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Full text of "The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal / by Samuel Lebowitz."

TEZ CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO CAEAL 



BY 



SAMUEL LEBOWITZ 



JANUARY 14, 1S25 



PREFACE 

Since the subject of the Chesapeake and Chio Canal has been 
more or less dormant for the last half century, it was difficult to 
obtain recent authcrities in the research of this ^abject. The following 
were consulted freelyi 

"The Larly .evelo $ment of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal 
project," by Geor ; e S^shington „ard, Ph.D. and _rofessor of History in 

e stein Maryland College. This pap«r consists of numbers nine, ten, and 
tleve,. of series seve -teen of Joins Hopkins University Studies in 
Historical &i. tical Science, published in 1699 by the Johns Hopkins 
Press, Baltimore, ltd* In a lenghty discussion, the early xBases of the 
of the canal history is covered thoroughly, main stress being laid on its 
relationship to contemporary American History. 

"Historic Hi- hwayB of .America", by A. B. Hultert; (volume 13 
pp. 65 - 168); published by A. H. Clark Co., Cleveland, Olio; 1904. 
Professor Hulbert (1675- ) is an aut? ority on the history of the 
develop&r.aat of routes of transportation in America. He has taught 
history at Marietta Col e ; e, Clarke University, Colorado College, 
University of Chicago, Columbia University and other institutions. His 
treatment of the subject was :.:ore general than that of Irofessor ,/ard; 
he was also inclined to adhere more closely to the facts as set forth in 
the sources that the writer was able to consult. 



The sources whicl weie consulted consisted of the various 
reports rendered by the Chesapeake and Ohio Can&l Company to its stock- 
holders at various times, i.e., in 1831, 1836, 1844, 1851, and 1871. 
These were printed Dy Gales and Beaton, i/ashin-ton, D« C. Of these, the 
re_ort of 1851, itur.:tdi&tely after the com letion of the canal, was rich- 
est in material, containing a historical sketch of the ^roject. 

After the early part of the twentieth century, no authori- 
tative writings were t-evoted to the subject of the canal. For the facts 
concerning the ctnal daring that time the writer was forced to de-end on 
nev/s a er articles, nearly all of them from the Washington Star, a paper 
of good repute as to its truthful representation of facts. The a*, clip- 
in s were found at the Carnegie Library, Washington, D. C, as were 
also the weekly articles of "The Rambler", who contributes to the " 7/ash- 
ington L-tar" articles on subjects of historical interest in and about 
Washington, some of these dealing, with the canal. 

The writer is indebted to the Marland state Librarian for the 
information concerninv the release of the state's interest in the canal. 
No information of any historical value could be obtained from the 
com any's offices in ,,ashir.gton, for the whole management a., earea to be 
without system or organization, and what little could be found out by 
conversing with old employees, coincided with the statements as rade by 
the autioiities that were consulted , 

S.L. 
January 14, lS2f. 



THL CHESAPEAKE AND OHIC CANAL 



TEE; CHESimKI ABE OHIO OiNil 

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, as it is known to-day, is the 
body of water thi-t extends along the northern shore of ohe Potomac River 
from Cumberland, at the eastern base of the illeghany Mountains, lo 
Georgetown in Washington, near the head of the tidewater levels of the 
Potomac River* This canal serves to overcome a difference in level of 
five hundred seventy-eight feet between its terminals, which are one 
red eighty-sis miles apart, its navigability being effected by a 
source of water supply from the Potomac River, and by means of seventy- 
four locks to overcome the difference in elevation. The history of this 
canal, or rather its embryo, '.ray be traced back to the early days of our 
country. To give a general account of the historical and physical 
development of this canal, and to describe the vicissitudinary stages 
that it has passed throu. h to the present day, will be the purpose of 
this thesis. 

