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Full text of "The Conversational manual"

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at jhttp : //books . qooqle . com/ 



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THE 



CONYEKSATION MANUAL, 



IK 



ENGLISH, HINDUSTANI, PERSIAN 
AND PASHTLT. 



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THE 



CONVERSATION MANUAL, 



A COLLECTION OP 670 USEFUL PHRASES 



ENGLISH, HINDUSTANI, PERSIAN AND PASHTU, 



WITH 



SUMMARIES OF THE GRAMMARS OF THESE LANGUAGES, 



VOCABULARY OP NEARLY 1500 WORDS, 

Jfox tty u*e <rf (Engineer ©fficer* hM ati)er$ an tf)e fioxtfyWlttt 
dfrontier antr in fnttta* 



•*y 



BY CAPTAIN Gtt Tf PLUNKETT, 

BOY1L ENGINEEBS. • '.'",'•" 



Eontton: " ' 

RICHARDSON & CO., 23, CORNHILL, E.C., 
& 13, PALL MALL, S.W. 

1875. 
[All Bights Reserved.'] 

P 



Icj 




LONDON : 
PRINTED BY GILBERT AND BIVINGTON, 

ST. John's square, and whitefriars street, e.c. 



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CONTENTS. 



PAET I. 



PAG& 

The Alphabet 9 


Elements of Hindustani Grammar 13 


Elements of Persian Grammar 17 


Elements of Pashtu Grammar 21 


PAET II. 


Sentences — 


Section I. Nouns and Verbs 33 


Note — (These sentences comprise examples 


on the declensions and conjugations, and 


illustrate the Grammars.) 


II. General Orders and Questions . . . 38 


. . . III. Orders to Cook and Table Servant 




46 


IV. Seasons and "Weather 




50 


V. Numbers, Time and Age . 






52 


VI. Money, "Weights and Measures 






55 








58 


. . . VEIL Travelling and Shooting 






60 


... IX. Reconnoitring 






67 


... X. Surveying .... 






76 


... XI. Artificer's "Work and Building . 






78 


... XII. Military Terms .... 






88 


\ ... XIII. Sickness and Remedies 






91 


' PART III. 


j Vocabulary and Index to Sentences 






95 



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PREFACE. 



So long as England retains her present position in Asia, and 
seems not unlikely to extend over other parts of the Continent 
the influence which she already exerts in the countries bordering 
on Hindustan, it is very desirable that a .knowledge of Persian 
— the French of Asia, and the most widely-spoken language 
from the Bosphorus to the confines of China, a tongue under- 
stood on the shores of the Caspian as well as in Kabul and 
Yarkand — should be more generally diffused among British 
Officers; and that this knowledge should embrace a practical 
acquaintance with the colloquial idioms, as well as proficiency in 
the text-books used for the Examinations. 

Pashtu is the language of Eastern Afghanistan, and, though 
useless elsewhere, is almost indispensable for those who are 
employed on the North- West Frontier of India. 

On arriving for the first time in Peshawar, and attempting 
to converse with Kabulees and others in Persian, I found 
myself frequently at a loss for the phrases required in ordinary 
conversation and for technical words ; I also discovered how very 
advantageous even a slight knowledge of Pashtu must be to an 
officer serving in this district. 

I therefore set to work, whenever I could spare time from 
professional duties, to write down a number of sentences in 
English, with their equivalents in Persian and Pashtu, some- 
what after the model of the three or four Hindustani Manuals 
already in use, but in a more methodical manner and on a more 
comprehensive scale. 

Believing that no such useful collection of phrases relating to 
the occurrences of everyday life, as well as to the special 



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viii PEEFACE. 

occupations of Engineers, is to be found elsewhere, I have 
added the Urdu, in the hope that this may render the Work 
of service to brother officers and others in India as well as on 
the Frontier, and have prefixed such brief abstracts of the Hindu- 
stani, Persian and Pashtu Grammars as will suffice for those who 
wish to obtain a colloquial knowledge only of any of these 
languages. The Vocabulary, which also forms an index to the 
sentences, gives the equivalents of nearly 1500 words in 
common use. 

In compiling this little Work I have been aided by Saiyad 
Khadim All, a subordinate of the Military Works Department ; 
and I have received great assistance from Kazi Mahmud Khan 
Ehatak, the well-known teacher of languages in Peshawar, more 
especially in the Pashtu, but also in the revision and correction 
of the whole. 

I cannot expect that this Manual will be free from im- 
perfections, either in the Pashtu — a language in which almost as 
many dialects are met with as there are tribes among the Afghans, 
and of which the spelling has not yet been reduced to a regular 
system — or even in the Persian ; but can only hope that these 
may not be so numerous as to detract from its value to those 
for whom it is intended, and that I may be allowed to plead as an 
excuse for deficiencies or inaccuracies the very few Leisure hours 
which I have been able to devote to this Work. 



G. T. P. 

Peshawar, February, 1875. 



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PART I. 

THE ALPHABET. 

THE POWERS OF THE VARIOUS LETTERS USED. 
The Consonants. 



3s;3 


h 


E 

l—l .43 




1- 


.<5-g 
ft 


3g 




1| 


li 


Pronunciation. 


If 


11' 


Pronunciation. 


s- a 


a* 


15 




•-S.S 

a 


J 51 


1-s 




•d 




■^ 




•d 




•a 




< 




^5 




«« 




< 






b 




as 5. 




sh 




as sh. 




P 




asp. 






kR 


as M. 




t 




the soft t, as in the 
Italian language. 




1 
? 




as 5. 
as z. 


t 




t 


as t in rat. 




J 




as £. 




6 




as * in sin. 




3 




as z. 




J 


dz 


as 2. 




» 




(the Arabic ' ain), a 
guttural sound un- 




ch 




as ch in <?fo'w. 








known in English. 






ts 


as to or s. 




& 




a guttural sound, 




h 




as h, but strongly- 
aspirated. 




f 




something like g. 
as/. 




kh 




as the German ch in 
buck. 




k 




a guttural k, like the 
c in acquire. 




d 




the soft <?, as in the 
Italian language. 




k 
g 




as A?. 

asy in gun. 


: 4 




d 


as d. 




1 




as £. 


i 


z 




as z. 




m 




as hi. 


i 

1 


X 


r 


r 


as r. 

a stronger r, pro- 
nounced with the 
tip of the tongue 




n 


n 


as n : when written n 
it is nasal, as in 
anchor. 

a nasal sound of n and 


y 






turned up. 








r combined. 


1 ■ 


z 




as z in zeal. 




w 




as w. 


J 


zh 




as z in azure. 




h 




as A. 


1 




g 


asy. 




7 




asy. 


f 


s 




as *. 








1 



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10 THE ALPHABET. 

The foregoing table is according to the most approved method of 
representing the various Consonants of the Oriental Alphabets by 
English letters and symbols; thus the t and the f represent 
respectively the soft t common to the Hindi and the Persian 
Alphabets, and the hard ( which is peculiar to the Hindi and Pashtu. 
The h represents the soft aspirate common to all, and the h the 
strong aspirate of certain Arabic words. The object of making 
these distinctions in this Work is to enable anyone to write out the 
phrases correctly in the Oriental characters ; but the learner who 
only wishes to acquire a colloquial knowledge may treat the t, (, and 
t as t, the 8, s, and s as *, and so on : he should, however, learn the 
true sound of the gh (ghain) from the natives. 

It must be noted that p h, th, dh, &c, are to be pronounced as the 
ph in up-hilly the th in hot-house, the dh in mad-house, &c. ; ip with a 
dot underneath is not to be sounded ; a final short a represents the 
final ah of many Persian words in which the h is silent. 



The vowel sounds 


are — 




a, pronounced as 


u in fun, or a in America, 


i, ... 


... 


i mjin. 


u, ... 




u in push. 


a, ... 




a in father. 


It • 




i in police. 


u, ... 




u in rule. 


o, ... 




o in pole. 


au,... 




ou in sound. 


e, ... 




a in grave. 


ai, ... 




ai in aisle. 



In Hindustani and in Persian the sounds of the Consonants and 
Vowels never vary. And this is generally the rule in Pashtu, but with 
some exceptions ; for instance, it is difficult to decide whether the 
Pashtu for " water " should be written obuh or oba, the sound in the 
last syllable being nearly that of the German o in schonen. 

