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Full text of "Profitable poultry"

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PEOFITA 



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POULTRY: 



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THEIR MANAGEMEINT 



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HEALTH AND 




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EYW. B. TEGETMEIEE, 



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AUTHOR OF A SERIES OF FAPERS ON THE DISEASES 

" THE COTTAGE GARDENER, 



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OF POULTRTj IK 



THE POULTRY 



BOOK," 



&C.5 &C. 






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WITH ILLUSTRATION'S BY HAEEISON WEIK 



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NEW EDITIOX GEEATLY ENLARGED. 



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LONDON: 

DAETON AND CO., HOLBQEN 




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1854. 



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PEEFACE. 



In issuing this edition the Author begs leave to tender his 
sincere thanks, firstly, to the public whose rapid purchase of an 
xmusually large impression has enabled him to issue the present 
greatly enlarged, and, he hopes he may add, improved edition; se- 
condly, to his brother amateurs to whom he is indebted for so 
many suggestions and so much valuable assistance ; thirdly, to hit 
reviewers, all of whom have spoken so favourably of his efforts 
to impart sound practical common sense, in place of the gross 
absurdities, which, it is not too much to say, previously disfigured 
all the low-priced poultry works ; to the distinguished naturalist 
who did him the honour to give a lengthened review of the work 
In Eraser's Magazine (Dec. 1853), he gladly takes this oppor- 
tunity of expressing his thanks, as he is personally unknown. 
The present is distinguished from the last edition by the exten- 
sion of such parts as were previously meagre ; a table of the con- 
stituents of food has been added, which it is hoped may prove 
useful ; a longer account of several varieties has been given, and 
the chapter on diseases has been considerably enlarged, and 
several new remedies indicated. 

Willesden. Midsummer, 1854. 



ii 



PEEFACE TO THE FIEST EDITIOK 

The object of this little work is purely practical ; its aim is to 
place in the hands of persons who may not have had much expe- 
rience, a book which should contain all that is most essential to 
be known respecting the housing, feeding, breeding, and treat- 
ment of fowls ; and to this has been added such information as 
the experience of the author has enabled him to give respecting 
Ihe most profitable varieties viewed as agricultural stock. 

August, 1853. 



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PROFITABLE POULTRY 



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&c. &c. 



THE FO^VL HOUSE. 



The singular fact that our common domestic fowls are desti^ 
tute of anj particular English name, points at once to their fo- 



reign 



course 



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venerations 



they have become greatly inured to the rigors of om^ climate, 
they still retain so far their original constitution as to require the 
protection of a habitation during, at least, great part of the year. 
One of the most important rec[uisites in a fowl house is abso^ 



dryn 



dryness 



draina^-e 



situations esneeiallv. the asnect of 



the house is also of some importance ; if practicable, the Avindows 



greater 



degree of warmth during the winter, an advantage which is also 
obtained by having the roof ceiled. 

The perches on which the fowls roost should be low, especially 
for the larger varieties, as otherwise the violence with which they 
descend causes lameness, and not unfrequently fracture of the 
breast bone; in order to prevent the breast bones becoming 



(a circumstance which greatly injures 



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PEOI^ITABLE POrLTET. 



-and consequently their value as table birds), tbe perches should be 

much larger than ordinary; a split fir pole, three inches across 

• on the flat side, which should be turned downwards, will be found 

■advantageous, and a height of not more than three or four feet 

is desirable, as it enables the fowls to be readily caught after 

■they have gone to roost, and prevents lameness ; for Cochins it is 

even necessary that the perches should be much lower; their 

lieight should certainly not exceed one foot from- the ground, 

^ otherwise, from the imperfect powers of flight possessed by these 

birds, the evils alluded to are very apt to occur. Heavy birds 

of this variety are sometimes subject to inflammatory tenderness 

of the feet ; to prevent as much as possible the tendency to this 

disease, it is advantageous in these cases to lay some straio-ht straw 

-iengthway along the top of the perches, binding it in its place 

with string-. 



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groTmd below the perches should be strewed with sand, 
gravel, or ashes, to a considerable depth, so that the dung may be 

soiling the floor. This should be done every 



without 



dur 



to be thoroughly purified. It seldom happens that fowl houses 



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in cases, however, where the door and window are air-tight, means 
should be afforded for a proper supply of fresh air ; there should 
be an opening at or near the bottom, and another at the top, 
ihese should be covered with pieces of perforated zinc, to prevent 



draught 



Cleanli- 



ness is also a consideration of the highest importance in a fowl 
%ouse ; if ashes or sand are used, as recommended, and the dxmg 
removed daily, this is readily secured ; and in order to prevent as 
far as possible the annoyance of vermin, the house should be 
lime-washed once or twice a year, and the birds also be provided 
with a box fuU of dry dust or ashes to bathe in. 



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THE POWL HOUSE. 



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The difference between tlie health of fowls thus cleanly and 
trinly housed, and that of those compelled to roost in a dark. 



great 



in good condition. 



injurious 



known instances in which all the inhabitants of a poultry house 
haye been attacked with violent catarrh terminating in roup, from 
■an east window having been left open on a cold wet night ; and 
it has been found by experiment, that scrofula may always be 



habitations. 



confining 



I have found that exceedingly economical and efficient poultry- 
houses may be built against any wall that is conveniently situ- 
ated, the sides and front being boarded, and the roof formed of 



inch 



A 



the 



slope, and projecting over the sides and front so as to throw off 
the rain; the top should be covered with thin cheap calico tightly 
strained, and, by brushing this over with a good coating of coal- 
tar, it is cemented to the roof, which is thus rendered water-tight. 
The patent Asphalte felt forms a cheap and warm roofing, but 



requires 



current 



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ported by laths nailed to the rafters ; and in other cases I have 



found that 



brown 



oiled or painted, 



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under 



in increasing the warmth of the house, and consequently the 



winter 



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PEOPITABLE POITLTBT. 



PEEDING.' 



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There is, perhaps, no subject on which a greater diversity of 
opinion exists among poultry keepers, than respecting the relative 
value of the different substances used as food. This diiference of 
opinion arises from the general ignorance that prevails with regard 
to the true principles of feeding. It cannot he too strongly iin- 
pressed on all feeders of stock that the food eaten has to serve 
several distinct purposes when taken into the body. One por- 
tion is consumed in supporting the natiiral warmth of the ani- 
mal; another set of substances supplies the nourishment required 
for the growth of the body, and replaces the daily wasting that 
occurs ; a third yields the materials from which the bones are 
formed ; and a fourth supplies the fat which is stored up in the 

bodies of animals; we may, therefore, speak of the following 
classes of foods : — 

1st. Warmth-giving Food. — As starch, which forms almost the 
entire bulk of rice, and the solid portion of potatoes; gurn, 

sugar, &c. 



Mesli-fc 



-As gluten, &c,, which exists in large 



proportion in wheat, oatmeal, peas, beans, middlings and sharps^, 

4 

and in somewhat smaller quantity in barley, Indian corn, &c. 

3rd. Bone-making Food. — Which is found in larger proportion 
in the bran, or outer part of the grain, than in the inner parts. 



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Consisting of fatty or oily substances ; 



these occur, to a considerable extent, in Indian corn (the yellow 
variety), oatmeal, middlings, bran, &c. 
All experiments that have been made tend to prove that each 



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«i tnese kinds of food is unable to serve the purposos of tlie 
others ; thus, to give an example, neither Avarmth-giving nor fat- 
formmg substances are capable of adding to the flesh of a grow- 
ing ammal, nor can flesh-forming food increase the quantity of 
^at. In a mere elementary work, like_ the present, it is impos- 
sible to go into this subject at any great length. Those who 
desire the facts on which these statements are grounded are re- 
ferred to the works of Johnston, Liebig, and other eminent agri- 
must take the prin- 
ciples as granted, and apply them to an examination of the dif- 
ferent substances usually employed in poultry feeding. 

a-R\m forms the staple food of poultry, the varieties used 
being generaUy either barley, oats, wheat, Indian corn, or rice. 

Barlei/ is perhaps more frequently used than any other grain ; 
it is better relished by fowls than oats, and its first cost is con- 
siderably below that of wheat. It contains from ten to eleven 
pounds of flesh-forming, sixty of starchy substances, and two to 



Ticultural 



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hundred 



Oats are not taken so freely as barley, which is apparently owing 
to the large proportion of husk they contain, which lessens their 
Talue as poultry food ; but when used in the form of grits or oat- 
meal they are eaten with great avidity, and in this state furnish 
one of the most wholesome and nutritious varieties of food, con- 



•forming 



liundred 



gra 



contains a larger proportion of flesh-forming suhstances than oat- 

— it IS, therefore, the one best adapted to growing animals 



meal 



found 



when It forms the chief portion of their food than when fed on 
any other substances. Cochin, and Spanish chicken especially, 

show its good effects by the rapidity with which they feather when 
fed with it. 



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PROFITABLE POULTET. 



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W/ieat, contrary 



ttian oatmeal; it contains about twelve pounds of flesh-forming, 
nutriment, seventy of starchy, and two to four of oil, in every 



hundred. 



tjonent 



although it is extensively used by some breeders of choice poultry^ 
with whom expense of feeding is a secondary consideration. 

Indian Corn is remarkable for the large proportion of oil con- 
tained in the yellow varieties, which averages eight pounds in every 
hundred ; its capability of putting on flesh is not greater than 
that of barley, as it contains only eleven per cent, of flesh-giving 
food, and sixty-six of starchy matters. Cochins seem remarkably 
fond of it, but I have found that it is refused by Dorkings and 
Spanish, when they are able to obtain other grain. 

