Rama three times with their lips and thereby made every 
one well* Buoh a marvelloiu thing has never been seen 

396 



Ch. XXIV 80-31 BENARES IN RAM'S FORM 

before in this world of mortals.' 81. Kabir then said to 
Fadmanabh, * Why did you have the people repeat the 
name of Rama three times ? All the healing could have 
been done at onoe by repeating the two syllables Ra-tna. 
8i. Evidently you have not understood the supreme power 
of Rama's neuoae. In explaining this in detail, I will tell 
you a story of what happened long ago. 83. Valha the 
fisherman was a very great sinner. By the preaching of 
Narad and by repeating the names of Rama, he became the 
rt9hi Valmiki. 84. It was before Rama had become an 
avatar that the Ramayan foretold His story. Through his 
own inner knowledge Valmiki wrote down the ten billion, 
verses. 85. The Lord of KaUas, the Husband of Parvati 
took the Ramayan and made a distribution. The inhabi- 
tants of heaven, the world of mortala and the region below 
came to receive their portion. 88. Shiva then distributed 
among the three worlds the one hundred thousand million 
verses.' All this with his own lips Kabir told to Padmanabh. 

87. ' In this way he gave thirty-three orores of verses 
( 330,000,000 ) to the world of mortals. He gave just as 
much to the inhabitants of Vaikunth ( heaven ) and the 
same number to the inhabitants of the lower regions. 

88. There still remained one hundred million which the 
Lord of i^ai/as distributed. Thirty-three hundred thousand 
He gave to the inhabitants of Heaven, and the same to the 
inhabitants of this mortal world and to the regions below. 

89. The one hundred thousand verses that remained the 
Lord of Kailas ( Shiva ) distributed, just as a father 
distributes to his sons by his own hand. 90. ChandramauU 
( Shiva, with moon-orest on his head ) distributed thirty 
three thousand to the region bblow, the same amount to 
those in this world and the same number to the inhabitants 
of heaven. 91. One thousand verses still remained. He 
gave to each of the inhabitants of the three worlds thxee 
hundred each. There remained now one hundred whicb, 

.S97 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. XXIV 91-102 

he also divided. 92. Thirty-three verses He gave to this 
world, the same to heaven, and to the regions below. In 
making this division there remained now but one verse. 
93. Its thirty-two syllables He divided equally among th» 
three worlds. The two syllables that remained, thft 
Husband of Uma ( Shiva ) kept to Himself. 94. When 
Hari assumed the avatar of the tortoise form it was then 
that the ocean was ohuined, and the great and virulent 
poison came out of the sea. 95. That poison started to burn 
up the three worlds, and the gods were greatly troubled. 
But at that time the Husband of Uma repeated the two sylla- 
bles " Eama. " 96. The moment He repeated " Rama, '" 
Sadashiv ( Shiva ) became cool. And now Padmanabh, 
why did you make the people repeat the name of Rama 
three times ? ' 97. At this question of the bhakfa Kabir*' 
Padmanabh prostrated himself before him. 

TEN THOUSAND VAISHNAVAS AS KABIR'S GUESTS 

You pious bhaklas, now listen to an extraordinarily 
delightful story. 98. Although Kabir had a wife and sons 
yet his mind was indifferent to earthly things; just as the 
sun is reflected in the jar, but does not become wet with 
its water; 99. or just as the lotus-leaf, although in the 
water, is not made wet by it; or as when the pleasure- 
seeking man looks at his face in a mirror, he does not 
become entangled in it; 100. in the same way the bkakta 
Xabir did not become entangled in the affairs of bis life. 
Free from care and indiffarent to all earthly things, and 
intensely pious, he worshipped God. 101. Now ithnppened 
on a certain day that ten thousand Vai'<hnava-', with three 
upright marks upon their foreheads and adorned with tulai 
garlands, arrived at Benares. 102. With caps on their 
heads, and with marks of white clny made upoa their 
bodies they worshipped God in their love. Such wore the 
Vaiahnava bairagis ( ascetics ) who arrived suddenly in the 

398 



Oh. XXIV 102-115 KABm as host 

oity. 103. Shouting out the names ' Sita Rama ' they ask- 
ed the people of the town, ' What Vaishnava is there in this 
town who is the devoted worshipper of Shri Rama ' 
104. What extremely pious man is there, who will give 
food to the Vaishnavaa and satisfy their appetites ? Tell 
us at once the name of suoh a giver in this place.' 

105. Hearing what these bairagis had to say the inhabi- 
tants of the town replied, 'At this sacred place, the wealthy 
Eabir of a Muhammadan caste lives. 106. He is able 
to satisfy the need of ten thousand Vaishnavaa.' Thus 
the crooked-minded people told the vaaragis in order 
to enjoy the fun. 107. One who has money and 
grain in his home, and yet will not give to the 
hungry to eat and points out the house of another, he truly 
is a poor man. 108. He who builds a house of many 
storeys and yet will not give a lodging-place to the traveller 
that house should not be called a house but a cemetery^ 

109. He who has the gift of poesy and yet does not describe 
the goodness of God, and one who foolishly mutters hereti- 
cal opinions, his power of speech should be called devilish 

110. Anyone who has great strength of body and yet will 
not perform works of benevolence, he is not a man but a 
village hog. 111. And so while the vairagis were asking 
for food, the very miserly people of the town got rid of 
their nuisance by pointing to them the housa of £abir. 
112. Then all she sadhus who dwelt at the various sacred 
bathing-places went to the house of Kabir. At the door 
of the house they shouted out 'Sita Rama.' US. As the 
father of Kamal heard their shouts he came outside. With 
reverence he made them a prostrate namaskar and embraced 
them in love. 114. The sndhus replied to him, ' We are ten 
thousand noble Vatshmms. We have been wandering all 
over the earth to sacred bathing- places. Now we have com© 
here. 115. The people of thia sacred bathing-plt^ce have 

399 



BHA.KTA.VIJAYA Ch. XXIV 115-166 

told us the fact that the father of Kamal is a giver of 
food. ' Listening to what was in the minds of the sadhus, 
Kabir replied, ' I certainly will do as you wish. ' 116. In 
the baeaar there was a grocer by name of Tulsidas and 
Knbir went to his shop. He said to him, ' Some saints 
have come to my house as guests. Select the materials 
needed for cooking and give them to me.' 

[ Verses 117 to 165 are not translated, because these are 
similar to chapter XI 16-98. The two stories may be 
summarised as follows : — 

InCh.XI 16-98 The wife brings the provisions. To obtain 
these she promises tbe grocer to come back and pass the 
night in his company. She keeps her promise with the 
consent of her husband. The grocer on seeing her at his 
place repents, and takes her back to her husband. 

In Ch. XXIV 116-166 Kabir brings provisions from a 
grocer on condition that his ( Kabir's ) wife goes to fulfil 
the evil desire of the grocer that night. The promise is kept. 
Kabir's wife goes to the grocer in company with her 
husband. God protects her in the form of the city Kotwal 
( police officer ), and takes her back to her husband. Kabir 
goes to the real Ko'wal and takes him to task for his 
interference. The Kotwal ignores the charge. Then Kabir 
becomes aware that it was God who went to the grocer as 
the Kotwal. The grocer had the sight 'of God as the Kotwjl 
and is saved. ] 

166. Sw isti (Peace) This book is the Shri Bhaktavijaya. 
In listening to it the Lord of the world will be pleased. 
Listen, you God-loving, pious bhaktas. This is the twenty- 
fourth deeply delightful chapter. 



400 



CHAPTER XXV 

ROHIDAS THSI SHOEMAKER 

Obeisance to Shri Qanesh. Obeisance to Radha Krishna. 

A HUMBLE TRADE NOT BLAMEWORTHY 

1. Listeners, give close atitentlon. Bohidas was a 
VaishTunn of the highest type. He was accustomed to 
worship Hari with feelings of love. 2, He had put aside 
every wrong desire. With reverence he sang the praise of 
Hari. He regularly bathed and then performed the wor- 
ship of Vishnu. 3. Although he was entangled in domestio 
affairs he planned acts of benevolence. To any VaisfmaiKt 
who came to his house ho gave a pair of shoes. 4. The 
occupation of a worker in leather appears to be a low one 
but there is not the least fault to be found with it. If such 
a one performs acts of benevolence the Pervader of the 
universe will certainly be attained. 5. Cf»penters and 
potters who perform their accustomed tasks do bo without 
blame, and in doing acts of benevolence the Pervader of 
the universe is attained by them. 6. Masons and workers 
in stone as they perform their tasks are without blame, and 
in performing acts of benetolence the Pervader of the 
universe is attained by them. 7. Weavers and iishennen 
in performing their usual tasks are without blame and in 
performing acts of benevolence the Pervader of the universe 
will he' attained through their devotion. 8. Washeormen 
and dyers in performing their tasks are without blame and 
in worshipping through acts of benevolence, while in the 
body, the purpose of life can be attained. 9. If there is no 
hypocrisy in the performers of austerities, and the acts of 
the Brahmans, then on account of their benevolent acts 
the Husbard of Rukmini will certainly show His favour 

B. V. 26 401 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ql. XXV 9-21 

to them. 10. Well, enough of all these general statements. 
If I should desoribe the oharaoteristics of the eighteen 
oastes my story will inoreaaa too much in length. So let 
my hearers give attention. 

DAILY UFB OF BOHIDAS 

11. Through acts of benevolenoe Rohidas served the 
servants of Vishnu. He used to repair the worn shoes of 
the pilgrims. 12. Hari is more fond of benevolent bhaktas 
than He is of His own life. At the home of the benevolent 
4he Life of the world abides day and night. 13. Some 
preach to the people and demand their servioes but never 
oblige others by giving even a little water; 14. such a per- 
son though a learned man is a fool and ignorant. Bohidas 
understood this and worshipped the servants of Viabnu 
with reverence, realizing that earthly things are illusory. 
IS.He was accustomed to rise at dawn and to take breakfast 
before doing other things. He first performed his bath 
Aiid then worshipped Vishnu. 16. My listeners may think 
this a wrong way of doing ; but Rohidas ttioughi; that if 
be sat down to contemplate while hungry, his mind would 
not be undisturbed. 17. In this Kali Yuga, life is made 
op of food, so wise men say. When two watches of the day 
have passed the body becomes exhausted. 18. If one is 
hungry when sitting down to contemplate, the mind will 
at once wander. Rohidas understood this, and therefore 
he first ate; 19. just as when one is attacked by a thief, he 
•hould first abandon the money he has and run away; or 
in order that a person may not suffer injury from the 
possession of devils, the exerciser first makes an offering to 
them; 20. or when digging for a treasure, lest ghosts 
ahould persecute him a man first offers an offaring as a 
preventive; or that the Hawaldars ( village ofSoials ) may 
not swear at them, men give them bribes; 21. and so 
Bohidas in the lame way was aooustomed to make first an 

402 



Ch. XXV 21-32 PLACE OF LEATHER IN CBEATIOW 

o£fering of food to bis life [ i. e. to sustain himself ]. Then 
he would boeten to his bath and worship God in private. 

22. Now it happened on a certain day that this bhakla 
of Vishnu was sitting performing his worship of God. He 
had withdrawn to be alone with materials of worship, and 
he held his fickle mind in restraint. 23. He brought a 
bottle of leather and placed ifc there filled with water. His 
mat and his sacred bag and casket were also made of 
leather. ' 

LEATHER ( OR SKIN ) ALL OVER CREATION 

24. Rohidas was sitting down with all his vessels 
made of leather and just then a Brahman came to his house 
to explain to him the Calendar. 35. The Brahman sat down 
by the holy and beautiful tulsi altar. Rohidas at once 
arose and with reverence made hira i namaskzr. 26. The 
Brahman said to Rohidas, ' You are worshipping God whil e 
sitting upon a leather seat. What do you expect from 
that? 27. We Brahmans worship Shahgram, the idol 
of Vishnu. How is it you have placed Him in a 
leather bag ? 28. How is it you have placed in a leather 
bag Him who dwells in Vaikunth ( heaven ), the Life of 
the world whom Yogis contemplate ? How is it you have 
placed Him in a leather bag ? 29. He Who dwells upon 
the sea of milk, the Recliner upon Shesha, 2nd who cannot 
be described adequately by the Shastras though you might 
search there for Him, you have made a leather bag and 
placed Him within it. 30. Shri Rang ( Vishnu ) who can- 
not be attained by ceremonial acts, by bathing at sacred 
places, by austerities or by sacrifices, this Dweller in 
Vaikunth ( heaven ), Terminator of the earthly existence of 
His bhaktas, how is it you have enclosed Him in that 
leather bag ?' 31. Hearing what the Brahman said, Rohi- 
das replied, ' What object have you ever seen which has not 
leather connected with it ? 32. Musical instruments and 

403 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXV 32-45 

diunis are used in the praise-service of Hari. One has 
neTer seen any of them without their being connected with 
leather. 33. The black cow has a leather skin, yet her 
milk is holy. And in the Panchamrit bath (in milk, curds, 
ghee, sugar and honey ) it is used in the bathing of the god. 
34. Animate things that are born, those hatched from , eggs, 
and those produced from seed, ail three are covered with 
skin, and Atmaram ( God) is in them all alike. 35. Shudras, 
Vaishyas, Kr batriyas and Brabmans are covered with skin. 
They make drums with skin,and play them with hands cover- 
ed with skin. 36. A pleasing sound comes from them that 
is heard by the ear which is of skin. The tongue is covered 
with skin and repeats the Vedas. 37. With hands covered 
with skin one eats food and drinks water. And from a 
leather shrine ( the human body ) Atmaram ( God ) speaks 
with His gentle voice. ' 38. The Brahman now replied to 
to Rohidas, ' You are talking philosophy, but while life is 
in the body the body is never defiled. ' 39. To this Rohidas 
answered, ' If the Pervader of the universe, the Life of the 
world is in a leather bag, how can you regard Him as 
defiled by the leather ? 40. You considered the body of 
one who is conceiving or bearing a child as defiling. * 
41. One just born and one dead you regard as defiling. 
What good object do you see in them ? 42. The skin 
might be filthy and yet the good God Atmaram may be in 
it. Krishna who is without spot is alike in everything. ' 
43. The Brahman now replied, ' The emblem of Vishnu 
(Shaligram) is a holy pebble and so if a shoemaker 
worships Him, He is defiled thereby. ' 44. Hearing the 
Brahman say this, Rohidas continued, ' Who should 
worship the Shaligram ( the emblem of Vishnu ) ? Tell 
me, O Stvamt. ' 45. The Brahman replied, ' You hundred 
times a fool. We alone should worship the Lord of 



* This verse is merely paraphrased, not translated. 

404 



Ch. XXV 45- 57 BBAHMAK PRIDK HU1(BLED 

Vaikuntk (heaven). Among the four races we Brahmans are 
the highest. 46. Shri Hari is chief among the gods. The 
Brahmans are the highest among the four races. They 
alone have authority to invest themselves with the sacred 
thread and they alone can worship Vishnu. * 

THE BRAHMAN'S PRIDE HUMBLED 
47.' Hearing this remark, Rohidas replied, ' O Swam, I 
will show you my sacred thread.' 48. Tb on with his sharp 
tool he ripped open his stomach, and showed the sacrad 
thread within it. 49. The Brahman then exclaimed, 'You are 
indeed a bhakta of Vishnu, I was thoughtless and persecuted 
you. 50. Gold is cast into the furnace, and thereby its value 
is increased. In persecuting you I have but advanced your 
glory. 51. Or just as experts bore a hole in a coin in order 
to test it, thus in persecuting you I have only iiicreased your 
glory. 52. If sandalwood is rubbed on the flat stone, its 
full fragrance is at once known, so in persecuting you I 
have but increased your glory. 53. When iron comes in 
contact with a touchstone it at once turns into gold, so in 
persecuting you I have only increased your glory'. 54, Or as 
stone is shaped by a chisel and then the idol of God is firm* 
ly placed, so in persecuting you I have done what I did 
ignorantly. 55. You are a supreme 6Aafc/a of Vishnu. Wor- 
ship the Shaligram at your pleasure.' Thus speaking, the 
good Brahman went back to his home. 

56. In the next chapter, there will be a description of 
a very purifying story of the life of Pipaji. And Mahipatl 
says, ' Let the good people listen with attentive minds, and 
with love.' 

57. Su•as/^ ( Peace ) I This book is the Shri Bhakta- 
vijaya. In listening to it the Lord of the world will be 
pleased. Listen, you God-loving, pious blakfas. This is 
the twenty-fiifth very delightful chapter; it is an ofifering to 

Shri Krishna. 

405 



CHAPTER XXVI 
KING PIPAJI OF GADEMANDAL 
Obeisance to Shri Oanesh. Obeisance to the Htuhand of 
Rukmini. 
SUPERIORITY OF VAISHNAVA SAIKTS 
1. Listen now with attention, my hearers. This story 
is of special importance. As the story falls upon the ear 
all faults at once flee away. 2. In the country of Gads- 
mandal there was a very holy king. In his home, duty 
made its home. 3. When an assembly of sadhus came to 
bis place he iised to go out and meet them. He gave them 
lodgings in bis place. He gave them to eat according to 
what they desired. 4. He was brave, exceedingly powerful, 
generous, wise, religious and a worshipper of Bbavani 
( the wife of Shiva ). 5. Bhavani was favourable to him. 
He had a son, a wife and an abundance of wealth. With 
reverence the king was accustomed to worship Bhavani 
6. He used to rise early in the morning and perform his 
worship, using the sixteen materials. He offered Her 
garments, ornaments and floweris of perfume. 7. He 
brought incense and lights and made an offering of them. 
Seeing his reverence Bhavani accepted his offering. 
8. With reverence he offered to Her fruit and pansupari' 
and then circumambulating Her, made Her a namdskar 
after which the king returned to his own palace and sit 
down to his meals. 9. Now it happened on a certain 
occasion that a great assembly of Vaishnava saints, going 
to different batbing places, came to Gademandal to the 
king's city. 10. They were without desires and were 
indifferent to all worldly things. Undefiled by anything 
they lived in this world. Such were these Vcdahnaca 
bairagia ( ascetica ) who came unexpectedly to that place. 
11. Men who in their former births have wandered 

406 



Ch. XXVI 11-22 VIBHIIU'S SOTBEIOBnT 

from place to place and have performed sserifices» 
only to the house of such do the saints suddenly 
oome. 12, If one has observed Ekadashi (the eleventh 
day of every fortnight ) and served his parents, only to the 
house of such do Vaishnavas come suddenly. 13. If one 
has dug a well or a tank, and made a garden, then only 
because of his good deeds do the Vcdshnavat come to 
his house. 14. Only to the house of one who has made 
gifts of a cow and food and offered them to Krishna, do 
the Vaishnavas suddenly come. 15. He who in an infinite 
number of rebirths may have performed in this world ex- 
traordinary austerities, to his house the assembly of saints 
will come because of his good fortune. 16. The infinite 
number of the king's rebirths had at this time come to their 
fruitage, hence it was that the assembly of Vaishruxoa 
bhaklas came to the home of PipajL 17. Servants told the 
king that the Vaishnavas had come to his city. He honour- 
ed them and gave them the materials for their food. 
18. After performing his bath he went to the temple of 
Bhavani as usual. He performed his worship there and 
presented Her with his offerings. 19 He was continually 
worshipping Bhavani, and Bhavani ate the offerings he 
made. Then after making Her his namaskar the king would 
sit down himself to eat. 

VISHNU'S SUPERIORITY 

20. Bhadrakali ( Shiva's wife Parvati or Bhavani ) 
then said to the king, ' An assembly of saints has come 
to your city. I cannot, however, eat your offerings 
until the saints have eaten. 21. The loved ones of 
the Lord of the universe. Who dwells in Vaikunih 
( heaven ), Whose slaves are the infinite heavenly powers^ 
they have come to your house, your good fortune has no. 
limit.' 22. The king now joined his hands palm to palm and 
made a request of Her. 'What God is superior to you?' Hear- 

407 



BHAKTAVUAYA Gh. XXVI 22-3 4 

ing his question, mother Bhavani replied, 23. ' He Whose 
limits are unknown even to Brahma, Indra and Shiva, 
He who dwells on the sea of milk, the Husband of Kamala 
< Vishnu ), is superior to all. 24. It was He who gave light 
to the sun and the moon, and by His power they aot. So He, 
the Husband of Kukmini, the Primal Being, is superior to 
all gods. 25. He who assumed the aixilar of a fish and 
killed the monster Shankha by dashing him upon the stone. 
He, the Lord of the universe, the Life of the world, is 
superior to all other gods. 26. He assumed the avatars of a 
tortoise, a wild boar, a half man and half lion ( Narhari ), 
Vaman and Parashuram, and made the oows and Brahmans 
happy. Tdis Slayer of Madhu is superior to all gods. 
27. Indra and all other gods were imprisoned by Ravana. 
Rama assumed an avatar and by His power He delivered 
them all.' 28. The king replied to the Mother of the 
universe, 'Qaase me to meet Him Who is the Chief among 
the gods.* Saying this he fell at her feet. 29. Hearing his 
request, the Primal Mother said to him, 'You must go as a 
suppliant to the saints. If you, O king, worship them, they " 
will cause you to meet the chief of the Raghus ( Rama ). 

30. If you asked of Me riddhis and siddfiis ( the aooomplish- 
men^s ), a kingdom, or wealth, I could giye them to you, 
but to cause you to see Shri Rama is not in My power. 

31. It is the Vaivhnaua saints who are glorious, generous, 
wiie, wholly indifferent to earthly things, and possess the 
glory of six qualities. 32. Such Vaishnnva saints to whom 
the supreme and eternal God has become subject, even 
these have arrived at your city.' 

ADVISED TO OBTAIN RAMANAND'S FAVOUR 

33. Bhadrakali ( Shiva's wife ) having said this, the 
king arose and came to where the assembly of the saints 
was gathered. 31. The king came there and made them a 
$aniashar. He supplied them with the needed materials 

408 



Ol XXVi 34-47 BAMANAND'S FAVOUR NEEDED 

and gav3 them to eat. 35. With raverenoe ha gave them 
pansupari, and put garlands of flowers around their necks. 
He then prostrated himself before the saiuts and mada 
to them a request. 36. Standing before them the king 
joined his hands palm to palm and made his request. He 
said, 'I want yoa to cause me to meat Shri Rama.' 37. The 
saints replied to him, 'Go as a suppliant to Rrimanand, re- 
ceive his instruction and become his disciple. The purpose 
of your life will be a auceess. 38. If yoa worship an 
inferior deifcyj you can never acquire spiritual know- 
ledge. So at least now, O king, give attention to His 
worship. 39. To worship an inferior deity is like that of 
serving a feeble king. An ignorant talker never 
gives happiness to his listeners. 40. A praise-service in 
honour of Hari 'but without loye, an ignorant gum, a 
miserly disciple, and a sterila husband, nsver give happi- 
ness. 41. A spaaker who is in bondage beoausa of desires, 
a listener who is not a bhakta, one given to constant dis- 
putes, one who proclaims spiritual knowledge but is with- 
out experience of it, can never give happiness. 42, Be- 
coming a sanmjasi without proper knowledge, an idiotic 
son, a poor citizen, and an ugly looking wife, can never 
give happiness through assooiatian with them.' 

aURUKhO^E CAN MEET A BHAKTA WITH GOD 

43. So the saints said to the king, 'Now give attention 
and go quickly as a suppliant to Ramanand. ' 44. Hear- 
ing these words of the saints, the king realized his faults. 
Then calling his ministers he put the burden of the king- 
dom upon them. 45. He brought out from his treasure-house 
garments, adornments and ornaments. He then called the 
Brahmans.and had himself robbed by them. 46. In the name 
of Krishna he gave gifts of horses, elephants, chariots, and 
cows. Then he went as a suppliant to Ramanand and 
Arrived at the Joy Forest ( Benares ). 47. The faithful wife 

409 



BHAKTA.VUAYA Ch. XXVI 47-59 

of the king also left behind those ^he loved and cared for, 
and distributed among the Brahman women her garments 
and ornaments. 48. Both of them came to Ramanand and 
placed their heads at his feet with reverence. 49. They 
offered to this guru their wealth, their minds and bodies. 
Supplicating themselves before Ramanand they became 
his disciples. 50.. He gave them the mantra, 'Rama, Krishna, 
Narayan.' They then began to listen to the words that fell 
from the lips of their ;sadguru, to meditate upon them, and to 
study and experience them. 51. If a guru is wise and a dis- 
ciple is repentant there will be found the light of spiritual 
knowledge. Studies without this are false and hypocritical. 
52. It is like an excellent touchstone being applied to a 
piece of pottery. So what can a sadguru do with s disciple 
who is not a Uiakta and who is filthy in his ways ? 53. A 
saint is compassionate to all, to him a prince and a pauper 
are the same. But one gets the fruit according to his own 
devotion. 54. When the sun is fully arisen it gives light 
alike to every one. All doers of evil are punished and the 
wise receive honour. 55. The moon shines alike for the 
chakor bird and for the burglar. The burglar, seeing the 
moon, thinks it a nuisance, but the chakor bird thinks it 
to be nectar. 56. So sadhus and saints act continually 
with the idea of all things being alike but the fruit is 
obtained according to devotion. 