The above tables give as nearly as possible the pronunciation of 
the Hindustanis of the North-west Provinces, the Afghans of the 
Yusufzai tribe, and the Persians of the Kabul and Herat. The 
western tribes of Afghanstan pronounce the JcMk as ksh, and the g 



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THE ALPHABET. 11 

as zh ; while the ts varies in sound between s and z. It is sufficient, 
however, to learn the eastern dialect of Yusufzai, which is every- 
where intelligible. 

The inhabitants of Persia v soften the a in many words into u ; 
thus, an, " that," is pronounced un, and kaliydn, i( a pipe," kaliyun ; 
and they sound the short a like the English short a in " fan," 
instead of that in " fun ; " thus, bale, " yes," is pronounced by them 
like our word ballet, but with a drawl, which lengthens the first 
syllable. They also soften e into I ; for instance, ml rawed, " you 
go," is pronounced ml rawld. 



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( 13 ) 



ELEMENTS OF HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. 



There is no Article : to express the in the Accusative Case, the 
Dative with ho is used. (See Phrases, Nos. 38 and 39, Section I of 
Part II.). I is generally the feminine termination of Nouns and 
Adjectives. Nouns ending in t and sh are also mostly feminine. 

The Noun is declined thus : — 



Plur. 
mard, men 

mardon-hd -he -7ci 9 of men 
mardon-ho, to men [men 

mardoh-ho or ward, the men or 
mar don se, &c, from the men, or 
mar don ne, men [men 



Sing. 
Norn., mard, man 
Gen., mard-hd -he -hi, of man 
Dat., mard-ko, to man 
Ace, mard-ko or mard, the man 
Abl., mard se, &e, from man 
Agent, mard ne, man 

(used only with past tenses 
of transitive verbs). 

In fem. nouns, to the nom. plural is added en or yah ; thus, mez, 
( a table,' mezen, mezon lea, &c. ; rofi, ' bread,' rofit/dn, rotiyoh ha, 
&c. Nouns ending in a and a, generally change these into e in the 
oblique cases and plural ; thus, huttd, i a dog ;* hutte ha, ' of a dog ;' 
hutte, ' dogs ;' huttoh ha } &c. Adjectives in a similarly take I in the 
fem., as achchhd mard 9 'a good man;' achchhi larhi, 'a good girl;' 
and e in the oblique cases and plural, as achchhe mard ha larha, 'a 
good man's son.' 



THE PEONOUNS. 



Singular. 



Nom., main, I 

Gen., mera -e 4, my [me 

Dat. and Ace, mvgh ho, to me or 
Abl., mvjh se, from me 
Agent, main ne, I 

Singular. 
Nom., tu, thou 

Gen., terd -e -t, thy [thee 

Dat. and Ace, tujh ko, to thee, or 
Abl., tujh se, from thee 
Agent, tu ne, thou 



Plural, 
ham, we 

hamdrd ~e -i, our 
ham ho, to us, or us 
ham se, from us 
ham ne, we 

Plural, 
turn, you 

tumhdrd -e -l, your 
turn ho, to you, or you 
turn se, by you 
turn ne, you. 



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14> ELEMENTS OF HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. 

Tih, 'this,' 'he,' ' she,' or 'it.' 
Singular. \ Plural. 

Nom. yih, Gen. is kd, Dat. is ko,&e. | ye, in kd, &c. 

Wuh, ' that,' ' he,' ' she,' or « it.' 



100, wi£a, &c. 

town fon A:a, &c. 
jojinkd, &c. 
*o, tfw kd, &c. 



Singular. 
Nom. tdui, Gen. uskd, Dat. #*&>, &c. 
Interrog. who ? A?at0t, Gen. kUkd, Ac. 
Eelative, who, jo jiskd, &c. 
Correl. that same, *0, tfw&a, &c. 
Interrog. what ? kyd, Jcahe kd, &c. 

Ap, l self,' or ' your honour.' Apnd -e -i, ' own ; ' koi, l any ;' kuchh, 
1 some.' 

AUXILIARY VEEB. 

Present, Sing, main hun, lam; tu hai, wuh hai. 

Plur. ham hain, We are ; turn ho, we hain. 
Past, Sing, main thd (fern, thi), I was, ft* £A#, wuh thd. 

Plur. Aa»» tffo fern, thin), We were, #tn» the, we the. 

EEGULAE NEUTEE VEEB. 

CHrnd, to fall ; girt-d (fem. -i, pi. -a and - in), falling ; 
gir-d (fem. -?, pi. -0 and in), fallen — root, gir. 

Aorist. 

Sing, main girun, I may fall, tu gire, wuh gire. 
Plur. ham giren, We may fall, turn giro, we giren. 

Future. 
Main girung-d, -i, I shall fall, tu gvreg-d, -i, &c. 

Imperative. 
Sing, gir, fall. | Plur. giro, fall ye. 

The Indefinite. — I fall, &c. 

Sing, main girt-d (fem. i), <&c. | Plur. ham girt-e (fem. in), <fec. 

The Present. — I am falling. 

Sing, main girt-d hun, &c. | Plur. ham gvrt-e hain, &c. 

The Imperfect. — I was falling. 
Sing, main girt-d thd (fem. girt-% thi), &c. 
Plur. ham girt-e the (fem. girt-i thin), &c. 

Past.— I fell. 
Sing, main gir-d (fem. -i), &c. | Plur. ham gir-e (in), &c. 



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ELEMENTS OP HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. 15 

Perfect. — I have fallen. 
Sing, main gird hun (fern, girl hun), &c. 
Plur. ham gire hain (fem. girt hain), &c. 

Pluperfect. — I had fallen. 
Sing, main gird thd (fem. girl thl), &c. 
Plur. ham gire the (fem. girl thin), &c. 

Transitive Verbs take the Agent Case, with the Past, Perfect and 
Pluperfect Tenses; thus, khdnd, 'to eat;' Aorist, main khdun. 
Present, main khdtd hun, &c. ; Past, main ne khdyd, tu ne khdyd, 
<fec. ; Perfect, main ne khdyd hoi, tu ne khdyd hai, <fec. ; Pluperfect, 
main ne khdyd thd, tu ne khdyd thd, &c. 

The Passive Voice is formed by using the past participle with the 
Yerbjdna, ' to go ' {jdtd, l going,' gayd, l gone ') ; thus, main khdyd 
jdun (fem. khdl jdun) y ' I may be eaten ; ' ham khde jdenge (fem. 
khdl jdengln), we shall be eaten.' Past, main khdyd gayd, i I was 
eaten,' &c. 

There are no Irregular Verbs in Hindustani ; but in some cases 
the Regular Past Participle has become obsolete, and the Past Par- 
ticiple of another Verb, of similar meaning, and of which the Present 
Tense has fallen into disuse, is used in its place; thus, jdnd, l to go;' 
jdtd, * going ;' gayd, c gone.' Some contractions are also made for 
the sake of euphony, as from dend, ' to give,' dun, * I may give,' is 
generally used instead of dlun, Past Participle dlyd, l given.' 

The days of the week are named thus : — 
Sunday, itwdr. 

Monday, somwdr, or plr. 

Tuesday, mangalwdr. 

"Wednesday, budh. 



Thursday, 

Friday, 

Saturday, 



juma' rat. 

juma\ 

sanlchar. 



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( 10 ) 



THE CARDINAL NUMBERS IN HINDUSTANI. 



1 ek 

2 do 

3 tin 

4 char 

5 panch 

6 chha 

7 sat 

8 ath 

9 nau 

10 das 

11 gyarab 

12 barah 

13 terah 

14 chaudah 

15 pandrah 

16 solah 

17 satrah 

18 atharah 

19 unis 

20 bis 

21 ikkls 

22 ba, is 

23 te, is 

24 chaubls 

25 pachis 



26 chhabbis 

27 sata, is 

28 atha, is 

29 untis 

30 tis 

31 iktis 

32 batis 

33 taintis 

34 chauritis 

35 pairitls 

36 chbattis 

37 sairitis 

38 athtis 

39 untatis 

40 cbalis 

41 iktalis 

42 be, alls 

43 tairitalis 

44 chau,alls 

45 paiiitalis 

46 chhi,alis 

47 sairitalls 

48 artalis 

49 unchas 

50 pachas 



51 ikawan 

52 bawan . 

53 tirpan 

54 chauwan 

55 pachpan 

56 chhappan 

57 sattawan 

58 athawan 

59 unsath 

60 sath 

61 iksath 

62 bilsath 

63 tirsath 

64 chausath 

65 painsath 

66 chlii, asath 

67 satsath 

68 athsath 

69 unhattar 

70 satfcar 

71 ikbattar 

72 bahattar 

73 tihattar 

74 chauhattar 

75 pachhattar 



76 cbhihattar 

77 sathattar 

78 athhattar 

79 unasi 

80 assi 

81 ikasi 

82 be, asi. 

