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Full text of "Sättuna in Kaga parish, Östergötland, Sweden. Excavations in September 2008."

Sattuna in Kaga parish, Ostergotland, Sweden 
Excavations in September 2008 at Raa Kaga 50 

Report by Martin Rundkvist, 28 April 2009 

With an osteological analysis by Petter Nyberg, lithics classification by Fredrik Molin, wood 

anatomy by Ulf Strucke and radiocarbon by Goran Possnert & Maud Soderman 

Abstract 

In September 2008, 1047 square meters ofploughlandwere stripped just inside the edge of a dense 
1st Millennium AD metalwork scatter at Sattuna. 1 74 sunken features were uncovered and investig- 
ated. Most proved impossible to interpret functionally. No datable artefacts or structural types of 
the 1st Millennium were found, though three radiocarbon dates do fall in this period. Finds are 
few, and mostly Late Mesolithic lithics. Radiocarbon further documents activity in that era, as well 
as in the Middle/Late Neolithic. 

Introduction 

On four occasions from April 2006 to April 2008 (each previously reported on separately), I direc- 
ted metal detecting in the fields around the Sattuna barrow, for a total of 101 person-hours, mainly 
by expert members of the Gothenburg Historical Society. This work secured a collection of 66 dat- 
able objects from the 5th through the 17th centuries, many of them finely made, and including rare 
evidence for 6th century metalworking. The finds identified the site as the richest of Ostergotland' s 
currently known Vendel Period settlements. As is typical for the province, however, intensive metal 
detecting failed to unearth any solid gold or silver objects whatsoever, and the oldest coin is a 
poorly preserved copper fyrk from 1633. 

Seventeen of our finds certainly date from the 5th through the 10th centuries. To any would- 
be nighthawk detectorist, I should point out that our figures suggest that you would need to do six 
hours of illicit metal detecting around the Sattuna barrow to find one piece of datable 1st Millenni- 
um metalwork. The object would almost certainly be a copper-alloy fragment. The calculation also 
presupposes that your skill level is considerably above average and that our work on site has not ap- 
preciably depleted the finds density in the ploughsoil. 

The finds formed a crescent-shaped scatter around the north, east and south sides of the bar- 
row. In September 2007, geophysicist Immo Trinks of the National Heritage Board surveyed part of 
the find scatter and surrounding area with an experimental motorised magnetometer. He docu- 
mented abundant magnetic anomalies under the ploughsoil which indicated dense settlement re- 
mains with a high proportion of burnt material, although no house foundations or fence lines could 
be made out. 

From 15 to 24 September 2008, in collaboration with the County Museum, students from the 
University of Chester and local volunteers, I directed the first excavations at the site. The placement 
of our trench was constrained by two factors. The County Archaeologist had kindly approved my 
application to strip away ploughsoil in the field, but would not allow me to open a small trench in- 
side the periphery of the barrow to collect samples for radiocarbon dating. The landowner kindly al- 
lowed me to work inside the northern edge of the metalwork scatter, which was under stubble and 
delimited by a field track, but not in the scatter's central part, which he sowed with grain during our 
time on site. 

Our trench came to cover the find-spots of two datable metal-detector finds, both of the 6th 
century: a Style I relief brooch and a small equal-armed brooch. The former was found at a spot ap- 
proximately between features 107 and 111, two nondescript pits. The latter brooch's find spot was 
approximately between features 49 and 57, two other nondescript pits. Both finds were pinpointed 
with a hand-held GPS navigator, whose basic margin of error is about 5 meters (but there was an 
additional error source in this case as described below). 

The trench was located within plain sight of Lake Roxen at a distance of only c. 200 m from 
the shore. According to Ola Palmqvist of Tekniska verken (telephone conversation 3 October 
2008), in 2007 the lake's surface level varied from 33.07 to 34.06 m relative to the local RH00 



benchmark. (RHOO corresponds to the Baltic Sea's mean surface level in 1900.) 2007 was a year 
with an unusually high level in the lake, which otherwise often sinks to 32.80 m. The current mean 
level, attained around 1832 with the completion of the Gota canal, is c. 1.5 m lower than the previ- 
ous level of the lake depicted in abundant early maps. The sloping surface of the natural subsoil in 
our trench was at 38-39 m (local RH70), as established for us indirectly by Linkoping Council sur- 
veyors who provided triangulation points for our total station. According to Fredrik Molin of 
Riksantikvarieambetet (e-mail 1 1 October 2008), RH70=RH00+27 cm in Motala, Ostergotland. 

A Problem With Coordinate Systems 

During fieldwork, I discovered a problem with the GPS navigator. It is a Garmin GPSmap 60CS 
which handles numerous different coordinate systems worldwide. For Sweden, it offers two "posi- 
tion formats": RT90 and Rikets ndt. For both, the device indicates RT90 as their "map reference 
system". Because of this latter fact, I had assumed that the two position formats gave identical co- 
ordinates. On the first day of excavations I realised that I was wrong: there is a 9,2 meter discrep- 
ancy at Sattuna. Through e-mail correspondence in October 2008 with the agronomist and surveyor 
Niklas Ingvar-Nilsson, I learned the reason for this. The first handheld GPS navigators came 
equipped with a slightly faulty geometrical model of the RT90 grid. After a few years, this was cor- 
rected. Garmin apparently added the corrected model ("RT90" in the menu) but also left the faulty 
one ("Rikets nat") in, possibly for legacy data purposes. And so their devices now come equipped 
with a built-in booby trap for anyone who records coordinates in the Swedish national grid. 

Unfortunately, I have no written documentation of which system I used in each fieldwork 
season on site 2006-2007, only memory. Waypoints stored in my GPS unit document that I used the 
faulty RT90 model that Garmin calls Rikets ndt in April 2008. My memory tells me that I used that 
model on all sites in 2005 through 2007 as well. This means that the coordinates offered in the find 
lists of my metal-detecting reports from Ostergotland are not actually in the canonical RT90 2,5 gon 
vast system. But the coordinate points can be corrected one by one using a Garmin GPS unit. The 
gravity of this nine-meter problem is somewhat mitigated by the above-mentioned fact that a hand- 
held GPS navigator rarely offers a better computed accuracy than 5 meters. The relationship 
between this statistically derived assessment of accuracy and the actual accuracy of each measure- 
ment is uncertain, but it is widely believed that the actual accuracy is considerably better than the 
computed one. 

Fieldwork Methods 

With the aid of a mechanical excavator, we stripped away 35-40 cm of ploughsoil over a contiguous 
area of 1047 square meters. The excavator operator descended 15 cm at a time while we metal-de- 
tected the work surface continuously. We did not find anything of archaeological interest at this 
time. Nor did we afterwards while investigating the spoil dumps. This was probably due to two 
main factors: a) the noise from the excavator made it hard to hear the detector's signal, b) myself 
and co-manager Petter Nyberg are not by far as skilled with our metal detectors as the amateurs 
from the Gothenburg Historical Society who made most of the ploughsoil finds prior to the excava- 
tions. 