57. Well, let this long statement sufBlce. Having 
visited and worshipped Ramanand Swami the king received 
the full spiritual knowledge through his look of mercy. 
58, The king now listened to kirtans and performed them 
in honour of Hari. Night and day he was engaged with 
the worship of Hari and in repeating the mantra ' Rama, 
Krishna, Govind. ' 

PIPAJI GOES TO DWARKA WITH HIS QUKBN 

59. Now it happened on a certain day that the king 
410 



Ch. XXVI 59-71 PIFAJI STARTS FOR DWA.RKA 

took leave of his Svoami. ' Give me now leave to go to 
Dwaravati. ' 60. After worshipping the feet of his guru 
the two started for Dwarka. They bathed in the Gh>naati 
river. The king and queen went to see and worship 
Krishna in His temple. 61. Having coma to the great door 
of the temple, there they made a prostrate namaakar. Then 
the two joining their hands palm to palm gave praise to 
Shri Hari: 62. ' Victory, Victory, to Mukund, Murari, the 
Primal Being, Shri Hari, have mercy upon us lowly ones. 
We have come as suppliants to Thy feet. 63. 1 was ignorant 
of the supreme God, the eternal one, and not knowing Thee 
I worshipped Skakli [another name for Shiva's wife Parvati, 
Bhavani, etc.]. 64. It was like rejecting nectar and drinking 
the water in which rice has been washed. It was like 
rejecting the touchstone and taking in its stead a common 
pebble. So because I did not know Thee, I worshipped 
Shakti. 65. It was as if I neglected the ashvaUha tree and 
gave water to the slundi tree. So not knowing Thee I 
worshipped Bhavani. 66. So long as the sun has not risen 
I might consider the firefly as a special light. So, because 
I did not know Thee, Krishna, I worshipped Bhavani . 
67. So long as the Vedanta had not fallen upon my ears, I 
looked upon the treatise of the art of love with a special 
i'nterest. So, not knowing Thee, the Holder of the disk 
( Krishna ), I worshipped Bhavani. 68. Rejecting the 
wish-tree which was near me, I gave honour to the babhul 
tree. So, not knowing Thee, Vanamali ( Krishna ) I wor- 
shipped Bhavani. 69. But now the good deeds done in my 
infinite number of rebirths, most surely have come to their 
fruitage- Therefore it is that sadhus and saints have come 
unexpectedly to my home. 70. They told me of Thy glory 
above all comparison. ' Having said this, he made a 
prostrate namaskar, and then again made another. 71. 
Hearing his pity-arousing plea, God gave him an embrace. 
Pipaji the king then bad a direct vision of Krishna. 

411 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXVI 72-82 

72.He was in His form of four arms, with qualities, and 
dressed ia His yellow robe. The Life of the world had on 
His head a resplendent crown. Pipaji thus saw the eternal 
Qod. 73. They performed a praise service at the great door 
of the temple. In their enthusiasm, shouting loudly the 
names of God they danced. They remained in Dwarka 
for four months, performing their enthusiastic klrtana in 
honour of Krishna's name, 

A TIGER SUBMITS TO PIPAJT 

74. Then taking leave of the Lord of Vaikunlh (heaven), 
both of them, husband and wife, started to return. Further 
on as they were walking through a forest they saw a great 
tiger. 75. The tiger had a fearful appearance and he came 
forward with a roar. The wife of the king, seeing the 
tiger, became full of fear. 76. This supremely beautiful 
wife, a very mine of loveliness, turned and looked at her 
husband who was following her. She said to her husband, 
* Did you notice a tiger over there V 77. The king's wife 
trembled violentlv with fear. As the tiger came near to 
them, Pipaji the king said to her, ' Have no fear whatever. 

78. It appears to you as a tiger but Shri Rama is in it. Not 
the least space can be seen anywhere that is without Him. 

79. The sun's reflection is the same in all jars of water. 
Just as in all liquids there is water, so the Lord of Yadavas 
is the same everywhere. 80. Just as the reflection of the 
sky is the same in every jar and in every house, so the 
Lord of the world pervades everything alike. 81. The air 
is alike both to a locust and to the king of birds (the eagle ). 
So, Hrishikeski ( the Lord of the heart ) is the same in all 
creatures. 82. There is no difference between cloth and 
thread, and gold in another form is called ornaments. So, 
not knowing the form of Him as Visktoambhar ( who fill» 
the universe), the ignorant call Hun tbe universe itself.' 

412 



Oh. XXVI 83-95 pervader of the universe 

KRISHNA PERVADES THE UNIVERSE 

83. 'The Life of ths world fills fche whole of the infinite 
universe and extends beyond it. This is not a tiger but the 
Husband of Riikmini. Know this for a certainty. 84. Krishna 
fills all waters and all rocks and extends beyond them. 
There is not the least space anywhere that is without Him.' 
85. King Pipaji having said this to his wife she stood there 
amazed. The tiger came near and stood very close to 
them. 86. Pipaji said to the tiger, 'Worship Rama day and 
night.' The tiger then with reverence embraced the feet 
of Pipaji. 87. Having looked at the saint he at once 
received divine knowledge Pipaji said to him, ' Cease all 
acts of killing. ' 88. Pipaji then took off the garland of 
tulsi beads from his own neck and placed it on the necfc of 
the tiger. He gave him the mantra of ' Rama, Krishna. ' 
89. He said, ' There is no mantra more imoortanfc than 
that of, "Rama, Krishna, Narayan. " The ignorant animal 
gajendra was saved by his worshipping Ram. 90. The 
fisherman Valmiki, who was a wayside robber when 
Narad gave him instructions and made him his disciple, 
began to repeat the name of Rama and became the riahi 
Valmiki. 91. Ajamil was a very .sinful Brahman, wholly 
absorbed in his evil deeds, but by repeating the name of 
Narayan he was taken to l/'aikunfh ( heaven ). 92. Lust, 
anger, and pride, envy, hypcrisy, evil desires and ar- 
rogance, at once flee away by repeating the name of Rama.' 

93. The tiger then joined his paws together and 
making a prostrate namaslcar to Pipaji, he said to him, ' By 
your favour I have begun to worship Shri Rama. 94. 
Formerly my evil deeds were many, but now by the name 
of Shri Rama I am purified from them.' Then again ha 
made a prostrate namaskar to Pipaji. 95. Having thus 
given to the tiger the chief of all manfras, Pipaji departed 
from there and went to the Joy Forest ( Benares ). 96. The 

413 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Oh. XXVI 96-105 

tiger was wholly repenfeaat. He ceased from all acts of 
killing, discarded the eating of meat and ate only fallen 
leaves. 97. After wandering over the forest for seven 
days for the purpose of worshipping Shri Hari, he died. 
98. Tigers, scorpions, lions, dogs, serpents, snakes, falcons, 
fierce elephants, all these have evil characteristics in their 
nature. None of thetn have good characteristics. 99. But 
through the power of association with a saint, the tiger 
received spiritual knowledge. Keeping in his mind the 
worship of Hari he offared his body to Krishna. 
THE TIGER BECOMES NARSI MEHETA 

100. He who is in this world may be entangled in the 
net of desire but he who remembers Krishna at the time of 
death, he becomes delivered from rebirths. Have no doubt 
about this. 101. Putting his desires into the worship of 
Hari, the. tiger left his body. But it was in order that he 
might take birth as a Nagar Brahman in the city of 
Junagad [ in Kathiawad, Qiijerat ]. 102. The tiger was 
reborn in the form of the noble Vaishnava Narsi Meheta. 

Hearers must listen with reverenee to this most pleas- 
ing history. 103. The lives of the saints may be regarded 
as the Ganges river or the Bhagirathi or Chandrabhaga 
rivers. One should bathe in them and then with reverence 
go as a suppliant to Pandurang. 104. Taking tulsi leaves 
and flowers as pure mind and pure devotion ih his hand, 
Mahipati places his head at the feet of Pandurang. 

105. Suxiali ( Peace ) ! This book is the Shri Bhakla- 
vijaya. In listening to it, the Lord of the world is pleased. 
Listen then, you God-loving, pious bhaklas. This is the 
twenty-sixth deeply delightful chapter; it is an offering to 
Shri Krishna. 



414 



CHAPTER XXVII 

NARSI MEHETA 

Obeisance to Shri Ganesh. Obeisance to Shri Krishna. 

GOD'S FAME INDESCRIBABLE 

1. Victory to Thee, Merciful to the lowly, Husband 
of Bukmini^ Thou pervsdesi the three worlds and extend- 
est beyond them. The Vedas and Shastras attempt to des- 
cribe Thee but are not able to describe Thy wonderful deeds. 

2. In their attempt to describe Thea the eighteen Puranas 
become wearied. The six Shastras in attempting to discuss 
Thy character find that they do not understand Thee. 

3. The serpent who supports the earth when attempting to 
describe Thy infinite qualities became wearied, and because 
Thy qualities have no limit his tongue became divided into 
fangs. 4. Becoming ashamed, therefore, he made of his 
body a place for Thee to recline upon, and with his 
thousand hoods made a shadow over Thee, O Lord God. 
5. Saraswati made a resolution that she would not describe 
Thy power. She made the ocean of milk into ink and 
began to describe Thy qualities. 6. Taking pons that were 
made from eighteen 6Aara (a bhar= 8,000 tolas ) of reeds, 
and taking the earth itself as paper, she in her love tried to 
describe Thy qualities. 7. In her attempt to describe Thy 
qualities the ocean full of ink was exhausted. The earth 
as paper was insufficient. Seeing thus Thy wonderful 
nature, Saraswati fell at Thy feet. 8. In describing Thy 
wonderful qualities great writers have had to become silent. 
Thou art the Lord of an infinite number of universes. 
9. Thus Thou art the infinite Pervader of every place. Thy 
power fills the universe and extends beyond it, O Lord of 
the universe, Lord of the earth. 10. T am fond of the lives 
of Thy bhaklas, O Husband of Rukmini, therefore en- 

415 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXVII 10-24 

lighten my mind and cause mo to compose this book pro- 
perly. 11. And you, my hearera and saints, give me your 
attention. 

BIBTH AND BOYHOOD OF NARSI 

In the previous chapter the description given was 
heard by you all. 12. While coming from Dwarka, Pipaji 
gave instrucfcions to a tiger. It then gave up its habit of 
killing and began to eat fallen leaves. 13. He was not in 
reality a tiger but was the Husband of Parvati. In be- 
coming an avatar, however, it was the skin of a tiger that 
he beheld. 14. Because evil qualities entered into his 
thoughts he became a tiger. Just as in dreams one sees 
that which has been noticed in one's waking condition; 
15. so when Shiva became an avatar it was his tiger-skin 
that was seen. Therefore it was that he was born an 
avatar from the tiger. 16. After seven days were passed 
he died. But then again in the city of Junagad [ in 
Kathiawad, Gujerat ] he was born to a Nagar Brahman. 
17. Day by day he grew in stature and he was in- 
vested with the sacred thread. When he was seven 
years of age his mother and father died. 18. His cousins 
( paternal uncle's sons ) now oared for him. As the childran 
of the village played, he also played amongst them. 
19. They played at itidandu, Hngiirchya kissing games, hide- 
and-seek, hamama, kumari and diving. 20. Vaghodiy 
cUyapatya, jhijya, bokuf, agalgotya, pheravafija, bhoware, 
chakre and caught each other; in the square. 21. Thus he 
played many childish games. After some time had passed, 
a most extraordinary thing happened. 

NARSI'8 SISTER-IN-LAW REBUKES HIM 

22. In playing these childish games, his whole life was 

now being spent, but he did not remember the cloud-dark 

Krishna. 23. Now on one occasion after playing varioua 

kinds of g»ms^, Narsl Msheta hastened to his horns. 24. He 

416 



CSi. XXVIX 24-36 NARSI FSKITENT 

aaiiitobigsisteiwin.Isw, ''I am rery thirsty. Please ghr* 
m» soote \xrater.' The other rapliad. ' What bwd work hav* 
you beea doing that you have come here wearied ? 25. This 
▼ery childish and disobedient boy bas driven his 
parents to death. He plays d^y and nightand eats like a 
glutton. 26. You do not study and you spend your life 
in vain. Your wife will hereafter cry, you useless and 
impudani boy. ' 27. Suoh were the bari<h words spuken to 
him by the wife of his eldest brother. This brought him to 
repentanoa and Narsi Meheta then started to go away. 28. 
He went a long way ofif towards a forest, and thought to 
himself, 'My fate is a very unhappy one. But it.is very 
powerful and hard to resist. 29. To lose a mother in 
childhood, to lose a wife in youth, and to lose a son ia 
adulc age must be called the angar of God. 30. I am now 
receiving the fruit of the deeds I committed in formex 
bkths. ' 

NARSI WORSHIPS SHTVA 

As he was thus speaking to himself, he .saw a 
forest further on. 31. Coming about four miles from his 
village, he saw the beginning of a very great forest. Afte» 
Narsi Meheta had noticed it, he began to look about him 
on all sides. 32. Suddenly just before him ha saw a tem- 
ple to Shiva, Narsi Meheta entered it and there saw 
the Lord of Kdilas ( heaven ). 33. It was a deserted 
forest and there was no passing by of men. Taking courage 
he worshipped the feet of Shiva. 34. It was Upamanyu, 
the son of a Brahman, who asked his mother for a X5up of 
milk, and because she did not give it to him he sulkily sat 
down. 35. It was the King Uttanpad whose son was the 
child Dhruva ; he also sulked and prayed to the Lord of 
Vaikunlh ( heaven ). 

NARSI PLEADS WITH GOD 

36- In the same way Narsi Meheta fdt 4fi|l 
B. V. 27 417 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Cfh. XXVII 36-47 

satisfied and cried, * O Filler of the univeTse, Lord oi 
the universa, care for me, Thy helpless one. * 37. He 
lay himsalf on the body of the Holder of the Pi-iak bow, 
the Husband of ParvatL He discarded all food inoluding 
fruit, nor did he drink water. 38. Aftar seren days had 
passed, the Lord of Kailaa ( heaven ) with a perplexed mind 
thought to himsalf , ' In his devotion Narsi has offered to 
Me all his body. 39. People offer to me perfume, saored 
rice, flowers, sandalwood paste, all kinds of brilliant jewals, 
strings of pearls, and golden ornaments. 40. By spending 
an immense sum of money, some build temples of Shiva and 
with great delight offar to me the water of the Bhagirathi. 

41. Some come and offer to me a lac of leaves of the bel 
tree, but no one has ever offered to me his whole body. 

42. Caring for their body they make use of many other 
means. All their knowledge has, however, gone in vain. 
The Life of the world does not meet them.* 

SHIVA PLEASED WITH NARSI'S DEVOTION 

43. Now seeing the unwavering devotion of Narsi 
Mebeta, ( Sadashiv ) was pleased. He now revt^aled Him- 
self in His form as Mahadev with qualities. 44. He 
who has ten arms and five faces, and has a serpent 
around His neck as an ornament. He who has yellow- 
coloured matted hair on his haad and ashes rubbed 
all over His body, 45. manifesting Himself in this 
form as the Holder of the Pinak bow ( Shiva ), then raised 
np Narsi Meheta and gave him. His assurance not 
to fear. 46. He said to him, * My child. My bhakta, I am 
now pleased with you. Tell Me everything which your 
heart desires.' 

THE BOON ABKED FOR BY NARSI 

47. Narsi Meheta having heard these words embra- 
ced the feet of the Lord of Kailcta (heaven) and said, 
f Thou hast become pleased with me, and hast given me the 

418 



C5L XXVII 47-59 Narsi's pbaybr 

word of assurance. 43. I am but an ignorant child. I do 
not knovir the bast things to ask for. Give me, O bluo- 
throatdd One, that which thou art more fond of than Thou 
art of Thine o^n life. 49. Just as the infant ignorant of 
its mothar does not know the proper ti.Tie, but is at all 
time4 pleasing to its mother and in her love she adorns him 
with ornaments, 50v so, O Lord of the universe, art Thou 
pleased wit^h ma to-day and art ready to give me a boon 
with Tiiine own lips. So give ma, a help! ass one, whatever 
pleases Thee.' 51. The Holder of the P,no,k bo;v ( Saiva ) 
with a s niling f aoa wa? perplexed in mi".d, and said to Him- 
self, 'Never have I seen such a clavar bhakta.' 52. In reply 
Shiva next said to Narsi Mdheta, ' I am more fond of Shri 
Krishna Wao is the object of the worshJ? of all other gods. 
53. Without telling Qanga or Parvati, I repeat the name 
of the Lord 3hri Krishna, but I am mora fond of the stories 
of the saints. 54. You say to Me, " Show ma the secrets 
of your heart. " Bat if a begjir asked the king for his 
kingdon, it wjuld be of no use whatever. 55. If a beggar 
asks a miser for his wealth, ha is not uiidc hsppy by him. 
If one asks for the gift of hia wife from a libertina, tba 
one asking for this receives no honour. ' 56. The other 
replied, 'Holder of iha Piiak bow (tini^a), T'hou givest 
me illustrations and dost try to make me understand, but 
still I have a doubt in my mind. 57. Seeing that king 
Bali was a very generous man, Shr» '""'.iman ( Vishnu in 
His fifth aoatar ) went to him in the form of a beggar. He 
at once gave Him his kingdom and also made an offering 
of Himself to him. 58. King Harisohandra was a very 
good king. Vishvamitra in the form of a beggar having 
asked for a gift, he ( Harischandra ) gave to him his 
kingdom, bis wife, and his son, and thus he preserved his 
goodness. 59. So Thou, O generous Lord of Kaiias 
( heaven ), if Thou art pleased with me show ma Him who 
is dear to Thee. 

419 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXVII 60-71 

SHIVA'S rONDNESS FOR KRISHNA'S HAS DANCE 

60. Having heard these words, the Destroyer of Tripur 

( Shiva ) replied, ' I am cf pecially fond of the Erishna-Zt/a 

(the popular stories of the deeds of Shri Krishna ). 61. The 

Kri^na-/(/a ( sports or deeds of Krishna ) among men are 

extraordinary. He amused Himself in Gokul by Rua 

dancing I a special dance ] which I am more fond of than I 

am of My very life. 62. On the hank of the Jumna river, 

the Lord of the world amuses Himself with the Gopis [cow- 

herdesses]. I love that dancing greatly and go often to see it. 

63. He arranges dancing.and dances with them. I myself sit 

beating the time on the drum. ' 64. Saying that He would 

show it to him, He placed his assuring hand upon him 

and the blue-throated god ( Shiva ) gave to him the dress of 

the Oopis. 65. The Holder of the Finak bow ( Shiva ) then 

took Narsi with Him into the dancing and worshipped the 

Holder of the disk ( Krishna ). 66. Hearing such a 

statement, the wise will have a doubt in their minds. You 

will say that it was in the Dtcapar Yuga that Krishna 

amused Himself in the dance. 67. Now in this Kali Yuga 

in relating the story of the hhakta B arsi Mebeta, why was 

the story of Krishna introduced ? You may hold this doubt 

but you should not 5ay the verses composed about it are 

useless. 68. Even today the Holder of the disk (Krishna) is 

amusing Himself at Mathura, Gokul and Vrindavan. Those 

who are pious bhaklas are able to see the Hari-/i/a ( or deeds 

of Hari ) with their eyes. 

STORIES OF BHAKTAS NOT IMAGINARY 

69. This story is found in the Bhavishjollar Purmia 
virritten by Shri Vyas himself. He has also described the 
stories of the chief of bhciMas of the Kali Yuga. 70. Just as 
the water of the ocean does not pass over the shore and 
cover the land, so the lips of the chief of poets will not 
describe a thing unless it exi.gts. 71. Unless one's I if e- 

420 



Oh. XXVn 71-81 BJ^irr^ -STORIES BASED OM FACT 

time has come to an end, death will not punish any being; 
80 the chief of the poats will not dascrlbe deeds unlessthey 
have really happened. 73. The sundoas not set until the full 
measure of the day and the proper hour of the setting of the 
day has arrired; so unless deeds have been done, poets do 
not write regarding them. 73. Just as a dutiful wife will 
not act unless she receives the opinion of her husband, so 
the voice of the chief poet will never relate a useless or an 
untrue story, 74. When a neighbour is asked to come and 
help in the cooking she never brings her own materials to 
help in the cooking. 75. If the cook is a clever one, she 
will make very tasty food; and the poet with a fev' 
appropriate illustrations will give his description. 76. But 
the po3t will never describe the original verses by inventing 
the story himself; so I baseach the pmdUs not to hold wrong 
thoughts in their minds in regard to this. 77. The Husband 
of Rukmini, who dvvells on the banic of the Bhima 
and is pure intelligence, is the giver of inspiration to the 
mind. He is she One that causes this book to be written ; 
otherwise I, Mahipati, am too ignorant to write, 

SHIVA TAKES NAR3I TO KRISHNA'S DANCE 

78. Now listen, you pious people, and give your atten- 
tion to the story as formerly told. The Husband of Parvati 
( Shiva ) has taken Narsi to the tiw-tila ( the dance of 
Hari ), 79. On the banks of the Kolindi { Jumna ) there 
were intensely high trees, that kissed the very sky; they 
were such as the rfavofio.the kalak', and the par»;a/ trees, and 
doves cooed in their branches while watching the Hari- 
lila { the deeds of Hari ). 80. Mango trees, the jambhul, the 
amli, the nimboni, the raikai/li, the bakuli, the Rama-Sita-phali 
and the padli, moved to and fro with their fragrance. 
81. The bilva tree, the bamj in, the gondhani, the ashvattha, 
the rudraksha, the saramam, the champak, the pomegranate, 
with their many flowers waved on the dancing stage ci 

421 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Oh. XXVII 81-93 

Xrishna. 82. The pimrari, Ihe sfieiga, the maharukha, the 
pasavovi, and the se/ataka, the phonaa and » oha waved 
their branches in the sky wlile beholding the Lord of the 
Yedavep, 83. There was a row of trees around them, and 
inside it was a flower-garden. In it there were the mcgra, 
the ^;', and the seiantila that bthtld the Ltrd Krishna. 
84. The tala^rofadi, the yellow seiavU, the biKiaclai ha, the 
jamndi, the tnanti, the kapvtteli and the rcsebecutified the 
place and watched the acts of Krishna. 85. The sarante, 
shj/am, fianfvrashi, the la'Trioira, the suhasi, the rose, the 
red gulchard, and the /«/» were planted in the Kvnjavan 
{garden). 86. The spring ccming there had adorned 
Kvvjaran. In such a place the Son of Ynrhoda ( Kiishna ) 
joyfully danced. 87. The very Ic ok of Krithna hes the 
greatest power. The sarante ( thorn buFhcs ) become wish- 
trees. Even nectar is net able to equal the water of the 
streamlet in the garden. 88. There Shriravg ( Krishna, 
the Holder of the Sharang bow ) anmsed hiirself. Feblles 
of no value became precious stones and cidirary stones 
became toucbgtones for ever. 89. Pigeons, parrots, swans, 
chai-h, (bafak, aH beautiful birds, doves, sparrowp, salmki 
and the vnmana, wagged their heads and performed a 
tdrtan in honour of Krishna. 