83 tirasi 

84 chaurasi 

85 pachas! 

86 cbhi, asi 

87 satasi 

88 athasl 

89 nau, asi 

90 nauwe 

91 ikanawe 

92 banawe 

93 tiranawe 

94 chauranawe 

95 pachanawe 

96 chhi, anawe 

97 satanawe 

98 athanawe 

99 ninanawe 

100 sau or sai. 



The Ordinal Numbers are— pakla, 'first;' dusrd, 'second;' tisra, 
'third;' chauthd, 'fourth;' panchwan, 'fifth;' cMatwan, 'sixth;' 
8atwan, ' seventh ;' and so on, regularly, for the remaining numbers, 
by adding wan to the Cardinals. They are declined like Adjectives; 
thus, pahld and pdnchwdn become, in the oblique cases and plural, 
pahle and pdnchwen, and in the feminine paUl and pdnchwin. For 
the application of the Grammar, for instance, to learn when to use 
the genitive termination -he instead of -kd, or to put the Adjective 
in the obbque case, the learner is referred to the phrases in Part II., 
Section I., which may with advantage be written as exercises. 



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( 1* ) 



ELEMENTS OF PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 



There is no Article ; but to express the in the Accusative Case the 
Dative (with ra) is. used. (See Phrases 38, 39, Section I.) The 
genitive is formed by adding i (after a vowel e) to the governing 
noun ; thus, kitab i man, ' the book of me,' or ' my book.' The 
plural ends in an for animate, ha for inanimate objects ; thus, mard, 
mardan ; kitab, Jcitabhd : or after a thus, banda, ' a slave/ bandagan ; 
suba, ' a district/ subajat, &c. 

PKONOTJNS. 

Sing, man, I ; mard, to me ; man or mard, me. Plur. ma, we, &c. 
Sing, tu, thou ; shuma, you ; o, he, she, or it. Plur. eshan, they. 
Kiy who or which ; ki, who ? eh i 9 which ? or what ? kuddm, which ? 
what sort of ? or any ? 

VERBS. 

Sing, hastam, I am; Aorfi, thou art; hast, he is. 

Plur. hastem, hasted, hastand. 

Also without the aspirate, astam, asti, ast, astern, asted, astand. 

Also the simple affix, am, I, ast, em, ed, and. 

Sing., budam, I was ; budl, thou wast ; bud, he was. 

Plur., budem, buded, budand. 

Rasidan, 'to arrive' (root, ras). 
Bason, 'arriving;' rasida, 'arrived;' rasanda, 'an arriver.' 

Tenses from the Eoot. 
1st, Aorist. 

Rasam, 'I may arrive;' rasi, 'thou mayest arrive;' r#$<wZ, the may 
arrive.' 
\ Rasem, 'we may arrive ; rased, 'you may arrive;' rasand, they may 
\ arrive.' 

f 2nd, Present. — ' I am arriving,' &c. 

Sing., Mirasam, mirasi, mirasad, 
Plur., mirasem, mlrased, mirasand. 

{ 3rd, Imperative. — Ras, ' arrive thou ;' plur., rased. 



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18 elements of peb8ian grammar. 

Tenses from the Infinitiye. 
1st, The Past. 
Rasidam, i I arrived ;' rasidi, rasid. 
Plur. rasidem, rasided, rasidand. 

2nd, Imperfect. 
Ml rasidam, ' I was arriving ;' mirasidi, mirasid. 
Plur. mirasidem, mirasided, mirasidand. 

3rd, Past Potential. — * I might arrive,' &c. (Seldom used. See 
Section I., Phrases 61 to 65). 

Rasidame, rasidi, raside ; rasideme, rasidede, rasidande. 
4th, Future. 

Khwaham rasid, 'I shall arrive;' i&wdhi r., khhwdhad r» 
Plur. Jchwahem rasid, Jchwahed r., ihwhdhand r. 

Tenses from Past Participle. 

1st, Perfect — ' I have arrived.* 

Rasida am, rasida i, rasida ast ; plur., rasida em, rasida ed, rasida and. 

2nd, Pluperfect. — ' I had arrived.* 
Rasida budam,.. .budi, . . . bud; plur., rasida budem, . . . buded, . . . budand. 

The Roots are formed as follows : — 

1. Infinitives in adan, idan and ddan reject the termination : thus, 
firistddan, to send, firist ; pursidan, to ask, purs : except, dddan, to 

give, dih ; chidan, to collect, chin ; didan, to see, bin ; dmadan, to 
come, a or ay; zadan, to strike, zan ; sit ddan, to seize, sit an ; 
dmadan, to prepare, dmd; zddan, to bring forth, zd; gddan, to 
embrace, gd; kushddan, to open, Jcushd; dfridan, to create, dfrin; 
shunidan, to hear, shunau ; guzidan 9 to choose, guzin. 

2. Infinitives in udan, change it for d or de, as sit udan, to praise, 
sitae or sitd: except, budan, to be, bit or bash; shudan, to be,shaw; 
tanudan, to draw, tanau ; durudan, to reap, duru ; zinudan, to mingle, 
zinau ; ghunudan, to sleep, ghunu. 

3. Infinitives in rdan or udan reject the dan, as kandan, to dig, 
kan : except, dwurdan, to bring, ar or awar ; bur dan, to bear, bar ; 
kardan, to do, kun ; murdan, to die, mir; dzurdan, to vex, dzdr ; 
afshurdan, to press, afshar ; sipurdan, to entrust, sipdr ; shumurdan, 
to count, shumdr; farkandan, to dig, farkand; gandan, to rot, gand. 

4. Infinitives in khtan take z, as andajdttan, to throw,. andaz : 
except, shindkhtan, to recognize, shinds ; farokhtan, to sell, farosh ; 



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ELEMENTS OF PERSIAN GRAMMAR. 19 

gusikhtan, to break, gusil; dkhtan, to draw (a sword), dlch ; dokhtan, 
to milk, dosh ; suJchtan, to weigh, sanj. 

5. Infinitives in stan reject the stan, as zistan, to live, zl : except, 
bastan, to bind, band; justan, to seek, ju; khdstan, to rise, khez : 
khwdstan, to wish, l$hwah; paiwastan, to join, paiwand; justan, to 
Leap, jah ; rastan, to escape, rah ; rust an, to grow, ruy ; ristan, to 
spin, ris ; shustan, to wash, shuy ; shikastan, to break, shikan ; 
kdstan, to diminish, kah ; gusastan, to break, gusil ; nishdstan, to 
make to sit, nishdn ; nishistan 9 to sit, nishin. 

6. Infinitives in shtan take r, as dash tan, to have, ddr : except, 
yashtan, to become, gard ; nawishtan, to write, navois ; hishtan, to 
juit, Ml; dghashtan, to accumulate, aghdsh; agjioshtan, to embrace, 
Ighpsh ; qfrdshtan, to exalt, afrdz ; rishtan, to spin, ris ; hishtan, to 
low, kdr ; kushtan, to kill, hush. 

7. Infinitives inyfow take b, as t aft an, to Bhine, £«£ ; or retain^ as 
wftan, to weave, 5«f : except, hhuftan, to sleep, Mw*p ; r of tan, to 
jo, raw; giriftan, to take, y*r; guftan, to say, yo or yoy ; pa^lraftan 
o accept, pazir ; suftan, to bore, suft ; shuguftan, to blossom, 
huguft ; shinuftan, to hear, shinau ; kaftan, to dig, haw. Some are 
ormed by lengthening the penult, as ruftan, to sweep, rob. 



The days of the week are named thus in Persian : — 

Sunday, yak shanba (pronounced shambd). 

Monday, do shanba. 

Tuesday, sih shanba. 

"Wednesday, chahdr shanba. 

Thursday, panj shanba. 

Friday, juma\ 

Saturday, shanba. 



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( 20 ) 



CAKDINAL NUMBEES IN PERSIAN AND PASHT&. 





PEB8IAN. 


Pashtu. 




Persian. 


Pashtu. 