Over almost the entire trench, the stripping-and-detecting process through the ploughsoil 
took us immediately onto the surface of the undisturbed natural, a yellowish gravel-mixed sand. 
Cleaning this surface with trowels, we identified 174 sunken features (that is, one feature per six 
stripped square meters). We sectioned each feature along its long axis and sieved half of its fill 
through a 4 mm mesh. Features were described in writing, and in particularly interesting cases the 
section was drawn to scale 1:20 and the second half of its fill dug out and sieved. Finally all features 
and the edges of the trench were surveyed with a total station. 

Phasing 

We did not make any finds that can be unequivocally dated to the 1st Millennium AD. Nor could 
we in most cases ascertain the original function of the sunken features. The great majority were 



findless little shallow pits with a dark, compact, loamy fill, often containing a few fire-cracked 
stones. In only one case did they combine to form any intelligible structure: six of them made an 
evenly spaced N-S fence line near the SE corner of the trench. 

Finds and radiocarbon dates allow us to identify five phases on-site, two of them corres- 
ponding to the dates of the metal detector finds that occasioned the excavations. 

1) Late Mesolithic: finds and features with one radiocarbon date. 

2) Middle/Late Neolithic: one hearth with a radiocarbon date, no finds. 

3) Mid-1 st Millennium AD: a pit and a hearth with two radiocarbon dates, no finds. 

4) Viking Period: one posthole with a radiocarbon date, no finds. 

5) Modern rubbish pits. 

Late Mesolithic 

This phase is identified by a radiocarbon date and a collection of lithics, mainly knapped quartz 
with some leptite, ultramylonite and basalt, but no pottery and no flint. The only well-defined tool is 
a ground-surface asymmetrical basalt adze (F220) with a quasi-rectangular cross-section, found on 
the surface of the field during stripping. After separate first-hand study, Stone Age specialists Fre- 
drik Molin and Roger Wikell unanimously placed the assemblage in the Late Mesolithic (5500- 
4000 cal BC), noting that the adze would look entirely at home among the abundant finds from the 
Strandvagen settlement site in Motala (cf Tom Carlsson 2008, Where the River Bends, pp. 232- 
245, 374-379). This date is consistent with the level above the sea and the absence of Neolithic pot- 
tery. None of the finds can certainly be determined as shore-abraded after knapping. 

Most of the Stone Age finds occurred singly in the fills of sunken features that looked no 
different than usual. Only pits 124, 128 and 154 yielded more than one piece of knapped stone each, 
suggesting that they may have been Stone Age features. Radiocarbon-dating 128 and 154 would 
have been problematic as both showed signs of modern disturbance. This left only 124, but it yiel- 
ded no charcoal. Hearth 45 however, which contained no other artefacts, yielded charcoal of rotten 
oakwood that was dated to 4460-4340 cal BC with 95% probability (Ua-37499, 5560±40 BP). 

We found raw material in the form of unmodified quartz seashore pebbles in some features 
and collected them when they co-occurred with knapped stone. They are very unlike the typical 
gravel mixed in the fills and natural on site. In several cases, very small quartz pebbles have been 
used for knapping or simply broken open and then discarded. 

In an appendix, Fredrik Molin analyses the lithics and summarises his impressions as fol- 
lows (and I translate): "The adze, the signs of micro-blade production, and possibly the use of 
leptite and ultramylonite all suggest a Late Mesolithic date. Nothing however excludes an Early 
Neolithic date except the absence of pottery. 

Most of the quartz cannot be dated. But to my mind it appears too coarsely knapped for the 
Early or Middle Mesolithic - and such a date can be ruled out anyway because of shoreline dis- 
placement. Quartz knapping [in Ostergotland] becomes progressively coarser and uglier with time." 

Middle/Late Neolithic 

Feature 123, whose functional interpretation as a hearth was uncertain, yielded hazel charcoal that 
was dated to 2460-2270 cal BC at 79% probability (Ua-37500, 3855±35 BP). The interval straddles 
the Middle/Late Neolithic period shift at 2350 cal BC. A shore site from this era might be expected 
to yield some Late Pitted Ware decorated pottery, of which we found none. Fredrik Svanberg (web 
log comment, 20 March 2009) has suggested that the sample may have been contaminated, possibly 
combining material from the site's Mesolithic and Iron Age components. 

Mid-lst Millennium AD 

The Early Vendel Period, the later 6th century, is the site's heyday in terms of the metal detector 
finds. We made no datable finds of this era during the excavations. Two sherds of black coarse 
svartgods pottery are most parsimoniously allocated to this phase, though they may well be some- 



what earlier or later. Pit 170 and hearth 135 yielded one radiocarbon date each, 170 on spruce-trunk 
charcoal in 320-440 cal AD (86% probability) and 135 on maple charcoal in 410-550 cal AD (95% 
probability). As none of the samples had a confirmed low intrinsic age, and as the site has not yiel- 
ded a single piece of metalwork dating before the Migration Period, it seems safe to place the begin- 
ning of this activity phase in the 5th century AD. All pits and hearths on site that yielded no dating 
evidence are most parsimoniously placed here. 

The excavated surface yielded several datable pieces of metalwork from the ploughsoil but 
none from the sunken features, and there were no remains of building foundations. This suggests 
that in the 6th century, this particular part of the site saw some metalworking carried out in flimsy 
structures or outdoors. Any refuse pits and postholes resulting from this activity were apparently 
less deep than the modern ploughing. 

Viking Period 

After an apparent hiatus of a century or more in the Late Vendel Period, there are at least six metal 
detector finds that can be dated to the Viking Period, AD 790-1 100. This phase also shows up in a 
radiocarbon date from one of the excavation's few postholes, feature 8, where charcoal of rotten 
Scots pine was dated to 760-900 cal AD at 81% probability (Ua-37498, 1205±35 BP). 

Modern Rubbish Pits 

This phase gathers sunken features yielding modern artefacts, well-preserved bone (as soil condi- 
tions were very poor for such preservation), dynamited rock and/or a curious fine white sand. For 
unknown reasons, the sand had apparently been carted to site and used to fill four pits, two of which 
also contained modern finds. The artefact types found in the modern features were iron nails, iron 
wire, glass, pottery/china, roof tile, brick, fired clay and fresh wood. Modern activities that these 
features document are the burial of waste, the digging of a drainage ditch and the dynamiting of a 
few large boulders. 

Feature list 

Most of the features were very similar. Thus the feature list assumes the following about every fea- 
ture and only describes its characteristics where they deviated from the norm. 

The standard sunken feature was oval in plan, with a rounded section and a fuzzy boundary 
toward the natural, likely because of long-term earthworm action and rain water leaching. Its fill 
was grey /brown compact sandy loam with gravel and a few rounded stones, fire-cracked stones and 
brittle-burnt crumbly stones. 

Hearths formed a smaller group of their own: they were recognised from the blackness of 
their fills, often including large pieces of charcoal and a generally much greater proportion of stones 
than the standard features. 