Mce is the least nutritious of all grains, and therefore the worst 
that can be given to growing animals. In the husked state in 
which it is -usually found in this country, it contains scarcely 
any fat, or bone-making materials, and only seven per cent, of flesh- 
forming food, (less than half the quantity contained in oatmeal,) 

entirely composed of starch. Boiled rice is a useful 
variation in the food of fowls, and is much relished, but as the 
main support of growing chicken it is very objectionable. 

Buchwheat Motir is about equal in nutritive properties to that 
of wheat, but the large proportion of husk that the unground 
seeds contain, must be taken into account in estimating its money 
value ; it is commonly supposed to cause a greatly increased pro- 
duction of eggs, but its chemical composition does not shew any 
superiority over many other varieties of food. 

Dhooj^a, 'or Indian millet, a small grain largely cultivated in the 
east, is employed by some poultry keepers ; it is much relished 
by fowls ; the nutritious properties of the flour are very similar to 
those of wheat, and as it contains very little husk, it may be re- 
garded as a valuable addition to the poultry dietary. 



almost 





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Mali Dust. Ma 



small sprouts of the Parley which are broken off in the process 
of malting, and form a coarse fibrous powder. Malt dust contains 
from two to three times as large a proportion of flesh-forming 
food as wheat, and in this respect far supasses any of the substances 
ordinarily used as poultry food; its value not being generally 
known, it is frequently used as manure ; mixed with soft food, 
it is much relished by fowls, and as it may be obtained at a re- 
markably cheap rate, its employment is very advantageous. 

-Bran, Pollard or Bandan, and Middlings or Sharps, particularly 
the latter, I regard as most valuable additions to the food of 
poultry. In the first place they are economical — and they con- 
tain a very high proportion (eighteen per cent.) of flesh-forming 
substances, and a very considerable quantity of oil (six per ceni 

Another circnmatancft whiVh n.dn-nts thf^in tn tliA nsA nf o\\\o\rt 



) 



is the large proportion of bone-making materials they contain. 

Many poultry feeders are in the habit of preparing the grain 
before use ; some simply soak the barley or other corn, by placing 
it in water the previous evening, this lessens the time it has to 
remain in the crop, before passing on into the gizzard ; others boil 
their corn, a proceeding which has the advantage of rendering it 
more digestible, as it effects an important change in the starchy 
part of the grain. Eice, especially, should always be boiled before 
use, and it should be cooked in such a mode as to allow the grains 
to remain separate, which may be easily managed by boiling it in 
a large quantity of water, to which a small piece of fat, as 
lard or dripping, has previously been added. The experience of 



■riculturists 



IS 



favour 



live stock of all descriptions : from the change effected in the starch 
it is more nutritious, and is more rapidly digested; hence, there 
is less work for the stomach and digestive organs to perform, 
-and therefore they are less liable to become diseased. From con- 
siderable experience in its employment, I can stroDgly recommend 



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PBOriTASLE POULTRT. 



the following cooked food, as being exceedingly well adapted to^ 
supply all the substances requisite to support a bealtby and vigo- 
rous existence. A quantity of middlings, with or without half 
its bulk of barley-meal, or a corresponding proportion of malt-- 
dust, is placed in a coarse red ware pan, and baked for about an 
hour in a side oven, or until the mixture is thoroughly heated 
throughout ; water is then poured in, and the whole stirred toge- 
ther until it becomes a crumbly mass ; if too much water is added? 
the mixture becomes cloggy, a defect which is easily remedied hj 
stirring in a little dry meal. The advantage of this method is 
that the food is prepared with scarcely any trouble, and there is 
no fear of its being burnt as in boiling. Sometimes the barley 
meal is omitted, and the baked middlings mixed with rice which 
has been previously boiled. This mixture formes the stock food 



of my old fowls, a hberal supply of grain being given during the 
day. I have found that since its adoption they cost less in food, 
and that they are in equally good or even in better condition than 
when fed on an unlimited supply of grain alone. Should the 
convenience for baking not exist, it will be found more desirable 
to scald the middlings and meal with boihng water than to mnx 
them with cold. 

If grain of any kind is broken or crushed, it should only be 
done shortly before use, unless it is thoroughly kiln dried ; for 
when this is not done, the grain, from the moisture it contains 
soon becomes musty, sour, and unwholesome. Inferior samples 
of grain contain so large a proportion of husk that they are not 
desirable, and if regarded with reference to their nutritious pro- 
perties the best will be found the cheapest. 

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Potatoes^ when plentiful and free from disease, may be advan- 
tageously substituted for rice, which they closely resemble, in con- 
taining a large amount of starch ; there is less waste in their use, 
if steamed, than when boiled. 

Peas, Beans, and Lentils, either whole or ground, are much 



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E'EEDISTG. 



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used by many feeders ; tliey contain a larger amoimt of flesli- 



i-orniing food than grain — on tlie arerage about twenty-four per 

cent., Avliilst the quantity of fat is yery small, not usually more 

tnan two in every hundred ; but they are not easily digested, and 

are too stimulating to be regarded as a wholesome diet. I have 

traced many cases of disease, such as w^hite comb in Cochins, 

inflammation of the stomach and egg passage, &c., &c., to their 
employment. 

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JIe?7ijy Seed is frequently given to cause tlie increased produc- 
tion of eggs, an effect whicli it can onlj produce at the sacrifice 
of the health of the fowls. Hemp is used in India as a most 
powerful medicine; the evil effects of the seeds on caged birds 



are known to all hird keepers. 



I regard it as one of the most 



injurious substances giyen to fowls. 



Fre, 



4* 



ood of poultry. Those having a free range in the eoimtry sup- 
ply themselves with this idnd of food ; when they are kept in 
other situations they should be supplied daily with turf,-<mbbage, 
lettuce, or turnip leaves, and in the absence of these substances, 
-as on shipboard, a little moistened corn, allowed to sprout, will 
be found very advantageous. . ~ 



are 



nmch relished, particularly the former ; they form an useful and 
wholesome variation in the diet. 

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Animal Food. — The most advantageous animal food for fowls, 
and on which they make the most rapid and healthy progress, 
consists m the worms, snails and insects that they obtain natu- 



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healthy 



w^nere it cannot be obtained, a small quantity of fresh meat (either 
raAV or cooked) may be chopped small and given to them ; it is, 
however, but a poor substitute for the natural insect food. The 



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12 



PEOEITABLE POULTET. 



maggots of tlie flesh fly, obtained by banging up some meat to^ 
putrefy, are often employed, but I doubt very much, whether, in 
wholesomeness, they are at all equal to worms, and the plan is 
objectionable from the offensive odour of the putrefying meat ; if 
it is thought desirable to employ maggots the best mode is to- 
allow the animal substance to remain exposed to the air until 
thoroughly fly-blown, if it is then buried eighteen inches deep, the 
maggots remain under ground until they attain their full size, 
when they work their way towards the surface, before changing 
into the perfect insects ; the fowls soon discover their approach^ 
and by scratching obtain a plentiful supply ; the maggots by 
working their way through the soil are cleansed from any adher- 
ing putridity, and the search for the gradual supply afibrds amuse- 
ment for the fowls ; even employed in this way, however, I do not 

think flesh maggots so desirable as worms. 

Tallow Chandler's Greaves^ which are left on melting the fat 
from the stale scraps of the butchers, and the putrid accumula- 
tion of the marine store shop, are strongly recommended by some 
persons as causing an increased quantity of eggs' Animal sub- 
stances which have once been in a state of putrefaction cannot by 
any subsequent process be formed into healthy food, and I can 
state from experience that greaves are exceedingly injxu'ious to 
laying hens. Even dogs, when fed upon greaves, become ofiensive, 
mangy, and out of condition ; their effect upon fowls cannot be 
less injurious. 

It will not, I trust, be thought that the subject of food has 
been treated at an undue length, for I am confident that by far 
the greater number of diseases that occur in fowls arise from 
improper feeding. I have, therefore, arranged the following 
Table, in order to render the comparison of the relative value of 
the different substances more easilv made. 



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PEEDING. 



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TABLE 



Showing tlie number of pounds of different substances contained 

in every lOOlbs. of grain, Ac, &c. 

[When a (— ) is used it signifies that the quantity has not been exactly 

k 

ascertained.] 



Every 100 lbs. of 



Wheat . . 



contains 



Bran, Middlings, &c. „ 



Oats, with husk 



Oatmeal . . 
Barley - - 
Malt Dust 

Indian Corn 

Rice, husked 

Dhoora .• 

Buckwheat 
Peas, &c. 

Beans 

> 

Tares 
Lentils . . 



Potato • . 



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99 



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93 



lb. 
12 



14 



91 



9 



11 



6 



60 ,-. 



lb. 
12 



18 



15 



18 



11 



30 



1 
1 

10 


11 


— 


7 


12 


11 




11 


15 


25 


75 


2 



o 

c 



C3 



lb. 
3 



6 



6 



6 



2 



8 



2 



a trace 



&0 



lb. 
70 



53 



47 
63 



60 



66 



80 



70 



48 



19 






lb. 
1 



20 



2 



14 



6 



4 



8 



3 



to ^ 
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4x1 



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O 






lb. 
2 



5 



2 



2 



2 



8 



1 



a trace 



2 



2 



44 



3 



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14 



PROriTABLE POULTEY 



My position in connection with the Cottage Gardener, has given 
me the opportunity of examining more dead and diseased fowls 
than perhaps ever fell to the lot of one individual ; and, as the 
piost certain result of my experience, I can state that more than 
one half the cases that come under my care, or that are examined 
l)y me after death, are caused by errors in feeding. 

