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Full text of "The black diamond coal."

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st .Villi :. oack 






[JUL RY 

Coal, the s< of modern In&u tr r , oi rri 

form '"ion, disco verj nd i . il ility. 

It - . - from tin ... It . merely er and. 

r e e ■ 7e ^ r s ago , f r om 
stag 11 it Led its r re-s . f< . . 



THE BIAGK DI ....CD 

Coal, the black diamond, together with iron, are 
the bases of modern industry. (.nation's coal supply measures 
today that nation's chance tor success in the international 
struggle for industrial supremecy. Where does this coal come 
from? How does it develop? The anthracil r region of Tenn- 
sylv ois oa i give us the ar, . 'S . 

This huge "layer cake" covers eight counties 
nearly five hundred gu re miles. There ar< fourteen 
separate layers of this hard, black substance which has been 
develpj, ing for nearly two hundred and fifty years, million y< rs. 

' ck then, human beings could not have lived, for 
the atmosphere containei so much carbonic ^us that it v. ould 

■•■■: , en poisonous to human jein_s, Only great scaly trees 
and fern-like plants tilled th< swamp i . Lth . thick tangled 
growth. This vegetation, oy being alter y floe. .ith 
sunshine and drenchei it] vi a rains', ., a changed into vast 
ntities of carbon—the chief element of coal-. 

Tm ■ time when the earth's suri ci e- 
pressed. Over the bed of decayed vegel tion flowed the ocei 
brin$ rocks and sand. Volcanoes blew clouds ot dust and 
ash into the air to settle slowly on lane water, .All of 
these deposits formed layers which hardened into slate and 
sandstone. Thus was formed the first layer of the gigantic 
e cover ini Eastern Pennsylvania. 







-£- 






Fourteen 


times the sami ^roctt; 


ened . Forest 


■_1 ■ 


. led and were 


buried wh i le the Earth 


ting, 




Phe . 


e irth'a sur :< • to con nd this 


X" 6 


l a twi a 1 1 


ar j. : nd 


fold: , the 


lly br j ■ 


under the strain and th« 


lit ._ leny iiount- 


i ns 


ro u ! . jove 1 


p la in s . _ 


ider 


terri 


'« , 


iV: etured . T-. ■ t 


me so intensf t 


l« : 6ft ooa] :ii: 


L t s 


i 


r forming s ;,: + r , 






ore on 


d coal-fc g period, th< 


Zrt : o ■ o s , 




. 


to on< : illioc 


_o in the 


v e g i 


. 


Color do, Wyoi 


c c- a t a 1 .. t ■ 




■■ 


dinost urs . 


i od 


yi . 


oft coal ' Lt is j ,_ 


o .; ■ r : 




t'l ei . 










t ceal i . r d 


yO 


ir. 


■ 


, th:_ 


to sixty mill! 


" 


" . 


coal or lignite th 1 


, 


fl 


stroj 


r is of . period . It 


is extensively 


:„. i 1 C 


in 


•t beds of seventh' f 


ive ae 


fi:f ty f< 


;et re fcnown . 






first 


rd of coal 


I - .. b ok to 


thr 


D ' 


■j ris t ,.■ ,f Jr< 


1 b. i 1 o s 0j~; 


. 


Thr ( j C 3tu3 •, 


•;rote about jL ci stones . tirned 


like 


e< 1. : callec them "anthraces" the 


word from 


which 


.It is 


derived . 






i j ' 1 . " 


Romans discover* i< coal 


fields oi Engl ad 






. .. Jitt Ik, 1S31. 7ol. III. i-p. 611-14