1 


yak 


yau 


17 


hafda 


awah las 


2 


do 


dwah 


18 


hezhda 


atah las 


3 


sib 


dre 


19 


nuzda 


nah las 


4 


chahar 


tsalor 


20 


bist 


shil 


5 


panj 


pindzah 


21 


bist o yak 


yo wisht 


6 


shash 


shpag 


30 


si 


dersh 


7 


haft 


awah 


40 


chihal 


tsal wekkhl 


8 


hasht 


atah 


50 


panjah 


pindzos 


9 


nuh 


nah 


60 


shast 


shpetah 


10 


dah 


las 


70 


haftad 


awiyah 


11 


yazda 


yo las 


80 


hashtad 


atiyah 


12 


duwazda 


dwa las 


90 


nuwad 


nawe 


13 


sez-da 


dyar las 


100 


sad 


sil or sal 


14 


chaharda 


tswar las 


101 


sado yak 


yau sii 


15 


pan z da 


piodzahlas 


1,000 


hazar 


zar 


16 


shanzda 


shparas 


100,000 


lak 


lak 



The ordinal numbers in Persian are formed thus : — 

1st, nukhwtin or avowal ; 2nd, duum or duyum ; 3rd, suum < 

sit/urn ; 4th, chahdrum, &c. 

In Pashtu they are — 1st, aiowal or wrunbai; 2nd, dwayam; 3r< 

drey am; 4th, tsaloram, &c. 



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( 21 ) 



ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GRAMMAR. 



The Article is wanting, as in Urdu and Persian. 

All Nouns are masculine or feminine. The following are usually 
feminine : — 

1. Nouns in a r nafdida, advantage. 

2. Nouns in ai, as fopai, a hat. 

3. Nouns in i, as badl, evil. 

4. Nouns in ah, as zhibah, tongue or language. 

5. Purely Pashtu Nouns in a, asjdrd, crying. 

The feminines are generally formed as follows : — 

1. Masc. in ai, fern, in ai ; as, spai, a dog ; spai, a bitch. 

2. Masc. in i, fem. in anra ; as, dobi, a washerman, dob anra. 

3. Masc. in a consonant (except ah) add for fem. a ; as, ukh, a 

camel, ukha. 

4. Masc. having u in last syllable and masc. in ah, fem. in ana ; 

as, shpun, a shepherd, shpana ; gAobah, a cowherd, g&obana. 



DEOLEN8ION OF NOUNS. 

1st Declension — Masculine Nouns in ai : — 



Singular. 

Nom. sarai, a man 

Gen. da sari, of a man 
sari ta, to a man 
sarai, a man 
la sari na, from a man 
pa sari (Jckhe) he, in a man 
pa sari bdnde, upon a man 
tar sari pore, up to a man 

Agent sari, by a man 
Voc. ai Sariya, Oh, man ! 



Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 






o 



Plural. 



sari. 

da sariyo. 

sariyo ta. 

sari. 

la sariyo na. 

pa sariyo (Jckhe) he. 

pa sariyo bdnde. 

tar sariyo pore. 

sariyo. 

ai sariyo. 



2nd Declension — Masculine Nouns ending in a consonant, and 
denoting inanimate objects : — Nom. hor, a house ; plur. Tcoruna. 
Gen. da kor, of a house ; plur. da koruno. &c. 



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22 



ELEMENTS OF PA8HTU GRAMMAR. 



3rd Declension, Masculine — Nouns in a consonant, or i, denoting 
animate objects ; as, mar, a snake, da mar ; plor. mdran, da 
tndrdno, &c. 

N.B. Many such Nouns are declined like the 2nd declen- 
sion ; as, as, a horse, dsuna, &c. 
4th Declension, Masculine — Nouns ending in a consonant denoting 
sounds; as, krap, a crunch, da krap; plur. hrapahdr, da- 
krapahdro, &c. 

1st Declension, Feminine — Nouns in at or i; as, spai, a bitch, fa 

spal ; plur. spai, da spo, &c. 
2nd Declension, Feminine — Nouns in a; as, ihaza, a woman, da 

ihaze ; plur. hhaze, da hhazo, &c. 
3rd Declension, Feminine — Nouns in a; as, g±ld, theft, da gMa\ 

plur. ahle t da ohldo, <fcc. 
4lh Declension, Feminine — Nouns ending in consonants — lar, a 

road, da lare ; plur. Idre, da laro, &c. 

Adjectives ore declined like Nouns, and agree in gender, number, 
and case. 

The following form their feminines irregularly : — 



Masc. tod, fern, tauda, hot. 

... drund, ... drana, heavy. 

... trihh, ... tarMka,bitter. 

... triw, ... tarwd, sour. 



Masc. shin, fern. sAwa, green. 
... tor, ... forfl, black. 
... Tchog, ... Jchwaga, sweet. 
... Jchor, ... khwara, scattered 



Degrees oe Comparison. 
(See Section I., Phrases 11 to 14). 



Personal Pronouns. 



Norn, zuh, I, Plur. mung, we. 

Gen. dzama) n 

, _ J-of me, . . . dzamunga. 
or 00 ma j ' * 

Dat. wmfo, to me, . . . mung ta. 

Ace. mo, me, ... mung. 

In. *»a, by me, . . . munga. 

Loc. pa ma he (Jckhe) ...pa munga 

iu me. [he, 

Abl. la ma na ... /a munga na, 

from me. 



thou, Plur. tdso y you 
'thee, ... stdso. 



tuh, 

std or | . 

data, \ 
td ta, to thee, . . . tdso ta. 

td, . thee, ... ftwo. 

£a, by thee,... tfaso. 

pa ta he (Jckhe), ...pa tdso he, 

in thee. 
la td na, from thee, ...la tdso na, 
ai td, oh, thou ! ... ai tdso. 



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ELEMENTS OE PASHTU GRAMMAB. 



23 



Third Person Proximate. 
Nodi, and Ace. da or de } he, she or it. 
plur. dou 

Oblique cases, da or de, plur. do or cfoyo. 



2%tVrf Person Remote, 
hagha, he, she or it, 

ha g hoi or hag ho. 
f Masc. hag&uh. 
(Fern, hag&e. 

The following forms are occasionally, though seldom, used. (See 
Section I., Phrase 66) : — 

we, me, by me, mine ; plur. mu, us, by us, our. 
de, thee, by thee, thine ; . . . mu, you, by you, your. 
ye, him, by him, his ; ... ye, by them. 

With the affixes ta, to, Jce (Jshhe), in, &c, and also in comp. with 
verbs, the following are used : — rd, me, us ; dar, thee, you ; 
war, him, her, it. The affixes are, however, omitted in speaking. 
{See Section I., Phrases 44 and 45). 

Demonsteative Pbonouns. 
Nom. and Ace. dagha or da, this ; plur. daghdi or de. 
Oblique dagha or da ; ... da gko or deo. 

The Personal Pronouns hag&a and de are used for * that ' : khpul* 
* own/ corresponds to the Hindi ffp/w. 

The following compounds are in common use : — " Other one," 
bat (bul) yo, fern, bala yuwa; " all the rest,'* nor pi, fem. nore (ole. 
" Which one," hum yo, fem. huma yuwa ; " many more," nor cfer, 
fem. ttore «fer& " Every one," Aar yo, fem. Aara ^wwa. — Also, bul 
tsoh, "other person;" bul tsa, "other thing:" nor tsok, "who 
else?" nor tsa, " what else?" har tsok, "every body;" har tsuh, 
" every thing : " hets tsoh na, " nobody ;" har tso, " however many." 

The Auxiliary Vebb — Tarn, "lam," 



Indicative. 



Present. 



Zuh yam, I am, 
Tuh ye, Thou art, 
zllag&a dai, He is, 
\l£agka dah, She is, 

Miiny yu, We are, 
Tdso yai, You are, 
Haghoe de, They are, 



Future. 


Past. 


I will be, 


I was, 


&c. 


&c. 


ba yam, 


wum, 


baye, 


we, 


ba wi, 


wuh, 


ba wi, 


wah, 


ba yu, 


wu, 


ba yal, 


wai, 


ba wi, 


wu, 



Subjunctive. 



(Sign the Particle Tea before the 
Pronoun.) 

Past. 
If I were, 
&c. 

wai. 

wai. 

wai. 

wai. 



Present. 
If I be, &c. 

ha zuh wum, 
we, 
wi, 
wi, 

wu, 

wai, 

wi, 



wax. 
wai. 
wai. 



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24 



ELEMENTS OF PASHTU OBAMMAB. 



The Intbansjtive Auxiliabt Verb — Kedal, " to become." 
Indicative Mood. 



Present. 