The depth of the sectioned features ranged from 2 to 50 cm, median 13 cm. Their maximum 
surface diameter ranged from 15 to 3 10 cm, median 66 cm. The diameter crosswise to the maxim- 
um diameter was, in median, 78% of the maximum diameter. 



Feat 
no 


Type 


Artefacts 


Charcoal 
sample? 


Bone? 


w 


L 


D 


Spec 


1 










36 


58 


16 




2 










21 


33 


10 




3 


Hearth 




strucke 




>5 

2 


310 


22 


3 joined hearths, partly outside trench 


4 










22 


43 


2 




5 










61 


70 


35 




6 










49 


96 


10 




7 










83 


171 


31 




8 


Posthole 




strucke 


y 


52 


60 


38 


Neatly packed with supporting stones 


9 


Modern 


glass, fired clay 


y 


y 


80 


87 


28 


Unusually distinct cut in section 


10 


Hearth 




y 




46 


80 


33 


Hearth on top of standard pit w 35 cm stone at 
centre 


11 










31 


38 


20 




12 


Hearth? 


fired clay 






57 


109 


19 


Sooty surface 


13 










33 


96 


9 




14 










11 


25 


9 




15 










>3 

4 


40 


? 


Partly outside trench, not dug into 


16 










28 


33 


15 




17 










14 


22 


10 




18 


Hearth 








10 



103 


27 




19 


Hearth 








>6 

5 


110 


32 


Partly outside trench 


20 










26 


38 


14 




21 










22 


33 


10 




22 










45 


48 


23 




23 


Posthole? 








29 


36 


21 


One 30 cm stone 


24 


Hearth 








80 


100 


13 




25 










16 


36 


10 




26 










55 


75 


22 




27 


Hearth 








42 


71 


12 




28 










20 


27 


10 




29 


Unused 








- 


- 


- 




30 










48 


53 


12 




31 


Posthole 








31 


46 


24 


Fill mostly stones 


32 










31 


50 


23 




33 


Modern 






y 


15 
1 


192 


25 


3 joined pits 


34 










42 


49 


10 




35 


Hearth 








90 


114 


18 




36 










32 


37 


9 




37 


Hearth? 






y 


38 


50 


14 




38 










35 


37 


8 




39 










40 


54 


9 




40 










23 


24 


8 




41 










13 
9 


154 


8 




42 


Hearth 








53 


80 


18 




43 










21 


25 


8 




44 


Posthole 








37 


37 


50 


Lined with large stones, flat side inward 


45 


Hearth 




y 




64 


73 


17 




46 


Modern 


glass, nail, 
brick 




y 


12 
9 


140 


? 





47 








y 


90 


120 


21 




48 


Modern 


pot 






10 
3 


107 


25 




49 




fired clay 




y 


16 

2 


164 


38 




50 


Modern 


pot 




y 


49 


61 


13 




51 


Animal 
burrow 














Bent off horizontally 


52 










50 


70 


11 




53 










28 


29 


4 


Charcoal pieces 


54 


Unused 








- 


- 


- 




55 


Unused 








- 


- 


- 




56 


Hearth 




y 




40 


50 


14 




57 










58 


60 


16 




58 










53 


85 


6 




59 










58 


75 


15 




60 










20 


23 


7 




61 










27 


27 


10 




62 










78 


139 


39 


Sooty 


63 










38 


47 


15 




64 










36 


38 


14 




65 










54 


63 


14 


Sooty 


66 


Hearth? 


hth 






40 


65 


13 




67 










38 


56 


13 


Sooty 


68 










25 


30 


24 


Location unknown 


69 










18 


25 


9 




70 


Modern 


pot 




y 


64 


130 


5 




71 










32 


32 


14 




72 








y 


17 
8 


188 


23 




73 










53 


102 


22 




74 










50 


50 


12 




75 










10 



190 


24 




76 










64 


81 


11 




77 


Modern 






y 


12 
8 


151 


35 


Cow jawbone discarded 


78 










24 


32 


6 




79 










12 


55 


11 




80 


Find #160 


pot 




y 


- 


- 


- 




81 


Unused 








- 


- 


- 




82 


Modern 


pot 






87 


125 


21 




83 




hth find #161 






92 


180 


10 




84 


Modern 


pot 




y 


11 

2 


134 


25 




85 


Modern 


glass, nail, roof 
tile 




y 


90 


125 


17 


Fine white sand, all finds discarded 


86 


Modern 






y 


12 



130 


20 


Cow incisor & charcoal discarded 


87 


Modern 






y 


12 
8 


140 


31 


Charcoal discarded 


88 










27 


41 


9 




89 










26 


50 


7 




90 










50 


60 


10 




91 










38 


131 


17 




92 


Modern 








52 


73 


28 


Fine white sand 


93 










31 


48 


7 




94 


Modern 


glass 






60 


80 


10 





95 










54 


68 


13 




96 










24 


27 


9 




97 










41 


70 


10 




98 










72 


90 


7 




99 










61 


135 


12 




100 










62 


86 


17 




101 










36 


68 


10 




102 










43 


66 


12 




103 










43 


57 


11 




104 










35 


36 


11 




105 


Unused 








- 


- 


- 




106 


Modern 








- 


- 


- 


Field drain 


107 










28 


37 


6 




108 










56 


153 


11 




109 


Posthole? 








38 


63 


23 




110 


Modern 


brick 






11 
1 


158 


32 


2 fills: fine white sand cupped by dark soil 


111 










61 


77 


12 




112 










63 


65 


20 




113 








y 


82 


160 


39 




114 


Find #162 


lith 






- 


- 


- 




115 




lith 




y 


11 



184 


33 


Modern wood on surface 


116 










63 


70 


16 




117 








y 


? 


179 


14 




118 


Unused 








- 


- 


- 




119 










45 


61 


14 




120 










43 


104 


20 




121 










49 


78 


13 




122 


Hearth 




y 




67 


70 


17 




123 


Hearth? 




strucke 




13 
5 


161 


12 




124 




lith 






55 


81 


16 




125 










60 


80 


18 




126 










37 


70 


10 




127 










34 


43 


9 




128 




lith, iron, fired 
clay 






10 



153 


40 


All finds in top of fill 


129 


Unused 








- 


- 


- 




130 










25 


30 


8 


Sooty 


131 




lith, fired clay 






? 