KRISHNA IN THE KLNJAVAN 

90. Well, this long description is quite sufficient. In 
this exceedingly beautiful garden by the bank of the 
Kalindi (Jumna) Shri Krishna amused Himself. 91. Narsi 
Meheta and the Husband of Uma ( Shiva ) going there, 
quickly with reverence bowed to Krishna and lovingly gave 
him an embrace. 92. Shri Krishna was the visible image of 
the supreme Brahm. The Oopis ( cowherdes.^es ) were avatars 
tii the Vedos, and when Krishna played on the pipe all the 
Oopia out of love assembled together. 93. The Gopis stood 
together in a circle, and in the midst of them was the 

422 



Oh. XXVII 93-104 KRISHNA'S BEAUrr 

doiid-dark Krishna, the Lord of Vaikunth ( heaven ). The 
Oopis seeing thia attractive Oae rushed and embraced His 
feet. 94. The feet of Shri Krishna were exceedingly tender. 
There were marks of Vajranhish and the lolar ornament 
on His fejt. Even Brahmadev, His own son, was not able 
to have a sight of those feet. 95. >.s to holin<8s, the 
Ganges flows from His feet. Therefora, the Husband of 
Uma ( Shiva ) held it gladly in His head. 96. Ornaments 
such as the Vanki and the Nepura shoi ted out on His feet, 
• Blessed ara we in the three worlds. The HusSand 
of Kamaia ( Krishna ) being pleased with us has fastened 
us upon His feet.' 97. The moon looking at KrLshna's 
nails became ex'remely ashamed at heart. The todar loudly 
proclaimad, ' At the feet of Hari, sins ara dastroyad. ' 98 
The calves (f His legs and His thighs were beautifully 
shaped. A yellow robe enveloped His thighs. A million 
brilliant lightning flishes shona from His body. 99. 
Shri Krishna'.s hands reached down to His knees. Both 
His arms were like clubs. Although Brahmadav w s born 
from His nav^nl, he did not know his limit. 100. His 
abdomen was of vast expanse. His boiiy was of a dark 
complexion. On His breast were the beantiful three folds. 
The colour of His hair was without comparison. The Skri 
Vaifa jew 1, how can I describe it ? 101. In His face all 
joy seemed to be gathered. The happiupss arising froni 
the enjoyraeat cf the nectar of His lower lip was under- 
stood by Lakshmi alone. 102. Krishna's eyes were 
like the p»t:ils of the lotus. His straight nose appeared 
glorious, as though the spring had come and settled there. 
103. In His ears were wonderfully lustrous earrings. His 
eyebrows were well formed. His brows were wide. His 
curly hair was very attractive. It wa^ surrounded by 
peacock feathers. 104. When the sun looked upon the 
crow n of Krishna it became ashamed of itself. The sun 
on seeing the Kaustiibh jewel around the neck of Krishna 

423 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XXVII 104-11« 

was at haart frozen through shame. 105. Just as ia the 
olearsky the clusters of stars shine, so the great dUmonds 
surrounding the Kaus'ubh jawal looked brilli3nt with the 
ornaments of Krishna. 105. Around HLis neok was a neck- 
lace of pearls. Tne Vaija'jand garland waved back and 
forth down to His feet. His bhaktaa had plaoei garlands 
of many flowers around His neck. 107. His whola body 
had bean rubbed wich sindilwood parfutna. i AU fore- 
head was the baautiful mark of kisluri (musk). The 
Lord of the Yadavas lovingly wore the tulai garland. 

KRISHNA'S i?^S DANCE 

108. So appewed in visiblaform the supreme Brihmi^ 
self. As he sjundid HLis flute the eyes of the C?ow's( cowherd- 
esses) became fixed upun Him ( Krishna ), gazing on His 
form. 109. Krishna sounded the fl ite very sweetly. The 
Go/jw danced all around Him. Thsy stng miny songs to 
Govind { Krishna ), the Attracfcar of the heart. 110. 
Stringed iiisirumants, the fl ite, the pipe and cymbils were 
the attractive instrunents that ware pliyed, andsjn^j were 
sung in acx):npaiimant. iLl. The Husband of Parvati 
played on tha drum and the Oopis danced tj it. The 
Lord of Fa: Awn^/* (heaven ) manifested His inner feeling 
by the beating of ti.ne. 112. The Gopis said to Krishna, 
* You pervade everything. With our heart's desire fixed 
upon You, O Krishna, we have hastened here. 1(3. We 
are many Qopis, but You, O Holdar of the Sharang bow 
( Krishna ), seem as one parson. Seeing Your form, cupid 
became excited. 114. We look at your face, O Krishna, 
and we feel as though our lips wish to be kissed by Your 
mouth, and placing heart to heart give you an embraoe. * 
115. As the Go/m said this, Hari took many forms. 
According to each one's fancy the Enemy of Mura 
( Krishna ) becomes. 116. Krishna took as many forma at 
^here were Gopis. They took the Life of the world by tb» 

424 



Oh. XXVII 116-128 KRISHNA AND THE OOPIS 

hand and danced. 117. Taking the dark-complexioned 
One by the hind, tha Oorns bung upon His neck. As 
'their eyes fall upon His nag'in form, they ( the women ) 
hastily g-iva Hi.n kissas. 118. A Krishna's form and a 
cowherdass took each other's hand, dancing in pairs ;, 
auoh was th ) arran^aniant in tha Ras dance in which they 
enjoyed Krinhna. 119. Krishna's body was extremely 
tendjr. Hid c.iast was broad. His waist was slim. Saeing 
the hair on His chast, tha O'jpis bacame love-sick. 
120. Taking Krishm's hand tha Gopis placed it upon their 
heart-). Agiin and .\gain they kissad Hia face. From His 
mouth thay took into thair own mouths tha tambul 
( pansnmn ) chawad by Him. 131. Just as each one 
desiras, tha dark-oomplerionad 0;ia supplies. Krishna 
becomes ra-«t to every one. Tha blae-throated God { Shiva) 
repeatad Hij nana. 123. Arranging the platform for 
dancing, Ha and the Qouis sang and danced. 

KRISHNA INQUIRES ABOOT NARSI 

At that mo aant Krishna racognizad Narai Meheta. 
123. Ju3t a-) anongthe eighteen bha'-s (a 6Aar=8,000 tolas) 
of herbs, the /uW plant baoomos spaoially recognizable, so 
with His eya-f Ha racognizad Narsi Mahata. 134. Just as 
when tha sky i* fillad with clusters of stars, one reoagnizas 
amon.; tham the p ilar star ( Dhmva), so Krishna racognizad 
Narsi Maheta. 125. Or as among tha nina planets one 
prominently discovers the sun, so seeing Narsi Meheta, 
Krishna was surprised. 126. Just as among the assembly 
of the great adapts and saakers of spiritual knowledge the 
son of Anasuya is distinguished, so tl\e Holder of the Sharang 
bow ( Krishna ) racognizad at sight Narsi Meheta. 127. 
He who was the ornament of Vraja said to Shiva, ' Who 
is this new Onpi whom you have brought here today ? O 
olue-throatad One, You have betrayed our friendship, 128. 
cfor it is only because of the close love between You and 

425 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXVII 128-141 

Me that I invito You to tha danoe. ' As Vanamali (Krishna) 
said this, the moon-headad One (Shiva) laughed. 129. The 
Husband of Parvati ( Sbiva ) by the movement of his eyes 
made a sign to Narsi Meheta. He then came forward at 
onc3 and worshipped tha feet of Krishna. 130. Shiva s>id, 
O Lord Krishna, I will tell you in detail the ancient 
story regarding your servant Narsi Meheta. 131. In a 
former birth he was a great ti er of evii disposition While 
ho was in the forest Pipaji told him to repaat Your name. 
133. And as he repeated Your name all his sins daparted. 
Thus in the city of Junagad he was born as a Nagar 
Brahman. 133, la his childhood his fathtr and mother 
died. Ha then offered his v/hola body to me, O Lord 
Krishna. 134. For seven days he refused fcod and water. 
Being pleased, I became favourable to him. 135. Ha then 
said to me, " I do not know the best thing to ask of You. 
Whatever You are fond of give it to me, O blue-throited 
One ( Shiva ). " 136. O Life of t:ie wcrld, I am fond of 
You. Therefore I have come here bringing him. So now 
pJace Your hand upon his head, O Husband of Kamala 
( Krishna ), ard give him Your blessing.* 

KRISHNA COMMANDS NARSI TO DESCRIBE HIS SPORTS 

137. As be heard tMs, the Husband of Kamala (Krishna) 
took Narsi Meheta by the hand and this Image of compasr 
sion gave him His assurance and fmbr.^cei liim with love. 
138. The Holder of the disk ( Krishna ) then said to him, 
' You have seen the lias dance with your eyes. Compose 
poetry on the subject and so cause every one to bear 
it. 139. My character and lila ( voluntary acts ) you 
will always see. ' Such was the blessing of the cloud- 
dark One ( Krishna ). 140. Krishna now said to 
Shiva, ' Depart, taking him with you. * Hearing this 
the Husband of Uma ( Sbiva ) made His namaskar. 
141. Giving him bis assurance He brought him and by the 

426 



Ch. XXVII 141-153 NAESI'S MARRIAGK 

action of His wish He seated bim in His tcnsple and then 
He retired to Kailas. 143. Staying in Shiva's temple. 
Narsi Meheta performed Jdrfavs. Night and day he 
lovingly repeated the names of God. 143. He sang of the 
lila and nectar deeds of Krishna in his love and danced. 
He threw aside all shame and sang of the character of 
Shri Hari. 144. Just as Shri Krishna h«d performed in 
this dancing game, so Narsi Mehfta wrote of it in his 
books. EVen to-day the people in that part of the country 
sing it. The language in which it is \fvritten is Gujarati. 

NARSI MARRIES A BRAHMAN'S DAUGHTER 

145. In the preceding description we found that Narsi 
Meheta had left his home and bad gone sulking into a 
forest. His relations had seen him do this. 146. Now in 
the forest there were cows feeding. Along with them were 
cowherds. They were always delighted to lear the kirtan 
of Narsi Meheta. 147. Rt turning to his home he told his 
brothf rs of the event that had occurred. They replied, 
that Narsi Meheta was describing the qualitifs of Hari in 
the temple of Shiva. 148. Hearing of this affair they were 
well pleaded and persuading Narsi Meheta brougbthimto 
their home. 149. Some of the pious men in the town, 
experts in the Vedanta and ecrij ture.o, said, ' Narayan is 
delighted with him; you can see this by the charged signs- 
ISO. The little streamlet that joins with the Ganges 
receives tbe qualities of hclinefs. So, as the Life of the 
world has shown him mercy, the ir>aik of goodnees has 
come to him, ' 151. There was a Brahman in the town who 
was a Voishnara of supreme piety. He gave to Narsi Meheta 
his daughter and had the marriage performed. 152. Just 
as when the touchstone touches iron it immediately turns 
into gold, so when Narayan shows His compassion what 
lack can he there to anyone ? 153. Heneverasked anything 
of anyone. A prince and a pauper were alike to him. He 

427 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XXVIl 153-158 

regarded the poor and the rich as of equal rank. 154. 
After becoming a householder he became an adult. He 
had two issues, a daughter and a son. 

155. Now hearers, give attention to a very interesting 
atory to be heraiftar ralatel The marriage of Narsi 
Meheta'fl son will be parforraad by Himself. 156. All 
these stories of the saints are indeed priceless. They are 
like a garden of fragrant flowars. Here Shri Krishna who 
dwells in Dwarka is like the friendly spring to them. 157. 
The verses in Marathi may be regarded as flowers. Mahipati 
as gardener strings them into garlands and takes them 
into the assembly of the Vaishnams. 

158. SwasU ( Peace ) ! This book is the Shri Bhakta- 
vijaya. In listening to it the Lord of the world will be 
pleased. Listen then, you Qod-loving, pious bhaktaa- 
This is the twenty-seventh deeply delightful chapter ; it is 
an offering to Sri Krishna. 



428 



CHAPTER XXVin 

MARRIAGE OF NARSl MEHETA'S SO'^f 

Obeisanceto Shri Oanesh. Obeisance tot lie Husb indof Bukmini. 

PURANIO STORIES OF GOD'S DEEDS 

1. O Giver of the promise to Pundalik, Patidurang, 
Father of Madana. Delight of Rukmini, Thou. Krishna, 
didst dance with the Copts (cowherd8Sses)on the dancing floor. 
t.ThoB6bkulUas who have a longing for Thee in their hearts 
are always deslreless. Thou art the resting-place of all be- 
ings, O God, O Rama. 3. Thou art the Mover of the heart, the 
Sun of all intelligence, extanding beyond qualities and at 
the same time Quality-less. Thou dost give s gift of final 
deliverance even to Thy enemies. Thou art the Sun of 
all joy. 4. Thou art God supreme and eternal. Ambarish 
came as a suppliant to Thee. With affection and delight 
he performed the regular ceremonies belonging to the 
Ekadashi (the eleventh day of the fortnight). 5. The rishi 
Durvas, a performer of innumerable austerities, came in 
order to persecute Ambarish. That cruel-hearted riahi 
having cursed him, he pleaded with Thee, O Ocean of 
compassion. 6. Hearing the pity arousing cries of 
Ambarish, Thy heart overflowed with love. At once 
Thou didst come to his help, O Life of the world, O Delight 
of the heart, O Shri Krishna. 7. Thou didst send Thy disk 
after the riahi Durvas who had become dispirited, but Thou, 
Lord of the world, didst look with the eye of mercy upon 
Ambarish. 8. Thou didst give assurance to Thy bkakas. 
Thou didst suffer births ten times from the womb. 

VISHNU'S AVATARS 

Thou didst assume the avatar of the fish, the tortoise, the 
wild boar, and supported the earth on the tusks. 9. When 

429 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXVIII 9-20 

Hiranyaksshipu began to trouble Thy bkaktaFtaXhskd, Thou 
didst hurry to his aid Thou didst roar from the midst of 
the pillar and quiokly made Thy appaaranca, 10. In 
Thine anger Thou didst destroy the Dai'ya, and 
didst protect Thy servant Pralhad. When the Kshafcriyas 
prevailed over the earth. Thou didst become Parashu- 
ram. 11. Thou wast then born as an aonfar from 
the womb of Jimadagni and Ranuka. And Thou alone, O 
Shri Hiri, didst dastroy the Kshatriyas. 12. Sj, having 
overcome tha K^hatriyas, Thou didst give tha kingdom to 
the Brahm^ins. Such wast Thou, O Ocean of mercy, O 
Saviour of tha universe, O R »ma Krishna. 13. When Shiva 
gava His blessing to Ravan, that monster baoam3 exceed- 
ingly intoxicated wich powar. Ha conquered all the gods 
and put than into prison. 14. That tan-faoad one (Ravana) 
used the niaa planets as his stairway and carried on his 
kingdom. Taa wind used to coma and sweep his yard and 
the rain watered it. 15. The sun became his barber and 
shaved him. Tha ehphant-facad One ( Ganesh ) kept his 
cows without foalini any shama at doing so. 16. The 
goddess Adirnvja, ( Primal Motnar ) constantly shampooed 
the feet of Ravana. The goddess Satavi washed tha clothes 
of his wife who was lying-in and felt no shama in her 
heart for doing so. 17. All the gods worked for him. He, 
imprisoned even the Lord Indra and so all the gods in 
their trouble appealed to Thae. 18. Thou didst listen to 
their pity-arousing crias. Thou didst feel compassion for 
them. Thou didst become an avatar in the form of Rama 
and Thou diJst dastroy Ravana. 19. Thou didst daliver 
all the gods and didit establish the duties of life. And 
when Kans and Caanur «?rew powerful. Thou didst become 
the avatar of Krishna. 20. Thou didst dastroy all doers of 
evil. In various ways Thou didst protect Thy bhaklaa. 
Thou, Enemy of Mura, Shri Hari, didst clothe Draupadi 
with garments.' 

430 



Ch. XXVIII 21-31 WHY KRISHNA IS POPULAR 

21. 'And now in this Kali Yuga, Thy chief bhaktts havo 
with reveranoa followed Thee, and Thou hast made their 
cause Thine own, and has!; given them final deliTerance.22. 
Beoausa of the bhikli of Bamdas, Thou, O Lord of the world, 
didst go to Oakur. Ha sold Thee in the market for a vol 
in gold. 23. At the housa of Thy loving bhikla Jayadev, 
Thou didst raisa to life a corpsa. Thou didst place upon 
him Thy hand of as-iurance and didst increase his glory in 
the worli 24. Thou didst show to Narsi Meheta, Thy 
loving bhakla. Thy danoe with the Oopis ( cowherdBSSes ).* 
And now, all hearers, listan to the story that is interasting 
beyond all comparison. 

KRISHNA'S POPULARITY EXPLAINED 
25. I have already stated that Shiva showed to Narsi 
Mehta tha dancing of Krishna with the Oopis. That 
exceedingly beautiful lUa ( spirts or act ) of Shri Krishna's 
tuerefure con inuilly came to his sight. 26. And just as 
it appaardd to hi.n in itj beautiful form, he composed 
verses to dasoriba it. And S!iri Krishna, tha Dastroyer of 
His bhiktaa' desires for worldly existence, gave hin His 
blessing. 27. In many forms of poatic composition he 
dascribed tha qualities of Hari. Taking the cymbals and 
Vina in his hand, ha danaad in tha midst of the k'-rtan. 
28. He did not count on anyona's favour. Ha was always 
repeating tha names of Qjd. To his view a king and his 
lowly citizens were alite. 29. The wish-trae and the 
babhul traa, a pandit and a herdsman, a sadhu and a wicked 
reviler appeared elite to him. 30. Having adopted the 
principle of asking no ona for anything; he accepted 
whatever garments or food were given to him. Being 
satisfied with that he carried on his duties of providing 
for his family. 
A MERCHANT'S DAUGHTER MARRIED TO NARSl'S SON 

31. Near to Junagad tbera is a village by name of 
431 



BHAKTAViJAYA Ch. XXVIII 31-^ 

Sbampur. The merohant Tripursntsk of that vilHge was 
» follower of the same Vedic branch. 32. His daughter had 
;reached the marriageable age, and the merchant was con- 
sidering the question of her marriage. Hesant bis priest hero 
and there to make propositions. 33. He ( the priest ) was & 
Brahman by name of Krishna Bhat and of supreme piety, 
who came to the house of Karsi Meheta and spoke to him 
as follows. 34. Krishna Bhat said, ' My patron has sent 
me to say that he would offer his daughter in marriage to 
your son. ' 35. In examining the horoscopes he found that 
they reached the point of thirty-six. After an agreement 
for the marriage wag made the priest returned home. 
36. This reHtionship which was agreed to by the priest 
was acceptable to all, for it was the custom in that country 
for all to accept the decision of the priest. 37. If the patron 
did not accept the prom ise made by the priest, then the 
priest would cut off a finger and give it to "ihe one he had 
chosen as a bridagroom. 38. Such being the rule in that 
country, the Brahtnan announced his decision and said to 
his patron that he had fixed the marriage of hii daughter. 
3&. He said, ' There is a Nagar Brahman at Janagad, 
supremely pious and a Vaishnrva. I have mada an agree- 
ment with him to offer your daughter to his son. ' 40. Lis- 
tening to the words of the priest, every one b^gan to laugh 
exclaiming, ' The fata of the girl seams to be a very un- 
happy one. ' 

THE MERCHANT DISLIKES THE PROPOSAL 

41. The merchant exclaimsd, ' He is a Vv'shivmi in- 
different to worldly thiol's. He is coistaiuly dancing 
in his kirlans. How is it you offered my daughter to him ? 
Do not accop!; him as our relation. 43. We ara not agree- 
able to a relationship to the house of one where sadlma 
and saints listen to the Shri Bhagwat, and one always 
■unconcamed and indifferent to worldly things. 43. We do 

432 



Oh. XXVIII 43-53 MERCHANT'S SEVERE CONDITIONS 

not want any relationship with one who does not recognize 
similarity or dissimilarity, that which is his and that which 
belongs to another, and one who looks with the same rever- 
ence on all creatures. 44. How is it that you agreed to 
give my daughter in marriage to one who is without anger , 
a doer of good deeds, and one who has friendship for every 
creature, and one in whose house is the very least food and 
raiment ? ' 45. The priest replied, ' Listen to my words. 
I have returned having made an agreement. If you reject 
the agreement, I will cut off one of my fingers and give it 
to him. ' 

MERCHANT'S SEVERE CONDITIONS 

46. Hearing him say this, the merchant Tripur- 
antak said, ' Tomorrow is the appointed day for the 
marriage. Let the would-be bridegroom come to the 
marriage, bringing all the materials necessary. 47. I am a 
noted merchant and my relationship will now be with a 
very weak bhxikta of Vishnu. The evil-minded will laugh 
at me and therefore such a thing must not happen. 48. Bring 
to the marriage five hundred elephants, horses, palanquins 
and chariots. Let there be innumerable players of instru- 
ments to accompany the procession. 49. Let the bride- 
groom come bringing garments and ornaments for the bride 
and let him give to the inhabitants of our town a banquet 
of -dainty food. 50. If the bridegroom does not come 
tomorrow bringing these materials then the engagement is 
broken off. Know this for a certainty, you noble guru ' 

51. The priest understood the meaning of such a proposi- 
tion, and he gave Tripurantak several illustrations" 

52. He said, ' The daughter of King Bhimak was offered as 
a bride to Krishna. Rukmini insulted Him and you have 
done just the same. 53. Parvati was the daughter of the 
Himalaya mountains and the Destroyer of Tripur ( Shiva) 
was fixed as the bridegroom. His wives insulted Him and 

B. V. 28 433 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XXVIII 53-64 

you have done the same. 54. All that your mind wishes 
will take place. ' Saying this, the Brahman went back to 
give information. 55. He said to Narsi Mehsta, ' Tomorrow 
is the most auspicious time for the wedding. You must all 
come bringing the needed materials, taking Shri Krishna 
as your helper. ' 56. Krishna Bhat, a supremely pious 
Vaishimva, told him concerning the things that would bring 
about the marriage. 

IMPORTANCE OF GOOD MEDIATORS 

57. He thought to himself, 'If I should tell him of the 
things that had happened there all the arrangements would 
be destroyed. Narsi Meheta is supremely indifferent to 
worldly things. He has no desire for anything. ' 58. 
Speaking in a very humble way as to how the marriage 
would be accomplished, the priest made the remaining 
arrangements and returned to his home. 59. Where a 
needle, borax and a good man act as mediators, there is no 
duality seen there. They bring two together. 60. Whe^e 
a bad man, scissors and an axe act as mediators there an 
instant destruction is certain. These are at the root of all 
evils. 61. At the wedding there should not bs a vilifier. 
In a battle there should not ba a coward. In a kirtan there 
should be no noise or confusion. Among /2<^s(-plants she- 
goats should not be allowed. 62. While a Parana is being 
read, there should not be a garrulous person. Among 
pious men there should not be wicked revilers. In 
travelling there should not be anyone who is always 
excessiTely hungry. When worship is going on there 
should not be anxiety. 63. A relative should not be a 
neighbour. In the rainy season there should not be a 
southern wind. When r^c^iving the mantra of the shri 
guru, there should be no doubt regarding it. Those who 
are indifferent to worldly things should not have a store 
of wealth. 64. The weak should not be haughty. There 

434 



Oi. XXVIII 64-75 MERCHANT'S RELUCTANCE 

should be no thorn ia a narrow path. A learned man 
should not be proud. 65. A person who is worthy of 
receiving a gift should not have the desire for it. 
Maintenance of sacred fire should not be practised in a 
miserable village. A physician should not give medicine 
to one who needs to be put upon a diet. 66. A friend 
should not be a trouble-maker or a miser. One should not 
lend with interest to a relative. For a seeker of spiritual 
things to eat royal food is a way to destroy his good deeds. 
67. Well now, this long discussion is quite sufficient. 

MERCHANT'S RELUCTANCE 

After the priest had made the agreement he returned 
to bis village. 68. He told his patron that the bridegroom 
would surely come on the morrow for the wedding. ' Go 
and make all necsssary preparations and be on the watch.' 
69. Tripurantak laughingly replied, ' Narsi Meheta is 
all alone. How can he come tomorrow, since he has no 
materials of his own ? 70. I announced that the marriage 
would be tomorrow in order to break off the possibility of 
any relationship with him.* Ho then explained his action 
and illustrated it. 71. ' The two-face^ enrihworm went 
in the month of Shravan ( August ) to ask for the daughter 
of the serpent Shesha. The serpent replied to him that the 
marriage would take place in the month of Vaiskakh (May). 
72. When the hot season was near, the two-faced daiane 
had died. Just so, I have announced that the marriage 
would take place on the morrow.' 73. The priest replied 
to him, 'You are an unfaithful man. You are not thought- 
ful. Your heart is full of pride. You will be very soon 
dishonoured. 7-1. Duryodhan was dishonoured because he 
persecuted the good Draupadi. The same thing will happen 
to you today I think.' 