Inflammation of the digestive stomach (which is situated be- 



beans 



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endeavour 



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tion, or to make them up for the sale room, is a most frequent 
result. Apoplexy from over-feeding, especially in laying hens, and 
paralysis from the same cause, are frequent. Inflammation of 
the egg passage is a common, and unless timely treated, another 
fatal complaint, generally taking its rise in over- stimulating food ; 
and leg weakness, from the weight increasing faster than the 
strength, is common in Cochins. 

Water.— K daily supply of fresh clean 
water is indispensable to the health of 
fowls. Many diseases are caused by their 
drinking from stagnant ditches and the 
impure and filthy drainin^s of 



manure 



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teaps 



fountain, 




that I have ever seen, inasmuch as it is 

capable of being cleansed internally, may be made out of any wide- 
mouth earthenware jar and common glazed flower-pot saucer; by 
boring a small hole in the jar, an inch or an inch and a half from 



wi 



bottom upwards, and quickly turning 
down, when the water wiU be found t 
lieight of the hole in the jar. 



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BEEEDI2fG. 



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BEEEDING. 

Miich vai^iety of opinion prevails respecting the best mode ot 
constructing the nests for laying and sitting hens. In this^ as 
in al] other cases^ the nearer we can imitate nature the better ; I 
object to the rows of pigeon-holes so frequently employed, as the 
close crowding of the fowls harbours vermin, and renders it diffi- 
cult to thoroughly clean the nests after the eggs are hatched, and 
believe it will be found more conducive to health and comfort i^ 
the nests are quite distinct from each other, and are so formed 
that they can be entirely removed after the chicken are hatched. 
The plan that I have found to answer best is to use shallow baskets 



wi 



drift 



is placed, and the hen hollows out a slight concavity, which pre* 
vents the eggs rolling from under her, and in this way a very good, 
imitation of a natural nest is obtained. The ashes do not harl 



010* 




vermin, and I have found that eggs hatch much better tl^an in, 
those nests made solely of straAV, Care should be taken so nearly 
to fill the basket or box that the hen can leave without havin 
to spring up from the eggs, and can return without jumpmg down 
upon them, othermse there is great risk of their being broken, 
Should the hen be particularly fearful, a board placed in a slant- 
ing position over the basket with the upper end leaning against 
the wall, will afford all the privacy required. 

It is desirable that hens should be allowed to sit where they 
have been previously laying, 'as there is u.sually much trouble, ex* 
cept in the case of Cochins, in inducing a hen to sit steadily in 
a new nest. Hens evince a strong desire to lay where there are 
other eggs, hence nest eggs are usually employed ; they are fre- 
quently made of chalk, but from the hardness of the material they 
are apt to break the new laid egg ; soft white wood, turned into 



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PEOFITABLE POULTET. 



tlie required shape, makes the best that I have seen, as it does 
not break the eggs or lose its shape, and is capable of being easily 
washed, if soiled. Natural eggs are not desirable for nest eggs, 
as they are very apt to break when they become stale, and so ren- 
der the nest exceedingly foul. 

When a hen becomes broody, which is shewn by her remaining 
on the nest a longer time than usual, and by the peculiar clucUng 
noise she makes, it is desirable to give her three or four nest eggs 
to sit on, to test her steadiness for a day or two, and if she is 
found to sit well the eggs for hatching may be placed in the 
nest, either when she leaves it to feed, or by lifting her off in the 
evening ; if a broody hen is removed from the nest during the day 
she usually flies back, at the great risk of breaking the eggs, 
whereas, if lifted off after dark, she generally remains quietly on 



ground 



lifted 



The fresher the eggs that are used for hatching the better. If 
practicable, it is desirable that they should not have been laid 
more than a fortnight; although thej 

longer time, if carefully protected from the drying influence of 

) high or too low a temperature, in 



will 



^bran or some similar material. 



^Eggs intended for hatching/ should be kept with the large 



otherwise 



vent the yolk adhering to the upper side ; the lid of the box 
containing them should be closed, in order to protect them 
from the light, and from the rapid changes of temperature, and 
the whole should, especially in summer, be kept in a cool place. 
When sittings of eggs are forwarded by railway or other public 
conveyance, it is customary to pack them tightly in bran, with 
considerable spaces between them, others recommend oats to be 
used ; my own experience is most decidedly in favour of hay, 



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BREEDIKa. 



17 



or soft straw, wliicli, by its elasticity prevents all sliakingj and en- 
ables the eggs to be 'forwarded any distance without injury. 

This season, I forwarded two sittings of eggs to the far north 
of England, one packed most carefully in bran, the other in hay ; 
of the first not one egg hatched, whilst every one of the second 
produced a chick ; and a sitting that I received this season, which 
was similarly packed, every egg was fertile, although the basket 
had travelled from the north by coach, rail, and carrier. 



XUL 



to fifteen ; no fixed rule can be given — so much depends on the 
season of the year, the size of the eggs, and that of the hen. If 
the eggs are cooled during the sitting, which necessarily happens 
if they are so numerous that the outer ones are covered merely 
by the feathers, and not by the body of the hen, the chicken 
will be weakly or deformed; and as the hen constantly shifts 
their position by pulling those outside into the centre, and so 
forcing out the others, all become chiUed in their turn, and a 
weakly brood is the result. A hen when sitting, separates the 
feathers to so great an extent, that the egg^, if they are not in 
too great number, are in contact with the naked skin of the 
breast, and such a quantity should only be given, as can be covered 

in that manner. 

I am quite confident that a larger number of chicken can be 
ensured by sitting a moderate than a large number of eggs, and 

I 

as to their health and vigour there is no comparison. 

In those varieties which lay large eggs, such as Dorkings, I 
never give a hen more than thirteen eggs, and usually a smaller 



number; in winter, I would not exceed eight or nine. In the case 
of Cochins, where the eggs are small and the hens large, a greater 
number may be given. 

. With regard to the age of the parents, I believe that it is not 
m desirable to breed from hens in their first as in the second or 
third years ; the chicken of first year fowls, are more leggy, 



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PBOFITAELE POULTET. 






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smaller, and less liardy and vigorous than those that are produced 
by more mature parents. "When young birds are employed, it is 
desirable to mate pullets with cocks two or three years old, and 
cockerels with old hens. 

Some persons even carry their objection so far, as not to allow 
young birds to hatch the eggs of older birds, being under the 



farm 



4 





impression they do not sit with sufficient steadiness. This is cer- 
tainly not true as regards Dorkings and Cochins, for I have found 
pullets of eight months age, exemplary sitters and nurses ; and at 
the time of writing this in July, I have two Dorkings of four- 
teen months age, which are running about with their third broods, 
having hatched in January, May, and July. 

To ensure healthy and large-sized chicken it is absolutely ne- 
cessary that there should not be any relationship between the 
parents; breeding "in and in," as it is termed, is well known by 
all rearers of stock to produce diseased and weakly offspring, 
hence it is indispensable that there should be an introduction of 
Vfresh male birds every two or three years. In 

there are large numbers of poultry, it will be found by far the 
most desirable plan to keep separately a cock with from four to 
six of the best hens, and to hatch their eggs alone. By this means 
the chicken are all certain of coming from the best birds, and a 
much smaller number of cocks may be kept with the main stock 

The practice of allow- 
ing the hens to run with several cocks is calculated to deterio- 
rate the breed materially, should therefore a larger number of 
eggs be required for hatching, than furnished by a cock and four 
or six hens, another set should be separated. 

In all cases, over crowding must be carefully guarded against, 
especially where poultry are kept in a confined situation, for if the 
ground becomes tainted, the inevitable result is that disease breaks 

r 

out, and that the chicken, being less able to withstand its infln^ 



otherwise 




V ^ 



BUEEDIKG. 



19 



ence than older birds, die off rapidly, in spite of good food, warm 
housing, and eyery attention that can possibly be paid to them. 

Many persons are in the habit of lifting off the sitting hens in 
order to feed them, I believe that all such interference is uncalled 

for a,nrl hi 



urious 



the better — when hungry and thirsty she Avill leave the nest, and 
should be then fed most liberally. Whole corn I think the best for 
hatching hens, as it remains longer in the crop and so satisfies 



hunger tor a greater length of time. In addition to food and 
water the hens should always be provided with a heap of dry 
ashes, to roll in, to enable them to free themselves from vermin. 

On the twentieth day some of the chicken usually begin to chip 
the shell, and, generally speaking, they are all hatched on the 
twenty-first, that is on the same day three weeks that the eggs 
are placed under the hen. The practice of removing the first 
hatched and placing them in flannel by the fire side, is followed by 
many, but I do not see any possible advantage that can arise from 

r 

so doing ; it is impossible to give the exact temperature of the 
mother, and a degree of heat higher or lower must necessarily 
be disadvantageous ; the only interference that I think desirable, 
is to remove, if it can be readily accomplished, the empty shells, 
otherwise the unhatched eggs are apt to slip into them, and the 
chicken, although furnished with power to break through 
shell are unable to force their way through two. The addled eggs 
(which are readily distinguished by giving them the slightest pos- 
sible shake, when the moving of the liquid contents is felt) may 
also be removed so as to give more room to the live birds. 

am aware that these recommendations to leave natural opera- 
tions to nature are contrary to what are frequently found in books, i 
but I am merely writing the results of my own experience, and ' 
I have always found the more the hatching hens are meddled with ) 

the worse the result. It is a notorious fact that when a hen steals 



one 



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PBOriTABLE POULTET. 



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a nest in some copse or place where she can remain unmolested, 
she almost inyariably brings forth a more numerous and stronger 
brood than when she sits in the hen-house. 