Future. 
I shall become, 
&c. 

ha kegam, 
ha kege, 
ha kegl, 

ha kegu, 
ha kegai, 
ha kegl, 

Gerund, kedun, fem., kedana, "the becoming." 
Present Part., keduh, fem. kedala, " becoming." 
Active Part., or Noun of Agency, kedunkai, (fem. i), "i 
becomer." 

The Intbansitive Auxiliabt Vebb — Shwal," to become," or "to be/ 



Kegam, I become, 
JST<?y<?, Thou becomest, 
ifoyi, He becomes, 

Kegu, "We become, 
Kegal, Tou become, 
-fiT<?y», They become, 



Imperfect. 
I was becoming, &c. 

kedalam or Jcedam. 

Jcedale or £i<fe. 

keduh, fem. kedala, Tcedah. 

kedalu, Jcedu. 
Jcedalai, kedal. 
kedal, fem. Jcedale. 





Indicative Mood. 






Present. 


Imperfect. 


Perfect. 






I was becoming, 


I have become 


Sham, 


I become, 


shwalam, 


shawai yam. 


She, 


Thou becomest, 


shwale, 


shawai ye. 


Shi, 


He becomes, 


shwuh or shuh, 


shawai dai. 




(fem.) 


shwala or shwah, 


shawl dah. 


Shu or 


fftww,' We become, 


shwalu, 


shawl yu. 


Shot, 


Tou become, 


shwaloi, 


shawl yal. 


Shi, 


They become, 


shwal or *#w, 


shawl dl. 




(fem.) 


shwale or *At0£, 





The Subjunctive Mood forms its Tenses by prefixing ka, "if," to 
the Tenses of the Indicative Mood. 

Tenses formed from the Present: — Aorist, by the prefix wu. 
Future, by wu ha; or, if the Pers. pronoun is used, ha tou, as zuh ha 
wu sham, I shall become. 

The Past is formed from the Imperfect, by the prefix wu. 

The Pluperfect from the Perfect :— Shawai wum, ...we, ... wuh, 
fem. wah; shawl wu, ... wai, ... wil. 

Doubtful Future, ha wum, &c. 

Gerund, shwun, fem. shwana, " the becoming." 

Pres. Part., shwal, fem. shwala, "becoming." 

Active Part., or Noun of Agency, shwunkai or shwunai, "becomer." 

Pass. Part., shwalai or shawai, " become." 



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elements of pashtu gbammab. 25 

Tbansitiye Vebb. 
Active Voice — wahal, " to strike." 
Indicative Present — I strike, thou strikest, &c. 

Sing, waham, wahe, wahi ; Plur. wahu, wahai, wahi. 
Aorist — I may strike, &c, wu toaham, wu wahe, &c. 
Future — I shall strike, &c, wu ha waham, &c, or, with Pronoun, 

zuh ba wu toaham, &c. 

The Imperfect, Past, Perfect and Pluperfect require the Agent Case 
instead of the Nominative, and the Verb agrees with the object. 

The Imperfect. 

Thou, you, >i eta tdso, -\ 

he, she, it [was (were) striking me ] haghuh or \zuh wahalam. 

or they, ) ^haghp J 

us ... mung wahalu. 

I, we, he, -\ cmd mung,-\ 

she, it or > was (were) striking thee Xhaghuh ovyta toahale. 

they, ) ^hagho ) 

you . . . tdso wahalai. 

I, we, thou) (him) ma mungi) Cwahuh. 

[ was (were) striking-! > \hagha] 

or you, ) (;ber ) td or taso) (wahala. 

(them ) (wahal. 

< > ... ha g hoi < 

(.them (fem.)) (toahale. 

The Perfect. 

Thou, you, ) Cta tdso, ~\ 

he, she, it £ has (have) struck me \ haghuh ot> zuh wahalai yam. 

or they, ) ^ha gho ) 

us ... mung wahali yu. 

And, similarly: — 

has or have struck thee, tuh wahalai ye. 

you, tdso wahali yal. 

him or her, hagha wahalai dah. 

(them, ) haghoe wahali di. 

them (fem.) ) haghe wahali di. 

The Past is formed from the Imperfect by prefixing wu : — td zuh wu 
wahalam, " thou didst strike me." 

The Continuative Past is formed thus : — Ma ba hagha voahuh, " I 
1 used to strike him/' 

*" The Pluperfect thus : — Ma hagha wahalai wuh, u I had struck him." 
\ The Doubtful Pluperfeot : — Hagha ba zuh wahalai yam, " He might 
have struck me." 



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26 ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GBAMMAB. 

The Imperative : — " Strike," wu waha; Plur. wu wahai. 

" Let him strike," wu de wahi ; ... wu de wahi. 

The Subjunctive Mood is formed by prefixing ka f "if," to the 
Indicative. 

The Potential Mood, corresponding to the use of sakna in Urdu, is 
formed from the Past Part. ; the Present with the Present of 
shwal thus, — 

Wahalai sham, " I can strike ; " wdhalai she, " thou canst 
strike ; " wahalai shu, " we can strike," <fcc. 

In the Past the Verb agrees with the object, as in the past tenses of 
the Indicative :— 

Thou, you,. (tdtdsohaa&a') , T 7 . 7 

he, she, C could have struck me, i , » \zuh wahalai shwam. 

it or they ) <* ovha ^ ) 

... us, mung wahall shuri. 

I, we, he,>. (md, mung ") 

she, (could have struck thee, j hagha or r tuh wahalai shwe. 
it or they ) ^haa&o ) 

... you, tdso wahall ihwal. 

I, we, thou") him irnamung ~) haghawahalaishuh. 

or you ) her ( td or tdso ) haaha wahall shwa. 

... them") (haghol wahall shwal 

f ... ... \ (shwu). 

them (fem.) ) ^haghol wahall shwe. 

The change of termination of the Verb itself, — wahalai — according 
to the gender of the object is a curious anomaly, and some Gram- 
marians say it is impossible, but the Afghans certainly give the in- 
flection. 

The Potential Future is formed with ba, as zuh ba tlai sham, I shall 

be able to go. 
Gerund : — wahun, fem. w ah an a, " striking ; " 
Pres. Part., wahuh, fem. wahala, " striking 5" 
Noun of Agency : — wahunkai or wahunai, " a striker ; " 
Past Part., wahalai, fem. wahall, "struck." 

Passive Voice. 
Wahalai kedal, "to be struck." 

The Passive Voice is formed by conjugating the Past Participle 
with the auxiliaries kedal and shwal, and making the usual changes 
for number, gender, and person. 

Gerund, wahalai Tceduh ; Past. Part., wahalai shawaL 



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ELEMENTS OF PASHTU GEAMMAB. 



27 



Indicative Mood. 




Present. 


Imperfect. 


Perfect. 




I was being 


I have been struck 




struck. 




wahalai kegam, 


wahalai kedam, 


wahalai shawai yam. 


kege 


kede 9 


ye. 


kegi, 


keduh, 


dai. 


wahali kegi, 


, 7 . Kkedah, 
wahah \kedah. 


wahali sham dah. 


wahali kegu, 


wahali kedu, 


wahali shawl yu. 


kegaly 


kedal, 


y<*i. 


... kegi, 


kedal, 
fem.... kedale. 


di. 



Singular. 

I am struck, 
Thou art struck, 
He is struck, 

She is struck, 

Plural. 
We are struck, 
You are struck, 
They are struck, 



Tenses formed from the Present: — Aorist, wu wahalai keg am. 
Future, wahalai ha kegam ; as zuh ha wahalai kegam. 

Tenses from the Imperfect : — Past, wu wahalai, " I was struck." 
Continuative Past, wahalai ha kegam, or zuh ha wahalai kegam. 

Tenses from the Perfect : — Pluperfect, wahalai shawai wum, u I 
had been struck." Doubtful future, wahalai shawai ha warn, or zuh 
ha wahalai shawai warn. 

Imperative Mood. 
Wahalai sha, " be struck ; " Plur. wahali shal. 

Hagha de wahalai shi, u let him be struck ; " ... haghoi de waha- 
Fem. ... wahali shi " let her be struck." [li shi. 

The Inteaksitive Vebb. — Khwazedal, " to move." 



Indicative. 



Present. 
khwazegam, 
khwazege, 
khwazegi, 



Imperfect. 
khwazedalam, 
Jcjhwazedale, 
khwazeduh, 

khwaze- \ d ^ 
( dala, 



Past. 
wu Jchwazedam, 
wu khwazede, 
wu khwazeduhf 

wu khwaze^ f ***» 
\dala 



Perfect. 
Jchwazedalai yam 

ye. 