NARSI STARTS FOR HTS SON'S MARRL\OS 

75. On the next day Narsi Meheta at tha rising of 
435 



BHAKTAVUAYA OL XXVIII 75-86 

the sun performed his bath and worshipped Shri Krishna. 
76. He drew twelve marks on his forehead and person. He 
hung the tulai garland around his neok. He took along 
with him Vcdahnavas, all the time repeating the names of 
Grod. 77. Taking his son and wife with him this bhakta of 
Vishnu started for the marriage. With music of cymbals, 
the drums and the vina the goodness of Hari was described. 
78. 'Victory, Victory to Thee, Mukunda, Enemy of 
Murs, Helper of the helpless. Advocate of Thy bhaktas. 
Ancient of days, Slayer of the Daityas, Madhu and Kaitabh, 
Dweller in the hearts of Thy bhaktas. 79. Victory to 
Thee, Dweller at Dwarka, Lord of the earth. Husband 
of Rukmini, Father of Brahmadev, Slayer of Kans. Thou 
art the One dear friend of Thy bhaldas. 80. Victory to 
Thee, God supreme. Lord eternal, Protector of Thy bhaktas. 
Slayer of Madhu, Pervader of the universe. Life of the 
World, Delight of the heart, Govind. 81, Victory to 
Thee, Ancient of Days, Possessor of names without end. 
Whose name is the Being of qualities, dark-complexioned 
One, the Wish-tree of Thy bhaktas. Delight of the heart, 
Shri Hari.' 82. Describing the qualities of Shri Hari in this 
way, they sang and danced in their love. Narsi Meheta 
walked along at that time full of joy. 83. At that time 
Shri Hari was seated on His throne in Dwarka, and went 
into the private room and sent for Rukmini. 84. He said 
to her, ' The great bhakta Narsi Meheta has with reverent 
spirit followed Me. The marriage of his son takes place 
today. But he is singing of My qualities without any 
sense of shame. ' 

KRISHNA AS MARRIAGE GUEST 

85. ' We should now go there before him and ourselves 
bring the ceremony to a successful consummation. ' Thus 
speaking that Store-house of compassion gathered together 
an assembly of bhaktas. 86. Uddhav, Akrur, Narad, Tumbar, 

436 



Oh. XXVm 86-98 KRISHNA'S AEMVAL 

Shuka, Valmiki, Pralhad, the great Bhishma, Bibhishaa, 
Vidur and Maruti were quickly invited. 87. Sudama, 
Penda, Vankada, Yadaja, Kana, also a set of cowherds, 
one who was dumb and lisping another with one eye, one 
who was a dwarf, another who was lame and had mucus 
eyes, one with a running nose. 88. Such were the 
bhaklas small and great that He collected. Krishna said to 
them, ' Come at once to the marriage'. 89. Saying this to 
them Shripati Himself invited Jambavanti, Satyabhama 
and Kalindi the good. 90. Shri Krishna taking with Him 
Mitravinda, Yadnyajiti, Lakshamana and Bhadravati 
walked along for the wedding. 91. Mother Rukmini sat in a 
palanquin bringing the G'opjis (cowherdesses) along with her 
as the marriage-party of the bridegroom. The kettle drums 
were sounded. 92. Taking with Him eight siddhis ( accomp- 
lishments ) and all female slaves, the Lord of the heart 
(Krishna) hurried along to the marriage of Narsi Meheta's 
son. 93. As Narsi Meheta walked along the path, h^ 
danced and sang in his fulness of love. In front of him 
the Lord of the world moved rapidly along. 

KRISHNA'S ARRIVAL 

94. As Krishna approached the city and was in 
sight of it, he sent word of their approach. Tri- 
purantak hearing this report, was overwhelmed with 
amazement. 95. The townspeople also reported that 
an innumerable company had come to the marriage. 
They would not be able to find sufficient room in 
the village for them. What was to be done ?^ 96. Some 
I>eople climbed up their roofs to gaze at the people coming, 
and as they listened to the playing of the sweet instrument 
they felt the air was reverberating with sound. 97. Tripur- 
antak taking the citizens of the village with him, started 
to meet the procession. He took with him one band of 
players and started out, 98. just as when the sun is ris- 

437 



BHAKTAVUAyA C!h. XXVIII 98-109 

ing, the moon disappears, and as when a mere pool of 

water finding itself near the oo^n is ashamed of itself. 

99. What is the flying of a grasshopper before an eagle's 

flight ? And the lustra of a piece of glass is dimmed 

before a priceless jewel. 100. It was just as when a poor 

fellow proud of his knowledge is lost sight of before a 

really learned man in philosopjiy, or just as a poor fool is 

ashamed before a wise pandit ; 101. so, seeing the proce»> 

sion of the bridegroom, all the bride's party felt very 

insignificant. The priest exclaimed, '0 Life of the world. 

Thou hast come to my help. ' 102. The Creator of the 

world has come Himself and made all the necessary 

preparations. He prepared a great, beautiful pavilion 

with seats. 103. Pillows, cushions, mats and wooden 

seats of many kinds were placed there. Rambha and 

Tilottama came and danced there, while all the gods 

were looking on. 104. There were many kinds of 

gifts, and perfumes of keshar ( saf&on ), musk and sandal> 

wood. God Himself, coming with the procession of the 

bridegroom, sat down with them. 105. Mother Bukmini sat 

in the midst of the female party of the bridegroom, which 

made a delightful circle. The wife of Narsi Meheta came 

and sat down near her. 106. There were many kinds of 

garlands of flowers around their necks and in the midst 

of the assembly of bhaktas the Holder of the Sharang bow 

( Krishna ) sat full of joy. 

NARSI'S RECEPTION 

107. Taking the people of the town with him 
Tripurantak started out to meet Narsi. As he came 
near to them the Lord of Vaikunth ( heaven ) arose. 
108. Hari with all the bhaktaa around Him embraced those 
who were to become their relatives. Krishna spoke in a 
gentle voice to Tripurantak. 109. He said, ' When s 
river is in flood a pumpkin raft takes one to the other side; 

438 



Ch. XXVni 109-121 FBBLINa OP ISFEHIORETT 

in the same way, Narsi Meheta is to be united to you in 
relationship true and close. 110. Just as when the life of 
anyone is coming to an end, neotar prevents him from 
death, so this God-loving bhakta Narsi Meheta is to be in 
a relation to you of that kind. 111. You were about to 
fall into lust, angor, pride, and the other diseases of this 
life, and in order that all these may b6 put away from you, 
you have gained a Vaishnava relative. 112, When the 
touchstone touches iron, rich people make ornaments of it . 
so through him we have the opportunity of meeting you. ; 
113. Hearing Him say this Tripurantak replied, ' Tell me 
please your name. I had never met you before. Where 
have you come from ? ' 114. Hearing him, God Supreme 
answered, ' My name is Savalasa. I am the one who buys 
and sells for Narsi Meheta. 115. I live in Dwarka and 
act as his agent. I am the only one who understands his 
personality. ' 116. Thus spoke the Life of the world and no 
one recognized who He was. No one understands the glrary 
of this Delighter of the mind, and skilful in acts of illusions* 

BRIDE'S FATHER FEELS HIS INFERIORITY 

117. Tfie clothes with which the bridegroom was to be 
honoured on the outskirt of the town were of small 
worth and so Tripurantak felt ashamed in his mind. 
118. Understanding this the Lord of Vaikunth (heaven) said 
to Tripurantak, ' An innumerable number of people have 
come to the wedding. I see that your mind is perplexed 
by this. 119. Now, when preparing the banquet of tasty 
things, one should not put much salt into the food. One 
should not form any relationship with one who is greater 
than oneself. 120. One should not give money at interest 
to the king of one's own town. So one should not give 
one's daughter to form a relationship with one greater 
than oneself. 121. Who is able to discuss the veises of a 
chief poet ? So, one should not form a relationship with one 

439 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Ch. XXVIII 121-133 

of higher rank than oneself. 122. Just as when the sun 
arises the moon appears to fail, so, seeing the wealth of 
Narei Meheta, you feel hesitant in your mind, 123. The 
preparations made by you can only be for a very few, and 
yet innumerable people have arrived for the wedding. 
After saying this to him, the Lord of Vaikunth ( heaven ). 
advised him as follows. 124. Krishna said to Tripurantak, 
' Whatever materials are possible for you bring them here, 
and carry to completion the marriage arrangement. 
125. All Siddh's ( accomplishments ) are favourable here. 
Put what little you have into it. Do not keep in your 
mind any sense of duality through doubt. 126. The knots 
of relationship are as strong as those of silken threads. 
Consider the question from the point of view of 
knowledge and hold in your mind no sense of duality. ' 
127. Seeing that he agreed, he returned to the city 
and brought the materials for the wedding together with 
the bride. 128. King Bhimak whosa bhakti was perfect, 
having agreed to offer his daughter in marriage to Shri 
Krishna, lovingly came to Mulmadbav for the wedding. 
129. In the same way Tripurantak, putting aside all 
mental opposition, came there with the bride and all the 
materials for the wedding. 130. When a little streamlet 
joins the Ganges, who is there who would call it unholy ? 
So when the Life of the world accepts anyone, no pious 
person lacks anything. 

MARRIAGE DESCRIBED 

131. The marriage was performed with great eclat and 
the band played sweet music. Termeric powder was applied 
to the bride and bridegroom. The wedding was carried on 
in the most elaborate way. 132. The gods were installed 
and Brahmans were feasted with many forms of dainty 
food, and God Himself offered gifts of money to the 
Brahmans. 133. Shri Krishna offered clothes with love to 

440 



Ch. XXVIII 133-144 COMPLETION OF MARRIAGE 

Narsi Meheta. At the setting of the sun the Brahmans re- 
peated the eight auspicious verses of the marriage ceremony 
134. ' When Darvas persecuted Ambarish, God supreme 
Dweller in Vaikunth (heaven), suffered ten births ; may He 
protect the bride and bridegroom. 135. He, at the repeating 
of Whose name all sins are burnt up. Dweller at Dwarka, 
the Delight of the heart, may He protect this bride and 
bridegroom. 136. He whom Brahmadev and the other 
gods, including Shiva, continually contemplate in their 
hearts, He, the Lover of His bhaktas, Lord of the heart, 
may He protect this bride and bridegroom. 137. Thou, O 
God supreme and eternal One, who reclinest on Shesha ( the 
serpent ) in the ocean of milk, Husband of Lakshmi, Life 
of the world, protect this bride and bridegroom.' 138. With 
these eight verses the Brahmans performed the marriage, 
instruments gave out their sweet music, and the drums 
were beaten. 139. Bacausa the Lord of Vaikunth ( heaven ) 
was present, there appeared no lack of anything. And in 
this offering of the daughter, gifts without limit were 
made to the Brahmans. 140. To all the citizens of the 
village a banquet was given as they desired, and to the 
bride and bridegroom were given beautiful ornaments, 
garments and adornments. 

COMPLETION OF THE MARRIAGE 

141. Blessed, blessed are the people who were 
assembled there, for they saw Narayan. It was the 
Life of the world who completed all arrangements 
for both parties. 143. With great eclat the procession 
of the bridegroom walked tha streets, the sound of the ins- 
truments was heard, and the four deliverances came 
and fell at their feet. 143. Rockets of all kinds were let 
off and guns were fired. Eight dancing women sang and 
danced and the Vaishnavas repeated aloud the names of 
Hari. 144. After many festivities. Mother Rukmini per- 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXVIII 144-153 

formed the ceremony of looking at the face of the daughter- 
in-law. At this the wife of Narsi Meheta was amazed. 145. 
For five days the marriage ceremony continued and the 
Life of the world, Shri Krishna, gave gifts to the party of 
the bride, offering them garments and ornaments. 146. 
The Lord of Vaikunth ( heaven ) then said to Tripurantak, 
' You have now become a relative of a bhakta of Vishnu 
andin the midst of your domestic affairs you have also 
seen what the supreme spiritual riches are. ' 147. After 
the marriage the bridegroom party returned to Junagad 
and Narsi Meheta continued joyfully to sing of the great- 
ness of Shri Krishna. 148, The Lord of the world whis- 
pered to Narsi Meheta, * Whenever any distress comes to 
you, think of Me. ' 149. Having said this the Husband of 
Rukmini returned to Dwarka. 

BHAKTAVJJAVA LIKENED TO Tl/LSI PLANTS 

And now let the hearers lovingly give attention. 150. 
This book of the Bhaktavijaija is like a forest of tender tulsi 
plants. The Husband of Rukmini, who dwells on the banks 
of theBhima, dwells here. 151. Clouds of joy gladly and with 
love rain upon it and the Vaishnavas who are pious and 
fortunate are made happy by hearing it. 

152. In the next interesting chapter Narsi Mehta will 
write a cheque for God to cash. Mahipati says, ' You 
fortunate listeners, be prepared to listen with reverence. * 

153. Swasti ( Peace ) 1 This book is the Shri Bhakta- 
vijaya. In listening to it the Lord of the world will be 
pleased. Listen, you God-loving, pious bkaklas. This ia 
the twenty-eighth very delightful chapter ; it is an offering 
to Shri Krishna. 



442 



CHAPTER XXIX 

NAR3I MEHEPA'S CHEQUE IN GOD'S NAME 

Obeisanca to Shri Ganesh. Obeisance to the Lord of PandharL 

GOD'S NAMES AND EPITHETS REPEATED 

1. yiotory to Th99 whose facs is auspicious. Lord of 
all blessings. One who extends beyond the three qualities, 
Lord of the heart, Pervader of the universe, Lord of all. 
Lord of Pandhari, Shri Vitthal. 2. Victory to Thee, 
Ancient of Days, Whose name is Infinite, the Wish-tree of 
His bhaktas. Thou who takest the form of One with quali- 
ties, One with the complexion of a dark cloud, the Object of 
love of Thy bhaktas, 3. Victory to Thee who didst prevent the 
dishonour of Draupadi, Deliverer of Gajendra, Recliner upon 
Shesfui, Dweller in the sea of milk, lotus-eyed One, Orna- 
fuent of Thy bhaktas, Pandurang. 4. Thou art God above 
all gods. In repeating Thy nama, Shiva became cooled. 
All the gods including Indra praise Thee. 5. Thou art the 
internal Witnesser, Cloud of intelligence. Object of contem- 
plation by the yogis. Thou who givest the highest form of 
daliverance even to Thine enemies. Cloud of joy, merciful 
One. 6. Thou who art the Father of Brahmadev, although 
Thou doest everything. Thou art a non-doer. Lover of Thy 
bhaktas, Husband of Rukmini. Even the Vedas do not 
know Thy limit. 7. The fourteen sciences and the sixty- 
four craftspraise Thee, Lover of the bhaktas, O Gopal. Thou 
goest from these to be near Thy loving bhaktas. 8. Leaving 
Thy heaven of Vaikunth, leaving the ocean of milk, 
leaving the drinking of nectar, Thou huntest with love for 
Thy bhaktas. 9. Leaving the city of Dwarka, Thou didst 
come to the home of Pundalik. Thou didst place Thy 
hands upon Thy sides, and there Thou standest upright, O 
Shri Hari. 10. And so Thou art fond of the love of Thr 

443 



BHAKTAVUAYA Oh. XXIX 10-22 

bhaktas, Being of goodness. O Thou whose home is in 
the heart of Thy loving bhaktas. Thou art the rest of the 
soul. 11. Therefore again and again I bow to Thee, Thou, 
Shripati ( Krishna ), inspire me to write this book. 
KESHAV BHAT CALLS ON NARSI 
12. Now listen, you hearers. In the preceding chapter 
it was related how after completing the wedding the Life of, 
the world left. 13. And Narsi Meheta, God's loving bhakta 
continually repeating the names of Krishna in his heart, 
danced continually in his kirlans. 14. Putting aside all 
pride of knowledge, putting aside bondage through the 
snare of desires, putting aside his desire for public honour, 
he continued to think of Shri Krishna. 15. Putting aside 
all sensual things, breaking the chains that would bind 
him to things of his own, putting aside all wrong thoughts, 
he put on the beautiful garment of peace. 16. Putting 
aside all ideas of equality and inequality, he considered 
a citizen and a king of the same value ; He regarded the 
beings of the infinite universe and Indra and the other 
gods as on an equality. 17. He did not consider the evil 
qualities of tigers, scorpions, lions, and dogs. A herder of 
goats and a Brahman seemed alike in his sight. 18. The 
wish-tree and the bahhul tree, the hingan and the malayagar 
he regarded as the same in value. In his sight he regarded 
disoourteouf^ and courteous language as the same. 19. If 
he saw before him a heap of money fallen on the ground, 
to his sight it was of the same value as dirt. The most 
priceless of jewels he regarded like common pebbles. 

STORY OF KESHAV BHAT 
20. Now on a certain day a procession of pilgrims was 
on its way to Dwarka. They came and stayed one day at 
Junagad, 21. Among them there was a supremely pious 
Brahman by name of Keshav Bhat. Coming into the city 
\9 made enquiries of the people there. 22. In the public 

444 



Ch. XXIX 22-34 STORY OF KESHAV BHAT 

square of the town there were many revilers and evil men. 
Ck)ming near to them, and standing before them, he spoke as 
follows. 23. He spoke to the people in a very courbeous 
way, ' I am a Brahman making a pilgrimage. I am on my 
way to Dwarka to see and worship the feet of Shri Hari 24. 
What merchant is there in your town who can write a 
cheque for me ? Tell me quickly, according to what 
may be true. ' 25. Hearing what he said, these revilers 
and evil men began to laugh. They said, ' Narsi Meheta 
bhakta lives in the midst of all luxuries. 26. He is a most 
fortunate one and wealthy, but he lives as if indifferent 
to all earthly things. Go to where he is, and your purpose 
will be fulfilled. 27. O Brahman, you will recognize the 
house of Narsi Meheta by the banners, altar of tulsi plants, 
the banners with eagle-picture, and the praise-service of 
Hari.' 28. Hearing them say this, and placing confidence 
in what they said, he hurried at once to the house of Narsi 
Meheta, 29. You hearers may say to me, ' Since Shri Hari 
is in all hearts, how is it that there can be persecution of 
His bhaktaa. Tell us truly.* 

GOODNESS IS VALUED BECAUSE OF BADNESS 

30. God Himself has created bhaklas and those 
who are not bhaklas. For His servants receive hon- 
our because of those who are not bhaklas. 31. If the 
crocodile had not seized the Gajendra, then why would the 
Dweller in Vaikunth ( heaven ) have had to rush to his aid? 
If Dusshasan had not persecuted Draupadi, then why would 
Hari have given her raiment ? 32. If the Daitya Hiranya- 
kashipu had not troubled the bhakta Pralhad, then how 
would the Lord of the universe have revealed Himself 
from within the pillar ? 33, If iron had not been created, 
tiien who would have placed any value upon the touch- 
stone ? So by means of those who are not bhaklas, the ser- 
vants of Ood receive honour. 34. If a beggar had no desire 

4^ 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXIX 34-45 

for anything, he would not ask anything of the wish-tree. 
If the darkness did not fall at night, who would ever light 
a lamp ? 35. If there are no false statements, then who 
would have considered truth as a good deed ? If subjects 
were not created, then who would have honoured the king ? 
36. If the stars were not so very small, who would have 
regarded the moon as being superior in size to them ? If 
there were no iron hammers to test a diamond, who then 
could have become expert in testing them ? 37. If the city 
of Yama had not been created, then who would have had 
a desire for heaven ? If there were no eighty-four hundred 
thousand rebirths, then who would have paid attention to 
the final deliverance ? 38. So having created in the world 
those who are not bhaktas, God looks with an eye of 
compassion upon those who are His bhaktas. When the 
Lord of the world sees His bhaktas in distress He rushes to 
their help. 

KESHAV BHAT MEETS NARSI 

39. Turning now to the preceding description, the 
pious Brahman, Keshav Bhat, arrived quickly at the house 
of Narsi Meheta. 40. That Vishnu bhakfa was seated by a 
a pure tulsi altar. Remembering the Lord of Vaiku/ttlt (hea- 
ven ) in his heart, he was lovingly repeating His name. 41. 
Having put aside all thoughts of bodily needs he enjoyed 
deep meditation. Putting aside disturbances of his life, he 
lived in peace because of his knowledge of non-duality. 
42. Suddenly seeing the Brahman coming into the house 
before him, Narsi Meheta lovingly bowed to him. 43. He 
spread a mat for the Brahman and seated him upon it. He 
said to him, ' Where are you from, and where are you 
going ?' 44. The Brahman replied, ' I am going to the city 
of Dwarka. The road from here is through a very diflBcult 
country and there are robbers in the way. 45. I have brought 
here with ras money to the value of savan hundred rupees 

446 



Ch. XXIX 45-57 GOD AS TRADER 

as travelling expenses. Write a cheque for the same and 
give it to rae. 46. When darkness had settled upon the 
town I enquired of the peopla, " What merchant is there 
here who would write a cheque for me f " 47. They gave 
me your name .' When Narsi Meheka heard these words 
of the Brahman, he was much troubled in his mind and 
said to himself, ' Truly the people have deceived him. 48. 
But the Helper of the helpess, the Advocate of His bhaktas, 
my Protector, Ho has assumed many forms of avatars for 
the sake of His bhaktas. ' 49. Thus determining in his 
mind, he said to the Brahman, ' The money which you 
brought from your home, place it here. ' 50. The Brahman 
hearing him replied, ' Who is your agent at Dwaika? 
Tell me his name.' 

GOD AS TRADER 

51. Hearing him say this, the Vaishnava bhakta 
replied, ' His name is Savalasa. Indra and all the 
gods worship Him. 52. The four Vedus breaking out into 
song continually praise His good deeds. The Lord of 
Kailas (heaven), the Husband of Uma, continually repeats 
His name. 53. His chief shop is on the sea of milk. Another 
shop is in Vaikanth ( heaven ). He has lived at Gokul, 
Brindavan, Mathura, and in the home of Vaishnavaa. 54. 
In Mandesh on the banks of the Bhima He has placed a 
great shop at Pandhari. And he still stands there near 
to His bhakta, Shet Pundalik. 55. He it is who is at Dwarka 
and who is carrying on His merchant's business from 
there. Vyas and Valmki carry on business in such things 
as are connected with kirlans. 56. One of His customers 
is Nama, and another the pious bhakta Kabir. Buying the 
articles they sell, the dull-minded have been saved 
through their devotion to Him. ' 57. Hearing him say this, 
the Brahman was satisfied. He placed the seven hundred 
xupees on the tulsi altar. 

447 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Oil. XXIX 58-68 

NARSI'S CHEQUE TO KESHAV BHAT 

58. At the Bsme time Narsi Mebeta wrote a 
letter in pleading terms. He said, ' O Krishna, Dwell- 
er at Dwarka, hear the plea of Thy servant. 59. Thou 
art generous, O Ocean of compassion. When Upamanyu 
as a child asked for milk. Thou didst listen to him 
and gave him the ocean of milk. 60. Brahmadev has 
become weary in describing Thy qualities, O Husband of 
Rukmini. When the Brahman Sudama came to visit Thee 
Thou didst give him a city of gold. 61. Thou didst perform 
a very wonderful thing. Thou didst place the child Dhruva 
in his immovable position. Such Thou art, Husband of 
Bam& [ RamS is another name for Lakshmi, Krishna's 
wife ], Thou art the Protector of Thy bhakias. 62. Do Tbou, 
chief among the generous ones and the brave, listen to 
t he reading of my letter, and by giving money to the 
Brahman, O Holder of the disk ( Krishna ), satisfy him. 
63. It is because I trusted to Thee that I took the money 
from him. After hearing these pity-arousing words, do 
Thou, O Cloud of joy, rain down upon hini. 64. Thou 
mayest say that I have written the cheque on Thee, 
although Thou art the unmanifested and the unconquered. 
But do not do that which will cause people to laugh at me.* 
65. He wrote the following cheque, ' Savalasa, Dweller in 
Dwarka, pay seven hundred rupees to the bearer.' Thus 
writing the cheque he gave it to the Brahman. 