The chicken require neither food nor drink on the day on which 
they are hatched ; in fact, lotJi are injurious, as they interfere 
with the natural digestion of the yolk, which is absorbed into the 
bowels at the period of hatching, and constitutes the first food. 
If grits, oatmeal, &c., are spread before the hen on the twenty-first 
day, she is induced to leave the nest, and the last hatched chickeU;. 
which are not perhaps yet dried, are unable to follow, and being 
weakly, perish ; or unhatched eggs may be left. 

If undisturbed, the hen seldom leaves the nest on the twenty- 
first day, and on the twenty-second the chicken will be found 
strong enough to follow her, and any unhatched eggs may be 
destroyed, for those chicken that are not then able to follow her 
will seldom be found to repay the trouble that may be taken with 
them. The plan of cramming peppercorns and other spices down 
the throats of chicken is cruel in the extreme, and moreover, 
exceedingly injurious. I have found the best food to be two- 
thirds sweet coarse oatmeal and one-third barley meal, mixed into 



crumbly paste with water ; this is very much relished, and the 







F 



chicken make surprising progress upon it, they are also very fond 

I 

of a little cold oatmeal porridge, and, by way of variety, I some- 
times give them a few scalded grits dusted over with a little 
barley meal to cause them to separate. 

Milk is frequently used to mix the barley or oatmeal, but from 
the extent to which it is then exposed to the air it soon becomes 
sour in summer, and is decidedly injurious if employed in that 
state ; no more, food, therefore, should be mixed with milk than 
can be eaten in a couple of hours. Sopped bread is by no means 
desirable, the chiclvcn become weakly and affected with diarrhoea 
from its use, in fact it has not that degree of solidity which is re- 



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"BEEEDING. 



21 



quisite to afford an opportunity for the exercise of tlie natiiral 
grinding action of the gizzard. A little chopped onion, or, still 
better, some finely shred green onion tops mixed with the food is- 
highly advantageous, and, in the opinion of many persons, lessens 
very much the susceptibility to roup. 

"With regard to animal food there is none equal to the natural 
supply of worms and insects obtained by the hen ; small worms^ 
or a barrow full of mould, containing an ant's nest, may be given 
if the chicken are^ in a confined situation, and will be found far 
superior to boiled egg, chopped meat, or any more artificial sub- 
stitute. Curds are frequently used, and, I believe, furnish the 
best substitute for the natural insect food, but I have had no exr 

r ■ 

perience in their use, as I have never kept, nor even fhmk it 
desirable to keep fowls, or at all events to rear chicken, in situa- 




* • 



hour 



tions where their natural food is unattainable. It is requisite 
that chicken should either have a constant supply of food or be 
fed at very short intervals 
practicable. 

Cooping, which is so frequ.ently employed to restrain the wan- 
dering of hens with chicken, I regard as exceedingly objectionable. 
In many cases I admit it to be a necessary evil, but not the 
less an evil ; a hen when cooped has no power of scratching 
for insects and worms (the best of all possible food), the chicken 
therefore confined strictly to the artificial diet with which 
they are supplied. Whatever also may be the difierence in the 

temperature of the day o 
her position, or seek shelter from cold, wind, or wet ; the ground 
under the coop becomes foul unless the latter is moved frequently, 
and the hen does not so soon recover the effects of her confine- 
ment in sitting as when she is allowed her liberty and obtains 

green food to peck at. 

It is frequently said that when hens are not cooped they roam 



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PEOEITABLE POTJLTET. 



SO far tliat tlie cliicken become fagged, and tliat oftentimes tliey 
are left behind bj the hen. I believe that if the hen and chicken 
are well fed, and at short intervals, this will not occur; bnt 
should giving them their entire liberty be objectionable, the 
plan of enclosing a small rnn with laths, wire-w^ork, or netting, 
may he had recourse to. These contrivances may be either 
moveable or fixed ; in the latter case the ground in the run may 
be turned up with the spade or fork occasionally, so as to give the 
hens fresh soil to scratch in. Many persons say they cannot con- 
fine their fowls in this manner, as they fly over ; a little attention 
to the habits of the birds would enable them to prevent this in- 
convenience. Fowls never fly over any boundary, but always on 
io it, preparatory to descending on the other side, and if the top 
is constructed in such a manner that they cannot rest upon it, 



\ 



they evince a great disinclination to attempt the passage. The 
plan I adopt is to have five or six feet laths of a greater or less 

as rec^uired, nailed three inches apart to two 



degree of stoutnes; 



horizontal rails, the lov/er near the ground, the upper being eight 
inches below the tops of the laths, which are pointed. 
■ I have found that this fence is sufficient to confine Dorking, 
Spanish, and even llamburghs, but then the fowls have always 
an unlimited supply of every variety of food; and when I receive 
a bird I usually lighten one wing by running the scissors down 
each side of the ten primary quill feathers, which is a much better 
plan than cutting the shafts across, as in the latter case the bird 



is much disfigured. 



In accordance with my suggestion, Messrs. Grreening, of Church 
Gates, Manchester, have manufactured some of their 



patent 



fencing on the same plan, namely, spiked at the top and chicken 
proof below, as shewn va the cut ; from experience I can recom- 
mend it as most efficient, and from its great strength and dura- 
bility it is much more economical than the ordinary hexagonal 
pattern in common use. 




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During siimnier it is not requisite to remove tlie lien and 
cHcken from these runs at night, hut a little house made of a 
few hoards nailed together, so as to resemhle a dog-kennel, made 
'vvater-tight, is necessary for shelter. 

Some of the most successful hreeders of Cochins have their 
groimds thus partitioned out and furnished with rude huts, 
hoarded at the sides and covered on the top with some of the 

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patent asphalte felt now so much used for roofing-. This, if pro- 



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24 



PIiOEITA33IiE POITLTEY. 



perly tarred, is perfectly waterproof, and being a bad i^ondiictor 
of heat, is warm in winter and cool in siiiiinier. 

The coimnon open circnlar wicker coop I regard as an esceed- 



ingl} 



nsefiil article in a poultry-yard, but not for the purpose 
to which it is generally applied, of keeping the hens in, but, 
on the contrary, for keeping them otcL I have found it very 
convenient for feeding chicken under ; the oatmeal, grits, and 
other expensive food used for the young birds is apt to be de- 
voured by those of advanced growth, an evil which is readily 

r 

prevented by placing it under a large coop which admits the 
younger chicken, and enables them to feed undisturbed by the 
others. 

h 

The remark is often made, that chicken reared in the country 
by cottagers are more vigorous and healthy than those bred in 
the most expensive poultry houses ; this I believe to be entirely 
owing to the more natural circumstances under which they are 
brought up. Fresh air, fresh grass, and fresh ground for the hens 
to scratch in, far more than counterbalance the advantage of ex- 
pensive diet and superior lodging, if these latter are unaccom- 
panied with the more necessary circumstances just described. 

The plans here recommended I foimd to be more than ordi- 
narily successful during the most unfavourable chicken seasons, 
even on the cold clay soil in the neighbourhood of London, and I 
have there severely tested their perfect efB.ciency with regard to 
Cochms, Dorkings, Spanish, and TIamburghs. 

In cases where fowls are bred in and in to preserve peculiar 
markings, or where, so to speak, a very artificial variety has 
been produced, great delicacy necessarily results ; this, for ex- 
ample, is the case in the Sebright Bantam, and hardiness cannot 
be expected in such breeds ; as well might the breeder of King 
Charles' spaniels or Italian greyhoimds expect similar success to 
that of the rearer of the Scotch terrier or sheep dog. 



\ 



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BBEEDIKa. 



25 



■4 * 



When cHcken are hatclied in the winter, or early spring 
months, either for competition in the chicken classes at the 
summer poultry shows, or for table use, some slight modifica- 
tion of these proceedings is requisite. I have tried enclosed 
rooms, both heated by stoves and fire-places and without, but 
have never found them answer, and am confident that even m 
winter chicken do better in an open shed than in any other situa- 
tion ; the shed, however, must face the south, and be warmly and 
closely sheltered from the north and east. The hens must bo 

4 

placed in coops, where all the sun can reach them; and there 
should be a little run of a few feet, enclosed by laths, wire-work 
or netting, for tlie lien and chicken to exercise in. The common 
triangular Avooden coop is a very useful one for early chicken ;; 
but it should have a false bottom, to keep them off the cold 
ground, and this should he made to slide in and out, so as to be 
readily removed and cleaned. The coops, at night, should be- 
warmly covered np with sacking or matting, and plenty of short 
hay or soft straw placed in the interior. The most successful 
breeder of early Cochins in the year 1853, reared all his birds in 
a shed thus arranged : but, instead of coops, he employed snugly 
built brick boxes, with abundance of short straw for the hen and 
chicken to sleep in ; and in front of each box was a little alley or 

^^^1 ;i 1... i^-M... -P^T, QTi' oTTAi-^isf^ frrnnnd. — the run not ex- 



run 



I 



tending in front of the shed, so that it Avas not subject to be 

damped by the rain or dew. 

Another precaution necessary to be taken with early chicken, 
even after they have attained some size, is to avoid letting them 
run in the grass v/hilst it is wet with dew, otherwise they are very- 
apt to get chilled, a.nd die with cramp, 
care must be taken to supply them with gravel and a little mortar 
rubbish, or broken oyster shells, — the first being required for the 
digestion of the f^od, the second to furnish the materials of the 
bones of the growing chicken. 



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26 



PEOEITAELE POULTET. 