The idea of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal had its inception 
in the belief that the shortest route from the Ohio Valley to the sea- 
board was by way cf the Monangahela and iotomac Rivers, and that this 
route weald he the means by which both transport, tion end communication 
couli- be most easily effected betv/een the lands east and west of the 
Alle fc hany Mountains. This fact proved wei hty encu h to cause General 
Braddock to advance against the French at Fort .Dusquene in 1755 through 
the rupged and uns ttled country of Maryland, alonp the Potoma , in 
preference to the longer but more easily traversibl6 route throu h 
Pennsylvania. It was George Washington himself that aroused the interest 
of both Maryland and Virginia in the direction of making the Iotomac 



-2- 



River navigable as far as Cumberland, and from there to jointly main- 
tain a road reaching westward. Both states acted on this suggestion 
and a joint committee, with George V/ashington presiding, met in December 
of 1764. The result of this meeting ?/as the I otomac Company, which was 
incorporate & by Virginia and confirmed by Maryland. It was organized 
in May 1785 with C gorge ./ashing ton as president, and v, ith its purpose 
set to clear the chamel of th otomac for navi. Ltion as far as 
Cumberland. 

The Potomac Compan;. had too many obstacles to overcome in its 
work"for opening and extending the navigation of the { otomac Riverj" to 
prosper. The greatest of these hindrances were at Little Falls, five 
milts above Georgetown, and at Great Falls, seven milts hither up, 
where the roc s in the channel and the swiftness of the current made 
navigation impossible except bj means of canals and locks. By means of 
engineering skill remarkable for that a^e, these canals were constructed 
and are yet distinguishable, although not in use for nearly a century. 
V.hat success this company aid meet with passed a^ay with the exodus of 
Washington as head of the|org£.nization to become the first President of 
our land. After years of existence it became evident that it would not 
be possible for the company to fulfill its obligations, but on account 
of the leniency of the two states^it carried on until 1S19, when in a bad 
financial state it applied to the Board of Public ',/orks of Virginia for 
relief. 



U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
GEORGE OTIS SMITH, DIRECTOR 



MARYLAND -DE LAWARE 




• ■ AND W%!NTM il '»E ,i. j nf 0>.UQir*, | 

R. B. Marshall. Chief Geographer 
A. F. Hassan, Cartographer. 

Compiled in (912 . 



10 »> 



(.o Mil,. 



Edition of 1916, reprinted 1420 



30 40 r,o Kili>ni 



-3- 



It this time work on "Eie Erie Canal was bei. g pushed, and the 
o ir.ion ws.s current that it would not be a bad t,1lh to operate the ro-te 
that the Potomac Company was su£. osed to cover by meant of a "navigable 
canal." Accordii: ly, the Virginia Board, at the request of tha. state 
Assembly^ conducted a survey and reported that it was practicable to build 
a canal from Georgetown to Cumberland, estimating the cost at ^1,114,300. 
How absurdly inadequate this estimate was may be realised when the cost 
Of the canal to Cumberland, when completed, amounted to over V 11,000,000 
to the State of ii^rylandjnot including the ^4,000,000. that was subscribed 
to the project in its early days by the Federal Government, Virginia, and 
the District cities. After this preliminary survey, another one was 
conducted which calculated specifically on a canal thirty feet wide at 
the surface, twenty feet wide at the bottom, and deep enough for three 
feet of water, to be constructed on the Maryland shore. The estimate of 
this survey exceeded the first by a half -million dollars, but yit it is 
evident how inadequate this was. This may be accounted to the few points 
that were overlooked in the pla.ning of this work. Since this canal wa^ 
promoted by both iiaryland and Virginia, it was necessary that it lie in 
the Potomac Valley, which is very narrow, sometimes ^eing nothing more 
than a narrow .or e. Consecuently this made it necessary that the 
canal be built on the margin of the river, exposing it to the violent 
freshets that oft occur in the Valley. Evidently the cost of giving 
permanence to the construction exposed to such dangers was not 
considered in the any estimates made on the cost of the c-nal. 






