- .... ""_ uiiOOT
st .Villi :. oack
Coal, the s< of modern In&u tr r , oi rri
form '"ion, disco verj nd i . il ility.
It - . - from tin ... It . merely er and.
r e e ■ 7e ^ r s ago , f r om
stag 11 it Led its r re-s . f< . .
THE BIAGK DI ....CD
Coal, the black diamond, together with iron, are
the bases of modern industry. (.nation's coal supply measures
today that nation's chance tor success in the international
struggle for industrial supremecy. Where does this coal come
from? How does it develop? The anthracil r region of Tenn-
sylv ois oa i give us the ar, . 'S .
This huge "layer cake" covers eight counties
nearly five hundred gu re miles. There ar< fourteen
separate layers of this hard, black substance which has been
develpj, ing for nearly two hundred and fifty years, million y< rs.
' ck then, human beings could not have lived, for
the atmosphere containei so much carbonic ^us that it v. ould
■•■■: , en poisonous to human jein_s, Only great scaly trees
and fern-like plants tilled th< swamp i . Lth . thick tangled
growth. This vegetation, oy being alter y floe. .ith
sunshine and drenchei it] vi a rains', ., a changed into vast
ntities of carbon—the chief element of coal-.
Tm ■ time when the earth's suri ci e-
pressed. Over the bed of decayed vegel tion flowed the ocei
brin$ rocks and sand. Volcanoes blew clouds ot dust and
ash into the air to settle slowly on lane water, .All of
these deposits formed layers which hardened into slate and
sandstone. Thus was formed the first layer of the gigantic
e cover ini Eastern Pennsylvania.
times the sami ^roctt;
ened . Forest
. led and were
buried wh i le the Earth
e irth'a sur :< • to con nd this
l a twi a 1 1
ar j. : nd
fold: , the
lly br j ■
under the strain and th«
lit ._ leny iiount-
ro u ! . jove 1
p la in s . _
iV: etured . T-. ■ t
me so intensf t
l« : 6ft ooa] :ii:
L t s
r forming s ;,: + r ,
d coal-fc g period, th<
Zrt : o ■ o s ,
to on< : illioc
_o in the
v e g i
Color do, Wyoi
c c- a t a 1 .. t ■
dinost urs .
oft coal ' Lt is j ,_
o .; ■ r :
t'l ei .
t ceal i . r d
to sixty mill!
coal or lignite th 1
r is of . period . It
:„. i 1 C
•t beds of seventh' f
fi:f ty f<
;et re fcnown .
rd of coal
I - .. b ok to
■j ris t ,.■ ,f Jr<
1 b. i 1 o s 0j~;
Thr ( j C 3tu3 •,
•;rote about jL ci stones . tirned
e< 1. : callec them "anthraces" the
i j ' 1 . "
Romans discover* i< coal
fields oi Engl ad
. .. Jitt Ik, 1S31. 7ol. III. i-p. 611-14