As I have elsewhere stated, the rearing of early chicken is 
always attended with risk and trouble, and extraordinary success 
must not be expected; it should only therefore be attempted 
under favourable circumstances ; and unless chicken are bred for 
the summer poultry shows, or for early table use, for which pur- 
pose they fetch a high price in the market, it is not a desirable 
proceeding ; for the best and finest birds, that alone should be 
Icept for stock, are those hatched in April and May, as they attain 
their full size without having their growth once checked by cold. 

Chicken, on the contrary, which are hatched at a late period of 
the year, have their growth cheeked by the colds of winter, and 
consequently never make large birds ; hence the practice of hatch- 
ing Bantams in autumn to prevent their attaining a large size an 
object which is only accomplished by a sacrifice of constitutional 
strength and hardihood. 



PEOFITABLE YAEIETIES. 

r 

In a work of this extent it is impossible to do more than 
allude to several of the least important varieties of the domestic 
fowl, and this is of less moment as the general directions given 
with regard to feeding, breeding, &c., apply, with very slight 
variations, to all the difierent breeds. 

Cochins ob Shanghaes.— Cochins are perhaps the most po- 
pular fowl at the present time, and, in the opmion of many, 
deservedly take the first place on account of their good qualities 
as profitable stock, no less than from the estimation in which they 
are held as fancy fowls. So extensively have they been diffused 
over the entire length and breadth of the land, that a lengthened 
description of their peculiarities is scarcely requisite. Their laro-e 



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COCHIKS. 



27 



I 

size, peculiar crow, small wings, rudimentarj tail, and the ex- 
traordinary development of the fluffy feathers of the thighs and 
luider parts of the hody are familiar to all; these remarkahle 
characteristics are carried to an extreme degree in the hird shown 
in the engraving, which is a representation of an imported hen, 
formerly the property of Mr. Andrews. In purchasing Cochins 
for stock, care should be taken to obtain birds of good quality, 
as breeding from second and third-rate fowls Vvill be found ex- 
ceedingly undesirable. As regards size, the cocks should weigh 
at least lOlbs., the hens Slhs., Vv-hen full grown ; they should be 
short on the legs, which should he yellow and w^ell feathered down 
to the tips of the outer toes, which should onlybe four in number 
on each foot. The tail feathers should, in both sexes, be very 
small, and almost hidden by the dense mass of saddle feathers 
coverino' the back, and the fluff should be well developed. 

With regard to colour, at present the fashion is entirely in fa- 
vour of the light buff birds, which, to command the highest prices, 
must even be destitute of dark markings on the neck hackle ; 
or any slaty tinge in the downy under portions of the fluff, or of 
the body feathers. The rage for light buff birds I regard as an 
' undue prejudice, and believe the darker breeds will be found quite 
as valuable for farming stock ; in fact, the extreme prices which 
are commanded by the lightest birds are simply owing to the 
difficulty of breeding them perfectly free from dark colour ; and 
am confident that it has had a very injurious effect upon the 
breed ; for size and form have been sacrificed in the endeavour 
to rear birds of the desired colour, and in too many instances a 



PV 



heavy square-built short-legged birds of a darker colour. 

The white birds, though exceedingly ornamental, are scarcely 
equal in character to the coloured varieties, and the black have 
hitherto been only produced by crossing a buff with a white, and^ 




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28 



PEOriTABLE POULTEY, 



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as miglit be expected from such an origin, tlieir progeny are very 

Uncertain in their colour. 

Putting aside the vakie of Cochins as fancy fowls, their chief 
importance as profitable poultry depends on the immense sup- 
ply of winter eggs yielded by the pullets of the year. This, I am 
confident, will eventually be found their strongest recommenda- 
tion; for table birds, their length of leg, small breast, and 
game-like flavour, are objectionable, and the colour of their skin 
renders them very unfit for being used as boiled fowls. The at- 
tempt to breed pure Cochins with a fuller breast I believe to be 
perfectly futile, their wings are so small in size that they never 
fly, and the muscles which move the wings and form the entire 
mass of flesh on the breast, are consequently of small size also ; 
it would be as reasonable to expect the muscles of a blacksmith in 
the arms of a draper, as the plumpness of a Dorking on the breast 
of a Cochin. The hens are extremely good sitters, their large 



o 



great 



docility, and the readiness with which they sit in any situation in 
which they may be placed when broody^ being also great recom- 
mendations. I have found that the eggs hatch remarkably well, 
and that the chicken are equally, if not more hardy than those of 

other fowl. 

In speaking of their good qualities, their contentedness in a 

comparatively small space, their attachment to home, and the 
ease with which they are confined by a three feet fence, must not 
be omitted. Their chocolate coloured eggs, though small, are 
of good flavour, but they have not yet been sufficiently intro- 
duced into the markets to state how they are appreciated by the 
public at large. With regard to their laying twice in one day, 
such an event happens by far too rarely to be taken into conside- 
ration when speaking of their economical value, and when it does 

occur no egg is laid on the following day. The great drawback 



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BEAHMA POOTEAS. 



29 



to Cochins, as farmers' fowls, is the large quantity of food they 
require, which, notwithstanding all that has been said to the con- 
trary "by their exclusive admirers, is considerably greater than 
1;hat consumed by other yarieties, and their disposition leads them 
to remain at home instead of seeking for worms and other food in 
the fields ; in fact, the old birds seem not to care for the large 
earth worms, which are so greedily devoured by all other fowls. 

Bbahma Pooteas.— In the first edition of this boot I inserted 
the description, from actual observation, of a pair of these birds 
that had been sent to this country from the United States, by Dr. 
Bennett, who claimed to be the original holder of the variety, and 
I left the question as to their being a distinct breed an open one; 
since that article was published a more extended experience and 
the opportunity of making anatomical examinations of very many 
specimens, have led me to form a decided- opinion respecting their 
•origin and true character. 

All the Brahmas that have come under my notice, and I have 
made a point of seeing as many as possible, have been of either 
one or the other of the three following varieties, namely : 

1. Grrey Cochins. 

2. Cross-bred Cochin and Dorking. 

3. Cross-bred Cochin and Malay, or Chittagong. 
That the best of these birds are nothing more than grey Cochins, 

is proved by the fact that they have been frequently imported from 
Shanghae with the buff birds, ever since the latter have been in- 
troduced, and I know personally that the descendants of Grrey 
Cochins, which were thus introduced into this country before the 
name of Brahma was ever heard of, have taken prizes as Brahma 
Pootras; the circumstance that those presented to the Eoyal 
Aviary were sent over from America as Grey Shanghaes would 
alone be sufficient to settle the question. As to the name which 
has been given to these birds, there is not one tittle of evidence 



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80 



PI^O^ITABLE POULTET 




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to proye that tliey ever came from, the region of the Brahma 
Pootra river, which, in the lower part of its course, is within one 
hundred and fifty miles of Calcutta, running through territory 
which has long been in the possession of the British ; further 
from its mouth it flows through the country of Assam, to which 
some years since the East India Company sent two most obser- 
vant naturalists to report on the natural history of the region, and 
had any such remarkahle fowls existed it is scarcely credible that 
they could have escaped observation. A further and even more 
conclusive proof, if one were needed, may be found in their ana- 
tomical peculiarities ; it is a fact, universally recognized by com- 
parative anatomists, that the distinguishing characters of nearly 
allied animals are more strongly marked in the bones of the skull 
than in any other part of the body ; if the skull of a Cochin be 
examined there will be found in the frontal bone, exactly under 
the base of the comb, a deep narrow groove running from before 

r 

baclvwards, this remarkable structure is peculiar to these birds^ 
being found in no other variety whatever, and is as strongly 
marked in the first named variety of so called Brahmas as in the 
Buff Cochins. 

When it was found that grey birds were realising large sums, 
every miode of raising them was put in practice; single gTcy 
Cochins were mated with buff, and the progeny, when of the desired 
colour, were sold as Brahmas ; in other cases Bufi" Cochins were 
paired with light Dorking hens, and many of the selected chicken 
found their way to the sale room. Under my own eye last season 
many of these birds were so manufactured ; during the autumn, 
after the breeding for stock purposes was over, a Bufi* Cochin cock 
was allowed to run with some Dorking hens, the eggs of the light- 
est hen were hatched, and the Chicken were all greys, some were 
clear-legged, some white-legged, others five-toed ; but several had 
well-feathered yellow legs with four toes, and these were undis- 



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BEAIIMA POOTKAS. 



31 



tingidshable from a large num'ber of the birds sold as Bralimas. 
On examination I found the frontal groove strono-ly marked, 
although, as might be expected, in a rather less degree than in a 
pure bred Cochin. 

The birds originating in the Malay or Chittagong cross have 
been chiefly imported from America, I cannot therefore give the 
particulars of their manufacture, but the long snaky neck, the up- 
right gait, and the peculiar carriage of the head, render other 
evidence unnecessary, These birds also have the characteristic 



frontal groove. 



After what has been stated, it will scarcely be expected that any 
lengthened description of these birds should be given. The best 
are simply Cochins, and as silver pencilled Shanghaes or Brahma 
Pootras, they w^ere originally avowedly exhibited at the London 



sho\ 



vs. 



every 



A 



U 



of 



colour ; from tlie most celebrated yards are shewn clear legs and 
feathered legs ; yellow legs, and white legs ; pea combs and si 



Ggie 



combs ; white birds, grey birds, and even black birds, all pure 
Brahmas ! ! One person writes that they roam over acres, another 
authority states that they are more domesticated than Cochins ; on 
the one hand, you hear of their laying eggs as large as those of 
turkeys, and on the other of their being of the average Cochin size - 
one day they are said to crow like their buff relations, and the 
next we hear that their voices are much more mellifluous. 