-4- 



„ith the reports of the Board of Public .Vorks of Virginia as 
a basis, a hill incorporating the "Potomac Canal Company" passed the 
Virginia .assembly in February 1823, to supersede the Potomac Company, 
which was mi liag to surrender its charter under liberal terc;s. But 
this act failed to pass in the Maryland .assembly, no doubt on account 
of the prevailing fear that Baltimore would be robbed of the Western 
Trade that would drift dov.n the canal. Action on this canal project 
w^s impossible without Maryland's indorse tnt, and yet the plan hat 
its too many friends to be allowed to be dropped. Meetings were held 
in various localities by org nizations, both commercial and political, 
expressing, a spirit strongly in fi.vor of such a canal. These bm .. in s 
gave rise to a convention which i..ei at the Capitol in ./ashington for 
three days in November, 1623. Virginia seemec i;he m st interested in 
the pro j.ct, while Pennsylvania and Ohio were net so enthusiastic- 
Dr. Joseph Kent of Prince Searge'i County, Maryland was unanimously 
chosen rresident of the Convention. That the original objective in 
the promotion of this trade route was yet paramount may be realized 
by re .iewin one of the resolutions at this convention: "Eesolved, 
that it is expedient to substitute for the jjresent defective 
navigation of the Potomac River above tide-water, a navi-able canal 
from Cumberland to the Coal Banks at tie East.rn base of the Alleghany 
and to extend such a canal as soon thereafter as practicable to the 
highest constant steamboat navigation of the Monangahela or Ohio 
Hiver." The idea that the canal was to extend ultimately to Lake 
Erie was further expressed, thereby joining the Great Lakes to the 

Atlantic by this route. 



-5- 



The Convention planned to start construction at once. The 
cost was allowed at $2,750,000., seemingly generous when compared to the 
estimates as placed by the Virginia and Maryland commissioners, when 
the only change a to be effected were to be the ;. idening of the canal 
to forty feet and continuing the canal twe-ty six miles beyond 
Cumberland, a total distance of two hundred twelve miles. This 
allowance of nearl :^13,000. per mile was also very liberal when 
compared against those of other canals. 

It was arbitrarily decided at this convention that the 
Federal Government should subscribe four-elevenths of this sum, 
equivalent to .£1,000,000., Virginia three-elevenths, the District 
cities two- elevenths, and Maryland two-tlevenths. This arrangement 
of financial sources promised to meet with success for the Federal 
government was at a prosperous sta. e.and also at this t me was 
launched on an era of broadening its _o\.ers as strictly defined in 
the constitution so as to include an extended system of internal 
improvement. One more act t>is convention served to effect, and this 
was to adopt the name for the organization to be the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal Company, this name bein^, more commene '.Arable with the larger 
undertaking involved in joining those two bodies of water. 

The resolutions adopted at this convention in Uovember, 1823 
constituted a form of charter very similar to the one of the Potomac 
Canal Company which had been previously passed on by the state of 
Virginia. 



-6- 



Virginia im.ediaoely passed the act of incorporation in January, 1824, 
"but Maryland and F enns^lv nia were not so prompt. The former state did 
not confirm che act until January, 1825, and not until it was 
guaranteed the right to tap this canal at some convenient point and 
lead an auxiliary canal from it to Baltimore. Congress sanctioned the 
act on March 3, 1S25 ^nd Ire side, .t Monroe signed, it. The Potomac Company 
formally rave its consent in May, 1S25, and i ennsylvania finally passed 
upon the act, on many conditions, in February , 1826. But this vaa not 
ail: Amendments we^ passed from time to Lime which kept the slow 
working wheels of the legislative machinery working, not without its 
harmful effects on the project. 

In his message to Congress in December, 1823, President 
I.lonroe recomm ended t: at Gens re ss make an appropriation for a survey to 
be made by a corps of engineers of the territory under consideration. 
Action was prompt, and an appropriation of -^30,000 was made for a 
Board of Internal improvement. General Simon Bernard was head of this 
Board, and with the thoroughness and love for exact detail of the strict 
military engineer, he conducts 6 a survey tiatwis marvelous even to its 
minutest details. The survey was divided into the two general sub- 
divisions of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal proper from tide-water in 
the iotomac to Pittsburg on the Ohio, and then the Ohio and Erie Canal, 
extending from Pittsburg through either ohio or Pennsylvania to Lake 
Erie. 



-7- 



The first jjengral subdivision was in turn divided into three sections of 
which the eastern section eonprlaed the stretch from Georgetown to the 
mouth of the Savage fiiver. The estimate for this eastern section alone 
was ^8,177,081.05. while the coat if carried to Pittsburg would amount to 
nearly ^22,500,000. This was what the Board reported in 1826. This 
report appalled the friends of the project, and as nothing could be 
done at such a high cost, another jonvention was called in 7,'ashington in 
December, 1826, at which, it ?/as decided to everyone's satisfaction that 
the canal from Georgetown to Cumberland could be built at half the cost 
as estimated y *.he United States engineers. This was confirmed by 
Messrs. Geddes and Roberts, topographic engineers, who in the Bpring of 
1827, est irr^ted that the cost would r;ot reach the four and a half million 
sum. 