73 


22 


Partly outside trench 


132 










54 


62 


31 




133 










27 


31 


12 




134 






y 




37 


42 


13 




135 


Hearth 




strucke 




70 


90 


36 


2 burnt use layers, top one sampled 


136 










44 


51 


12 




137 










35 


51 


9 




138 










>5 

3 


54 


15 




139 










25 


48 


11 




140 










30 


60 


10 




141 




lith 






11 

3 


152 


29 




142 


Hearth 




y 




69 


81 


6 




143 




lith 






95 


214 


27 




144 










35 


40 


5 




145 










31 


40 


4 





146 










14 


15 


2 




147 










54 


56 


20 




148 










26 


48 


10 




149 










61 


169 


37 




150 


Hearth 




y 


y 


11 

2 


135 


15 


Base heavily burnt 


151 










65 


72 


20 




152 










50 


72 


16 




153 










38 


48 


8 




154 




lith 




y 


13 



200 


22 


Cut by field drain 


155 


Unused 








- 


- 


- 




156 


Unused 








- 


- 


- 




157 


Unused 








- 


- 


- 




158 










10 
4 


116 


26 


One very large rock 


159 










35 


42 


9 




160 










51 


81 


5 




161 


Hearth 




y 




70 


81 


5 


On NE part of dark findless layer, 6 m diam 


162 










40 


76 


9 




163 








y 


59 


65 


25 




164 










36 


46 


7 


In fence line 


165 










38 


74 


14 




166 










33 


40 


22 


In fence line 


167 










32 


38 


10 




168 










65 


85 


20 




169 




fired clay 




y 


10 



160 


34 


1 burnt clay frag discarded 


170 






strucke 




38 


54 


24 




171 










34 


40 


9 


In fence line 


172 










? 


43 


8 


Partly outside trench 


173 










69 


79 


23 


In fence line 


174 


Modern 


nail, iron wire 






61 


66 


22 


Nail and fence wire frags discarded 


175 










31 


37 


12 


In fence line 


176 










43 


46 


7 


In fence line 


177 










17 


49 


3 




178 


Modern 














Large pit containing dynamited boulder 


179 










38 


41 


10 




180 










22 


38 


13 




181 


Modern 














Large pit containing dynamited boulder 


182 










40 


56 


10 




183 


Modern 








74 


79 


8 


Fine white sand 


184 
















Lopsoil patch 


185 










11 



150 


9 




186 










39 


42 


12 




187 










79 


97 


22 





Finds list 



Find no 


Context RT90 


Material 


Type 


Spec 


Weight g 


Frags 


163 


Feat 003 


Charcoal 










164 


Feat 008 


Bone/tooth 










165 


Feat 008 


Charcoal 










166 


Feat 134 


Charcoal 










167 


Feat 009 


Bone/tooth 










168 


Feat 009 


Glass 


Window 


Pale green, 
thm 


1 


1 


169 


Feat 009 


Clay fired 






4 


8 


170 


Feat 009 


Charcoal 










171 


Feat 010 


Charcoal 










172 


Feat 012 


Clay fired 






10 


1 


173 


Feat 033 


Bone/tooth 










174 


Feat 037 


Bone/tooth 










175 


Feat 045 


Charcoal 










176 


Feat 047 


Bone/tooth 










177 


Feat 048 


Pottery 


Rodgods 




22 


1 


178 


Feat 049 


Clay fired 






1 


1 


179 


Feat 049 


Bone/tooth 










180 


Feat 050 


Pottery 


Seltzer 




9 


1 


181 


Feat 050 


Bone/tooth 










182 


Feat 056 


Charcoal 










183 


Feat 066 


Quartz 


Knapping debris 


High quality 


4 


1 


184 


Feat 070 


Bone/tooth 










185 


Feat 070 


Pottery 


Rodgods 




1 


1 


186 


Feat 072 


Bone/tooth 










187 


Feat 077 


Bone/tooth 










188 


Feat 080 


Pottery 


Svartgods 




16 


2 


160 


Feat 080 


Bone/tooth 










189 


Feat 082 


Pottery 


Seltzer 




1 


1 


161 


Feat 083 


Leptite 


Prob not knapped 




5 


2 


190 


Feat 084 


Bone/tooth 










191 


Feat 084 


Pottery 


Flintgods 




1 


1 


192 


Feat 085 


Bone/tooth 










193 


Feat 087 


Bone/tooth 










194 


Feat 094 


Glass 


Bottle 


Green, thick 


4 


1 


195 


Feat 110 


Brick 






3 


1 


196 


Feat 113 


Bone/tooth 










162 


Feat 114 


Leptite 


Bip core 


Shore abrasion 


15 


1 


197 


Feat 115 


Leptite 


Prob not knapped 




42 


1 


198 


Feat 115 


Bone/tooth 










199 


Feat 117 


Bone/tooth 










200 


Feat 122 


Charcoal 










201 


Feat 123 


Charcoal 











202 


Feat 124 


Quartz + basalt 




Ground basalt 
flake 


14 


2 


203 


Feat 128 


Iron 


Chain link 








204 


Feat 128 


Clay fired 








1 


205 


Feat 128 


Quartz + 
leptite 


Knapped bip & platform 




439 




206 


Feat 131 


Clay fired 








1 


207 


Feat 131 


Quartz 


Prob not knapped 




5 


1 


208 


Feat 135 


Charcoal 










209 


Feat 141 


Quartz 


Knapped bip 




12 


1 


210 


Feat 142 


Charcoal 










211 


Feat 143 


Quartz 


Prob not knapped 




12 


1 


212 


Feat 150 


Bone/tooth 










213 


Feat 150 


Charcoal 










214 


Feat 154 


Quartz + 
leptite 






58 


9 


215 


Feat 154 


Bone/tooth 










216 


Feat 161 


Charcoal 










217 


Feat 163 


Bone/tooth 










218 


Feat 169 


Bone/tooth 










219 


Feat 170 


Charcoal 










220 


Surface xl638 
y6197 


Basalt 


Adze 


93 x 44 x 26 
mm 


151 


1 


221 


Surface xl602 
y6357 


Flint 


Strike-a-light 


Burnt 


19 


1 


222 


Surface xl631 
y6238 


Quartz 


Knapped bip 


High quality 


3 


1 



10 



Technical & Administrative data 

Administrativia 

County council permit number: 431-26289-07, invested in the Ostergotland County Museum. 

Location 

Ostergotland, Kaga parish, Satruna, Raa Kaga 50 

Economic Map sheet: 8F7h SV 

Coordinates of trench centre: x6481650, yl486240 

Fieldwork 

Time: 15-25 September 2009: a total of TA full days' work with a team of about 14 people, or 

roughly 105 person-days all together. 
Stripped surface: 1047 sqm. 

Staff 

Directors: Martin Rundkvist & Petter Nyberg 

Fieldworkers: Ing-Marie Back Danielsson, Philip Cox, Tom Crowther, Laura Dumbleton, Connor 

Emerson, Peter Forrester, Theres Furuskog, Karen Gavin, Behnaz Ghoncheh, Adele Locke, 

Joachim Odelmar, Sarah Powell, Peter Rydberg, Bill Sheppard 

Post-excavation specialists 

Lithics: Fredrik Molin and Roger Wikell. 

Osteology: Petter Nyberg. 

Wood species determinations: Ulf Strucke, Raa UV Mitt, Stockholm. 

Radiocarbon: Goran Possnert & Maud Soderman, Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala. 

Finds conservation: Stiftelsen Foremalsvard, Kiruna. 

Digital plans: Petter Nyberg. 

