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A Thesis 

Presented for Admission 

to the 
Maryland Beta Chapter, 
January 4, 1943 

Charles F. Hochgesang 


"Swords into Plowshares" is a "brief tabulation of some 
of the problems which this country must face after the war 
is over. It tells what the nations of the world will expect 
of us, and of of the pitfalls which we must avoid in 
order that we shall prolong the peace. 


The peace with its problems is nearing at a quickening 
rate; already wiser men of the United Nations canip are begin- 
ning to turn their attentions to these problems, for they 
realize that should they not be solved, the peace will be a 
short-lived one. 

The difficulties are legion; some seem almost insur- 
mountable, making the problems of fighting a global war seem 
like child 1 s play in comparison. 

After the din of conflict has died away, the immediate 
attention should lie in the relief of war-afflicted areas, 
enemy as well as friendly . For the first step toward re-est- 
ablishing friendship with those with whom we have been on 
shooting terms is an important step; if it is taken in the 
proper direction, the following tasks will be lightened im- 
measurably. Of course, amies of occupation must be maintained 
in enemy territory for a period of time, perhaps of years. 
This is in order to prevent revolutions which are always 
prone to strike while a defeated power is yet struggling to 
regain its feet. But how these occupation troops are used 
will be a vital factor in the succeeding relationships between 
victors and vanquished. 

After the problem of succoring the beaten and enslaved 
peoples is on the way to solution, it is necessary to re-est- 
ablish means for these populations to assume their nonnal 


way of life, and in fact to give them opportunities to im- 
prove their pre-war lot, This is indeed a touchy and a crit- 
ical problem, and unless it is in the hands of someone who 
knows and understands the cowed millions of Europe and Asia, 
the whole scheme of reconstruction may easily go awry. For 
although these people will want and welcome our help, they 
may very conceivably resent our forward interference in their 
home affairs, especially if it is done in a way which smacks 
of our supposed importance and superiority. 

In the above connection, we will want to ship them goods 
for re-construction and for building factories and for plant- 
ing food. We will want to lend them, monies, probably vast 
suras which we almost certainly will never see again, with 
which to stabilise their sagging monetary systems. We will 
want to amend our own laws so as to give them ready access 
to our home markets and to provide a market hem for thean to 
export to when they are ready to do so. 

These two are but the most pressing problems of the 
peace to come; others, of course, include the establishment 
of a world tribunal and an international law enforcement 
agency; and may I here say that by all means the defeated 
nations should be allowed to sit and vote at the table of 
the world court. Another terrific problem will be the re-ed- 


ucation of the axis peoples, for the minds of the Hitler 
young and their counter-parts in the satellite countries are 
deeply poisoned against us. We will probably have to use 


our own educators at first, although this must be but a 
temporary expediency. 

When the swords are beaten into plowshares, the re- 
sponsibility of the peace will be on our heads, and posterity 
will hold us strictly accountable if we fail in our golden 
opportunity to ma&e the world amicable to the highest degree. 

Charles ¥, Hochgesang 
January 4, 1943