Finally in October, 1827, the subscription books were 
opened. Three million, six hundred thousand dollars were subscribed 
to the project, .excluding outside subscriptions, Maryland subscribed 
$500,000) Congress, $1,000 ,000 • and the District cities, consisting of 
iVashington, Georgetown and Alexandria, §1,500,000. At last the work 
on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal :ould et u..dtr way* 

The fourth of July of 1628 was a grei-t da^for it was on that 
day that President Adams broke gromnd for the first great work of 
national improvement. The s^.ot for the ceremony was chosen at ^ie head 
of Little Falls, about five i ilea west of Georgetown, and the whole 
celebration was attended by festivity and merry-making. It may be noted, 



-8- 



if one pleases, that the canal was Ill- o w ned , for when the President 
B track the s, ade into the ground it failed to bring u_ 6arth, for it 
struck on a root; a second attempt brought no better result, where- 
u ; on Fresident Mams shed his coat and went to work to uproot the 
obstacle, amidst the great applause of th6 populace. 

On the same day as ground was broken, marking the 
i.rniii. of the canal, the venerable Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the 
only survivor of the sign wag of the Declaration of Independence, broke 
round at Baltimore to mark the beginning of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad. This organization was effected in order to bring the i.roduee 
of the west to Baltimore as a trade center* It was th6 plan of this 
organization to run this road to t;h6 Foist of Hocks and thence up the 
Potomac Valley on the Maryland shore to Harper's Ferry. At its inception 
this railroad was an ordinary road except for the fact that it had rails 
upon which the vehicles ran instead of the common roadbed, but as yet 
the locomotive was not known* This marks the be inning of the competition 
of canal against railroad for the commerce of the land. 

Between the Point of Rocks and Harper's Perry, the Maryland 
shore of the Potomac is so narrow due to cliff Sj that at some points there 
was not enough room for both works, and the canal claimed primary rights. 
Months of litigation followed and in the end the canal interests woi . 
But fortune was not smiling on the canal project. Great physical obstacles, 
the weat-.er, and trices of labor and neC6 sities,all had a share in the 
shower of misfortunes that it experienced* Circumstances forced the 



-9- 



eanal to com_ romise with the railroa: , by the latter baying a bloclc of 
the eanals shares^for which it was allowed to continue the railroad to 
Har.-er's Ferry, out there to wait until the canal had rea.hed Cumberland, 
if that were done by 1840. 

The troubles of the ctnal project were au-umtnted when in 
1630 the Federal government refused to give further aid. Bankruptcy 
threatened in 1834, and Maryland came to the rescue with an appropriation 
of p2, 000,000 as a loan. The company required help again in 1835, and 
in June of that year, the canal was again appropriated ,0-C. but 
.. : s required to allow the railroad to ascend up the lotomac Valley. 
Although the receipts of the ccnal amou. ted over v 40,000 a year, not 
ever expense a could be -paid, and in 1641, it required more help, which tls 
state could not offer. Yet Maryland did not wish to see the millions 
that it had invested Ao to naught, so in 1844 it waived its various liens 
and allowed the Company to issue preferred bonds to she amount of 
-.1,7 50,000, giving the holders of the bonds as security a mortgage 
d. ted June 5, 1846. V/ith this money the canal was finally completed to 
Cumberland in October, 1850. 

fhen the canal at last reached Cumberland, the railroad was 
already reaching into the Ohio Valley, and the need which gave rise to 
the idea of the canal was already being satisf ,ed much more efficiently 
and as economically by the railroad, especially with the advtnt of the 
locomotive. For this reason he revenues of the canal barely reached 
operating: expenses* Mo interest was ..aid on the "bonds f 1644" after 