My opinion of their merits and demerits may be stated in a foAv 
words ; of the half breeds I will only say that they are worthless 
for stock purposes, as they do not breed true to any particular 
character ; of the true grey Cochin I may state, as far as mv ex- 
perience goes, that they are generally leggy compared with the 
best bred bufis, and that in many of them there is a remark- 
able tendency (especiaUy in the hens) to accumulate 
abdominal fat, or in other words to ^^go down behind" a state of 



internal 



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32 



PKOEITABLE POULTBT. 



F 

things generally terminating in irregularity of the egg organs. 



M; 



ion is frequently fatal ; at the 
same time, however, I have no doubt but that by careful breeding 
for a season or two they may be produced in every respect equal 
to the. buif birds ; Dr. W. C. G-wynne, who has reared them 
longer than any other amateur in this country, states his convic- 
tion that the genuine strain are a very good variety of grey 
Cochin, without the slightest cross : this verdict respecting them, 

' greatest admirers and most 

r 

successful rearers of Brahmas, will, I have not the slightest doubt, 
be eventually universally acquiesced in; with regard to their 
hardihood as chicken, I may state that the most successful 
rearer of Cochins in the year 1853, to whose plans I have 
abeady alluded, and who spared no expense in getting first rate 
stock, informs me that he has reared Erahmas and Cochins in 
the same brood, and that he has not found the former by any 
means the hardier v?.rietv. 

•DoKKiiTGS.— To those who rear chickens for the table there are na 
fowls so well adapted as the coloured Dorkings ; though not 
remarkable as layers, as sitters and nurses they cannot be sur- 
passed ; whilst their large size, plump breasts, short legs, and 
delicate white flesh, render them the most desirable table birds. 

Latterly mxxch attention has been paid to this variety, and 
the result has been that great improvements in their size and 



good qualities have been effected. 



The engraving represents 



one of the old birds, of whom it has been ^ truly said, " Their 
qualities surpass their charms." In the improved kinds the head 
is smaller, the under part of the breast fuUer, and the carriage 
of the bird more elegant, the body being more compact ; the 
feathers are also firmer, and I have found along with this latter 
character that the birds are hardier and less subject to diseases 
of the egg organs. Dorkings vary very much in colour, and 



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DORKINGra. 



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tlierc is some difficulty in breeding them true to any marking. 
My own opinion is decidedly in favour of the dark birds, both as 
to appearance and hardiness, and I think there are no more noble 
fowls than a heavy, broad-chested, dark Dorking cock and a com- 
pact short-legged hen. Dorkings are bred with both single andA 



former 



the score of appearance. In purchasing Dorkings for stock, 
broad compact bodies and short white legs, with five toes on 
each foot, should be regarded as indispensable ; the weight of these 
birds varies very considerably ; in the pens which have taken prizes 
at the recent poultry shows the cocks have usually weighed about 
ten, and the hens eight pounds, but these weights are beyond the 
average, and such birds are not generally to be obtained. 

The white Dorkings, although exceedingly ornamental, are not 
of equal value in an economical point of view, being much smaller 
in size, and narrower and longer in the body ; they are almost 
invariably bred with a rose or double comb, and are obviously a 
distinct variety from the coloured Dorking, the latter having 
evidently derived its size, aptitude to fatten, and other profitable 



n^ 



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known 



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fiftli toe. 
Tlie great drawback to the value of this most useful breed is in 

the delicacy of the chicken ; in spite of every care they too often 
exhibit the evil eifects of a constitutional delicacy when about 
three weeks old, when their wings droop, and they die without any 
evident cause, whilst other birds hatched at the same time, and 
Tinder the same treatment, are running about full of health and 
vigour. There is a very erroneous opinion, in many parts of the 
country, that Dorkings can only be successfully reared in Kent or 
Surrey ; the absurdity of this statement is evident from the fact 
that the best Dorkings, those that have carried off the first prizes 
^t the various poultry shows, have not^ with few exceptions; been 

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34 



PEOriTABLE POTJLTBT. 



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natives of Surrey. The opinion has evidently arisen from their 
delicacy when chicken, and the fact that persons at a distance 
have often obtained a stock of Dorkings, and then without any 
introduction of fresh blood, they have continued breeding " in and 
in " until the breed has degenerated, not only in size, but in con- 
stitutional vigour ; there is however no doubt but that on the dry 
chalky soil of Kent and Surrey they are more likely to do well 
than in any situation where the ground is wet or clayey. 

Dorkings do not bear confinement well, requiring a good range ; 
to attain a large size, and make good table birds, they must be 
liberally fed at every period of their lives, hence, and from the 
fact that they do not forage for themselves as well as the smaller 
varieties, they are not the best fowls for the cottager, especially as 
their egg producing powers are not remarkable. 

I have found that pullets hatched in April and May usually, if 
well fed, begin to lay about Christmas, and there is no difficulty 
in hatching in the beginning of February, although there is always 



imcertainty about rearing 



cold weather: 



mn 



south they have done much better than in an enclosed room. 

To produce the fat fowls, that are seen in greater perfection in 
the London markets than elsewhere, and which are generally termed 
(although they are not) capons, Dorkings are cooped for fatting 



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age 01 three to four months in summer 




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wmter, bemer fed wi 



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muBt "be given fresh three times a day, the first meal "being earl^ 
in the morning; and, in addition, the birds should be supplied 
with whole com (either dry or boiled), gravel, clean water, and a 
turf or green meat ; the most scrupulous cleanliness as to troi 
coops, &c., being observed. By these means a fowl, if previously 
well fed, will be fat enough for any useful purpose in a fortnight 
to three weeks ; should they be required very fat, some mutton 
suetp or, what is equally good, the parings of the loins of mutton,. 



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SPANISH. 



35 



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may he chopped up with the food. The unnatural process of 
cramming is frequently recommended, hut I have never found it. 
necessary. It shoidd he home in mind that a fowl cannot he kept 
in the greatest degree of fatness for any length of timC; as the over , 
repletion soon causes internal disease* The houses must he dry, j, 
quiet, dark, and warm, and the fatting coops carefully kept fron\;i \ 
draught, and warmly coA^ered at night during cold weather. / 

Spakish. — The true Spanish fowls, known hy their uniform. 

r 

hlack colour, hurnished with resplendant tints of green, the great 
development of comh and wattle, and the peculiar white face, 
which should he free from any other colour, are magnificent hirds. 
Begarded as profitable poultr}^, their strong recommendation con- 
sists in the numher and very large size of the eggs laid hy them,. 
The hens seldom attempt to hatch, and are had sitters and nurses ;, 
their eggs should consequently he hatched hy other varieties. 
The chicken are slow in feathering, hut 1 have not found them sor 
delicate as is sometimes stated, it is not however desirable to hatch 
them very early in the season, as they run about for a long time with 
naked necks and wings ; and there is a remarkable diiference in 
the fowls of the same brood, some being far superior in size and 
qualities to the remainder. In purchasing Spanish, blue legs, the 
entire absence of white or colored feathers in the plumage, and a 
large white face, with a very large high comb, which should be 
erect in the cock, though pendant in the hens, should be insisted. 



upon 



Although the flesh is of good quality, yet, from the 



want of size, the length and darkness of the legs, the Spanish is 
not equal to the Dorking for the table, and from the long period 
of their moulting, the lajang in winter is considerably interfered 
with ; nevertheless, the large size and number of their eggs renders 
them most profitable, and their handsome carriao-e and striking 
contrast of colour in the comb, face, and plumage recommend 
them to all ; they are perhaps better adapted for a town fowl than 
any other variety, as when full grown they seem to suffer less from 



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PEOriTABLE POTJLTBT. 






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confinement to a small run ; not unfrequently exceedingly good 
specimens may be seen in the stable yards of London. 

The price of very good white faced Spanish always ranges high, 
notwithstanding that they have been largely bred in this country 
for many years ; this arises from the extreme uncertainty in the 
character of the chicken, for even when produced from eggs laid 
by first rate stock red faced birds constantly make their appear- 
ance, and these, though equally useful as layers, are of no value as 
stock birds ; it may be remarked, that those cockerels and pullets 
are most promising that exhibit a long bluish skinny face, as this 



pure 



. .* 



West 



Minorcas are much esteemed as profitable layers. They differ 
from their more aristocratic relatives in possessing a white ear lobe 
merely, the face being red, and in a somewhat more compact and 
less leggy form. 

Game Powl. — This variety, formerly so extensively reared for 

the cock-pit, is still bred by many on account of its beauty and 

r 

utility. The game cock is distinguished by a long head with a 

L - r p ^ ' -J 

strong massive beak, and a single upright comb ; the chest is 



M-^*"\~ 



promment 



firm 



e ■ 

are remarkable for their neat appearance, and are characterized by 



a large erect fan-shaped tail. 



greatl\ 



known 



breasted reds, the brown breasted reds or gingers, the various 
piles, a term applied to such as have a proportion of white in the 



umage 



Game 



grass 



L 

well being ; the hens usually lay about five and twenty buff 
colored eggs before wanting to sit, and are unsiu^assed as mothers 
and nm^ses ; both sexes are good foragers, supplying themselves 
with a great portion of their food. As table fowls they are small, 



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GAME POWLS — gAMBU^GH FOWLS. 



37 



tlioiigli plump, the quality of the flesh being very superior. The 
pugnacious disposition of the cockerels is much against them in a 
profitable point of view, and it is desirable to cut off their combs 
and wattles at the age of five or six months, otherwise, from 
fighting, much suffering and loss of blood ensues, this operation 
is usually performed with a pair of sharp scissors, and the applica- 
tion of a little green vitriol dissolved in water wiU be found 
immediately to check the effusion of blood. 

