THE BRONTES 47 in Heaven now with Mamma, waiting for the others to join them and, meantime, hoping that Charlotte and Branwell and Emily and Anne were being good and growing up to be a comfort to Papa who had so much to bear. The world, early, must have seemed to them a hostile place, and love an almost unattainable ideal. It is easy to see how the themes of" neglected orphan," " mournful boy,53 " outcast," and " exile," which pervaded their later writings, germinated and developed. Cowper's " Castaway " was a favour- ite poem of theirs. All of them in turn appro- priated its theatrical melancholy : But I beneath a rougher sea And whelmed in deeper gulfs than he. Emily, passionate and intense, but without Charlotte's lust for knowledge and culture, or Anne's awful religious conscience, and up against the fuss made of Branwell, genius as he was thought to be, was soon forced into a silent, defen- sive "reserve" and early, it seems, became firmly convinced of her unchangeable and bitter fate. Left out of the Angrian game by Charlotte and Branwell, she had to make shift with Anne as a companion, and the family grouping had evidently fallen into these two couples before Charlotte went to school again in 1831, for Charlotte begins a letter from school to Branwell : " DEAR BRANWELL, - As usual, I address my weekly letter to you because to you I find the most to say."