... dai. 

khwazedali dah. 



Sing. 

1 pers. 

2 pers. 

3 masc. 

3 fem. 

Plur. 

1 pers. khwazegu, khwazedalu, wu khwazedu, khwazedali yu. 

2 pers. khwazegai, Jchwazedalai, wu khwazedal, •... ... gal 

3 masc- khwazegi, khwazedal, wu khwazedal, 
3 fem. I khwazedale, wu khwazedale. 

Tenses formed from the Present : — Aorist, wu khwazegam. 
J IFuture, wu ha Jchwazegam. 

JT Prom the Past : — The Continuative Past, Jchwazedam ha. 
1 From the Perfect : — Pluperfect, wum, <&c. Doubtful, ha wum, &c. 



Digitized by 



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28 ELEMENTS OP PA8HTU OBA1CKAB. 

Imperative. 

Sing., wu hhwazega, u move ; " plur, wu ihwazegai. 

• wu de J&wazegi, " let him move ; " ... wu de l&wazegi. 

Gerund, hhwazedun, " a moving ; " 

Pres. Part., khwazeduh, "moving." 

Noun of Agency, ihwazedunkai, " a mover ; " 

Past Part., bhwazedalai, " having moved." 

• Potentials 

Present, khwazedalai shanty &c. 
Past, thwazedalai shwam, &c. 
Future, khwazedalai ha sham, &c. 

The Tbansitite Auxiliary — Kawul, " to do." 
Indicative. — Present. 



Singular. Plural. 

I doj katvam or Tcram Jcawu or kru, 

Thou dost, kawe, or Tcre 
He does, kawi, kri or kande 



Tcawal or krai. 
kawi, kri or kande. 



Imperfect. 
In agreement with the objects in number and gender : 

Masc. Ma td, &c. kawuh ; plur. kawal. 
Fem. kawala; ... kawale. 

The Future is formed by prefixing ha to the Present : — zah ha 
karam, &c. 

Imperative. 
Sing. Do thou, wu kra or wu ka ; plur. wu krai or wu kai. 

Let him do, hag&a de wuh ka ; ... h agh a de wu kri or kande. 

Subjunctive. — Present. 



Singular. 
If I do, ka kawam, 
If thou doest, ka kawe, 
If he does, ka kawi, 



Plural, 
ka kawu. 
ka kawai. 
ka kawi or kande. 



Past. 



Masc. ka karai wai f j ka kari wai. 

Fem. ka kari wai, \ ka kari wai. 

(See Phrase 62, Section I.) 



Digitized by 



Googk 



ELEMENTS OP PASHTU GRAMMAS. 29 

The Future Subjunctive is formed by prefixing ba, as ha ba wu 
karam (or ham), &c. 

The Irregular Yerbs in Pashtu are very difficult, and it would be 
useless to attempt any explanation of them in this "Work. 

For the Numerals, see end of " Elements of Persian Grammar," 
page 20. 



Digitized by 



Googk 



Digitized by 



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( 31 ) 



PART II. 



SENTENCES. 



Note. — In most of the Phrases one word is printed in italics, in each 
of the four languages, to assist the student in picking out rapidly 
the equivalents of the several English words ; for instance, in Sec- 
tion I., Phrase 2, it is seen at once that boy is in Hindustani, lar-Jca; 
in Persian, tifl ; and in Pashtu, halak. Again, in Section L, 
Phrase 28, it is seen that has he must in this and similar phrases be 
rendered in Hindustani by us he pas hain 9 and in Pashtu by da 
ha g huh dzalcha d% both of which mean, " are in his possession." "By 
this means the idiomatic translation of the English expression is 
shown instead of only the literal, which is all that can be given in a 
Vocabulary. For this reason the words given in the Vocabulary, in 
many cases, differ from those given in this Part. 



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( 95 ) 



PART III. 



VOCABULARY AND INDEX. 



Note. — The numbers in the second column opposite to any word 
indicate the Section and Phrase where it may be found in Fart II., 
but owing to the difference of idiom it will often occur that the 
translation there given will not agree with that given in this Vocabu- 
lary; for instance: the Urdu for "To have" is given in the 
Vocabulary as rakhnd, but on referring to I. 28 it will be seen that 
the affix " kepds" with the Verb "To be" is idiomatically used instead. 
Some English words can only be rendered by a Phrase, as the 
Neuter Verbs " To hurt " and " To lighten" and in these cases the 
reference will supply the translation. K stands for the Hind, karnd. 
Pers. kardan, Push, hawal, " To do." When a Hindi word has been 
used in Persian (as being current in Kabul) the letter H is affixed. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Able, to be 


i. 69 


sakna 


tawanistan 


shwal. 


About 




kol 


karib 


dzana, tsa. 


Above 


ix. 9b 


upar 


bala 


pas. 


Absent 




gkair ha?ir 


gkair ha?ir 


ghaib. 


Abundant 




bahut sa 


ba kagrat 


der. 


Accident (mis- 










fortune) 




Jiadiga 


hadiga 


hadiga. 


Accidentally 




ittifafcan 


ittifakan 


na guman. 


Account 




hisab 


hisab 


hisab. 


Ache 


xiii. 7 


dard 


dard 


dard. 


Across 


ix. 16 


pare 


'ubur 


pore. 


Active 




chalak 


chabuk 


chalak. 


Add to 


v. 3 


jama' k. 


jama' k. 


jama' k. 


Advertisement 




ishtihar 


ishtihar 


ishtihar. 


Advice 


ii. 42 


salah 


salah 


nyat. 


Adze 


xi. 19 


basula 


tesha 


tarfchag. 


After 


v. 23 


pichhe 


ba'd 


wruste. 


Afternoon 


viii. 46 


tisre pahar 


sipahar 


maspej&ln. 


Again 


ii. 49 


phir 


baz 


bya. 


Against (con- 










trary to) 










Age 




'umr 


'umr 


'umr. 


Agent 




gumashta 


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gumashta. 

GooQle 



96 



VOCABULARY AND INDEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Agree to 


ii. 56 


kabul k. 


razi shudan 


razi k. 


Air 




hawa. 


hawa 


bad. 


Alike 


viii. 34 


barabar 


barabar 


barabar. 


All 


ii. 66 


tarn am 


tamam 


tol 


Almanac 




jantri 


takwin 


jantrai. 


Almond 


iii. 16 


bad am 


bad am 


badam. 


Alone 


ix. 74 


akela 


tanha 


tanha. 


Also 


i.63 


bhi 


ham 


ham. 


Always 


v. 23 


hamesha 


hamesha 


mudam. 


Ambuscade 




ghat 


kamin gah 


kamin gab. 


Ammunition 




goli barut 


goli barud, sa- 
ranjam i jangi 


golai daru. 


Anchor 




langar 


langar 


langar. 


And 


i. 9 


aur 


wa or o 


au. 


Angle 




zawiya 


zawiya 
khafa 


zawiya. 


Angry 




khafa 


khapa. 


Animal 




janwar 


janwar 


zanawar. 


Ankle 


xiii. 23 


takhna 


shitalang 


mar wand. 


Anna 


vi.2 


ana 


an^ 


ana. 


Annoyance 




dikk 


tafclif 


rabar. 


Another 


viii. 60 


dusra 


digar 


bul. 


Answer 


i. 61 


jawab 
nirun 


jawab 


dzawab. 


Antelope 


i. 14 


ahu 


osai. 


Anvil 




nihai 


sandan 


sandan. 


Anyone 


ii. 29 


koi 


kase 


tsok. 


Apart 


viii 41 


alag 


'alahida 


byal. 


Approve 




pasand k. 


rnanzur k. 


pasandawal. 


Apple 


iii. 30 


seb 


seb 


manre. 


Apricot 




zard alu 


zard alu 


zard alu. 


Arch 


xi. 13 


dat 


kaman, mihrab 


mihrab. 


Arithmetic 




hisab kitab 


siyakat 


shumar. 


Arm 




hath 


bazu. 


las. 


Armed 


ix. 26 


hathyarband 


aslahdar 


wasladar. 


Army 


xii. 4 


fauj 


fauj ' 


fauz. 


Arrange, to 




arasta k. 


arasta fc. 


jorawaL. 


Arrive, to 


v. 22 


pahunchna 


rasldan 


rased al. 