-10- 



July, 1864. In 1877 a freshet nearly ruined the c rial and the company 
v/as unalle to repair the damages on acccu. t of its bad financial 
condition. Maryland again came to the rescue with an acti-e» in 1878 
waiving its liens an authorizing the corn-any to issue preferred bonds 
to the am ant of .,,,500,000. The repairs were made; no better luck was 
enjoyed by the com : any and in 1899 it was forced to again stop activities 
on account of Qamages done by another freshet. This time th trustees 
under the act of 1644 filed complaint against the Company request 
that receivers be appointed to operate the canal. After a period of 
complicated litig. tion of two years, involving the Company, the state of 
Maryland, and the trustees of the bondholders of the acts of 1644 and 
1S78, there resulted in placing the control of tie canal in the hands 
of the trustees of the bondholders of the act of 1844, under mortgage 
of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company, which was dated (as will be 
remembered) June 5, 1846. To this day the administration of the affairs 
of the eanal are executed by these trustees, operating as the Canal 
Towage Company, and sometimes erroneously referred to by the old name as 
the Ghesa >«ake and Ohio Canal Company. 

In 1852, an act was passed by the Oeneral assembly of 
ilaryland authorizing the salt of the state's interest in the canal, but 
the matter was deferred from time bo time until Governor „ar. ield's 
administration, (1904-1S06), when the state sold its rights to the canal 
in a deal with ti e isaltisiore andChio Railroad Company. This marked the 
end of iiarylanc* s activity in the running of the canal. 









First President Was an Enthusiastic Supporter of the Pawtominack Company, Which Was Succeeded by the Chesapea 
and Ohio Canal Corporation — Washington Surveyed Land Through Which Waterway Extends and Contributed to Finan 
ing of Initial Work — Engineers of World Were Interested in Feat Accomplished — Future Value May Depend on Possibili 
of Widening and Deepening Channel of the Potomac. 




S'labhoas© on tke 37?ai'Mi^ad side of ike Potomac 
exactly oppo site-where. *W&-Shi*iglokS locks attd 
C&ttal at Grreat£&ll£,-wei-e located.. 




Q*i& of tke d&itoS of ike^otonuus 

•wVLick supjpiics wa-te/r to tke da^al 



Vide water take',' Twelve 4niles 



frotvt G-eor <£p ho-wiu 





7 fie Ca-Jtal ca-it accomodate 350 boats eack of H5to*is ca^acitu^ 





ae 



■ 

m 1 



8 i i Ml 






iHiiiir 



-stf-- 



^Jiere are 75 lift locks aftd.turo auarctioc; 
' beture/etuGeoidetotjuit £.*lo. Ca-Ktbei-laKx 
tke* differ6ft.de iiteievaiioil between t^etfc 



rite canal boats are kaulect bw male*. TMS bo«,t k** iastpaj&ed turo terminals of tke Ca^at i* 57S IfceO. 



through* oklc of tw.eloe.teS 



cjfatioit &f Photos, 



-li- 



lt is well to de art from the history of the eanal for the 
present and look at it mere from a physical view oint. The canal a 9 it 
is no?/ is far different from what :t was when at first constructed. It 
originally continued from „e or £6 town and reached across the lower part 
of the city till it struck the Eastern Branch. This section known as th6 
shingfcon City Canal/ was filled ap in 1882. !Phe canal was also carried 
aqross the Potomac by means of an sequeduct 160C feet long to Hosaljn, 
where the canal was continued for seven miles to Alexandria. This may 
serve to enlighien one why the interest in canal when first planned was 
snared y the so-called District cities. 

The subject of the canal is interesting from the standpoint 
of its construction, is contained in the reports of the Company, the 
distance from Cumberland to the Rock Creek Basin, whert the canal 
empties at Georgetown, is quoted as one hundred eighty-five and five- 

ta miles, with a difference in elevation between the points of five 
hundred eighty-seven feet. The width of the canal at the top varies from 
fifty-four to sixty-feet, and at .. e bottom from thirty to forty-two 
feet, ^here are seventy-four locks on the canal, t;ese be in one 
hundred f ■ et long, fiteen feet wide, and havi..g an average lift of eight 
feet. The water in the canal is drawn fiom the Potomac by seven dams with 
their feeders, and the capacity of the canal is estisi&ted at 3,264,000 
tons of water per year. 