KESHAV BHAT'S DOUBT ABOUT THE CHEQUE 

66. Then immediately he invited the saints and sadhus, 
all the Vaishnaixis and all the Brahmans of the village and 
distributed all the money at once to them. 67. Becoming 
free from disturbances he ( Narsi Meheta ) sat repeating 
the names of God. The Brahman made his obeisance to 
Narsi Meheta and started on his way. 68. But as he walked 
along the path he was wondering in his mind. He thought* 

448 



Ch. XXIX 68-80 KE8HAV BHAT'S GREAT DOUBT 

' I have never seen before a merchant so generous. 
69. In every way he seems generous and one indifferent to 
earthly things. He has in his house the very least food 
and raiment. With love and peace in his heart, he 
lovingly performs his kirtans. 70. It is with such an one 
that I have carried on this business. How did I make 
Buoh a mistake ? ' Becoming deeply concerned he thought 
to himself as follows : — 71. ' Just as when one throws salt 
into the sea and it can never return, so my money is 
offered to Krishna, as it were, and will never come back. 
73. If one makes a sound into the air no echo returns, just 
as I have now done by carrying on this business with 
Narsi Meheta. 73. If you throw butter into the fire it 
will never return, do what you may. So what I have given 
to that Vaishnava has really been made an offering to 
Brahm, as it were. 74. When giving water to the tu'si 
plant one should not desire any fruit from it. So I do 
not now see that anything will come back to me from that 
cheque. 75. If water is mixed with the sea water it 
never will return; so my money has truly gone into the 
storehouse of Kuber. 76. It is as if I placed flowers in the 
sky and they gave honey to the wind; so the god's hkakta 
has distributed the money to the Brahmans.* 77. He now 
said finally to himself ,' Why mourn in vain for it? The 
Lord Sbri Krishna, the Pervader of the universe, cares for 
every one. ' 

KESHAV BHAT AT DWARKA 

78. Comforting himself in that way the Brahman 
came to Dwarka. After bathing in the Gomati he 
went to see and worship Shri Krishna. 79. Worship- 
ping the feet of Shri Krishna he stood with hands joined 
palm to palm, and with love and complete reverence he 
praised Hari. 80. He said, ' Victory, Victory to the Hus- 
band of Rukmini, Brother of the lowly. Lord Ranohhod '. 
B. V. 29 449 



BHAXTA.VUAYA C3h. XXIX 80-92 

Helper of the helpless, merciful One, remove my oonoern. ' 
Bl. Having spoken these pity-arousing words, he prostrated 
himself before Qod. The Brahman then sought information 
from the priest. 82. He said, ' Show me the house of the 
merchant Savalasa. That name is written upon the 
cheque which I hold.' 83. Hearing him say this, all 
the people replied, ' We have never heard of a merchant 
by the name Savalasa, nor have we seen anyone of 
that name. Nor could we do so, if we hunted through- 
out the city of Dwarka.' 

REVILERS CALL NARSI'S CHEQUE VALUELESS 

84. ' Narsi Meheta has given you a cheque that is 
valueless. In giving your money to him you did not 
properly consider the question. 85. One should carry 
on business looking to pro&t, and one should give only 
to those worthy of it. One should go as a suppliant to 
one's guru and ask him for the needs of one's soul. 86. 
When one sees a Vaishrtava, one should with reverence make 
a prostrate namaskar to him; but one should not transact 
worldly business with him. 87. One should give food and 
garments with reverence to God's bhaktas, but one should 
never carry on the business of buying and selling with them. 
88. They make like themselves anyone who associates 
with them. When a river meets with the ocean it becomes 
a part of the ocean without effort. 89. When iron touches 
the touchstone, all its darkness flies away. So when one 
associates with a saint worldly business comes to naught. 
90. When a little streamlet joins the Ganges, it takes but 
a moment to change its name and form. So by one's asso- 
ciation with a Sadhu, business abilities no longer remain 
■with him. 91. Such being our custom from the elders, 
you have carried on business with a VcUshnava. So now, O 
noble Brahman, where will you hunt for the merchant 
Savalosa ? ' 93. Hearing these words of the priest, the 

450 



Ch. XXIX 92-103 KRISHNA AS A BANKER 

Bi-abman beoame deeply concerned. ThenbowiogtoQod the 
Brahman departed. 33. Returning to his lodging the mind 
of the Brahman continued greatly disturbed. He said to 
himself, ' Narsi Meheta distributed the money at once. 
94. Abandoning all illusion regarding money, let me go 
as a suppliant to the King of Vaikunlh ( hearen ).' Thus 
remarking, the Brahman sat down in the square. 

' KRISHKA A3 A BANKER 

95. Just then God supreme, the Husband] of Rukmini 
assumed the form of a merchant. Bringing Uddhav and 
Akrur, He drove along in His chariot. 96. The Life of 
the world, sitting in His chuiot, said to Daruk (His 
charioteer ), ' Narsi Meheta has sent a cheque with our 
name written upon it. 97. In order that I may accomplish 
his purpose I have become to-day Savalasa the merchant. 
I have changed My four-armed form, and am going, 
instead in the form of a mail. ' 98. Uddhav then said to 
Him, ' O Life of the world, even the Vedas da not know the 
limits of Thy power. Thou, O Narayan, dost assume an 
infinite nximber of forms in order to carry out the purposes 
of Thy bhaktas. * 99. Narad said to Him, ' Thou actest like 
a skilled actor in a drama. Thou puttest hindrances in the 
way of Thy blmktas. Then assuming a form with qualities. 
Thou, O Hari, dost rush to their help; 100. just as, a mother 
tells a child about a goblin when one is not really there, 
and when the child cries out with fear she comforts it in 
love. * 101. Conversing in this way with His bhakt»s, 
Govind came along. Such is the Advocate of tha bhaldos. 
One praised in the universa and Wh(»3 unfathomable Ha 
( deeds ) cannot be understood. 102. With His divilie 
ornaments, garments and adornments, beautiful in form. 
He appeared with qualities. The Life of the world lustily 
drove along the royal highway. 103. As the chariot was 
moving steadily along, He said to His (chariotear) 

451 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Cb. XXIX 103-113 

Paraks, ' A Brahnian is seated ia the square who is full of 
concern. Take Me at once to where he is.' 104. Having 
given this order, the Husband of Rukmini and His chariot 
moved swiftly along. And as the people lovingly saw 
this f oim with qualities, all wondered. 

KBISHNA SEES KESHAV BHAT 

105. As the Lord of the world approached, He 
saw there the Brahman. The Husband of Rukroini 
asked him, ' Why are you thus concerned ? ' 106. At 
the question of the Dweller in Vaikunth ( heaven ) 
the Brahman felt astonished, with reverence he bowed to 
Him, and gave Him the reasons for his concern. 107. 'There 
is a Vaiahnaza bhakta at Junagad by name of Narsi Meheta. 
His agent Savalasa is here at Dwarka. 108. Because I 
cannot find him, I am very much troubled.' Hearing him 
say this, the Lord of the world spoke to the Brahman. 109. 
At this the Husband of Rukmini laughed and said, ' They 
call Me here Savalasa. What is the order which Narsi 
Meheta hap given to me ? ' 

KESHAV BHAT COMFORTED 

110. As the Life of the world said these thirga 
the Brahman was much comforted; just as when 
during a drought a cloud pouis down rain, the grass 
on the mountain side is made happy; 111. or as God-lov- 
ing bhafdas, hearing at a kirlan the praising of Hari, are 
comforted thereby; or when a person repentant of his sins, 
sees a sacred bathing-place, then his mind experiences 
comfort; 112. or as when listening to the reading of the 
Bhagwai, Vaishnava bhaktas become full of joy ; or as when 
suffering from thirst, one sees water and he feels a sense 
of joy; 113. or as when a seek..r after spiritual things 
finds himself in association with a saint and through 
connection with him he feels satisfaction; or when one who 
has a request to make and sees a geuerous giver, he is 

452 



Ch. XXIX 113-125 8EBVANT GREATER THAN MASTER 

delighted in his heart; 114. in that same way the Brahman 
hearing what the merchant said was greatly pleased. He 
at once took out the letter and placed it in Krishna's hand. 

115. After looking over the letter. He lovingly bowed to it 
with His hand. He Whom the Vedas and Shaslras praise , 
but Whose extraordinary deeds they are unable to describe, 

116. this God supreme, Husband of Rukmini, became thus 
subservient to His bhakta. As the Life of the world read 
the letter he spoke with a smile on His face. 117. The Lord 
of Faikuntk said to Uddhav, ' Narsi Maheta the God-loving 
bhtkta, although living in the midst of domestic matters, is 
one indifferent to all earthly things. He has 8«nt Me a 
small cheque to be cashed.' 118. Saying this He took out 
seven hundred rupees. The Husband of R<ikmini gave this 
to the Brahman. 

HOW CAN A SERVANT BE GREATER TH.\N HIS MASTER ? 

119. As the Brahman saw the money, he was much 
comforted. Astonished however in his mind, he answered 
in a humble voice, 120. ' You seem to be a wealthy 
merchant, but Narsi Meheta seems a very poor person. 
A rich servant with a helpless lord seems to me to be very 
strange. 121. I have never seen the charioteer of the su n 
more brilliant than the sun itself. The Purams never 
speak of a streamlet running through a village as superior 
to the Ganges. 122. I have never seen in the world a 
minister greater than the king. I have never heard that 
any monkey was greater than Shri Ram Himself. 
133. Who is there greater than the Lord of Kailas (heaven), 
the Husband of Parvati ? One has never seen or heard of a 
river of greater importance than the ocean. 124, I have 
never beard of a sictdhi ( accomplishment ) greater than 
Lakshmi. There are no stars more brilliant than the 
moon. 135. I have never seen a little diamond mors 
brilliant than a large diamond. I have never heard of any- 

453 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXIX 125-136 

one learned in the Vedanta ( philosophical knowledge ) who 
was greater than one in the siddhanta ( established facts ). 
126. Now today I see with my eyes what seems topsyturvy. 
Therefore I ask you to explain it.' Hearing what the 
BTabman said, Krishna began to speak. 

KRISHNA DKPELS KESHAV BHAT'S SCRUPLES 

127. The Husband of Rukmini said to the Brah- 
man, 'A Vaishnava bhakia is continually indifferent 
to all earthly things. Although he is in worldly 
surroundings he is without illusion and without 
desires. 128. As the sea has no desire that the cloud 
should continually rain upon it, so a Vaishnava does not 
allow his mind to be entangled in the snare of desire; 
129. just as the sun has no desire to light a lamp in the 
house, so a Vaishnava does not allow his mind to ba entan- 
gled in the snare of desire. 130. Those who have nectar 
to drink will make no effort for medicine. A Vaiahvava 
bfiakla despises money and wealth. 131. As the Lord of 
Lakshmi does not willingly accept the bikul or shevanti 
flowers as more important than the iidsi, so a Vaish- 
nava does not consider in his mind that money or 
wealth is more important than worship. 133. Thosa 
who have the knowledge of siddhanta will not list- 
en to the reading of an immoral book, so a VaishHav2 
bhakia remains absorbed in the worship of Hari. 133. 
Narsi Meheta, supremely indifferent to earthly things, 
does not care for money or property. How are we to help 
this character ? 134. It is a mother's characteristic that 
she desires to put ornaments upon her child. So Narsi 
Meheta has showed bis favour towards Me without limit. 

135. A father does not steal from his property and wealth, 
and so Narsi Meheta has placed great confidence in Me. ' 

136. The compassionate One to the lowly having said this, 
all the FaisAnat'os were aBtonlsbed. They exclaimed, 'Narsi 

454 



C!h. XXIX 136-148 KESHAV MEETS NARSI 

Meheta the God^Ioving bhakta has made the cloud-dark 
Krishna subservient to him. ' 137. Hari, after having 
performed this miraculous act, became invisible. The 
Brahman felt it very strange, and his mind was astonished. 
138. Then he counted the money to see how much it was. 
He found it to be an immeasurable quantity. This made 
him exclaim to himself, ' The Lord of Dwarka quickly met 
me. ' 139/ Comforting himself in this way the pious 
Vaishnava bhakla satisfied the Brahftians with a feast. 

KESHAV MEETS NARSI 

140. While waiting at that beautiful city of Dwarka, 
the Brahman distributed all the money to those worthy of 
receiving it. He offered it to those learned in the Shistras, 
to Brahmans and to priests who were pare and worthy of 
it. 141. Then going to the great door of the temple, with 
reverence he bowed to the Lord of Dwarka. Taking leave 
of the god, the Brahman started on his way home. 142. Re- 
turning to Junagad he went to see Narsi Meheta. He 
told him everything about the event that had taken 
place. 143. He said to him, ' Yoa are a God-loving 
Vaishnava bhakta. You have made the Lord of Dwarka a 
debtor to you. Savalasa came quickly and met me. 144. 
I placed your letter in His hand. In His love He bowed His 
head to it. Having read it, His mind showed His love» 
145. He at once took out seven hundred rupees, and placed 
them in my hand. When I counted it out it was beyond 
my power of reckoning the amount. 146. When I looked 
back to him at that moment He became invisible. ' Hear- 
ing these words of the Brahman, tears filled Narsi Meheta's 
eyes. 147. He exclaimed, ' O Dweller at Dwarka, Husband 
of Bukmini, Brother of the helpless, Dalighter of the mind. 
Filler of the universe. Cloud of mercy. Thou dist weary 
Thyself for my sake, 148. Thou art the Brother of the 
lowly. Ocean of mercy, even the Vedas and the Shastras 

455 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XZIX 148-154 

do not know the limits of Thy power. Thou art the in- 
describable, even by the four forms of speech. Thou 
alone art the Saviour of the world. 149. O Lord of the 
helpless, Lover of Thy bhaklas. Thou dost carry out the 
wishes of Thy servants. ' Saying these things, tears flowed 
from his eyes. 150. At once he steadied his mind and 
began to repeat the names of God. 

BHAKTAVIJAYA AS OCEAN OF MILK 

In the next chapter will be described the puberty 
ceremony ( of Narsi Meheta's daughter ). Let the saints 
listen to me. 151. This book containing the lives of the 
saints, may be considered as the ocean of milk. The 
Recliner upon the She.-iha, the Husband of Lakshmi, contin- 
ually dwells upon it. 152. Tnere I, a lowly andhelpless one, 
have been able to drink the supreme nectar. Here the Lord 
of Vaikun'h ( heaven ) in His love gives the water of affec- 
tion. 153. In the rows of the Vaishnaoa bhihtas, pious bhaklas 
have seated themselves. With love and pleasure Mahipati 
eats what they have left on their plates. 

154, Stvxsii i Peace ) ! This book is the Shri Bhakta- 
vijaya. In listening to it the Lord of the world will be 
pleased. Listen, you God-loving, pious bJiaktas. This is 
the twenty-ninth deeply delightful chapter; it is an offering 
to Shri Krishna, an offering also to Jagadishwar ( the 
Lord of the world ). 



456 



CHAPTER XXX 

MATURITY CEREMONY OF NARSI'S DAUGHTER 

Obeisance to Shri Gamsh. Obsismce to the Slater of Puiana 

NA.RSI MEHETA. INDIFFERENT TO ALE EAETHLY THINGS 

1. Listen, O hearers, with a reverent mind. Narsi 
Mehetathe Vaishnavibhakta, full of love, living at Jnnagad, 
was continually in the worship of Shri Hart 2. He in 
whom forgiveness and i)eace continually dwell in personi- 
fied form, is one whose characteristic is that he do% not 
ask for anything and is always satisGed with a little. 

3. With complete hhakti, knowledge and indififerenoe fco 
earthly things he worshipped Hari in his love. Although 
he had a family and a wife he was unattached to anything; 

4. just as when a lotus plant is growing in a lake, the 
water does not touch it; or as when the sun is seen reflected 
in a jar of water, it does not become wet with it; 5. just as 
the wind, being everywhere, the stormy wind cannot be con- 
fined; so a good man, although in the midst of domestic life, 
is untouched by the evil effects of it. 6. Ignorant men 
say that the bfiaklas of Hari are affected by domestic affairs, 
but such great revilers are a burden to the earth. 7. Those 
who seek to stain the sky find tbat their own hands are 
stained. So he who reviles a Vaishnavx bhakta is guilty of 
a wrong. 

GOD PROVIDES NARSI MEHTA WITH GIFTS TO BE 
Qi'v-EN AWAY 

8. Narsi Mftheta ^^ti indiffarent to earthly things. His 

daughter bad reav^aea maturity and to celebrate it he had an 

invitation from his new relative. 9. At- his own home ha 

had neither raiments nor food. His wife said to him* 

'* What have you planned to take as gifts ?* 10. He 

457 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Oh. XXX 10-33 

replied to her, ' I have the name of Hari to take as gifts.* 
Saying this to his wife he hastened to where his 
daughter was. 11. Everybody there began to laagh, when 
they saw Narsi Meheta, and erclaimed, ' What is the 
purpose of his having come here ? 12. As a matter of 
conventional formality we sent him an invitation, but 
he has come with a tidsi garland around his neck and 
cymbals in his hand. ' 13. Musical instruments sounded 
loudly and his chief relatives assembled together, remark- 
ing, ' Having no presents to give his new relatives, why 
has he come here ? ' 14. The daughter full of doubts in 
her heart said privately to Narsi Meheta, 'Bringing nothing 
you are losing in reputation, and I feel ashamed. * 15. 
Hearing what all said Narsi Meheta replied, ' Let each 
one tell what gifts he would like. 16. Let each one write 
down what he wishes, and give the list to me. ' Hear- 
ing him say this, all the people broka out into a hearty 
laugh. 

A LIST OF GIFTS 

17. Then there came a mischievous fellow bring- 
ing apiece of paper, and exclaiming, ' I will writ/e down 
what all of us want. ' Such were the words of ^bis evil 
fellow. 18. Then the father-in-law, and the sgn-in-law 
and the evU minded relatives, all of them said what gifts 
they desired, and the daughter said, ' I want ornaments. ' 
19. Whatever each one desired he wrote down. Narsi 
Meheta then said to him who had written down what was 
desired, 20. ' Whatever t/oit desire, write down upon this 
paper.' The unbeliever, because he did not believe him. 
replied to him, 21 , * I want a stone. * He wrote it down at 
once, and all the people laughed at him. 22. He remarked 
before all the people, * I ciunot believe that the gifts he 
tells me to write down will ever come.' 23. Someone hag 
said that he who will not trust the words of the saints, and 

458 



Ch. XXX 23-34 NARSI'S PLEA. 

is a hater of his father, is a very bad man. Having fallen 
into the whirlpool of worldly existence he cannot be freed 
even to the very end of the time 24. A learned fool, who 
is a hater of Brahmans, and a reviler of sacred bathing 
places and saored cities, such an one cannot attain to 
Hari. 25. One running after women, and a hater of his 
mother, are sure to fall into the whirlpool of death. 
Such cannot |ittain to Hari. 26. Those who do not know 
what is permitted and what is not permitted by law, 
those who have a d(sire for the wives of others, never 
attain to Hari, no, never. 27. Such being that wicked 
person, he exclaimed, ' I want a stone. ' 
NARSI'S PLEA 
Narsi Meheta hearing this, bowed to Hari. 
28. He exclaimed, ' O Merciful to the lowly. Lover 
of Thy bhaklas, Lotus-eyed One, Dweller in Vaiknnth 
( heaven ), the Moon to the Cliakor, Heart of Ruk- 
mini, come quickly this time to my help. 29. Thou call- 
est Thyself the Helper of the helpless. Thou suppliest the 
desire of Thy bhaklas. Now do not throw aside Narsi 
Meheta, O merciful One. * 30. When Krishna heard 
these pity-arciising words he was pleased. He came with 
a bale full of garments. 31. Hari took the form of a 
Brahman and stood at the door and requested the men 
Jhere to tell Narsi Meheta that he had brought a whole bale 
of cloth. 32. The relatives questioned Him, ' Who are you 
and where are you from ? The Life of the world hearing 
them say this answered: listen to what He said:- 33. ' I am 
one of the agents of Narsi Meheta in his shop at Dwarka. 
I have hastened here today bringing the gifts for you, his 
relatives. ' 

KRISHNA'S DISTRIBUTION OF GIFTS 
34. So spoke the Ornament of His bhaklas. No one.. 
however, recognized who He was. People were deceived by 

459 



BHAKTAVIJAYA Oil. XXX 34-46 

iheirloveof things and closed their eyes of knowledge 
through illusions. 35. Hari having brought a box full of 
ornaments, stood there. Narsi Meheta then said to his new- 
relatives, 36. ' All of you ask for whatever you desire. 
Patting aside the idea of duality, hold no doubt in your 
uiind.' 37. The Husband of Rukmini asked for the paper 
with the list of gifts wanted and took it in His own 
hand. He then undid the bale of cloth and with His 
own hand distributed the garments, 38. The Lord of the 
heart gave a shawl woven with golden threads to the 
son-in-law of Narsi Meheta. A jacket and a silk sari He 
gave to tlie mother-in-law. 39. To some He gave short 
s'7m, to some long saris, and to some jackets, to some a 
neck oraament) to some garments with coloured spots. To 
some He gave turbans woven at Mungi Paithan. 10. To 
some He gave some very finely woven crimson cloth and 
to some a yellow-cloured garment. The Life of the world 
gave to some a green thin cloth woven with golden threads. 
41. To some He gave turbans and Parakala. Some who 
had asked for a shawl with coloured borders received it. 
To some Hari gave a pair of silk dhotars. 43. To same H e 
gave black cloth lyith gold borders. Some asked for a 
yellow raiment, and the Holder of the Sliarang bow 
( Krishna ) immediately took it out of the bale of gifts and 
gave it to them. 43. Narayan gave one a garment with 
beautiful borders. The enemy of Madhu ( Krishna ) had 
brought a bale full and it continued to remain full. 
44. Men came to see this strange thing, and he gave to 
them beautiful garments. Krishna distributed limitless 
beautiful shawls to them. 45. Women of the town 
assembled to receive saffron and yellow-coloured paste for 
their foreheads. The Lord of the heart (Krishna) gave 
them garments with His own hands rapidly. 

KRISHNA'S GIFTS TO ALL THE QUaSTS 
46. Fana?{a/t( Krishna) distributed to them diEFarant 
460 



Ch. XXX 46-59 KRISHNA'S GIFTS TO GUESTS 

sorts of satis. He divided among them the white thin shawls 
worn in royal palaces. 47, Blessed, blessed were those 
people to whom Narayan distributed the garments. What 
illustrations can I use to compare them ? 48. When that 
wicked man at Hastinapur started to remove the cloth of 
that pure one Draupadi, Hari rushed there with garments for 
her, and so He did now. 49. After distributing the garments, 
he gave them ornaments. To some He gave head ornaments 
of crescent shape, to others head ornaments of various 
shapes. 50. To some the Husband of Rukmini gave pearl 
earrings, to others clusters of ear-ornaments of the shape 
of fishes, to others the neck ornaments. 51. To some He 
gave garlands of pearls, to others necklaces and others neck 
ornaments with pendants. Krishna gave them with His 
own hand. 52. Govind distributed with His own hands 
the bracelets according as each one had desired and to 
others gold bracelets. 53. The enemy of Mura ( Krishna ) 
gave to some waist-cords, woven with golden threads, and 
others ankle-jewels, chains and many ornaments. There 
were toe-rings for the feet and earrings which Shri Krishna 
Himself put on some people. 54. The Holder of the disk 
( Krishna ) fastened their neck-ornaments, fastened their 
waist-cords and distributed to them thesa jewels. 55. As 
the Holder of the Sharang bow ( Shri Krishna ) did this 
marvellous deed, men and women were all pleased. He 
was infinitely generous in His benovolent acts for His 
bhaklas. 56. Just what they wanted, Narayan gave to them 
in full. The Saviour of the world brought a stone to the man 
who had done the writing and who had asked for it. 57. The 
Life of the world lifted up the stone with His own hand? 
and placed it upon the man's head. The people who had 
assembled there all laughed as they saw this remarkable 
lila ( sport, or deed ). 58, All the people said to him, 'Your 
fate has broken down. You are as one sitting under a 
wish-tree, and yet begging. 59. When the daif$a Bbasma 

461 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXX 59-70 

pleased the Husband of Girija ( Shiva ) he asked Him for 
a wrong blessing, so you have done.' 60. All having said 
this to him, that evil-minded person became ashamed, just 
as when a clod of earth is put into water, it melts away. 