Funding 

Royal Academy of Sciences, Johan & Jakob Soderbergs stiftelse, Ake Wibergs stiftelse, Berit Wal- 
lenbergs stiftelse, Stiftelsen Konung Gustaf VT Adolfs fond for svensk kultur, Stiftelsen Lars Hier- 
tas Minne, Royal Academy of Letters, Magnus Bergvalls stiftelse, Swedish research Council, Claes 
& Greta Lagerfelts stiftelse 



11 



Stenfynden fran Sattuna, September 2008 

Av Fredrik Molin, 10 oktober 2008 

Hojden over havet 35-40 m o.h. anger en trolig aldsta mojlig datering till senmesolitikum (SM) eller 
tidigneolitikum (TN), under forutsattning art platsen var strandbunden vid den havsvik som Roxen 
tidigare var del av. Enligt forsiktiga berakningar avsnors Roxen i overgangen till TN (se Fromm 
1976, Geologiska kartbladet). 

Ca 35 m o.h. kan (atminstone enligt min mening) raknas som Roxens tidigare strand, innan 
passtroskeln vid Norsholm gravdes ut (varvid vattenstandet minskade till dagens 33,3 m o.h.) for 
kanalens rakning. 

Det Finns ett fatal dateringar hyfsat nara Roxens strand till senmesolitikum pa motsvarande hoj- 
der, t.ex. vid Tornby och Tallboda. 

Fynden 

Slipad bergartsyxa 

Gronsten. Antydan till helslipad med markerade smalsidor. Ej prickhuggen utan tillslagen. Generell 
datering: MM till MN. Sadana yxor finns det manga fran SM-boplatsen i Motala (se Tom Carlssons 
avhandling eller nan av de populara bockerna). De finns aven pa Sodertorn och overallt daromkring 
langs kusterna. Hanger med anda firam till MN - ser dock inget speciellt MN-drag (typ mejselartat, 
halegg eller sa) i denna yxa. Obestambar, men mitt stalltips ar SM-TN! 

Hdlleflinta och kvarts 

Materialet forefaller inte svallat. Daremot har man anvant sma rundslipade strandnoduler (klimpar) 
som man oppnat upp (klyvt) och troligen borjat bearbeta utan ytterligare forberedelser - sasom att 
sla till plattformar, forma karnor etc. Bra exempel pa obearbetade klimpar finns fran anl 154. 

Anl 143 och 141 ar exempel pa kluvna rundslipade noduler (raamnen) dar brottytorna inte ar 
svallade utan "stenalders-farska". 

Man har kant till god kvalitet i ramaterialet nar man sett den - manga noduler narmar sig berg- 
kristall i kvaliten. 

Exempel 1: xl633 y 6229. Liten rundslipad klimp, glasartad (hogprismatisk) kvarts. Oppnad, 
sedan tva mikrospanliknande uttag. For natta for att vara bipolart slagna. Alltsa puns eller tryck! 
Mesolitiskt kynne! Flintkvalite pa kvartsen. 

Exempel 2: Anl 131. Ytteravslag med ra cortex pa ena sidan. Bruksskador samt ev. tva-tre sma 
retuscher langs langsidan (kolla under lupp!). Alltsa redskap! Trubbig - troligen skrapande egg. 

Ultramylonit: Flera bra avslag ar av ultramylonitisk kvarts (ibland slarvigt namnd som kvartsit, 
se Tom Carlssons avhandling) - d.v.s. detta ar flintkvalite. T.ex. Anl 66 och Anl 124 (bandade mar- 
moreringen ar vanlig). Troligen plattformsmetod. 

Halleflintan: Sma naturligt rundade klimpar. D.v.s. samma kynne som med kvartsen. Denna sten 
far snabbt en patina nar den kommer i jorden, den sa att saga "aterbildar" krustan - de har ofta mat- 
ta brottytor - till synes svallade. Finns i mesolitiska material, t ex vid Storlyckan (Larsson & Molin 
2000). 

Exempel: Anl 1 14. Troligen borjan pa en bipolar karna. 

Anl 83 

Tva matta avslag. Ett med rundad yttersida - det andra tydligt bipolart. 

Anl 128 

Har finns ett bra slaget kvartsmaterial som visar hela tillverkningsprocessen. Nastan helt baserat pa 

bipolar metod. Materialet ser valdigt frascht ut, vissa bitar ser nastan nyslagna ut. Detta ar lite kons- 

tigt! 

Har finns: 



12 



• Hela och delar av bipolara karnor 

• Bipolara avslag 

• Avslagsfragment 

• Splitter 

• Oppnade ranoduler (klimpar) 

Bland avslagen finns nagra plattformsavslag - bl a ett tydligt uppfriskningsavslag dar en karnfront 
slagits bort. Nagra avslag ar ytteravslag med naturlig cortex/krusta (rayta) pa utsidan. 

Man har velat at tunna raka avslag. Troligen for skarande eggar och att satta i sammansatta red- 
skap - typ spetsar for pilar, spjut etc. 

Ett avslag uppvisar troliga not/slitspar langs ena langsidan, samt en mojlig retusch - redskap, 
skarande egg? 

Sammanfattning 

Grattis, du har lokaliserat och gravt delar av en stenaldersboplats! 

Yxan, mikrospanuttagen, samt mojligen halleflintan och ultramyloniten som ramaterial talar for 
en senmesolitisk datering - inget motsatter dock en TN-datering (forutom franvaron av keramik 
forstas). 

Ovriga kvartsen kan inte dateras. Men den ar for grov (enligt mitt tycke) for att vara tidig- eller 
mellanmesolitisk - vilket den heller inte kan vara p.g.a. hojden over havet. Kvartsen blir grovre och 
fulare ju yngre den blir - en tendens vi brukar se i materialen. Teoretiskt sett kan den vara slagen 
fram till kanske bronsalder. De som slagit har vetat vad de gjort och vad de velat fa ut - vilket inte 
talar for yngre dateringar enligt min mening. 

Jag tror pa senmesolitikum! 



13 



Osteologisk undersokning av skelettmaterial fran Sattuna 

Av Petter Nyberg, 1 oktober 2008 

Material 

Det analyserade skelettmaterialet fran Sattuna framkom vid en arkeologisk undersokning som utfor- 
des under September 2008 strax norr om Sattunahogen (RAA 10, Kaga sn). Skelettmaterialet hade 
en totalvikt av 79,8 gram och antalet fragment uppgick till 138. Materialet var mycket fragmenterat 
med en snittvikt av 0,6 gram per fragment. 20 fragment var branda vilket utgjorde ca 14 % av 
totalantalet. Det branda skelettmaterialet vagde totalt 4,2 gram, vilket motsvarar ungefar 5 % av 
totalvikten. Bade viktmassigt och vad galler antal utgjorde de branda benen saledes endast en mind- 
re del av totala antalet analyserade fragment. 

Viktmassigt har 51 % av materialet varit mojlig art identifiera till art, familj eller grupp av 
arter. Ovriga ben har om mojligt delats in i klass. Antalsmassigt har 70 % av fragmenten varit moj- 
liga att identifiera till art, familj eller grupp av arter. 



