122 THE BRONTES snatching at life as her simple friends saw it rather than, because of her shyness, go without seeing it at all. Hence she could not easily create in writing any form of experience except the one she was familiar with, could not write a story otherwise than as if she had been told it. There is a duality of outlook in the book : the one seemingly akin to Mrs. Dean's, yet in reality not so much akin as dependent on Mrs, Dean's vision ; the other, much more essentially Emily's own, vaguely ex- pressed and unanalysed, would-be understanding and forgiving, yet debarred from clear under- standing by lack of experience and so able to dis- sociate itself from the crude, black and white judg- ments of those through whose eyes Emily peered at life only by an intensely felt conviction of an understanding, forgiving God. That strong, but unanalysed conviction of hers answers to the more scientific understanding of modern readers who do not find Heathcliff monstrous or diabolical hi the literal sense any more than Emily did, only in her case it was religious or charitable feeling which moved her to that conclusion and in modern readers it is a greater knowledge than Emily had of the psychological springs of action and a con- sequent realisation of how naturally, without any need to bring in a supernatural agency, Heath- cliff's cruel behaviour and strange personal ob- session can be explained. In tragic life, God wot, jVb villain need be ! Passions spin the plot. We are betrayed by what is false within.