PEOPLE RECOGNIZE KRISHNA AS NARSl'S HELPER 

61. All again and again made their naimskar to Narsi 
Meheta, They said to him, ' Shri Krishna has come to your 
aid, now we truly understand this* 63. In this way having 
celebrated his daughter's puberby-csremony, this bhakia of 
Vishnu started from there to Junagad, there to see and 
worship the image of Krishna. 63. He said to Him, ' O 
Husband of Rukmini, Shri Hari, Thou hast today wearied 
Thyself greatly for me. O Enemy of Mura, Thou hast 
brought for me the presents to be given to my relatives. * 
64. The Lord of Vaikiinlh { heaven ) thought to Himself, 
* I distributed garments to the people, but I did nothing to 
honour Narsi Meheta.' 65. Being pldased therefore, the dark- 
blue-complexioned One took off from Himself His flower 
garland mixed with tuhi leaves and placed it around the 
neck of His bhakia. 66. He became invisible at the same 
place, where in the form of a Brahman He had brought 
gifts for the new relatives so that all the people worshipped 
thefeetof Narsi Meheta. 67. And whenever he made akirtan 
in praise of Hari, that garland appeared about his neck. 

NARSI PERSECUTED 

Someone conveyed the news of this to King Manduk. 
68. The king came to see him and worshipped the idol, 
but he had a doubt in his mind, thinking there had been 
some crooked dealings. 69. He therefore took a needle 
and thread and fastened the garland to His coat. Sbowing 
anger, he said to Narsi Meheta, 70. ' By means of your 
knowledge of tricks you have deceived many pious people. 
If your garland does not appear around your tteok to-day, 

U2 



Ch. XXX 70-83 KEISHNA FOND OF ABUSE 

I shall punish you. * 71. Narsi at onoe taking his cymbals 
and his vina in his hands, danced full of lova in his loud 
shouting of the names of Hari. 72. In many ways he 
described the good qualities of Hari, but the garland did 
not appear aroand his neck. Then joining his hands 
together palm to palm, he pleaded with God: — 73. ' Thou 
didst at once take the form of a fish, and in a moment's 
time didst destroy the diitya Saankha. Now why art Thou 
delaying to give me the garland ? 74. Thou, Lord of Fat- 
A;un//t (heaven) didst take t*^e form of a tortoise and didst 
skilfully tike out the fourteen jewels. Now why art Thou 
at all delaying to give me the garland ? 75. Thou, O 
Krishna, taking the form of a wild boar, didst kill Hiran- 
yaksha, and why, O Govind, art Thou delaying to 
give me the garlani ? 76. Whan Pralhad was persecuted 
Thou didst break out from the pillar. Why dost Tbou 
not yet take pity on me and give me the garland? 
77. Taking the form of Vaman, with one step Thou didst 
measure the whole three worlds ; then why dost Thou not 
feel pity today, oa hearing my piteous request? 78. Because 
the Kshatriyas troubled the wish-cow Thou didst come 
with an axe and didst kill them. But now Thou dosS not 
have pity on me, though hearing my cries. 79. Because 
the gods were thrown into prison, Thou didst kill Ravana 
and Kumbhakama; so I do not understand why ray di.stress 
is unheard by Thee. 80. When Draupadi was insulted. 
Thou, Husband of Rukmini, at once earnest to her help. 
Why dost Thou not now feel pity when Thou hearest my 
cry of distress ? 81. O Krishna, although hearing my 
piteous words. Thou art yet not pleased.' 
KRISHNA FOND OF ABUSIVE WORDS FROM HIS BHAKTAS 
Krishna replied, 'Speak to Me with abusive words, and 
I will take off My garland and give it to you. * 82. The 
king in the meantime said to Narsi Meheta, ' Now I 
understand the purpose of your tricks. ' Saying this, 
the king came forward to punish him. 83. Seeing 

463 



BHAKTAVUAYA Ch. XXX 83-92 

bis own diskreBs Narsi Meheta cried out, and by 
it the Life of tbe world was pleased. Let good 
and pious people listen. 84. He said, ' Wbat does it 
matter to Thee or Thy father about giving me the 
garland ? ' The Lord of Dwarka having heard him give 
this abuse was pleased. 85. When he had in countless 
words pleaded piteously, it did not come to God's mind to 
give it, but tho moment he used abusive language the 
garland oame upon his neck. 86. The king looked and the 
garland was still there with the stitches, which made him 
exclaim, 'Blessed is this Vaishnata. He is the complete malar 
of Shiva.* 87. The king then with reverence lovingly 
embraced the feet of Narsi Meheta and said, ' Do not 
further consider in your mind my transgression. 88. You 
are a noble Vaishnaoa and God's bkakla. Sinner as I am, I 
surely did not understand this. I heard wbat people said 
and came here to trouble you. 89. Just as when Duryodhan 
was persecuting the Pandavas, that evil one was defeated, 
so in persecuting you the same thing has happened to me.' 
90. The king then made Narsi a prostrate naniaskar and 
returned to his city. And Narsi Meheta full of love 
continued his worship of Shri Hari. 

91. In the next chapter we shall read of how the 
Husband of Rukmini came from Dwarka to Dakur. 
Mahipati pleads with his hearers to listen with love and joy. 

92. SwasH ( Peace ) ! This book is the Shri Bliaktaoijaya. 
In listening to it the Lord of the world will be pleased^ 
Listen then, you God-loving, pious bhaktas. This is the 
thiri.ieth deeply delightful chapter; it is an offering to Shri 
Krishna. 



End of Volume I cf the English 
Translalion of Mahipati s Marathi BHAKTA VIJA YA 

464 



Appendix 

103 Extra Venws 

Thire are four printed texts of MahipaH'a BbaktM¥lJay9. 
In addition there is an unpublished manuscript of this work 
in the possession of Martand Chintanum Taharabadkar, 
Esq., Retired Mamlatdar, 828 Sadashiv Peth, Poona, who is 
the sixth descendant of MahipatCs brother. This manuscrijA, 
IMS written by the brother of his grandfather and the uriling 
ivas finished en the bright 11th of Vaishakh (May), Virodhkrit 
Sanvatsar in 177S of the Shaka Era, i. e. A. D. 1851. Mr. 
Taharabadkar has very kindly loaned tUs manuscript far the 
present book and it has proved to be of immense use. The 
manuscript has 103 extra verses which we give bdow. Our 
numbering of the verses is taken from the manuscript. This is 
the first occasion on which these verses have been published. 
In each case the English rendering is printed on the left fiand 
page and the Marathi original on the right hand. 



B. V. 80 465 



Chapter 2 

251. If one liatens with devotion [ to the reading of 
the Bhaktttvijaija ] the Life of the world is pleased with 
him, and frees him from his earthly bondage in a moment's 
time. 252. Barthly enjoyments and salvation become his 
slaves, and the eight siddhis ( aooomplishments ) wait upon 
him. Hriahikesftt ( the Lord of the heart ) always remains 
with him. 253. Shri Hart alwayd abides at his home 
together with Lakahmi [Vishnu's wife, the goddess of 
wealth ], and fully satisfies whatever wish he has in his 
heart. 254. Qod Supreme, honoured by other gods, lets him 
lack for nothing. All his pains, poverty and calamities at 
once disappear. 255. The Son of the sun ( Yama the god 
of death ) stands before him with both his hands joined 
palm to palm, and even the Creator ( Brahma ) and Hara 
( Shiva ) always bow down to him. 256. Even Shiva and 
Brahmadev are not able to describe his glory. Purusholtam 
< the good Being ) takes him finaJly to VdUcuntha ( His 
heavenly home ). 257. The fruit of listening with devotion 
cannot be described completely. TbecIoud-oomplexionedOne 
(Krishna) is found through devotion, and there is no other 
means of finding Him. 258. Devotion itself is Qod. Every- 
&ing else is of no value without devotion. If one listens 
with devotion, Uadhav ( Vishnu ) becomes subject to him. 



466 



r%^ ^Rft II m^ msHt %M 

fPTT «r^ f¥t%^ 11 ?rt^i3 ^tra% u ^»^s^ u 

S^^f^d 9ftf0 II ^<5*Iq4 TT^ cqT% ^ 

% fnJT 3T%5 fTr% ^trtf II cT Tf^^ V^Hl^ (I ^H^ « 

?nn^ ^Ftff ?^ II ^ ^ \'ini'M 

?T^n^ ^^fH^ II 3»n #trf% %^ ^ 
f^ 3ni6t ^ II ^ 'VToS ^f^r It ^^v^ 11 

^n?i^ ^rnrlr '^hhToA h g^par js^tt j^^ n ^^v» n 
a?iif si^oT ^FR<Tf JTw? II ^^ ^ fprr# ii '^m^ • 



467 



ehapter 4 

259. By Ustaning to the lives of saints, bad qualities 

disappear. Qood qualities arise, and one loves devotion 

to p«rfeotion. 260. Those who love the stories of the 

bhaktaa of Hari become more attentive to (he supreme 

spiritual riches. The Lord of Pandhari loves them more 

fiian his own life. 261. Vanamali ( Elrishna ) oomes near 

him to protect him, and constantly lives with him, and does 

not go away from him. 262. Such is the great glory of 

listening which cannot be expressed by speech. May the 

hearers listen with reverence to the reading of this book. 

263. In fact Shripati (Vishnu the Husband of Shri the 

goddess of wealth ) is the author of this book. It is He 

who causes me to speak out with love the tales of His 

bhaktas. It is only a marvel that Mahipati's name appears 

in the verses. 

Chapter 5 

157. By your favour surely I have had poetic inspira- 
tion. I describe the deeds and fame of Hari by the favour 
of saints. 158. By Thy kindness an ignorant man becomes 
knowing. Even the blind are able to test a brilliant 
diamond. Such is Thy greatness. 159. By Thy favour a 
lame i>er8on is able to climb the top of Mount Meru, then 
what wonder is there that Thou shouldst enable me to 
«ompo8e a book ? 



468 



^?rai^ ^f?ctt 9ra^ n g<MlQ sim tfilr gar « 

Sira^ 5^ Mrh**!! II m^ ^cfr q^1TT«if 11 

^ 3<N^<fl q^r^mr ii nFmf sft '5<JJI*^ ii ^^o h 

^«r 9raaT iTt^ sffr « ^tScTf m^f^ anfr^ H 

wtcff vRrt^ 3n^ 11 iNr ^n^^ mR^ni n ^^^ h 
wn^ 9fMt II *iTb*'m ^^ ifhft II 

awn snw «(?Mff? II 5?^?5 f%tft f %% M R^^ M 

fii% t>m«^MuI II 3i?fpmft ?t^ w^ II 

3^ qf^J^tft *4?I<H II "^ Mf^HH fIT% 11 \^^ H 
5W W^^T55 »n% 5^ tl 5^ 5T^^ ^T^ II t*l"^ n 



469 



ebaptar 7 

155. For T8Tfleis, heretics and the evil-minded this food 
is not obtainable. It is obtainable by him who is in the 
possession of unlimited good deeds done in his former 
births. 156. When this food is obtained the Husband of 
Bukmini becomes subservient. Riddhi and siddhi ( eight 
accomplishments personified ) cling to such a person, and 
( the four kinds of ) salvation become his slaves. 157. When 
the loving God becomes subservient, Brahmadev and Shiva 
and the great gods like Indra and Chandra ( the moon ) 
prostrate themselves before him without doubt. 158. Such 
is the importance of listening to the Bhaktavijaya. This 
is thrice true, and can never be otherwise. 159. Should 
anyone consider this as untrue in his mind, he cannot 
escape hell, and deliverance from the servants of Death 
is certainly impossible. 

Chapter 8 

187. In the same way it is the Lord of Pandhari who 
causes me to compose th's book. Know this for certain. 
Grood people who listen to it with devotion meet with Grod. 
188. They who listen with faith, the Husband of Rukmini 
is pleased with them, and whatever wish they may 
entertain He fulfils it. 189. If one wishes to have a son, 
the Lord of the universe will grant him one. To those 
who are sad on account of the pain of poverty. He will 
give wealth and fortune. 190. If one listens who is 
afflicted with disease, his disease will be destroyed. If one 
has a desire for marriage, Narayan ( God ) will bring it 
about. 191. One wishing to have a daughter will have a 
daughter. A soldier will obtain victory on a battlefield. A 
Brahman will obtain wealth of learning. 192. A man who 
is troubled by debt will surely be free from it. Such 
boons the Husband of Rukmini has granted for listening 
to this book. 193. He Himself has declared this fact. It 
cannot be otherwise. The loving bhaktaa know that the 
Lord of Pandhari is the author of this book. 

470 



31 Mini V9 9T 

3nTw qr^ ^ 5^ h ?rfN sn^ ^t^ ^rNJ 11 ?i'i 1 

vT!|Tf% ^f^ m^K II ^R?T ?«h^ ^ ^ II l\^ II 

w^ w^ % (3>eiMi II 3F?rar sfit ^ft^rr 11 ?m<: « 

^mft 3TOc«T Jnsfte f%^ II ^TTrf^ 5T 5% arqtiT^ 
12^ 5T# *?Mlcfr 11 MHi<H "7T#^ II tM^ " 

si««rni < ^ 

^ft ^ cj^Rdi "fefFTPi II t 5Tnmt i^tijcf 11 
»nif "^^r % ^ II ?f!?fi^ inm ^ "^ 11 ^<:vs 11 
J^ "w-^i^Th ^Rtft %»goT II ?T?n^ ire^ ^f^HofRiTCTr ii 
% % f^ar '^ft^ JT^ II ^ tR^ ^^ II ?<i<: II 
, g^ fsijr ^(?rTf ^t^ II g^r ^^ sin^ 11 

^f^ 5^ if^ ^HT II Vfsreqrft ^fgy II t<i"\ H 
o-54lRw ^RcTi «T^or It ^ ojjivfl^ Q<ilH II 
*«lf5f-m^ Sir II «iKI*|U| ^Fcittf II Wo II 

*5^?r^Nir^ ^5^ 5t^ 11 $Nfr mt ^ sniii 
^npaTTfft qit u %rr«R 551^ "^ 11 \W 11 

^ ^ Rf^cH 5?F«r II at SROIfrP 5IW f^fi^ II 

"^ ^ ^R*4«f?*irf U iwsf^aff ^^5jr II t^'^ II 
rft<% !|^55r 1«IT^ n SF'TOT 5?% PM^-iJd tt 

i«J*dT Md(\«<i<i II ^nra Htp s^tuicfl n t\^ u 
^ 471 



ehapter 9 

46. Then asked the Brahmsns. 'What are your names' ? 
Then Sopan told them In reply: 47, ' My eldest brother is 
Nivritti, and the wise Dnyander comes after him. I, 
Sqpan, am their younger brother, and sister Mukia is the 
youngest of all. ' 

♦ ♦ • ♦ 

206. If one listens to the reading (of the Bhaktavijaya) 
the Life of the world lives with him. He Himself destroys 
his hindrances. 207. Whatever desire he has in his mind 
is fulfilled. He lets him lack nothing. He in person pro- 
vides everything. 208. Shri Hari, who is merciful to His 
bhaJaaa, what will He not do ? One who loves to listen 
is honoured by the gods with bowed heads. 209. One who 
is loved by Shri Hari is highly honoured by all. Riddhi 
and Stdd/ii ( eight accomplishments personified ) perforce 
enter his house. 210. The friend of Shri Hari is revered in 
the three worlds. Such is the power of listening. Even the 
Lord of the Yadavas ( Krishna ) becomes subservient to the 
] i( ener. 211. Therefore, listen day and night. Make the 
Husband of Rama (Krishna) your friend, and thus 
increase His reputation in the world. 212. The importance 
of the reputation is great. It takes place in every age. 
Mahipati tells this to the saints with hands joined palm 
to palm. 



472 



Jin hUm^ #ir n cnrtergsr % ^rS n «^ ii 

^ite w^ f^frft ^TfOT II cqr% ^1%% ?rR\^ gsrw « 

c«ir ^f^ jft ^TPTii 5^f ^ffOT ^i^ii II v\» II 
» # » ^ » 

xftcftff «p^?Tr 9rfoT n cPirsr^ t^ sm^N^r ii 
ffw^ ^ f^m^rsf II f^ anqor 2t(%?tt ii ^©^ ii 

?ff ^ ^ JTsff Wfv^ II c«n% 3^ ^ 3TT# II 
^ 3Dr q^ %f^ U ^ 5<^ f%5T|5t II ^ovs n 
5^ *rfF^c^RJ ?rfM? U ^ ^ra ^ f ^d II 

«Hc<u»-«fl arra^ ^ II cwrRr ^ %ff 41^ ii ro^ n 
# ?(ft!#^ fi|^*< II ^ ^fi!% WFq «fi^ II 
31!^ f%# «T^ ^ M clIilR'MI R«Rfr n ^©"^ Ii 

^ 9M^ ^f^ II at ^ f^ ^M II 

MMl*\i VRt^ Jfhft W 9R0T ^t^ 3T5kRft II 

^rar #ST <MiMfc) II snff ^|?ff ^rs^ u ^^^ u 
^ «^hfR Mf^MM II 5»ng^ tt^ srnir ii 
%f^ *<i^M(<? »^ II ^K ^titf^ wtMt ii ^^^ II 



473 



ebapter 12 

169. At this the heart of Nama became full of delight- 
and said, ' The Meroifu) Husband of Bukmini fulfils my 
longings.' 



191. The moon should not be compared with the stars , 
nor Indra ( the Lord of the gods ) with other gods. A king 
should never be called an ordinary man. 192. A touchstone 
should not be called an ordinary pebble. Gold should 
never be called a common metal. 193. A wish-tree should 
not be called an ordinary tree. A diamond should never 
be called an ordinary stone. 194. The sandalwood should 
never be called ordinary wood. Rice should not be called 
an ordinary grain, nor tulsi plant be called an ordinary 
vegetable. 195. The silk yellow divine garment ( of 
Vishnu ) should not be called ordinary cloth. Not every 
dark-complexioned person can be divine (like Vishnu) The 
Son of the wind ( Maruti ) should not be called an ordinary 
monkey. 196. The vehicle of Shiva (the bull JVandt) 
should net be called an ordinary bull; and the eagle ( the 
vehicle of Vishnu ) should not be called a common bird. 
197. Mount Meru should not be called an ordinary 
mountain, and soul-knowledge should not be called 
ordinary knowledge. 



474 



4fc » * # 

Jf^RTRR 5T^ "^ II gTRr*TR ifS^ f^ 
JTCRnTFT n^ II ^l^m^ *^ 5T^ II X^^ 11 

yfl^q 1^^ II i^foff !T^ 5ETl«Tr II t^^ » 
??R l^RWR II +<^d* 5T f^OTT^ ^ . 

^Sisir mf^ 'Cc^ II »w '^ ^^-^r » ^'^.^ " 

^gRWR ^^ II ^«n »^f ^^ ^M 

ff53 '^ =T^ ^or II g^ vrr^ft jt *-6uii<:(i ii Wm ii 

qTrft^ ^ J^oifif ^^ 11 %m" iftt 5fraiTT5T 

^RTl^WR ^gpr II H^Ct ^ ^^OMT 11 ^^"^ II 

frR: ^MHWHR II i^OTt 5^% RN'^il^H 

T# JT *-^UINI gqoT II fcR q"^^Rnf^<^ II t^^ » 

IcH: M^dWHH II ^ 5T *^UIl':»t 'J^ 

^ fWT fn^mWR II 3TV?lTcIT^IPT J? »^OTTi II t\^ II 



475 



ehapter 13 

304. One who hungers after listening, he alone will 
understand its taste, and as he enjoys it his heart is for 
ever satisfied. 205. Blessed, blessed are they in the world 
who have devotion for God at heart. The Lord of the uni- 
verse comes to their help, and will give them refuge in 
Vaikunth ( Vishnu's heaven. ). 206. ' Even they will dwell 
in VoUkunth, and will obtain without effort the Sarupata 
salvation: * such a promise is made by HriahikeaM { the 
Lord of the heart ) Himself in the BhakUmjaya. 207. The 
listener should consider it as true and revere it, and should 
listen to all the lives of the bhaktaa. 208. God has a great 
liking for the lives of His bhaktaa, by listening to which 
the hearers will reach the other side of the worldly ocean. 

Chapter 14 

219. In the twelfth chapter of the Shagavadgita the 
Lord Shri Krishna has propounded devotion. So the Lord 
of Pandhari spoke to Rukmini in the fourteenth chapter 
( of the Bhaktavijaya ). 

ehapter 16 

207. Just as the deer is tempted by a song; or the bee by 
the fragrance of a lotus flower, or as a chakar bird is 
attracted by the moon; 208. or as the chatak eagerly 
awaits the cloud; or as the thoughts of a love-stricken 
husband are for his beloved. 



476 



;?«n# 9r5r 3"% ^t5t n ^^ >?s^ >iF«r f^ 

^^ fttftgf ^f5?T# II H^^Mdl IRcft aTHt^MI^ 

^ iTRtf% ^rr^K H ?fflcff «rrrar sn^f 
Hth^R^ ^nr II sT^or %35f trrf^ 11 ^ovs 11 
H^ -^R^i-Jl 3n^ II "^^r^ «FfT TT^ JT»€t 
9raoT ^rR?Tt '^(JS'M^) II ^PRTPirr^ qracft II '^o^:: n 

«^ -«*«^<^ siTor 11 4(^ ^ vH4mR II ^ov* 11 
^ -«4id*i^ >R II 3r#s 5r«rnTf55f srror 11 
1^ «fiig+Mr snoT II ♦ld^<<«n' ^r4^ ii ^o<s u 



47 f 



Chapter 17 

206. These most sanctifying stories of the bkaklas of 
God, if attentively listened to, will always result in the 
Life of the world ( Vishnu ) being well pleased with the 
listener. 207. One who longs for a son should repeat 
the wish, and he will obtain a son as precious as a jewel 
by the grace of the Husband of Bukmini. 208. That son 
will be virtuous, handsome and dutiful to his father. He 
will be diligent in offering prayers day and night to Shri 
Hari. 209. This son will live a full term of life. He will 
be fortunate, glorious, famous and bright by the grace of 
Shri Pandurang. 210. A pauper will be a wealthy man, a 
sick person's trouble will vanish, and the sins of a sinner 
will all burn up in half a moment. 211. He who wishes 
to have a daughter will have one. He will always obtain 
victory on the battlefield. The ignorant will have know- 
ledge by listening to this book. 212. An aspirant of 
moksha ( liberation of soul ) if be hears this book read 
will obtain Sayujyata ( salvation as absorption into the 
deity ): bhukti ( earthly enjoyments ), mukli ( salvation ) 
and kalj/an ( beatitude ) will be within his easy reach. 
213. If one with love in his heart receives with his ears the 
sweetness of this, he alone will surely see the other bank 
of this worldly ocean. 214. Even while conducting a 
family life he becomes a videhi ( unconscious of bodily 
2>ains and pleasures ), and is free from the fear of this 
dreadful world. 