-12- 



There are several acqueducts that carry the canal across 
rivers and ravines, a total of eleven as ascertained by a boatman on 
the canal. The two best known are the Cactocin Acqueduct at the Foint 
of Rocks, ten miles below Harper's Ferry, and the Monacacy Acqueduct, 
thirty-eight mileB from uashin. c ton by way of the towpath. This latter 
one is four hundred and thirty-eight feet Ion,., from one abu.tfcrr.nt to 
the other, and the masonry of the abatements and the winged walls extend 
nin ty-six fe. t farther* The masonry of the two abutments and the six 
piers rest apon solid rock, which forms the bed of the rivxr, and v.hich 
had to be previously cleaned of the mud s-idiment. The arches of this 
construction are fifty-four feet in a : .an and have a rise of nine feet. 
The canal across this acqueduct is ninteen feet wide and six feet deep. 
This part of tie ©anal was constructed in 1831, and it was Judge 
Benjamin ,. right, a reat civil engineer in the employ of the Canal 
Company, who was mainly responsible for this feat, .hat an engineering 
accomplish ent this was may be realized when it is known that the stone 
used was talien out of the quairy by hand drills, uad that there was no 
steam hoist to put them into place. The magnificent character of the 
masonry was to assert itself in the ^ears to come, when during the 
Civil „ar, the South was foiled in its attempts to destroy these 
acque ducts. 

.Another engineering, feature of the canal is the tunnel that 
the canal passes through at Pawpaw Bend, twenty- seven miles below 
Cumberland. This tunnel through th mountains is 311£ feet long ; it 



-13- 



serves to shorten the route of the canal six miles, had it had to paee 
arou.d this obstacle. 

The c_n;.l is not without its scenic biauties; aid it 
certainly played an im, o: tant .art in the mating of history, particularly 
tt the time of the Civil .,ar. The following excerpt from the 

hington Star" of Bt 13, 1904, will bear out this stat ;;:ent : 

"Few places in this country and certainly none in this vicinity are more 
picturescue than the course of the canal as it winds through the roll in 
fields of Maryland into the heart of the Appalachian mountain range, 
where it flows calmly around the stee^ rocky bluff s and tunnels 
through th- mou tains, always with the churmin_ sun-lit island-dotted 
Potomac by its side. The places along' its way are famous for 
historical events as far b&ek as the beginning of the republic; and 
surely none will foi get the part it played in the great struggle between 
Eorth and South, lyin aa it aid between the contending sections. 
Llany a time was the towpath trod by marching troops and many a report of 
'ill quiet alon the lotomac* caused fear to subside in the capital city. M 

The recent history of the cnal cor.stitutes a very short 
chapter. In September, 1S18, the United States Government put ten 
barges on the canal, which were operated by the Canal Towage CO-pany. 
;hese barges were used to ship coal for the Kavy from the coal fields 
to Indian Head* It was Congressman Xihlman or Maryland who at this time 
was active in bringing to the attention of the government the economic 
ossiuilities of -he canal. In th6 spring of 1921 the Washington 






-14- 



Merc; ants and Manufacturers Associati n investigated the corner cial 

otentialities of the canal. In audition to urging that the Navy 
continue shipping its coal by way of the canal, this body desired that 
the Iielly Springfield Tire Company at Cumberland obtain its ra.. 
materials h^ that route, so as to glV6 the retaining boats a load. 
In such a manner the canal functioned until the spring 
of 1924, when a large freshen in the lotomac Valley incapacitated it 
totally in several places, For a time it . lieved that the efforts 
to keep the canal in operation would not be made, but hearsay among those 
on the canal has it that the operating company will resume activity in 
the sprin.- of 1925. it present the canal is idle. 

Although the canal is quiet along its course, it i s a 
live subject in the courts. It s<- ems to be a particularly adaptible 
subject to litigation, its whole hist. ry being more or ^ess interspersed 
with such activity. It is a shame that such a project, based on sound 
reasoning, should have had such adversities as to make it look foolish 
and impractical. Attribute t:-£,t to the inefficiency of politics to 
cope with a problem that certainly would have been a greater success had 
it been romoted privately; or m re reasonably, attribute it to the fact 
t £t the evolution of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal wa; too slow for the 
r ogress of inventive and engineering skill, which directly t^ve rise to 
the birth of the railroad and locomotive, and which in turn served to place 
t e utility of the canal in vhe background. 

-Finis- 






The C. A 0. Cratl. 