Art Fragmentantal % Vikt i gram % 

Notkreatur 2 1,4 14,1 17,7 

Hast 4 2,9 9,6 12,0 

Svin 1 0,7 0,2 0,2 

Stor grasatare 90 65,2 26,6 33,3 

Daggdjur 33 23,9 27,6 34,6 
Oidentifierade fragment 8 5^8 LJ 2,1 

TOTALT 138 100 79,8 100 



Metod 

Skelettmaterialet fran varje anlaggning eller fyndnummer har undersokts for sig. Benen har sedan 
redovisats i en gemensam benlista. Fragmenten har bestamts till benslag och art dar sa varit mojligt. 
Kvantifiering har gjorts med hjalp av fragmentantal (NISP, Number of Identified Specimens), 
minsta individantal (mind eller MNI, Minimum Number of Individuals) samt minsta antalet benele- 
ment (mab eller MNE, Minimum Number of Elements). Epifysstatus har noterats for att mojliggora 
aldersbedomning. 

Vissa frekvent forekommande benslag som inte kunnat artbestammas har sorterats in under 
artgruppen "stor grasatare". De som hamnat under rubriken "stor grasatare" harror troligen i de 
fiesta fall fran notkreatur eller hast aven om alg inte kan uteslutas. Nagra sakra spar av alg finns inte 
i det analyserade skelettmaterialet. 

Den metod som anvants for berakning av individantal ar den av Chaplin (1971) utarbetade 
mind-metoden, vilken gar ut pa att sakerstalla minsta antalet individer (mind eller MNI) i ett skelett- 
material. Metoden innebar att man anvander det benslag per djurart som uppvisar flest antal fran 
hoger eller vanster sida. I vissa fall kan man aven anvanda opariga ben om detta ar lampligt. Efter 
sakning av de fragment som kan tillhora samma benelement, kan man sakerstalla minsta antalet in- 
divider. Aven hansyn till alder bor tas. Vissa juvenila ben kan darmed raknas som enskilda indivi- 
der. Aven sakra konsbedomningar kan anvandas vid berakningarna. 

Dodsaldern kan bedomas utifran olika kriterier baserade pa skelettets allmanna utveckling 
och aldrande. Eftersom tanderna bryter fram i olika aldrar och gradvis slits ned, ger en bedomning 
utifran dem en hanvisning till ett specifikt intervall. Skelettutvecklingen i ovrigt ger oftast endast en 
bestamning till aldre eller yngre an en viss dodsalder. Detta ar en klar nackdel nar man har att gora 
med ett material som bestar av losryckta fragment fran flera olika individer. Noterbart ar aven att ti- 

14 



digare forskning har visat att aldersprofilerna blir olika beroende pa om man anvander tander eller 
epifyser (Vretemark 1997:35f med anf litt). I benlistan har endast noterats ifall epifysen ar samman- 
vuxen eller inte. Ingen bedomning av tandutveckling eller tandslitaget har gjorts. 

Resultat 

Om inte annat anges patraffades inga konsindikationer, inga skelettforandringar beroende pa sjuk- 
dom eller trauma, och ej heller nagra spar fran slakt eller hantverksverksamhet. 

A8 (stolphal) 

Anlaggningen inneholl totalt fyra obranda skelettfragment med en totalvikt av 1,0 gram. Inget av 

fragmenten var mojligt att artbestamma. 

A9 (sentida grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl totalt tva obranda skelettfragment med en totalvikt 
av 4,3 gram. Ett av benen var ett ryggkotfragment harrorande fran en stor grasatare. Det andra var 
ett tandfragment fran nagon typ av daggdjur, inte manniska. 

A3 3 (sentida grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl ett obrant rorbensfragment med en vikt av 3,2 

gram. Fragmentet harror fran nagon typ av daggdjur, inte manniska. 

A3 7 (hard) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl ett fullstandigt forbrant rorbensfragment med en 

vikt av 0, 1 gram. Fragmentet gick inte att artbestamma. 

A47 (grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl ett fullstandigt forbrant skelettfragment med en vikt 

av 0,2 gram. Fragmentet gick inte att artbestamma. 

A49 (grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl totalt tva fullstandigt forbranda rorbensfragment 

med en totalvikt av 0,6 gram. Bada fragmenten harror fran nagon typ av daggdjur, inte manniska. 

A50 (sentida grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl totalt tva fullstandigt forbranda skelettfragment 

med en totalvikt av 0,3 gram. Bada fragmenten harror fran nagon typ av daggdjur, inte manniska. 

A70 (sentida grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl totalt tva obranda tandfragment med en totalvikt av 

0,2 gram. Bada fragmenten harror fran en storre grasatare. 

A72 (grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl ett fullstandigt forbrant rorbensfragment med en 

vikt av 0,2 gram. Fragmentet gick inte att artbestamma. 

A77 (sentida grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl nio obranda skelettfragment med en totalvikt av 
29,3 gram. I anlaggningen patraffades en mjolktand och ett skulderbladsfragment fran ett notkreatur 
samt tva hela hasttander samt och tva fragment av dito. Dessutom patraffades tre skelettfragment 
fran nagon typ av daggdjur som inte narmare kunde artbestammas. Det kunde dock konstateras att 
dessa tre fragment inte harror fran en manniska. 



15 



A84 (sentida grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl tio obranda skelettfragment med en totalvikt av 
14,8 gram. I anlaggningen patraffades fragment av tva epifysplattor fran en eller tva ryggkotor har- 
rorande fran en stor grasatare. Dessutom patraffade atta revbensfragment av fran en stor grasatare. 
Utover detta fanns fern skelettfragment fran nagon typ av daggdjur som inte narmare kunde artbe- 
stammas. Inget av dessa fern fragment harror dock fran manniska. 

A85 (sentida grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl ett fullstandigt forbrant tandfragment med en vikt 

av 0,2 gram. Fragmentet harror fran ett svin. 

A87 (sentida grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl tva obranda skelettfragment med en totalvikt av 4,9 

gram. Bada fragmenten harror fran nagon typ av daggdjur, inte manniska. 

A113 (grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl ett fullstandigt forbrant rorbensfragment med en 

totaltvikt av 0,4 gram. Fragmentet harror fran nagon typ av daggdjur, inte manniska. 

A115 (grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl fyra branda skelettfragment av varierande forbran- 
ningsgrad. Benen hade en totalvikt av 1,8 gram. Samtliga skelettfragment harror fran nagon typ av 
daggdjur, inte manniska. 

All 7 (grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl sex ofullstandigt forbranda rorbensfragment med en 

totalvikt av 0,5 gram. Samtliga skelettfragment harror fran nagon typ av daggdjur, inte manniska. 

Al 50 (hard) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl 76 obranda tandfragment med en totalvikt av 14,4 
gram. Samtliga fragmenten harror sannolikt fran en och samma tand. Tandfragmenten kommer fran 
en stor grasatare. 