47S 



jsr f^i?r vrdf^ ^^ n ^toft ^frgs arr^ir ii 

d-MI<AlJn gsr^cR- 11 ^f^oft^oi ^^ II ;^ovi» 11 
gsT a^A^ufl g^ II f^iTrf* 3Tf^ 3^^ II 
?ft^'ft»r5TJff cTcq<- II 3Tf^^5r ^€^r ll Ro^ ii 
"JUT?^^ iTn^ffT II STcTR^cf ^?f?f4?T II 
■^ ^ f^JcT n ?^ff^ ^^^ H ^o^ II 

4RfR*<i# ^ '^^ II s^rf%f«Tr^ <ft^ 5^or n 
qrf^'^ ^ ^f^r II arf^fiff f^cff^ II R\o II 
^^=^11^^11^ ^5=^ ft^ u ^5ff qi% ^^ ^^n? « 
34^H'^ ?rnT ft^ II rf«i«i^ ^d=fi" II ^^t tt 
jfJ^r^ff ^fhgs 91^01 II ?T2rrRr xmr ^3^?r^ ii 
§f%5T^«P52TniT II ^1 ^ ^hr"^ II ^t^ « 
q<5 f%Tff vrct^ 3Tr^ ii sj^ofr ^f% ^Rr^ *fnf^ ii 

^^TT<f 3T^RTr qnff II #r ft^ ^^ II 



479 



ehapterl9 

109. His fate will be marrellous and with him God 
will be pleased. The goddess of prosperity and success 
will roll at his feet. Brahmadev and other gods will bow 
before him. 

ehapter 21 

216. He Who is extraordinarily liberal, Whose merits 
the serpent Shesha praises, Whom Shiva contemplates, 
know ye that He is the Life of the world. 217. He Who 
is the Father of the god Brahma, Who is the Creator of the 
moYable and the immovable, Who is the Begulatcs of 
Jliaya ( the primal force of the universe ), know ye that He 
is this Fandurang. 218. He Who is the Regulator of 
infinite time, Who is the Bedeemer of the world-wearied, 
proud of His bhaktaa, He is this Fandurang, the Life of the 
world. 219. He Whose praises the Puranas sing. ( in 
describing Whom ) the Vedas remain silent. Whom Sanak 
and others contemplate, He is this Shri Hart, the Feeder of 
the universe. 220. He Who is the Espouser of the cause of 
His worshippers, Supporter of the Fandavas, Who sportively 
Iiolds the strings of the universe, even He is standing at 
PandhMpur. 



4S0 



's^tt(^ gtgj wm ii ?nn^ *nwr 3?^ ti 

^ ^R»r 3a[R 3iM n 3Rn% $1^ srtfft gor 11 
'j^rtlrw ^ft?ft «n5r 11 <Tr sur^y^ sfrfdrSr « ^1% « 

^ m^ ^w n ^ ^ qtft»T snf^r^ 11 '^^v* n 

^ ♦Wl^n ^ll«H*dT II ^ >T^«W?c!f il 

*iTi>i^mR vii%T II tTt fr 'Ttf^ sfJT^icin 11 ^t«s 11 
sniRft JiTfft gnof 11 ^ ^tI^ vRtf^ flfhr 11 

^•1«t>ll^<l> 5*^ «IR II ^ 5T 'SW^l^ 9%^ II ^t^ * 
^ MTt><l>H %Wrf^ II ^ Mi*«<NI «I5*|R II 

^ #3i^3wrft II Ht qarjCf 3HT 31% II ^^^o 11 



B. ▼• 31 481 



Chapter 22 

214. Where the bliaktas of Hari dwell, that place is 
evidently to be called Vaikunth (heaven). That place is holy 
beyond description. 215. Where the bhaktas of Hari dwell, 
that place is ever highly purifying. The glory of it Indra, 
Brahma and other gods have described. 216. The country 
in which the saints live is very holy; such is the wonderful 
glory of the saints that even the serpent Shesha cannot com- 
prehend it. 217. The village in which the merciful saints 
live, even the cesspool of ttiat village is as holy and clear 
as the Ganges. 218. The town in which the saints live is 
sacred. The road on which the saints walk, that road is 
highly purifying. 219. Conversing upon the mode of life 
of the saints, the speaker and the hearer both attain 
holiness. By listening to stories of saints, salvation is at 
once obtained. 220. The lives of saints, are highly purify- 
ing. They are the highest. Hearing the sketch of the saints' 
lives, Vaikunth ( heaven ) is obtained. 221. He Who by his 
ears hears the lives of saints, with him Cfiakrapani ( the 
Holder of the disk, Vishnu ) is pleased, and coming with 
Lakshmi ( Vishnu's wife the goddess of wealth ), He stays 
at his house. 222. Wherever he goes, Hari goes before and 
after him. He will allow no difficulty to befall him. 



482 



^^ nfffi- ^RjTrF II ^f% 1(fZ W^m It 

^ ?«n5T 3^ It ^^R ^if u '^tv II 

^ f f^»T^ nf cff 3m^ ri ^ ?«Ia5 tTRST XT^g ii 

?nir% ^fS^fff T^ri- ii ^^ff^^ ft<=^? ii ^t*^ h 

^ g^r #cT 3[qr55 II c«IT iTffl'^r ^^55 II 
<Tt T^ f^^S tl ifit^JTR ^rfSr^ II ^?vs It 
^m STIT<T nfcff ^cT U ^ ?^R fcrq^cT U 

^??n JTFifr =^3fft w^ II "dir mi^ t^*t qrw^r ii ^?<s ii 
#cTi=Cr ^f55r wfotcTT II q-f^^r fi^ ?^r ^rpr ii 
^cT^«Tr tR^ctf II hT^ ^r^ cTfc^r^ ii ^t-*, ii 

^cf^5f q\^ ^ II #cT=^K^ WRS 11 

#^Nt ^^crf JTfs II t^sfra ^v% "^ ii ^^Ro n 
^cr=^^ ^?"cTr %T5oi? II ^5 ^rq- ^^^qruff ii 
cs^ffraffcT ^3r^ II c?Tr% ^5[^r ?:rrTcT^ ii ^^x? ii 
^ siTRT f^r^ f^^% II ^fr cT^rr^^rr jtr^ h 
<rff cT^rrCr ^Nf% ii Tir %f^ ^#»^r ii ^^^ ii 



48S 



ehapter 23 

149. Eabir felt satisfied, and pronounced tbe blessing: 
'May the bride and the bridegroom be happy, and the 
Husband of Bama protect them.' 150. One whose heart Ii 
at the feet of his sadguru, his troubles disappear. To him 
there is no hindrance. 151. One who has faith in the word 
of his spiritual gurti, to him there can never be destruction. 
The Parama Purusha ( Supreme Spirit Vishnu ) comes 
in person, and makes provision for him. 152. One who 
has a liking for his guru's advice, his millions of troubles 
will disappear, and of a certainty he will reach the other 
shore of the worldly ocean. 153. One who is entirely his 
guru's slave, he obtains with ease all pleasures. Him the 
Pervader of the universe never neglects. 154. The bkakta of 
a 8hri Ovru is the highest of all. -A bhakla of a guru never 
sees a calamity. 155. The glory of a guru's bhakla cannot 
be described even by Shiva or Brahmadev. Even Vishnu, 
who is the Supreme Spirit, bows down to him. 156. God 
likes a guru's bhakia. He is God's rest. Through the service 
of a guru, one surely attains the Husband of Bama. 157. A 
guru's bhakta certainly fears neither Kali { the Kali-Yuga ) 
nor Kala ( death ). Kala himself bows down to him, then 
what of others ? 158. Blessed, blessed are the guru's bhdktaa 
in the world. They are honoured by all the gods. By their 
sight men are saved. 159. I have sung the praise of guru's 
bhaktaa according to my ability. Therefore the listeners 
ithould not entertain a doubt in their minds. 



4.S4 



»?Dt 5# 3T# ^f^ 11 ^^ m^n XMWi 

fPiRSi'fr 3iror « ^rfr ^ q|^r ii t^.- ts 

3# ^^ qwjpr II wf^ f^f^ $ffcT% II t'^? II 
g?^^ ^sirfir 3Tff#f n ^[z^t ^rracff flsr^ ii 

*RW1^ %s|#r II "cT 'IRrfl f^sfi^ II X'i^ II 

^ 3T;pT ^fg^r^Rf II ^ ^ jfT trrt ■^•JWi^f u 
fraBmt 3iiii%iF II ^r^Tosf g^^ ii tH's ii 

sfigPRT ^€cT ^ II JWrF WRS II 
5?»TTFrf% 4^ II ?rfR ^ q| ll»TT II nV 11 

g^^nuRT iri|JTr n ^ ?t ^% ftr^sffrr ii 
Itif ^ q?r ^u^m V it fr crrTf w^ « n't h 
gpRJ 3Tf^" ^^ II cTt ^fr=^ ft^n^f ii 
fRrPi^ ^frm^ II qrft^cff M"^ II l\\ II 

^ n^WrU f^ajq'Eft II ?ft ^ ift +Q*WI# H 

^ ^13 ^^ f^fr# II ITf ?crn€f #JT Toft « ?H^ tt 

g^jTF % arsEicfr ^nw ii ^ snft' «rt 'sri ii 
il^^ ftcft irr??! II #^ 3R 3^# II n<2 II 
3wt 5^»ttff€ ?f(fr II ^jSf^r Rir ^srffRfr ii 
^f^'tf^ ?M II fl^?T ^T ^ «r^r II ?M% M 



485 



ehapter 25 

56. Such is the life of Rohidas, highly purifying and 
pure, which if listened to both day ar.d night, not a particle 
of bad deeds will remain. 57. If one listens to this with 
devotion, the Husband of Eukmini is pleased with him, 
and destroys the snares of his worldly life without a 
moment's delay. 58. In one's worldly life He never lets 
calamity approach him; but gives him wealth and fortune, 
and after death will elevate him to his own position. 
59. He is God's great darling, and Sharangdhar (the Holder 
of the Sharang bow, Vishnu ) is his helper. He ( God ) 
accepts him as His own, and greatly increases his reputa- 
tion. 60. Shripali ( Vishnu ) is pleased with him who has 
a liking for His saints' lives. He stays by him day and 
night, and hindrances never trouble him. 61. One who 
Is dear to dbri Hari, to him all gods bow down their heads. 
He dominates over Kcdi and Kcda ( death ); and is revered 
.l)y alL 



486 



^ ^rf^arror^ '^sr n qrir «TR5r 't^w 

«ranr ^»f<di sT^trrsr ii ^^r sm irm ^^itt ii H^ u 

3nf^ #«RT 3RTcTT ^I^ II ^pt^ ^t^ ^^ 3nq3[T 

5^ ^^ss vR^fq^ H 3fcff f^^5Tq2[r ^1^ 11 ^<: II 

rlt "^^iMI q^T f^^I^T U d-MMT ^1^4>l/l ^itmi?: 

vfrir^^ ^3^jrr# iftcfr u cttrt itb^ %JnT^ 
sT^sst 3# arfRRfr ii f%5r ^??qtcff rr ^mr ii ^o n 

^ ?:(?^=^ aTR^cTT Ii d-MI-HI ^ ^f^ JTmT 

'^ ^(a4«tlaiNR ^TfT II ^ WT^rTT 4^ ^ 11 ^? 11 



48; 



Chapter 26 

102. The loved ones of Gk>d are the only fortunate 
penons. Their fortune is withoub limit. Blessed are their 
former birOis. 103. Blessed and fruitful is their birth* 
blessed are their family and caste, and blessed is their 
worldly life. 104. Blessed is their knowledge and blessed 
is their birth, who have made themselves subservient to 
Shri Hari alone. 105. Blessed are they who have become 
the suppliants of God alone. They have saved their 
ancestors and other men without number. 106. The bhaktas 
of Ood have in their possession many good deeds. Those 
who see them are free from the worldly ocean. 107. 'To the 
bhaJdas of God the worldly ocean is like a mirage:' such a 
statement is made in the Vedaa and Skastras. 108. The 
glory of God's bhaktas cannot be described even by Indra 
and Brahmadev. They become the loved ones of the 
Supreme Being, and go to Vaikunth (Vishnu's heaven). 
109. They become the dwellers of Vaikunth, and are for 
ever hear Hrishikeshi (the Lord of the heart)- Their fortune 
has no limit, indeed. 110. Mahipati places his head at 
the feet of the saints, both present and future. 



488 



vpq tPif^ 5TSIT ?niis 11 vrssg cRt^ «n%fc5 

^F^ rPI*n^ ^*o5 II '^m^ ^?I ^STItir qr 11 t®^ II 

^ ?fiwft^ ltd ^^ II 3T;r??T 571^ ^dsft II toVi II 

^ 3H5=T ^ROT it^ II cT Jntnt VFT ^Tf^ 

cTqMf gf^ <i^R^ II ^5T cTtR% 3T#^ II \^^ n 

% *lJWdl^ »T^ « cT J?WT go^qtcT 

c?lT^ ^^ ^3Wr^ f^ II rt »Tfrs«ft cTCcft ff II ? o^ u 

■^^StT^ ll%^?ireff ^tJ^ II ^ovsH 

>iiW:jt*Mi JTr?«TT II ^ =r ^ fw^^ra^rr 

'^ di^l^'MI iTP'TRft II TR JTTff TTf^r II ^o%U 

^ % »T^ sTOcfi 11 3T«ifr ^ ^ sir ft<ft 

tiMUm ^^m^K TftTcft It w^^ *rrif %i%cr ii tt^ » 



489 



INDEX OF TECHNICAL WORDS, NAMES OF 
PLACES AND PERSONS 



Abdomen 396 
Abhimanya 102 
Abusive 463 
Accusation 225 
Achyuta 265 
Adamant 235 
Adhokshaja 230, 238, 269 
Adimaya 9, 125. 138, 146 
Advayanand 360 
Advice 305 
Advocate of bhaktas 15, 29, 

165, 245 
Adalterer, adulteress 273 
Affection 350 
Agalgotya 416 
Agaati 81, 89, 132, 137, 
.Aixalya 35, 179 
Ahobal 130 
Air 288 

Airavat 193, 381 
Ajamil 47 
Akbar 50 

Akrnr 7, 32, 33, 217 
Alandi 128, 130, 131, 134 
Alakb 360 
Allababad 187 
All-dlBpassionateness 211 
All glory 211 
All goodness 211 
All knowledge 211 



All opulence 211 
All powerfvil 211 
All sovereignty 211 
Altar,tul8i 65 
Amazement 248 
Ambarish 53, 85, 203, 333, 337 
Ambergris 13 
Amritanubhav 149, 150 
Anandvan ( Benares ) 35, 132, 

178 
Anant 211, 212 
Ancestors 146, 229 
Ancestry 132, 358 
Ancient of days 141 
Angad 355 
Anger 96, 231 
Anger of God 153, 154 
Anjani 70 
Ankle-jewel 461 
Annsaya, son Of 49, 93, 104 
Anvil 215 
Anxiety 271 
Apegaon 124, 126, 13 1 
Aranbbendi 269 
Arjnn 130, 266, 302 
Arun 130 

Aruna Varuna 125 
Aaand 247, 266 
Ascetics 48 

Asbadb 128, 131, 270, 292 
Ashes 257 
Ashoka 88, 100 

490 



Ashvattha 192, 421 
AshTin 194 
Assafoetida 198 
ABBOciation 17, 74, 226,231 
Assurance 245 
Astrologers 392 
Atma 144 
Atmarain 33 
Attributes 240 
Atyapatya 416 
Audience 179 
Austerities 256, 257 
AvaU 421 

Ayandhanagnath 194, 204 
Avanti 192 
Avantika 129 
Avarice 231 
Avatar 4, 7, 140, 29{> 
Avatarship 8 
Avatar of Shuka 185 
Ayodhya ( Dweller in ) 36, 
40,93,118. 

B 

Babliul 13, 45 

Badrikashram 6, 191, 299 

Bag of money 66 

Bakuli 421 

Bali 16, 85, 89, 104, 180 

Banana tree 21, 80 

Banka 278, 284 

Banker 457 

Banners 202, 203 

Banyan tree 183, 252 

Bathing places, sacred ISO, 

280 
Batmogra 422 



Battlefield 173 

Bear, singing of S74 

Bed of arrows 100 

Bee 243 

Beginning 230 

Benares 129, 132, IXi 

BhodrakaJi 407 

Bhadravati 437 
' Bhagaiadgita 9, liS, l?,Z. I o8, 
150 

Bhaijaiat (commentary ) 3. 10.. 
128, 138 

Bhagiratha 115, 1»J0 

Bhagirathi 20, 58, 17.S, Ivo 

Bhaktas 1, 8, 247, 248 

Bhaktaiijaya 1 

Bhckti Marga 1*5 

Bhaluk 125 
, Bhang 119, 312 

Bhaniidas 266 
. Bhar 192 
i Bharat 3, 102, 180 

Bhargav 1 

Bhasm.<i 461 

Bhasmasur 17 9 

Bhavani 282, 406 
' Bhavishya Purana 10 
I Bhavishyottar 2, 420 
I Bhima 1, 29, 130, 227 
i Bhimak 113, 410 

Bhimarathi 58, 300 

Bhimashankar 126, 192" 

Bhishma 106, 200, 437 

Bhishmak 125 

Bhogawati 228 

Bhoware 416 
BhoyauLaha 422 



491 



Mbhishana 68, 437 

BilTS tree 421 

Bindhu MSdhay 132 

Birth 183 

Births, seven 27 

Black paste 246 

Blessings 216 

Blood 286 

Blue-throated 329 

Boar 127, 429 

Bodharaja ( Dashodh ) 3 

Body 169 

Bokat 416 

Bondage 292 

Bond of love 244 

Boon 219, 418 

Borax 434 

Bor tree 80 

Bracelet 284, 285 

Brahm 12 

Brahma, Brahmadev 2, 9, 29 

Brahmachari 33, 126 

Brahmagiri 126 

Brahm-joy 187, 218 

Brahman-killer 49 

Brahmans 141, 210 

Brahmavina 234 

Brick 165, 185, 237, 268 

Bricket 251 

Brihaspati 381 

Brilliant 869 

Brother 165 

Brother-in-law 155 

Buddha 7, 127, 191, 283 

Buffalo, male 3, 144, 145 

Bull, stone 47, 51 

Barn alive 2? 



,69 



e 

Cage 235 

Calamities 205 

Catastrophe 28 

Calves 59 

Caressed 218 

Casta 220, 222 

Caste-feeling 231 
I Caste-rule 222 
j Caves 257 
j Ceremonial 245 
I Ceylon 8, 68 
I ChaS 180 

i Chaitanya 136, 137, 141 
I Chaitra 193 

Chakor 92, 110, 150 

Ohakratirth 126 

Chakre 416 

Champak 235, 421 

Ohandrabhaga o, 162, 206,221 

Ohangdev 358, 369 

CJhanur 25, 430 

Changeless 232 

Characteristic of saints 
22, 249 

Charge 235 

Chariot of light 25 

Charioteer 261 

Chash 422 

Chatak 92, 100, 110, 139 

Chamber 270 

Cheque 443 

Chidambar 130 

Child 184, 186 

Children of a Saunyasi 147 

Chintamani, wish-jewel 328 

Chitrakut 97 
402 



Obokhamela210,248,254, 36£ 


> Dakur9, 431 


Ohoriaters 207 


DamSji 58 


Choras 385 


Dance 237 


Oharning 271 


Dandvat 322 


Oircumstances 179 


Barbha 232 


Circnmfunbalate 230, 377 


Darkness 182 


Citizen 211 


Daruk 7, 9, 452 


Olond-dark complezioned 331 


Dasara 92, 152 


Olond of intelligence 165, 188 


Dasharath 127 


Coooon 275 


Daughter of ocean 6 


Command 180 


Davana 421 


Commentary 160 


Devil 211 


Oommonplaoe language 5 


Dearest friend 165 


Comparison 203, 227, 234 


Debt 236 


Compassion 181, 229 


Debtor 163, 209, 237, 253 


Completion 214 


Deccan 7 


Connubial 387 


Deceiver 308 


Oonservative 212 


Defied 387 


Oontemplation 168, 170, 207, 


Deities 211 


229 


Delight of mind 29 


Control 229 


Delhi 50, 170 


Conyentional 458 


Deliverance final 31,123,16a 


Corpse 431 


Demon 36 


Covetonsness 250 


j Descendants 361 


Cowdnng 364, 390 


Design 171 


Cowherds 7, 15, 28, 59, 238 


Desire 254 


Cows 59, 171, 174, 175 


Devi Mamata 83 


Crane 21 


Devotion 209 


Crazy 228 
Cream 260 


Dharma, King 152, 224 


Cripple 260, 339 


Dharmarao (king of death) 19: 


Crowd 232, 395 


Dharmashastra 228 


Cnokoo 158 


Dhavalpari 125 


CnrdB 382, 883 


Dhotars 196, 460 


Cymbals 65, 129, 171, 252 


Dhurjati 330 


o 


Dhruva 2, 32, 44. 70, 84 


Daityas and Danawas 261, 430 


Digambar 194 


493 



Dignity 3d4 
Diamond 9C>, 211, 220 
Dindir (forest) 7 
Disaster 285 
Discards '362 
Diiiiple, bad 16 
Discussion 250 
Disease 235 
Disregard 344 
Divine language 2 
Dnyandev 123,138, 140, 

145, 218 
Dnyaneshwar 3, 9, 123 
Dnyaneshivari 140, 216 
Doe 243 
Dog 223, 331 
Dolls 8 
Dome 205 
Domestic 223 
Donkey 99, 290 
Donors 173 
Doorkeepers 44, 89 
Doubts 164 
Dramatizations 5 
Draupadi 54, 68, 121, 130 
Dron 102, 113 
Drum 129,171,252 
Drupad 120 
Duality 167 188, 206 
Dullness 177 
Dunghill 364 
Dntvaa 53, 85, 118, 203 
Duryodhan 54, 118, 121, 
Dust 72 

Duties, Religious 223 
Dvapar Yuga 2, 420 
Dwaravati 125, 187, 192 



1 Dwarka, Dweller in 9, 15, 
I 94, 118 

Dweller on the bank of 
Bhima 29 

Dwellers in the cemeteries 330 



Eagle 248 

Eagle-bannered 224, 233, 252 

Eagle-platform 160 

Ear ornaments 461 

Earrings 92 

Earth-gods 5, 243, 245 

Earthen pan 15, 154 

Earthcriiware 154 

Earthly attachment 164 

Earthly existence 164 

Eclipse 300 

Egoism 129 

Eight perfumes 215 

Eighteen billion 54 

Eight forma of yoga 239 

Eight siddhis-2Vi 

Ekadashi 334 

Eknath 2 

Elements 211 

Elephanfc-faeed god 193, 204, 

209 
Eleventh day 131 
Emblem of Shiva 183, 300 
Emblem of Vishnu 183, 404 
Embrace 163, 219 
Enchanter 25, 28, 72 
Enemy of Putaua 219 
Enemy of Tripur 48 
Envy 96, 250 
Epithets 443 
Essence 21S 
494 



152 



Essential form 156, 2-55 
Eternal 232, 266, 412 
Eternity 277 
Evils of Kali Ynga 5 
Evils of money 18 
Exacting grocer 181 
Excommunicate 381 
Existence 163 
Experience 47, 92, 166, 220 



Faces of Shiva 201 

Faggots 284 

Faint 163 

Fakir 85, 86, 87 

Falcon 102 

Family, Krishna-g 212 

Family deity, Mahipati's 

165, 206 
Family guru 180 
Famine 180 
Pan 161 
Fate 211 
Father of Brahmadev 49, 173, 

201 
Fault 235 

Feast 244, 245, 307 
Feeding of Brahmans 243 
Feelings 169, 188, 268, 358 
Feet foremost 273 
Festival of Diwali 228 
Festival of lights 92, 152, 
Five-faced One ( Shiva ) 192 
Five-headed One ( Shiva ) 95 
Five lamp platter 207 
Five vital airs 199, 215 
Flags 171 



Fledging 264 

Food 180 

Foot ornaments 251 

Forest fire 255 

Forgiveness 229, 311 

Fomgners 127 

Formless 163 

Form of bathing 231 

Fortune's sight 73 

Four armed 285 

Four chief ends 163 

Four faced Brahmadev 239 

Four forms 240 

Four hands 218 

Four stages 4, 49, 133 

Fourteen Indras 370 

Fourteen jewels 92 

Fourteen sciences 145 

Fourteen spheres of 

knowledge 71 
Fourteenth day 193 
Fragrant black powder 246 
Fried hot cakes 366 
Funeral pyre 280 
Furnace 279, 280 

G 

Gadhi 85, 190 

Gajendra 28, 31, 189, 20l 

Games 416 

Gandharvas 191, 207 

Ganesh 1, 193 

Ganesh Chatarthi 193, 327 

Ganeshnath 3 

Ganga 1-iO 

Ganga ( Godavari )124,143,190 

Gangadwar 126 

Ganges 63, 135, 155, 183, 187 



495 



6aiiika47 

€^pati 15, 92, 94, 145 

Gar land 207, 246 

Garment 321 

Gatha 192 

Gautam 115, 142, 190, 242 

Gaatami 241 

Gaya 241, 187 

Gayatri Mantra 26, 96, 223,220 Gnni's ' gift 17 

Generous one 200 

Ghost 36 



Grandparents 123 
Grievance S42 
Grinding mill 109 
Grocer 101, 178, 179 
Guinea worm 396 
Oulchani 422 
Gnnas 19 
Guru 1, 99, 112, 297 