HAMBTJKaH EowLS. — There are two Yerj distinct varieties of 
these birds, the spangled and the pencilled; where fowls are kept 
mainly for the production of eggs, no breeds are so advantageous ; 
and as they are comparatively unknown in many parts of the 
country, I have entered rather fully into their description. I ^m 

I 

indebted to an amateur, an extensive breeder of the spangled 

variety, for the following account of their merits, 

'^ Gold and Silver Spangled SamburgTis, — These very beautiful 
varieties have not hitherto attracted the attention which their in- 




deserve 



northern 



cotmties, 



almost unknown 



a 



endeavour 



merits, and, lastly, the 
{par excellence) of the 



poultry yard. 



history 



nh 



Hamburghs, which are imported wholesale from HoUand, the 
spangled birds are never so obtained, and although similar in some 
of their habits, they are infinitely more hardy than their pencilled 



K 



rivals, 



winter 



greater 



and size. I am myself rather inclined to consider them, as they 
have for years undoubtedly been, natives of our northern coun- 
ties, more especially Yorkshire and Lancashire, although they 
are said to be common in Eussia and the northern countries of 




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38 
Europe. 



PEOriTABLE POULTET. 



Hambur, 



country 



iguli 



them, are, in my judgment, the best 



and 



pullets of the former variety 



I have generally found 



six months old, and^ if the season is moderately warmj they continue 



nme e^^s a fortnierht, until 



following year— I should say that on 'an average they lay about 
200 eggs per annum. They are everlasting layers, in the strictest 
sense of the word, never ;sitting, and recommencing their labours 



tw 



.4 



moult, 
colour. 



inky brown 



Hamburgli fowls erenerally are not to be sur 



" It is tbe birds of silver variety, however, wHch I regard and 
recommend as perfect miracles of egg-producing constancy. Tixey 
commence laying, if in good health and with a ^ood run (an essen- 
tial to the well-doing of both the varieties), at ^ve months old, 
and generally lay at least six days out of the seven, until the 
moulting season arrives — in aU probably some 250 eggs. They 



labours 



umage — and in 



season passed warns them that moiilting time is again at hand. 



After 



purposes, although I think thi 
L after that period'with a young 



" Like their golden relations they never sit, and rarely evince 
the sHghtest desire to undertake the task of incubation. I 
feel quite confident that no fowl produces so much e^^ stuff with 

run, a clean, dry 



L. 



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mtioimt of food. 



warm house at night, and one quarter of the food you bestow 

upon Cochins, and you will have no further trouble with them. 

They feather early and quickly, and may safely be hatched early 
in April. 



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HAMBUBG-H rOWLS. 



39 




f 



.4 



" I nitist notj however, omit to state one drawback which there is 
to the keeping my spangled pets— tliey fly like pheasants, and 
know not bounds. They are great enemies to flowers, fruit, 
vegetables, iiideed, anything they can lay hold of; and although 
capable of being made as tame as any other fowls, in their instincts 
they seem almost more like game than domesticated poultry. 
However, as a balance to this, there is no fowl so capable of 
taking care of itself, of finding its own food, of avoiding danger, 
and of repaying its owner handsomely for the slight care it 
demands at his or her hands. Indeed, I cannot recommend 
to a beginner in poultry-keeping a more beautiful and interest- 
ing, or a more profitable selection, 

" There is much diflerence of opinion about the desired points 
of beauty in these birds. For the exact requirements in the north 
country shows I must refer my readers to the Eules of the York- 
shire Societies, and I will therefore confine myself to a brief and 
general description of what I consider requisite for perfection 
in these birds, and firstly as to the golden variety; although, 
with the exception of a few observations which I shall make 
about the cocks, the same points are almost requisite in both 

varieties. 

" In the cocks, the comb should be flat, rose, stretching far back 

on the head, and ending in a pike— at least an inch and a quarter 
in width, and as square in shape as possible ; the ear lobe white ; 

3w speak- 



legs 



W^j 



and the larger and brighter green 



m 



'illiant green 



white. The same description apphes to the hens^ who should have 



ground colour 



plum. 



One great point of beauty also, both in the cocks and hens, is that 



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40 



PBOFITABIiE POULTBX. 



the wing should be regularly laced, as in the spangled Polnnds. 
The great difficulty in breeding the cocks is the tendency they 
have to come with black breasts and red backs — and for show such 
birds are valueless, although it is said inore likely to throw good 
puUets than the spangled breasted bird's which are sometimcvS^ 
termed hen-feathered. The silver spangled . cock should not be 
hen-feathered, the. hackle, and saddle feathers should be white, 
the latter very . long, the tail spangled black and white, the 
breast regularly spangled, up to the throat, and in colour the 

r 

clearest white for the ground, and the brightest green black 
for the spangles is requisite. The lacing of the wing in this 



>ty 



Wl 



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circular spangles upon it, but no other dark markings whatever. 

The neck, back, breast, rump, and legs, should be. regularly spangled, 

and there should be a total absence of patchiness in the markings. 

In both varieties great distinctness of colour is requisite, and from 
1 the delicacy of the plumage the slightest approach to breeding 
\in and in\s> sure to make the produce utterly valueless. In con- 
/ elusion, the carriage of the cocks should be lofty and upright 

with the breast thrown forward like the Polands ; the weight of 

the male birds from 51b. to 61b, of the hens from 41b. to 51b., or 

a little more." 

There is, in addition to the gold and silver spangled, a third 

variety of these fowls, in which the whole plumage is of a glossy 

w 

green black, the other characters being similar to those above 

described; these are termed Black Pheasant Powls in the north of 
England. 

The term pheasant fowl, as applied to the spangled Hamburgh, 
takes its origin from the crescentic moon shaped markings, which 



Moonies 



times applied to them from the same cause. 



Pencilled Hamhurglis, — This variety is also of two colours, 



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POLAKD 3?0WIiS. 



41 



golden and silver, tte hens in both should have the feathers of the 



with 



bars of black, the hackle in both sexes should be perfectly free 



dark 



Hambur 



large and black or bronzed. The cocks do not shovr these pen- 
cillingS; but are white or brown in the silver or golden birds 



respectively. 



graceful 



sprightly carriage. They do not sit, but lay exceedingly well, 
hence one of their common names, that of Dutch every day layers, 
they are also known in different parts of the country as Chitte- 

r g 

prats, Creoles, or Corals ; Bolton bays and grays ; and in some 
parts of Yorkshire by the erroneous name of Corsican fowls. 
Large numbers are imported from Holland, but the birds bred in 
this country are much superior in size, retaining, however, their 

profitable characteristics. 

PoiiAKD PowLS. — Poland fowls are characterized by the presence 
of a large top-knot, which, in the cocks, is composed of feathers 
resembling those of the hackle, and in the hens forms a dense 
globular tuft ; a very small crescent shaped comb is usually present, 
rising like two small horns from the arched and dilated nostrils. 
Several varieties of colour exist ; in the black birds there should be 
an entire absence of white except in the top-knot, in which the 
less black the better, the chest should be very prominent and 
fleshy, the legs dark, the wattles large and pedulous. 

The spangled Polauds, both gold and silver, are rather larger 
and less compact ; and in addition to the crest, many possess a 
large tufted beard. Other varieties, as buff, white, &c., also exist, 
but they are less frequent. Polands are very good layers, but do 
not sit; as table birds they are not surpassed by any variety in 
quality and plumpness, although their small size is against them 
as a market fowl, and their delicacy as chicken is also a considerable 
drawback; from the latter circumstance, they will scarcely be 







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PBOriTABIiE POULTEY. 



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found entitled to rank as profitable poultrj^, except on dry, sandy, 
or chalky soil, and in warm, sheltered situations. 

Malay Fowls. — Malays are large leggy fowls, with a very 
upright carriage, small tail and clear legs, then- heads and necks 



distingu 



the 



hens are fair layers and remarkably good" sitters and nurses. 
Malays are of almost every variety of colour, black, white, grey, &c., 
though the most common tint is a cinnamon brown. They are 
not as largely bred as formerly, for as ^gg producers they are not 
very profitable, and their large limbs are against their use as table 
fowls. What is termed the Pheasant Malay originates in a bad 
cross between the Malay and spangled Hamburgh, in which the 
good qualities of both breeds are sacrificed. 

Bantams, Silk Fowls, Frizzled and Eumpless Fowls, &c., 

r 

&c., can hardly be regarded as profitable poultry, but come under 
the description of fancy fowls. As paying stock, my opinion is in 
favour of one or other of the following varieties : 

For market fowls for table use, the coloured Dorking is unequalled. 

For the production of eggs, Hamburghs where there is a free 
range ; Cochins and Spanish where there is less space ; the first 
being the best winter layers, the latter yielding the largest eggs. 

^ 

Many persons recommend cross breeding fowls for the purpose of 
improving upon certain varieties ; it is difficult to see by what cross 
the qualities of Dorkings, as table fowls, can be improved ; or the 

_ f 

superior laying properties of Hamburghs, Spanish, and Cochins, 
increased. 

r 

To improve the hardihood of Dorkings some very experienced 
persons have recommended crossing a Malay cock with Dorking 
hens ; in this case care must be taken to kill all the cross-bred 
chicken, as, if bred from again, a set of variable, worthless mon- 
grels are the result. I have myself, however, never seen any cross- 
bred fowls equal for the table to the pure Dorking. 

For home consumption, yielding numerous eggs, and large size 



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SKIIT DISEASES. 



*43 



chicken, Cochins are very valuable ; their hardihood, docility, and 
matronl-y habits, enable a greater number to be reared from, the 
same number of hens, than can be obtained from any other variety ; 
but as poultry for the market they are of little value. 