Al 54 (grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl tre obranda skelettfragment med en totalvikt av 0,5 

gram. Samtliga skelettfragment harror fran nagon typ av daggdjur, inte manniska. 

A 163 (grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl tva obranda skelettfragment med en totalvikt av 2,7 

gram. Bada skelettfragmenten harror fran nagon typ av daggdjur, inte manniska. 

A 169 (grop) 

Den undersokta delen av anlaggningen inneholl ett obrant skelettfragment med en vikt av 0,3 gram. 

Skelettfragment harror fran nagon typ av daggdjur, inte manniska. 

F160 (losfynd). Fyndet bestod av ett fullstandigt forbrant rorbensfragment med en vikt av 0,2 gram. 
Fragmentet gick inte art artbestamma. 



16 



Litteratur 

Chaplin, R. E. 1971. The Study of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites. London. 
Vretemark, M. 1997. Fran ben till boskap. Kosthdll och djurhallning med utgangspunkt i medeltida 
benmaterial frdn Skara. Del I. Skrifter fran lansmuseet Skara nr 25. Skara. 

Forklaring till benlista 

Anl Anlaggningsnummer. 

Element Till vilket benslag hor fragmenten. 

Komplett/frag Ror det sig om ett narmast komplett ben eller fragment (eller del) av ett ben. 

Sida Fran vilken sida kommer pariga ben. Sin betyder vanster, Dx betyder hoger. Opariga 

ben indikeras med N/A. 

F br Fragmentet ar fullstandigt forbrant. 

Of br Fragmentet ar ofullstandigt forbrant 

Obr Fragmentet ar obrant. 

Adult Epifyser ar fullstandigt fusionerade. Permanenta tander. 

Juv Epifyser ar inte fusionerade eller endast delvis fusionerade. Mjolktander eller per- 

manenta tander som inte visar nagra som heist spar efter slitage. 

Mod Modifierade fragment, t ex avsagade, med huggmarken, snittspar etc. Har ingar aven 

ben med gnagspar. 

Pat Patologi, fragment med spar efter sjukdom eller trauma. 

NISP Number of Identified Specimens ar antalet identifierade skelettfragment. 

MNE Minimum Number of Elements eller mab som det kallas pa svenska ar minsta antalet 

skelettelement. De feta siffrorna i kolumnen indikerar de ben som anvants vid 
utraknandet av MNE. 

MNI Minimum Number of Individuals eller mind som det kallas pa svenska ar minsta ant- 

alet individer. De feta siffrorna i kolumnen indikerar de ben som anvants vid 
utraknandet av MNI. 



17 



Sattuna 2008 



Anl 


Art 


Art 


Element 


Element 


Komplett/frac 


Sida 


Fbr 


Of br 


Obr 


Kon 


Adult 


Juv 


Mod 


Pat 


NISP 


MNE 


MNI 


Vikt 


Kommentarer 


A8 


Undet 


Oidentifierad 


Undet 


Oidentifierat 


Fragment 








X 












4 






1,0 




A9 


Bovidae/Cervidae/Equidae 


Stor grasatare 


Vertebrae 


Ryggkota 


Fragment 


N/A 






X 












1 






3,9 




A9 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Dentes 


Tand 


Fragment 








X 












1 






0,4 




A33 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Ossa longa/brevia 


Langa/korta rdrben 


Fragment 








X 












1 






3,2 




A37 


Undet 


Oidentifierad 


Ossa longa/brevia 


Langa/korta rorben 


Fragment 




X 
















1 






0,1 




A47 


Undet 


Oidentifierad 


Undet 


Oidentifierat 


Fragment 




X 
















1 






0,2 




A49 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Ossa longa/brevia 


Langa/korta rorben 


Fragment 




X 
















2 






0,6 




A50 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Undet 


Oidentifierat 


Fragment 




X 
















2 






0,3 




A70 


Bovidae/Cervidae/Equidae 


Stor grasatare 


Dentes 


Tand 


Fragment 








X 












3 






0,2 




A72 


Undet 


Oidentifierad 


Ossa longa/brevia 


Langa/korta rorben 


Fragment 




X 
















1 






0,2 




A77 


Bos taurus 


Ndtkreatur 


Pd4 inf 


Mjdlkpremolar 4 i underkake 


Komplett 


Dx 






X 






X 






1 






7,9 




A77 


Bos taurus 


Ndtkreatur 


Scapula 


Skulderblad 


Fragment 


Sin 






X 












1 






6,2 




A77 


Equus caballus 


Hast 


Incisivi 


Framtand 


Komplett 








X 












2 


2 




5,7 




A77 


Equus caballus 


Hast 


Incisivi 


Framtand 


Fragment 








X 












2 


2 




3,9 




A77 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Undet 


Oidentifierat 


Fragment 








X 












3 






5,6 




A84 


Bovidae/Cervidae/Equidae 


Stor grasatare 


Vertebrae 


Ryggkota 


Fragment 


N/A 






X 












1 






2,9 


Cranial epifysplatta. 


A84 


Bovidae/Cervidae/Equidae 


Stor grasatare 


Vertebrae 


Ryggkota 


Fragment 


N/A 






X 












1 






3,0 


Caudal epifysplatta. 


A84 


Bovidae/Cervidae/Equidae 


Stor grasatare 


Costae 


Revben 


Fragment 








X 












8 






2,2 




A84 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Undet 


Oidentifierat 


Fragment 








X 












5 


2 




6,7 




A85 


Sus scrota 


Svin 


Molares 


Kindtand 


Fragment 




X 
















1 






0,2 


Tandrot. 


A87 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Undet 


Oidentifierat 


Fragment 








X 












2 






4,9 




A113 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Ossa longa/brevia 


Langa/korta rorben 


Fragment 




X 
















1 






0,4 




A115 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Ossa longa/brevia 


Langa/korta rorben 


Fragment 




X 
















2 






1.2 




A115 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Ossa longa/brevia 


Langa/korta rorben 


Fragment 






X 














1 






0,2 




A115 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Undet 


Oidentifierat 


Fragment 




X 
















1 






0,1 




A117 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Ossa longa/brevia 


Langa/korta rorben 


Fragment 






X 














6 






0,5 




A150 


Bovidae/Cervidae/Equidae 


Stor grasatare 


Dentes 


Tand 


Fragment 








X 












76 






14,4 




A154 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Undet 


Oidentifierat 


Fragment 








X 












3 






0,5 




A163 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Ossa longa 


Langa rorben 


Fragment 








X 












1 






2,2 




A163 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Undet 


Oidentifierat 


Fragment 








X 












1 






0,5 




A169 


Mammalia 


Daggdjur 


Undet 


Oidentifierat 


Fragment 








X 












1 






0,3 




F160 


Undet 


Oidentifierad 


Ossa longa/brevia 


Langa/korta rorben 


Fragment 




X 
















1 






0,2 














































TOTALT 


TOTALT 


Totalt 
























138 


10 


3 


79,8 














































Bos taurus 


Ndtkreatur 


Totalt 
























2 


2 


1 


14,1 






Equus caballus 


Hast 


Totalt 
























4 


4 


1 


9,6 






Sus scrota 


Svin 


Totalt 
























1 


1 


1 


0,2 





Vedanatomisk analys 

Av Ulf Strucke, 19 oktober 2008 

A3 inneholl inget daterbart material. A45 var nara en liknande situation, men jag lyckades plocka 
ihop tva sma kolbitar. Egenaldern pa tallen och eken kan vara ratt hog. Karnved ar ju mer mot- 
standskraftig mot rota an splinten. Det betyder att rotat virke inte nodvandigtvis behover betyda hog 
alder relativt fallningstillfallet, eftersom den ytliga unga splintveden ruttnar lattare an den inre aldre 
karnveden. 