Artillery 


xii. 16 


topkhana 


topkhana 


topkhana. 


Ask, to 


xi. 85 


puchhna 


pursldan 


pukhtal. 


Ask for, to 


vi. 19 


mangna 


khwastan 


ghukhtal. 


Asleep 


ii. 32 


sota 


bakhwab 


oda. 


Ashes 




rakh 


khakistar 


ire. 


Ass 




gadba 


kbar 


khar. 


Assistance 




madad 


madad 


kumak. 


At home 


ii. 32 


ghar men 


ba khana 


pa kor ke. 


Attach, to 


x. 6 


bandhna 


basta k. 


taral. 


Attack, to 


xii. 22 


hamla k. 


hamla k. 


halla k. 


Auger 


xi. 20 


barma 


barma 


barma. 


Autumn 


iv. 17 


saoni 


kbarif 


manai. 



Digitized by 



Googk 



TOCABULABX AND INDEX. 



97 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


JPashtu. 


Awake 


ii. 33 


jagta 


bedar 


wi&fe. 


Awl (auger) 










Axe 


xi. 18 


kulhari 


tabar 


tabar. 


Axle 


xii. 7 


dhura 


mil 


dura. 


Back,, the 




pith 


pusht 


mla. 


Back 


xi. 1 


laut 


wapas 
bad 


wrusto. 


Bad 




kharab, bad 


bad. 


Bag 




thaili 


kisa 


hamyanai. 


Bag, tent 


viii. 23 


shalita 


shalita 


shalita. 


Baggage 


viii. 24 


asbab 


asbab 


asbab. 


Bake, to 




pakana 


pukhtan 


pakhawal. 


Baker 




rotiwala 


nan paz 


dodai pakha- 
wunkai. 


Bamboo 


x. 2 


bans 


nai e hindi 


darwai. 


Bank 


viii. 42 


kinara 


lab 


ghara. 


Banker 


vi. 19 


mahajan 
chhilka 


sahukar 


sarraf. 


Bark 


i. 66 


post 


postakai. 


Barley 


vi. 16 


jau 


jau 


urbushe. 


Barrel, gun 


xii. 10 


nal 


nal 


nalai. 


Barber 




nal 


hajjam 


nal. 


Basket 


xi. 43 


tokri 


sabd 


tokrai. 


Basin 




bartan 


?arf 


kalai, bartan. 


Bath 




ghusal 


ghusl 


lambal. 


Batten or lath 




barga 


barga, dastak 


barge, dastaki. 


Battle 




laral 


Jang 


Jang. 


Bayonet 




sangin 


saugln 


sangin. 


Bay, colour 


viii. 62 


lal 


kumed 


kumed. 


Beak 




chonch 


minkar 


manuka. 


Bear 


ii. 114 


bhalii 


Utirs 


melu. 


Beard 




darhi 


rish 


gira. 


Beam 


xi. 76 


shahtir, kari 




shatir. 


Beat, to 


i. 31 


marna 


zadan 


wahal. 


Beat, to, for 










game 


viii. 74 








Become, to 


i. 56 


hojana 


shudan 


kedal. 


Bed 


ii. 75 


bistar 


bistar 


kat. 


Bedstead 


viii. 57 


charpai 
madhmakhi 


palang 


kat. 


Bee 




zanbur i shahd 


muchal. 


Before 


iv. 7 


pahle 
lagna 


pesh 


wrande. 


Begin, to 


iv. 20 


shuru* k. 


shuru , k. 


Behind 


ix. 12 


plchhe 


pas 


wruste. 


Believe, to 




manna, sach 
janna 


bawar k. 


bawar k. 


Bell 




ghantali 


jaras 


gungru. 


Belly 


ix. 83 


pet 


shikam 


geda. 


Belong, to 


ix. 28 








Belt, waist 


xii. 14 


peti 


kamar band 


petal. 



Digitized by 



Googk 



98 



VOCABULARY AND INDEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


JPashtu. 


Belt, cross 


xii. 14 


partala 


partala 


partala. 


Benefit, good 


ii. 34 


faida 


faida 


sud. 


Better 


ix.65 


bihtar 


bihtar 


bihtar. 


Between 


x. 5 


bich men 


miyan 


pa myanz ke. 


Beyond 


x. 8 


pare 


an su 


pore. 


Bill (account) 










Birth 




paidaish 


paidaish 


paidaish. 


Bird 




chiriya 


murgh 


margha. 


Bite, to 




katna 


dandan zadan, 
gazidan 


chichal. 


Bitter 


iii. 22 


karwa 


talkh 


triBi. . 


Black 




kala 


siyah 


tor. 


Blacksmith 




luhar 


abangar 


pash. 
badnam k. 


Blame, to 




'aib lagana 


badnam k. 


Blanket 


viii. 38 


kamal 


shalak 


sharai. 


Bleed,to(neut.) 




lahfi jana 


£hun rekhtan 


wine tsatsedal. 


Bleed, to (act.) 




rag kholna 


fasd k. 


rag wahal. 


Blind 




andba 


kor 


riind. 


Blossom, to 


iv. 17 


phulna 
lahti 


shiguftan 


gkoredal. 


Blood 




khtin 


wine. 


Blow, to (wind) 


iv. 19 


chalna 


wazidan 


chaledal. 


Blow, a 




gburisa 


?arb 


siik. 


Blue 




lila 


nil, kabud 


nili. 


Board 


xi. 98 


takhta 


takhta 


takhta. 


Boat 


viii. 25 


nao 


kishti 


berai. 


Body 




badan 


badan 


tan. 


Boil, to 


iii. 6 


josh k. 


josh k. 


iktawal. 


Bolt, for door 




chhitkani 


darband 


aramai. 


Bolt 


xi. 20 


kabila 


kabila 


aramai. 


Bone 


iii. 23 


haddi 


uetukhwan 


hadukai. 


Bore, to 


xi. 20 


chhed k. 


suftan 


surai k. 


Born 




paida 


paida 


paida. 


Book 


i. 17 


kitab 


kitab 


kitab. 


Boot 


i. 22 


but 


moza 


panre. 


Both 


viii. 34 


donoh 


har do 


dwara. 


Bother, to 


ii. 14 


difckd. 


dikfck. 


rabrawal. 


Bottom 


ix. 42 


tala 


tah 


talai. 


Box 


ii. m 


sandu^ 


sandiik 


sandu^i. 


Boy 


i. 2 


larka 


jin 


halak. 


Brain 




goda 


maghz 


maghzuh. 


Branch 


xi. 36 


tahni 


shakh 


tsanga. 


Bran 


viii. 65 


chokar 


sabiis 


chokar. 


Brass 


vi. 18 


pital 
bahadur 


biranj 
sherdil 


zyar. 


Brave 




zarawar. 


Bravery 




surta 


bahaduri,jur'at 


zarawartya. 


Bread 


viii. 7 


roti 


nan 


dodai. 


Breadth 




chaurai 


'ar? . ^ 


planwalai. 


Break, to 




torna 


shikastan 


matawal. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VOOABULABT AND INDEX. 



09 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Breakfast 


iii. 1 


ha?iri 


nan i chasbt 


nashta. 


Breast 




chhati 


sina 


sina. 


Breath 




dam 


dam 


dam. 


Bribe 




rishwat 


rishwat 


badye. 


Brick 




Int 


khisht 


khuUlta. 


Bricklayer 


i. 65 


raj 


gilkar 


gilkar. 


Bridge 


i. 24 


pul 


pul 
$aiza, jalo 


pul. 


Bridle 


viii. 33 


lagam 


Vaiza. 


Bring, to 


i. 32 


lana 


awurdan 


rawral. 


Brook 




nahr 


ju or abrau 


laihtai. 


Brother 


i 1 


bhai 


baradar 


wror. 


Brush, to 




jharna 


takanidan 


takawal. 


Bucket 




balti 


dalw 


boka. 


Bug 




khatmal 


ihasak 


katmal. 


Build, to 


i. 48 


banana 


ta'mir k. 


jorawal. 


Building 


xi. 12 


makan 


makan 


makan. 


Bull 




bail 


nar gao 


ghwayai. 


Bullet 


xii. 11 


goll 


goll 


golal. 


Bundle 


vii. 3 


gathri 


basta 


bukchal. 


Burn, to 


iii. 40 


jalna 


soihtan 


swal. 


Bush 


ix. 69 


jharl 


buta 


butai. 


Business 


ii. 20 


kam 


kar 


kar. 


Busy 




kam par 


mashgbul 


mashghul. 