In conclusion, I would strongly recommend persons who are at 
present breeding from common fowls, not to attempt to improve them 
by the introduction of one or two good male birds into the yard, 
but to obtain a good stock either by the purchase of birds or eggs, 
and to breed from them alone, avoiding of course all intermarriage 
between blood relations. 



DISEASES. 



The diseases of poultry may perhaps be more conveniently 
arranged under the heads of the different parts that are affected 
than in any more strictly scientific order. "We; may therefore 
describe them as affecting the Skin, Lungs and Air Passages, 
Digestive System, Egg Organs, Brain, and the Organs of Motion. 
Skiis" Diseases. — When fowls are kept on unnatural food, and 
in closely confined, dirty situations, they are very liable to lose 
the feathers of the head and neck from a chronic disease of 

• the skin. This complaint may be constantly seen in the fowls in 

. the mews and stableyards in London, where it arises from the 
dirty, dark roosting places, and absence of fresh vegetable and 
insect food. Of course a radical cure is out of the question, 
unless the unnatural circumstances producing the disease are 
removed ; if this is done, and a five-grain Plummer's pill given 
on two or three occasions, at intervals of three days, the disease 

; is speedily removed, but the feathers will not be replaced until 

: the next moulting season. 

In Cochins which have been highly fed, particularly if peas 
.and greaves have formed part of their food, a somewhat similar 




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^disease is often seen; and, as it commences with whiteness of 
the cornhj it is frequently termed "white comb." The treatment 
in severe cases is similar [to that previonsly described ; but mild 

m 

attacks are said to yield to the application of turmeric mixed 
with cocoa-nut oil in the proportion of one part of the former to 
eight of the latter. 

Moulting, being a natural action, cannot be regarded as a 
disease, but it frequently is much delayed, and the birds evidently 
suffer in such cases; it is therefore desirable, when fowls are 
not moulting favourably, to treat them as invalids, giving them 
food which is more nourishing than usual, such as a little chopped 

meat, either raw or cooked, keeping them in a warm and sheltered 
habitation, &c. 

Lice often infest fowls to an extreme degree, and cause a great 
amoxmt of irritation ; this inconvenience may be prevented by 
giving them dry ashes to scuffle in, and keeping the houses clean 
and well lime-washed. "When they are very abundant, flour of 

■ m 

brimstone dusted under the feathers will be found a certain 
remedy ; it is conveniently used if tied up in a piece of coarse 
^muslin, or powdered from a flour dredger, or if more convenient, a 
pound or two may be added to the dust bath. 

Diseases oe the Ltjij-gs akd Aib Passages.- — Eoup is the 

most serious disease occurring in the poultry yard, not only on 
account of its affecting large numbers at one time, but also from 
the fact that it is not easily subdued by medical treatment ; great 
confusion and difference of opinion have occiu'red from several 
distinct diseases having been confounded under this name. True 
roup commences with a sticky discharge from the nostrils, at first 
clear, but afterwards thick and of a very peculiar and offensive 
smell, the nostrils become partially or entirely closed, and there is 

I 

consequently some slight difficulty of breathing, and a distention 
of the loose skin of the under jaw may be noticed ; froth frequently 
appears at the inner corner of the eve, the lids swell, and in severe 



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DISEASES OE l^HE LTTlsGI-S AKB AIU PASSAGtBS. 



45 



cases the sides of the face swell greatly, the fowl becoming blind ; 

^ 

from the discharge being wiped on the feathers of the side and 
under the wing, they become matted together ; and in addition 
to these symptoms there is extreme thirst. Houp is essentially a 
disease of the membrane lining the nose, similar in this respect to 
glanders in horses ; I believe it to be highly contagious, and unless 
a roupy fowl is very valuable would recommend its being at once 
killed. I think the disease is often communicated by the discharge 
from the nostrils running into the^water out of which the fowls 
drink. As to treatment, a roupy fowl should at once be removed 
from the yard, placed in a warm dry room, the nostrils and eyes 



arm 



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the front or through the slit in the roof of the mouth, warm stimu- 
lating food, as meal or bread and ale, and a little pepper should 
be given. Eemedies given internally seem to have but very little 
effect on the disease, but I think I have seen more benefit from 



half a gram of 1 
other medicine. 



confounded 



Eoup, from wMch, however, it is perfectly distinct, being inflamma- 
tion of tlie wind-pipe, the symptoms are a difficulty of breathing 
and a rattling or peculiar noise in the throat, this, in some cases, 
is even musical ; sometimes thick glairy mucus is coughed up, but 
there is never any swelling of the face or discharge from the 
nostrils, the disease is most frequent in damp weather, and yields 
readily to warm dry housing, and one-twelfth of a grain of tartar 



emetic. 



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but without the noise of croup, the same treatment with tartar 
emetic is advisable. 



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PKOriXABLE POULTE^T. 



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only a symptom of internal fever and not a disease itself, the . 

remedy is to remove the real disease causing it. 

Grapes in chicken is caused by peculiar parasitic worms adhering 

to the inside of the mndpipe ; they are readily removed by 

stripping a small quill of its side feather, except an inch of the 

lipping it in spirits of turpentine, and inserting it in the 
pipe ; but as this remedy often excites fatal inflammation, . 
3 su2:2:ested fumisration with the vanour of 



wind 



the vapour of turpentine, by 
shutting the chicken up in a box, with some shavings moistened 
with the spirit, as long as they can withstand the action of 
the vapour, and the remedy has been found very successful. 

Diseases or the Digestive OEGA:^rs are simple in their 
treatment. ., A fowl sometimes becomes crop 
distending that organ; warm water poured 



■bound 



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throat . 



necessary 



frequently loosens the mass; but, if 
incision may be made at the upper part of the swelling sufficiently 
large to extract the swollen food, and it will be found to close 
again without the slightest difficulty ; the fowl should, however , 
be kept on soft food for several days afterwards. Inflammation of 



itW' 



very 



frequent cause of death in highly fed fowls — they mope^- 
refuse to eat, pine away, and die ; there is no cure for the 
disease, but it is readily prevented by the use of natural food. 

■peas, greaves, hemp seed, being rigorously excluded. 

In Diarrhoea, five grains of chalk, two grains of cayenne, and 
five grains of powdered rhubarb may be given, and if the discharge 
is not speedily checked, a grain of opium and the same quantity 
of ipecacuanha may be administered every four or six hours. 



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DISEASES or THE EGG OKGAKS AJSTD LIMBS. 



47 



Diseases oe the Egg Oegaks. — The most important disease 
of these organs is inflammation of the egg passage sh 



!wn 



layin 



this complaint is readily 



giving one grain of calomel and one-twelii 
3tic, made into a pill with meal ; sometim 



arise from a deficiency of lime, in which case^ a little old mortar 

r 

rubbish remedies the defect. 

The calomel and tartar emetic, which I first recommended for 
this disease in the Cottage Gardener^ has been frequently given in 



inflammation 



need scarcely 



gravati 



materially ; there is no universal poultry medicine. 



evil very 



an 



not unfrequent, when the comb and wattles become like those of 

the cock, and the hen crows frequently ; such birds are generally 
but erroneously termed hen-cocks, they must not be con- 
founded with the hen-feathered cocks spoken of in the article on 
Hambiu'ghs. 

Diseases oe the Limbs.— Cramp in young chicken from ex- 
posure to cold and damp is very fatal to early hatches, it can be 
prevented only by warmth and dryness. 

Jjeg weakness, which is most frequent in rapidly growing chicken 



young 



strength 



sequence, sinks down upon its hocks ; I have found four or five 
grains of citrate of iron given daily in meal successful in every 
case in which I have employed it. 

Inflammation of the feet, closely resembling gout, I have seen 
in many cases, particularly in Cochins ; the feet become very hot 
and swell. One grain of calomel at night and three drops of 
colchicum wine twice a day, I have found afibrd considerable relief 

The bumble foot of Dorkings, is a swelling occurring in the 

ball of the foot, not attended with heat, but followed by ulceration 



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JPEOi'ITABLE POTJLTJiX. 



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and a diseased growth. I liaye found that it may, to a great 
degree, be preA'ented by having the perches broad and low, not 
above four feet in height, as the disease is evidently set up in 
many cases, and increased in all, by the violence with which the 
heavy birds descend to the ground ; from the low vitality of the 
parts affected; I have found that no treatment is attended with 
any beneficial results. 

Broken wings are best treated by tying the points of the 
quill feathers together in a natural position and keeping the birdini 
an empty place, where there is no perch to tempt it to fly. Bro- 
ken legs may be bandaged round by strips of stout brown paper 
soaked in white of egg well beaten up with a fork, the leg should 
be kept steady by two splints of wood mitil the paper has become 
dry, when it will be found sufficiently firm to remain secure if 
wound round with a turn or two of thread. 

Diseases oe the Beaik are not unfrequent in overfed fowls, 
apoplexy being the most frequent. The birds affected fall suddenly 
from their perches and are found dead. Little can be done in the 
way of cure ; much in the way of prevention, by abstaining from 
unnatural food ; in an actual attack, if the bird is seen before 



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recovery 



Paralysis also 



arises from the same cause. 



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round or stagger about ; letting a stream of cold water on the head 
immediately relieves, this should be followed by a grain of calomel 
or ten of jalap, in severe cases it may be necessary to open a vein. 
In most of the older poultry books certain nostrums, as rue and 
butter, are constantly recommended ; rue is a violent irritating 
stimulant, and I am not aware of any disease affecting fowls in 
which its use is at all likely to be productive of good effects. 



King, Printer, 63; Queen Street, Cheapside. 



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