Daremot ar bade tall och ek som byggnadsvirke taliga mot rota. Det betyder att tiden fran fallnings- 
tillfalle till brukningstid och slutlig uppeldning kan vara lang. Sa om dateringarna av A8 och A45 
verkar udda har du sakerligen skalet till det i det rotade virket. 

Analysprotokoll 



Landskap: Ostergotland Socken: Kaga 




Fastighet: Sattuna RAA nr: 




Analysld: 7457 






Anlaggning: 


A8 Provnr: 


F165 


Vikt (g): 


0,2 Analyserad vikt (g): 


0,2 


Fragment: 


5 Analyserat antal: 


5 


Art: 


Tall Antal: 


5 


Material: 


Trakol 




Kommentar: 


Kraftigt rotad fore forbranning. 




Analysld: 7458 






Anlaggning: 


A45 Provnr: 


F174 


Vikt (g): 


0, 1 Analyserad vikt (g): 


0,1 


Fragment: 


2 Analyserat antal: 


2 


Art: 


Ek Antal: 


2 


Material: 


Trakol 




Kommentar: 


Kraftigt rotad fore forbranning. 




Analysld: 7454 






Anlaggning: 


A123 Provnr: 


F201 


Vikt (g): 


0,3 Analyserad vikt (g): 


0,3 


Fragment: 


6 Analyserat antal: 


6 


Art: 


Hassel Antal: 


6 


Material: 
Analysld: 


Trakol 

7455 




Anlaggning: 


A135 Provnr: 


F208 


Vikt (g): 


0, 1 Analyserad vikt (g): 


0,8 


Fragment: 


13 Analyserat antal: 


13 


Art: 


Lonn Antal: 


13 


Material: 
Analysld: 


Trakol 
7456 




Anlaggning: 


A 170 Provnr: 


F219 


Vikt (g): 


0,1 Analyserad vikt (g): 


0,1 


Fragment: 


6 Analyserat antal: 


6 


Art: 


Gran Antal: 


6 


Material: 


Trakol 




Kommentar: 


Stam. 





19 



14 
Resultat av C datering av trakol fran Sverige. 

Forbehandling av trakol och liknande material: 

1 . Synliga rottradar borttages. 

2. 1 % HC1 tillsatts (8-10 timmar, under kokpunkten) (karbonat bort). 

3. 1 % NaOH tillsatts (8-10 timmar, under kokpunkten). Loslig fraktion falls 

genom tillsattning av konc. HC1. Fallningen som till storsta delen bestar av 
humusmaterial, tvattas, torkas och benamns fraktion SOL. Oloslig del, som 
benamns INS, bestar framst av det ursprungliga organiska materialet. Denna 
fraktion ger darfor den mest relevanta aldern. Fraktionen SOL daremot ger 

information om eventuella fororeningars inverkan. 

14 
Fore acceleratorbestamningen av C-innehallet forbranns, det tvattade och intorkade 

materialet surgjort till pH 4, till CO -gas, som i sin tur konverteras till fast grafit 

genom en Fe-katalytiskreaktion. 

I den aktuella undersokningen har fraktionen INS daterats. 

RESULTAT 



Labnummer 


Prov 5 13 C% 


PDB 


14 C alder BP 


Ua-37498 


Sattuna 2008, A 8 


-25,8 


1 205 + 35 


Ua-37499 


Sattuna 2008, A 45 


-26,7 


5 560 + 40 


Ua-37500 


Sattuna 2008, A 123 


-29,8 


3 855 + 35 


Ua-37501 


Sattuna 2008, A 135 


-25,6 


1 585 + 30 


Ua-37502 


Sattuna 2008, A 170 


-23,8 


1 660 + 30 



Med vanlig halsmng 

Goran Possnert/Maud Soderman 



1486000 



1486500 



lO 




o 
o 

CO 



Field Track 
| | Stripped Area 



1486000 

Fig. 1 . Location plan. 



1486500 



1436200 

I 



14SS240 
I 



O 



_- — r 






Q^ V Oo% r 



O 



•»• •*=• 






C 3 



9 D tO 



_-- — - "W" 












■J 

T2 * .. 



9 







A 



\ 



O" 






£) o 



"No o 



10 5 



1 Meter 



Legend 



I 



Stripped Area 
Post hole 
Pit 

Modern 
Hearth 



1 



14S6200 



1436240 



Fig. 2. Plan of stripped surface. 



14S6200 

I 



148G220 



O 



X3:S 



A33 



ffl fl@* 



A61 



«54 ^ A36 J 



7B0 

AM O 



m 







o 



AZS 



ASS""1, AS4 
A@1 



21 A3D 

AgeoJi — " 



1>S 

A^41 

A.143 
A143 



A,t47 



4 2 



4 Meter 




1486200 



14S6220 



Fig. 3. Plan of western part of excavation with feature numbers. 



14S6240 

I 



1486260 

l_ 



O 



41§ 



A1J7 



A3J ^ 



443 A7]J 



& AS3 



5 ' fi- ^ te 

^ A43 W 

A@0 IA46V * 

,94 ^ 



AS9 F1sb 

ABO j 



W^Tia 1 



G 



AJB 



.<:, 



^ 



A7B 

A@7 * 



* 5 ? AtS4 



A#1 



o 



A7H 



rv r - Adl 



A11J1 



$& " " [A8S1 
AQ4 W 



V&n 



A 133 



f) ^ A4±A@1 L__. 



fje 






A#2 

A 13/ ^fes 

AUtO O" 

^C38 



Ad"^4 



A (27 I 



£ A02 





@3 AT59 
At45 

T^ A® A04 
""■"'" Af46 

• o 
AT353 Q 



O 



A 163 



^F 



067 



o9 



A Op 



A E69 



f 2 O A^ D 



AS6S 
ATJS4 
/{17JA|H 

At75 
AH6 



i.gS 



Ago Afflo\ 

/\ ACT9 

tA17S\ /--'~X 



At 



( JS154 A ;g 2 

A^-___ 



^ A(32 

Ate 



4 2 



4 Meter 




1486240 



14*6260 



Fig. 4. Plan of eastern part of excavation with feature numbers. 




Fig. 5. Basalt adze (F220) found on field surface. Probable date: Late Mesolithic.