Ohrishneshwar 192 
Gifts 147, 208, 213, 216 
Giri 130 
Gita 241 
Gita-Govinda 12 
Givers 192 

Glorification 227, 258 
Godhead 49 
Gokarna 130 
Gokul 12, 55, 118, 23» 
Goknl Ashtami 194 
Goknlvrindavan 7 
Goldsmith 210 
Gtomati 95, 96 
Gonai 58, 341, 342 
Good deeds 179 
Gh>pal Krishna 218 
Gtopalpur 311 
Gopichandan 21 
Gopis 253 

Gora 222, 248, 254, 266 
Gk>rakhnath 356, 365 
Govardhan, Mount 265' 
Govind 19, 31, 244, 241 
Govindpant 124, 130 
Grain 178 



Gum's wife 17 

Guru of the world 79 

Gwalior 29 

G waller language 4 

BaU lion 408 

Half man half lion 127 

Hamama 416 

Hansrashl 422 

Hanumant 130 

Hara 197 

Hardwar 118 

Hareshwar 392 

Hari ( Shri ) 1, 150, 197 

Haridas 21, 261 

Hari kirtan 11, 95, 97, 261 

Harishchandra 85, 115, 133 

179 
Harivijaja 3 
Hastinapur ( Delhi ) 7, 32, 

190, 351 
Hatakeshwar 130 
Hawaldar 314, 403 
Hajagriva 355 
Head, catting of 102 
Hearing 92 

Heaven of intelligence 187 
Helper of the helpless 165, 245 
Heretic 172 
49G 



Bermitege 30 
Hide and seek 416 
BinuJsjss 167, 193 
Bindraaces 322 
Hindi langnage 9 
Hingan ( wood ) 13, 40 
HinByaksshyapa 445 
Hiranyaksha 127 
Bivar 155 

Holder of the bow 40, 81, 119 
Holder of the disk 144,163,175 
Bolder of the Pinak bow 418 
Bolder of the Sharang bow 175 

216, 208 
Home of Vishnu 204 
Home of goodness 15 
Honesty 101 
Horoscopes 15 
Host 210, 245 
Honseholder 210 
Hrishikeshi 25, 230, 232, 238 
Humility 246 
Humari 416 

Husband of Kamala 274 
Husband of Mridani 132, 145, 

232 
Husband of Psrvati 192 
Husband of Shri 341 
Hypoorsiy 231, 257 

1 

Idea of differenoe 204 
niuminatious 213 
Illusions 184, 255 
Image of Krishna 390 
louaoral deed 223 
Immovable 232 
Impalement 104 

B.V. 32 



Impatient ( Nama ) 376 
Imperishable 69, 141 
Impossible (seemingly) 280 
Imprisoner of Bali 16 
Incarnate 216 
Indications 273 
Indestructible 173 
Indra %, 9, 100, 179, 191 
Inferiority 439 
Infinity 14, 211 
Inner shrine 379 
Insect 273 
Instruction 369 
loterdlning 217 
Internal fire 155 
Internal digestive fire 238 
Internal witnesser 225, 443 
Invitations 245 
Invocation 1 
Iron spikes 170, 257 
Jtidandu 416 
Itinerant 206 

J 

Jagadishwar 456 
Jagannath 7, 11, 191 
Jagamitra 247, 254, 266, 311 
Jaimini 1 
Jaitpal 5 
Jambhul 421 
Janaka 10'>, 130 
Janaka 248, 254 | 

Janaki, Husband of 36,82, 118 
Janardan 46, 127, 130, bg 
Jani 75, 338, 345, 369 
Janmashtami 194 
Jar 235, 271, 279 
Jashvanlla 177 

497 



Jataja 86. 107 
Janndice 212 
•Jaya 252 

Jayadev 10, II, 21, 133/ 
Jewels ZW 
JMjya 416 
Jiya 377, 387 
Jivanmukta 142, 148, 159, 
Joga Paramanand 320 
Joy forest 409, 413 
Juggler 8. 97 
Jumna 55, 123 
Junagad 9,414 
Jyotirlingas 192 

K 

Kabir 3, 8, 57, 77, 111 
Kailas 103, 194 
Kaikeyi 363 
Kaitabha 127, 436 
Kal ( death ) 111, 174 
Kalbhairav 392 

Kali Vtcga ( evils of ) 1. 5, 

180 ' 
Kalki 127 
KaUndi 71, 421 
Kalyavan 125 
Kamala 7, 8 
Eamalaja 303, 305 
Kamal 92, 104, 355 
Kanoja Brahman S2 
Kans 25, 436, 430 
Kanarese Lingayat 75 
Kanchi 129, 208 
Eanti 102 
Kapileshwar 123 
Kapurveli 422 
Earna 115 



Kartik 131, 186, 194, 868 
Kartdk fast 333 
Kashiba Gurav 356 
Kastari 159 
Kathiawad 125 
Kanravas 102, 117, 120, 173 
Kauaalya 130, 194 
227 I Kaustubh 90, 249, 251, 329 
Kayadhu 70 
Kedar 191 

Eeshav 15, 28, 46, 286, 840 
Eeshav Bhat 444, 446 
Eeshaydas 266 
Keahavshet 64, 75 
Keshavswami 3 
Ketaki 421 
Elhadir 35 
Ehandoba 193 
Khatvanga 48. 194 
Killer of Brahman 3 4 1 
Einnars 142 
Kirtan 150, 295 
^^' I Kitchen 40 
Kittens 279 

Knowledge 92. 167, 220, 261 
Knuckles 236 
Kokashastra 45 
Kokil 102, 153 
Kolhaar 130 
Koli(Ekalavya)118 
Kraanch, King of 19 
Krishna 8, 15, 130 
Krit ( Yuga)2 
Kshatriyas 5, 141, 220 
Kubera 449 
Kumbhakarna 463 
Kundal 245 
KnnjaTan 422 

498 



Knnti 130 

Kiuh99 

Kannadss 260, 261, 262, 275 

Knshayarta 126 

Knsnmbs 119 



Lac 418 

Lftoqner house 121 

Lahul 264, 268 

Lakshman 41, 44 

Lakshmana 437 

Lakshmi 15, 29, 40, 47, !30 

LangnageR 241 

Lava, Eama's son 99 

Lava bird 223 

Leaf-plate 48 

Left arm 189 

Left eje 189 

Leper 391, 394 

Leprosy 171 

Life of Janaki 180 

Life of the world 29, 163 

Lights 294 

Lila 231, 238 

Limits of Nama's power 202 

Littgureha 416 

Liquor 155 

Loin-cloth 281 

Loom 81 

Lover of hhaktas 28 

Lord of Kailas 85, 204 

Lord of Pandhari 161 

Xiord of Eama 144 

Lord of the earth 165 

Lord of Yadus 251 

Lord of the heart 174, 189 

Lord Vyankat 130 



Love of bkakti 214 
JiOvers of saints 242 
Lower regions 228 
Lost 96, 231, 250 

M 



Madhu, Slayer of 15, 29, 127 
MahatUs 292 
Mahakaleshwar 191 
Mahalaya 150 
Afaharudra 392 
Jfaharukha 422 
^lahipati 7 
If aUuuri 39:^ 

MalMkarjuna 129, 300, 326 
Mamata 33, 34 
Sfangalhuda 125 
Jfangaitari 96 
Manifestation, visible 38, 
45, 285 

Manikarnika 78 
Mantra 41, 257, 37<> 
Marathi 29, 56. 152, 241 
Jfarudgan 371 
Marriage, Namdev's 62 
Marriage ( Grora's second ) 28'J 
Marriage curtain 290 
Masons 401 
Materials for cooking 179, 

180, 181 
Mathura 7, 55, 118, 128, 187 
Matsyendranath 358, 363, 368 
Madhav 15, 237 
^fagha 85, 132, 193 
Maholi 8i%ngain ISO 
Malformation 236 
I Maaaa (lake) 175, 90, 102, lU 

499 



Manaspuja 96, 283 

Handesh 4 

Mandar 88 

Mang oatcaste 13, 93, 103 

ICargashirsh 191, 193 

Maruti 38, 40, 70, 104 

Marvel 232, 244, 269 

Marvellous 232 

Marwadl87. 191 

Maya lb, 129. 133, 192 

Meaning 239 

Mediators 434 

Meditation 54 

Merchant 16, 210 

Metaphysical 167 

Mhaha 44 

Mhasoba 157 

Mimic 343 

Mine of goodness 15 

Mine of jewels 155 

Mirabai 124 

Miraule 25, 48, 83, 178, 190 

Mirage 227 

Miser 180, 223, 167, 169, 290 

Mitravrinda 437 

Mugra 422 

J/o/j«422 

Monkey 318 

Mouth of earth 24 

Moon 48, 160, 211, 235 

Moon-crest 397 

Moonlight 181, 290 

Mortification 179 

Morsel 156, 219. 234, 247 

Mother home 254 

Mother Krishna 76 

Mother of the world 208, 244 



Mother of the universe 179 
Mount Maila 13, 45, 86, 224 
Mount Meru 49, 248 
Mridani, 193 
'Machakunda 125 
Muhammadan 6, 23, 201 
Muktabai 9, 124, 139. 140, 146 
Mnkteshwar 3 
Mnkund 28, 127, 436 
Mukundraj 355 
Mulmadhav 125, 440 
Muni 1. 21. 48 
Mnra 127, 224 
Musk 98, 251 
Mystic formulas 76 
Mystic power 258 

N 

Nabhaji 4, 29, 57 

Naga 311 

Nagar Brahman 29, 416, 432 

Nagnath 193, 194, 197 

Nama 158, 161, 175 

Namaskar 18. 106 

Namdev 3, 8, 57, 177 

Nand ( chief of the cowherds ) 

127 
Nand ( Canarese ) 301 
Nandi 128, 248 
Nandikeshwar 194 
Narad 1. 70. 88, 95, 115 
Narayan 15, 28, 32, 46, 47 
Narahari 180, 210, 248, 254 
Narsi Meheta 9, 414. 417,429, 

449 
Narasinha 130 
Naaik 192 
Nath sect 369 



500 



Navel 359 

Neck ornaments 461 

Nectar 158, 211, 236 

Need 297 

Needle 434 

Nepura 423 

Nimb tree 382 

Nimboni 421 

Ninefold bhakti 295 

Nine forms of hhahti 213 

Nine juices 222 

Nipat Niranjan 110 

Nitches 375 

Nirabai 130 

Nivritti 9, 123, 140, 141 

Nivritti sangam 129 

Non-auspicious 236 

Non-duality 68, 254 

o 

Uath 288, 291 

Obeisance 1 

Oblation 195, 202, 229, 269 

Ocean of mercy 1, 163 

Ocean of milk 7, 160, 173 

Ocean, Dweller in 15 

Odhya 191 

Offering 4 7,60,229 

Ointments 181 

Omens 276, 300 

One (Bhivaand Vitlmn) 197 

Onkar 191 

Oneness 328 

Organs of sense 173 

Orthodoxy 387 

P 

Paddle 296 
Padmanabha 390, 394 



PadmaPto-ana 12 

Fadmatirth 219 

Padmavati 14, 20, 26, 133 

Paithan 141, 146, 148, 151 

Pancakes 152 

Panchagabga 130 

Pandhari 7, 12, 131 

Pandharinath 4, 217 

Pandharpnr 227 

Pandit 13, 103 

Pandurang 1, 4, 58, 109, 164 

Panic-stricken 318 

Parakala 460 

Paralivaijanath 192, 311 

Parallel feet 165 

Parashram 408 

Paris 3, 103 

Parisa Bhagwat 302, 303, 307 

Paramartha 20 

Parrot 273 

Paste 160 

Patang 21, 173 

Pauth 85 

Padli 421 

Pandavas 117, 142, 173, 179 
Pansupari 119, 147, 208 
Parijata 421 

Parvati 103, 179, 194, 204 
Peace 811 

Peacook feathers 251 
Pearls 90 
Pebbles 309, 390 
Penalty 226 

Penance 231, 283, 236, 243 
Penda 437 
Pendants 461 
I Penitent 202 
I Perfect one 232 

501 



Performance 198 

Perfumes 215 

Permission 181 

Personification 218 

Pervader of the world 15 

Pkanas 422 

Phtravaiya 416 

Pilgrimage 94, 131, 158, 191 

Pimpal tree 183 

Pindarak 125 

Pimpari 422 

Pingala 47 

Pipaji^ King 406, 426 

Pit 18 

Plates, golden 42 

Platter 227, 247 

Plea 199 

Plumpness 228 

Polar star 167 

Pomegranate 421 

Pool of water 2a 5 

Porebnnder 125 

Portions ( of God ) 238 

Potter 153 

Potter's factory 15S 

Prabhaalinga 125 

Prabhav 369 

Pntise, services of 274 

Pralhad 32, 70, 180. 266_, 853 

Pratishthan 3, 14l/2C3 ' 

Prayag 132, 187 

Prayer, Kama's 173, 189 

Pride 96, 212, 250, 374 

Primal maya 124 

Primal mother 303 

Primary elements 235 

Priyadas 55 



Processipn 232, 433 
Promise 180, 181, 246 
Proposal 432 
Prosperity 228 
Prostitute 80, 117 
Prostrate namas/iar 205 
Protector of cowherds 28 
Protector of Draupadi 28 
Protector of Fandavas 28 
Protector of Pralhad 28 
Pravisions 179 
Puberty 462 
Pumpkin 288, -tas 
Pundalik 29, 72, 162, 165 
Pungala 804 
Punyastambh 371 
Punyahavachan 62, 126, 213, 

230 
Puppet 357 
Puranaa 2, 151, 191 
Puran Purush 319 
Purifier of the sinful 14, 276 
Purification 231 
Pnshkar 124, 132 
Puthpaka 25 
Pusbpavati 311 
Putana 25 

R 

Badha 234, 235 

Badhavilas 28 

Raghu 47 

Rahi, Rai 71, 213 

Rahn 6, 81, 86, 172 

Rain 182 

Rain of nectar 183 

Raja 69, 252 

Rajabai 305 842 



502 



Bajai 65, 66 

Bajputana 124 

Baka 278 

Bakhumabai 132, 138, 134, 

136, 139 
Bam 8, 15, 41, 44, 152 
Ramayana 2, 9, 32 
Bamanand 109, 113, 114, 408 
Bamdas of Maharashtra 3 
Bamdas of Dakur 9 
Bamesbwar 130, 136, 193, 387 
Bam Krishna 116 
Ramnavmi 194 
Ramtitaphali 421 
Has dance 420, 424 
Bavan 35, 81, 107 
Eaw Nama, 297 
Rayakayli 421 

Bebirtijs 211, 250, 263, 267 
Bebake 347 
Becliner upon Shesba 15, 

348 
Befnge 167 
Belative 228 
Bemnants of food 228 
Benuka 317 
Bepent, Brahmans 255 
Bepentance 846 
Bepentaut 183 
Beply, Dnyandey's 373 
Bequest, Krishna's 217 
Besting place 266 
Besolve 166, 335 
Bevelation 258 
Bevilers 311 
Baghnpati 265 
Bice 217 



Riddhis and sidihis 76, 209, 

244 
Ri^vtda 145 
Riahi 68, 191, 207, 229 
Riski Valmiki 41 
Eobe 249, 285 
Bobbers 99 
Bod of iron 350 
Bohini 196 
Bobidas 401 
Boof 340 
Bope-danoers ^i 
Bosary 21 
Bose 422 
Boyal awans 278 
Budraksha 5, 196, 421 
Eukmangada 266, 333, 337 
Hukcoini, Uusbaud of 1, II. 

15, 120 

s 

Saehchidanand 31, 2:^8, 356 
Sacred thread 140 
Sacrifices 229 
Sadashiv 
Hadyuru I, 204, 261 
Sadkits 6, 72, 103 
Saffron 21, 438 
Sagar 241 
Sagun 250, 251, 252 
Sayuit form 25 
Sahadev 152 
Sahasiapadi 422 
Sahasiiirjana 317 
Saints, worship of 20 
Saints, marks of 20 
Salokata 76, 214 
Salvation 170, 192, 23» 

03 



Salration-giTing cities 193 

Sslaya 3 

Salunki 422 

Samaveda 79, 160 

Sanaka 72, 100, 165, 210,219 

Sand 309 

Sandipani 299 

Sandalwood 13, 45, 246, 290 

Satmyasia 5, 98, 101, 111, 131 

Sanskrit 2, 241 

Saptajniris 128, 208 

Saptashti 392 

Saptashringi 125 

Saramani 421 

Sarante 422 

SaraswaU 1, 82, 95, 128, 145 

Satisfaction 228 

Saiva 69, 252 

Satrik 12 

Satyabhama 71, 217, 234, 237 

Satyavan 133 

Savadhan 128 

Savalsa439 

Savata 222, 247, 248, 254 

Saviour 8, 72, 119, 163 

Savitri 26, 70, 133 

Sauiri 124 

Sayuj'yala 214, 354 

S<iarf 82 

Scavenger 156 

Schedule 177 

Second day 193 

Secret of bhaW 167, 240, 

266 
Secrets 163, 220, 239 253 
Seductions 231 
Seeker 170 



Selataka 422 

Self^consecration 295 

Self-defencfc 225 

Separation 162, 164, 236> 

Serpent 34 

Sevantika 422 

Seven births 27 

Shachi 123, 193 

Shaila 129, 192 

Shaivite 327 

Sbakani 117 

Shaligramo, 183 

Shankar 11 

Shankha 125, 127, 463 

Sharada 250 

Shastra 103, 124, 415 

SMa 81 

Shells 58, 185 

Sfundwr 151 

Sher 21 

Shetha 2, 15, 268 

Shevga 422 

Shishupal 25 

Shiva 2, 11, 69, 148, 18S 

Shivaratri 194 

Shoulder 182 

Shravan 58, 435, J 93 

Shripad 134, 186 

Shripati 247, 2o3 

Shriraiig 234, 237, 245 

Shri Bam 180 

Shri Ramashram 133 

Shri tatsa 251 

Shriyal 85, 103, 115 

Shudral43, 220,223 
Shuka 1, 8, 32, 57, 72 
Shukra 18<> 



504 



Shyam 422 

Sickle -'70, 275 

Siddhanta 220 

Siddhopant 126, 129, 130, 186 

Sittdi 37, 79, 159, 312 

Singing 234 

Singleness 209 

Sister-in-law 416 

Sita35,41,87, 121, 130 

Six elements 211 

Six qualities 379 

Sixteen fonns of worship 61 

Sixteen materials of worship 

51, 356 
Sixty-four arts 161, 200 
Slaughter of cows 6, 163 
Sixty-four crafts 96 
Slayer of Madan 197 
Slayer of Eavan 40 
Smntis 110 
Son of the wind 102 
Sopan 9, 123, 218, 266 
Sorcerers 392 
Sortisomanath 125, 192 
Source of joy 28 
Space 236 
Speech 169 
Spine 396 

Spiritual nature 166 
Split-ear sect 362 
Spring 278, 242 
Stamp 176, 259 
Stars 211 
Stone gift 458 
Stones, floating of 190 
Storehouse 212, 240 
Stories of hhnktat 204 
Stump 293 



Sabhadra 102 

Sadama 66, 247, 254, 266 

Sudampuri 125 

Sudarihan 812, 340 

Suhan 422 

Suicide 14, 27 

Sujan 26 

Sun-flower 151 

Suniti 70 

Suppliant 310 

Supplication 295 

Supreme Being 13, 31 

Supreme Brahm 155, 185, 347 

Swan 90, 101 

Sw(y)a8fci 10 

Sweetmeats 203 

Sword 291 

T 

Tailor 224, 226 
Tama 69, 252 
Tamal 79, 190 
Tambul 425 
Tandav 381 
Tap 371 
Tardhoki 286 
Taramati 179 
Tatva 377, 387 
Tenth of Vijaya 194 
Theft 101 

Thieves 17, 18, 21, 42 
Thinking 92 
Thirty-six points 15 
Thirty-diree crores 397 
Thousand-hooded 302 
Threat 154, 197 
Three gunat 19, 69 
Three afflictions 211, 255 



505 



Three worlds, The 202, 2i4, 

284 
Throne i>0,". 
Tiger 31.') 

Tirthavali 210, 221, 241 
Titavi 2 
Toe-rings 461 
Torch 205 
Tornado 162 
Tortoise 281 
Torture 325 

Toachatone 211, 215, 224,292 
Transgression 184, 255 
Treasure-house 240 
Treta Yuga 2 
Trimbak 126, 192 
Tripur 48, 320, 433 
Triparantak 432, 433, 437 
Tuberculosis 181 
Tukar&m I 
Tuisi plant 5, 183, 192, 2Jl1 

242 
Tulsidas 9, '32, 33, 34,40 
Tmnbaru 165, 217 
Tundiililya 11 
Turtle 104 
T-.volvc lu'^ias 193 
Twelve maiks 96 
Twelve phases 284 
Twelve suns 15 S 
Twenty-four verses 14 
Twioe-born llo, 143, 147, 252 

u 

Uchchaishrava 270 
Udders 297 

Uddhava 7, 8, 32, 57, 70 
Uddhavachidghan 4 



Ujjain 191 
Uma 197 
Unborn 69 
Uncle 165 
ruconscious 205 
(Jnconqnerable 69, 211, 230 
Uninvited guests 229 
Universe, Lord of 11, 194, 

252 
Unmanifesten 163, 218 
Unnatural 61 
Unworthiness 98 
L'ttanocharau 70,417 
Upamanyu 2, 44, 149, 20l 
Upanishad.- 146, 258 
Ushana 1, 49 



Vadaja 437 
V"fffiodi 416 

I'aijayanti 90, 25i, 329, 42i 
1'aiiunth ( heaven ) 15, 8"i, 209 
\'ai)'agis 282 
V(dragya 266 
Vaiskakk 193 
I'aishnavas 9, 148, 220 
1'aishnava bairagls 398 
Vaishyas 141 
Vajranknsh 423 
Valmiki 1, 7, 9, 32, 88 
Vamau 3, 15, 180, 408, 419 
ranamali 219, 228, 231, 243 
Vanka 210, 248, 254, 278 
Vankada 437 
Various forms 118 
Vasara 254 

Vasistha 3, 142, 190, 299 
Vaiudev 130 



506 



Vateahwar Chauga266 
Vedant ( ic ) 2, 10 
Vedas i'. li>4, 145,101 
Vedanta philosophy 13, 99, 

117, 149 
Vedic rules 229 
Venunad 219, i>54, 311 
Verses of Jani 3 52 
Vetal 99 
Vidur 437 
Vijaya 252 

Village, creation of 20;! 
Vim 63, 109, 129, 171 
Vinata ( <on of) 4, 19 3 
Vine 304 
Violator 2-2-2 
Virulent 308 
Vishnu 8, 15, 69, 138 
Vishnudas 96, 346 
Vishambhar 412 
Viahvamitra 115 
Vishveshwar 48, 178 
Visible attributes 69 
Vision 61, 411 
Visoba Chatti 152, 163 
Visoba Khechar 207, 210, 248, 

254 
Vithoba 67, 124, 129, 135, 142 
Vitthal 58 
Vraja 425 

Vrindavan 55, 118, 194, 447 
Vyankat 130 
Vyasl, 7. 10,49,115 



w 

Waistband 328 

Wanderings, Vithoba's 125 

Wall, moving of 374 

Wariari 267, 300 

Washerman's pot 99 

Way of dsvotion 185 

Well 187, 235 

Welt 89 

Whip 374 

Wick light-waving 348 

Wick-waving 13 

Wilderness 201 

Wish-cow 36, 145, 167, 264 

Wish-jewel 328 

Wish-tree 8, 155, 264, 290 

Wonderful sight 203 

Wooden sandals 119 

World-guru 79 

Worship, Guru's 159, 216, 229 

Wrath (of god) 153 

Y 

Yadavas 7, 11, 31, 65, 70 

Yadnyajiti 437 

Yakshas 142 

Yama 79 

Yashoda 120, 253 

Yellow robe garment 215, 

217, 220 
Yoga 76, 170, 188 
Yoga, eight forms of 145 
Yogis 72, 118, 170, 174, 191 
Yogic power 155 



507