Tli» I'hess peaks and Ohio CppB.1, 
■--hich extends from t'umbeiinnd la 
rteorftetoe/n. m«v not bs used af;Hiu. 
Ms future is in '"1 • » u i ■ i . 'I'hi- t a - (ivon 
' iji i few da; -s ;. s": "All breaks m 
'lip historic and pl< utiesqu* carta! 
mart* during the freshet several ymirs 
;t have h^sn entirely rppalred and 
the waterway is ready for use i.n 
inert notice should business develop 
whltji would wan-ant its openins." 

A great many Washington people 
ihink of the (anal with affection, li 
hae been a factor in our sc*ntiy and 
lift sincf th» oldest men wart young, 
Th» towp&rh has been a romantic 
walkway through delightful scenes. 
'I'hp locks and their keepers, the boats 
sn<t the mules, and the boatman. 
their. wives and children have wivon 
pleasure. The photographs and 
sketches of "scenes on the canal" can 
not b» numbered. Picnic i«m- 
■alkins pat-tips and strollers, single: 
and pairs, have used the towpatb for a 
century. There can ln» im raco/rt 
naturalists who have used the canal 
borders as a study sround* 
Canoeists cam" to think ..f the canal 
'a* a pleasure-way, Some i»f the l.nl, 
houses and their housekeepers became 
'...nidus for meals for Sunday inppio's. 
It would be sad were the old papal to 

THIS. 

Many new Wtanipgloniap* do noli 
i.now how old the canal is and lion 

prtant i' was. On Thirty-sec i 

-rr-cei where it crosses ihe canal is a 
monument which tells that it »vae 
commenced ei Georgetown July <. 
'». and completed lu Cumberland 
<>iohei- 10, !85u. The ivu.ni*. Im- 
provement Company t chartered in 
17B4 through sfforle of George W a*b 
ington, opened navigation b#tW##p 
tidewater a«*j Cumberland b) cutting 
■hi. ii canal* around Great and Mill* 
Kails and blasting channels through 
iT.ckH ft i Senei'a and Haiptira ferry. 
'I'he company did nut pay, and In ISIS 
n applying for relief to, the Virginia 
• rd of Public Works that, board dt 
ipeted its .-hiel engineer, Thomas 
vinore, to innk* a sunn to determine 
i h* rivt and feasibility of a canal 
■m tidewater m th«> Allegheny 
klotmtainc. This plan bed ^•ttr Ms- 
■ ji«fd fn ► *♦ vtj-finie Ajwmt 1, In 
J|eei»'t 'tper' WM m*4i In 

a^d t* WinM* ol sou, wu 






/£ 






|1,H*.W. The Petemae. Wov^ment 
Company we. hMkru-t in MM- ■* 

SS5 »« ****** Tl£ ™« 

P„ ns ylv»nia favDt.d ** *•* 
through »he Potomac V»H« " "^ 
WM a convention on the matte M 
) tW.bitiMon in >V,:, ,>■— -' J 
1(1 p National «i-P'- -' 

n,„onal political .." — . ^Vlr^, 
;intl Maryland Ipoor^raM lb* « 

i,',,,. h, l««. M» '.'"""'7, 
,.,,,,„ ,.„,,,, the Incorpora "'"»>' 

■.-......tied itself ..'. be .-Mi. ' ■- 

,.,esi.l.nt Monro* signed the canal bill 
March 3. 1126. * ■ ■"-"-^ 

„ 4 - appoints »o.t propowd thai » 

, dip c»r»i. n **« "■'• , .;"! 

„,„,, ileoraetotvo ," Ptttsnurfb- ™ 
,,,.,, W ds of din was "I"'*... bJ Pr««r 
ldt „, >,la.o. July 4. im.«*»' "^ 

_ With various periods of - 
,„„,..." ,h* canal has bwn '" ;»"'* 

, betwpw fu.obp.^i-i «■ ' 
"■ lafton since l|M. 













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fl F££0£B. re THC C#t/AL _ M rffe t-Grr 




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MqnOMsmt Move Canal. &r /Vr&cews/*/ #T 



mt0^Z, 




0#E- or rtle faoewvrs 




"Along the Old Canal." One of the locks of the abandoned Chesapeake and Ohio 
waterway, long an important factor in transportation between the East and the West. 

National Phuto. 



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