But 


i. 10 


lekin 


amma 


wale. 


Butcher 




kasab 


kasai 


kasab. 


Butter 


iii. 14 


makhan 


maska 


kuch. 


Button 




batan 


tukma 


tukma. 


Buttress 




pushta 


pushta 


pushfcai. 


Buy, to 


i. 36 


mol lena 


Uiaridan 


a&hastal. 


By 




se 


az 


la...na. 


Cage 




pinjra 


kafas 


panjra. 


Calamity 




afat 


afat 


afat. 


Calculation 




hisab 


shumar 


shmar. 


Call, to 


ii. 13 


bulana 


jalbldan 


balal. 


Camel 


vi. 14 


iint 


shutur 


u£h. 


Camp (halting- 










place) 


i. 69 








Can (able) 










Canal 




nahr 


nahr 


lak^tai. 


Candle 


ii. 10 


batti 


kandii 


batai. 


Cannon 




top 


top 


top. 


Cautery 


xiii. 18 


dagh 


dagb 


dagb. 


Cap, for head 




topi 


kulah 


topai. 


Cap, for gun 




topi 


patakhi e ban- 
duk 


patakhe. 


Caravan 


xii. 22 


kafila 


kafila 


karwan. 


Careful 


ii. 3 


khabardar 


hoshyar 


bedar. 



H 2 



Digitized by 



Googk 



100 



VOCABULARY AND INDEX. 



English, 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


JPashtu. 


Careless (neg- 










ligent) 










Carpenter 




barhai 


najjar 


tarkanr. 


Carpet 


ii. 113 


farsh 


farsh 


farsh. 


Carrot 




gajar 


zardak 


gajare. 


Carry, to 


x. 23 


lejana 


burdan 


wral. 


Cart 


xi. 72 


garhi 


'araba 


gadai. 


Cartridge 


xii. 13 


kartus 


kartus, wuzun 


kartus. 


Cash 


ii. 27 


nakd 


nafcd 


rok. 


Cask 




pipa 


&hum i chobi 


pipa. 


Cast iron 






chuan 




Cast, to 


xii. 11 








Cat 




billi 


gurba 


pisho. 


Catch, to 


ii. 110 


pakarna 


giriftan 


niwal. 


Cattle 


viii. 31 


janwar 


maweshi 


dangar. 


Centre 


xi. 14 


markaz 


markaz 


manz. 


Ceiling 


xi. 87 


chhat 


sakf 


chat. 


Chain 


x. 21 


zanjir 


zanjir 


zanzir. . 


Chair 


ii. 24 


kursi 


kursi 


tsaukai. 


Chamber, of 










gun 




kothi 


khazana 


U&azana. 


Change, to 




badal k. 


badal k. 


badlawal. 


Change mo- 










ney, to 


vi. 8 


torana 


khurda k. 


matawal. 


Channel 


ix. 80 


nala 


shakh i ju 


wela. 


Chapter 


vii. 9 


bab 


bab 


bab. 


Charge, to 


xii. 19 


dhawa k. 


hamla k. 


halla k. 


Charcoal 


iii. 39 


koela 


zughal 


skara. 


Chatter, to 


ii. 50 


bakna 


harzagol k. 


behuda wayal. 


Cheap 


vi. 7 


sasta 


arzan 


arzan. 


Cheese 


iii. 24 


panir 


panlr 
kaghaz 


panir. 


Cheque 


vi. 19 


hundwi 


hundai. 


Cherry 




shah alu 


shah alu 


shah alu. 


Chess 




shatranj 


shatranj 


shatranj. 


Chessman 




gota 


nard 


nard. 


Chessboard 




bisaj 


bisaj 


shatranj. 


Child 


v. 21 


bachcha 


tin 


halak. 


Chimney 




angithi 


bukhari 


angitai. 


Chief 


ix. 45 


sardar 


sardar 


malak. 


Chisel 


xi. 81 


rukhani 


iskana 


tswarlai. 


Circle 




daira 


daira 


daira. 


City 


i. 25 


shahr 


shahr 


kkhahr. 


Civil, service 




mulki 


mulki or ahl i 
fcalam 


mulki. 


Claim 




da'wa 


da'wa 


da'wa. 


Claw 




panja 


changal 


panja. 


Clay 


xi. 38 


chikni mitti 


gil icharb 


ziga J&awra. 


Clean 


i. 49 saf 


saf 


pak. 








Digitized by VjO 


OQk 



VOCABULABY AND INDEX. 



101 



English. 



Climate 
Cloak 

Clock 

Close 

Cloth 

Cloth Beller 

Clothes 

Cloud 

Coarse 

Coat 

Cocoa-nut 

Cock, of gun 

Cock, fowl 

Coffee 

Cold 

Cold weather 

Cold, illness 

Collect, to 

Colour 

Comb 

Come, to 

Command 

Commence- 
ment 

Common 

Comparison 

Compass 

Compasses, 
pair of 

Complainant 

Complete 

Condition, a 

Conform, to 

Consent(agree) 

Consequence 

Constipation 

Contract 

Contractor 

Contrary to 

Contented 

Cook, to 

Cook 

Cool 
Coolie 
Copper 
Cord 



Bef. 



iv. 18 



xi. 34 
i. 13 
i. 68 
i. 50 
iv. 14 

i. 41 



iii. 11 

iv. 2 
xiii. 17 
ix. 56 
ii. 98 

ii. 1 
ii. 58 

xiii. 6 



x. 7 
xi. 96 



xi. 3 
xi. 50 

ii. 77 
xiii. 16 



iii. 23 
ii. 13 

iii. 19 
ii. 71 
vi. 17 
x. 6 



Urdu. 



ab o hawa 
baran ko| 

ghanta 

nazdik 

kapra 

kapre wala 

kapre 

badal 

mota 

kurta 

naryal 

ghora 

murgh 

kafi 

thanda 

jara 

zukam 

jama' k. 

rang 

kanghi 

ana 

hukm 

ibtida 
'am 
nisbat 
kampas 

parkar 
mudda'I 
pura 
sharj 
muwafik k. 

EQU: 



theka 

thekadar 

ktilaf 

razi 

pakana 

bawarcbl 

thanda 
kuli ' 
tanba 
dori 



Persian. 


Pashtu. 


ab o hawa 


hawa. 


chogfca, bala- 


chogha* 


posb, labada 




sa 'at 


ganta. 


mutassil 


nizhde. 


parcha 
bazzaz 


ihamta. 


bazaz. 


poshak 


jame. 


abr 


wryadz. 


luk 


ghat. 


farghal, jama 


khalka. 


najil 


garal 


kulang 


chirg, kulang^ 


murgjj 


chirg. 


fcahwa 


^ahwa. 


sard 


soy. 


sarma 


zhamai. 


zukam 


sara. 


jama* k. 


tolawal. 


rang 


rang. 


sbana 


gumandz. 


amadam 


ratlal. 


hukm 


hukm. 


ibtida 


shuruV 


'am 


'am. 


tashbih 


nisbat. 


kampas 


kampas. 


parkar 


parkar. 


mudda'I 


mudda'L 


tamam 


pura. 


sharj 


sharj. 


muwafik k. 


barabar k. 


muzayai;a 


kbabara. 


kabz 


kabz. 


ijara 


ijara. 


ijaradar 


ijaradar. 


ihilaf, bar 'aks 


khilaf. 


razi 


razi. 


pukhtan 


pa£tawal. 


bawarchi 


dodai pakh- 




wunkai. 


khunak 


sor. 


kuli 


rnazdur. 


mis 


mis. 


res pan 


mazai. 



Digitized by 



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102 



VO0ABULABY AND INDEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


JPashtu. 


Corn 


viii. 8 


dana 


dana 


dana. 


Corner 


xi. 11 


kona 


gosha 


kunj. 


Corporal 


xii. 24 


naik 


naik 


naik. 


Correct 


xi. 11 


thlk 


durust 


juat. 


Cotton 




rui 


punba 


punba, maluch. 


Cough 


xiii. 15 


khatisi 


sulfa 


tukhai 


Country 




mulk 


mulk 


mulk. 


Court, royal 




sabha 


dargah 


darbar. 


Court, judge's 




kachahri 


dar ul 'adalat 


kacharai. 


Cow 


i. 12 


gal 


gao 


ghwa. 


Cow-dung 










wash 


xi. 94 


gobari 


sirgin i gao 


gobar. 


Cow-dung 


iii. 82 


upla 


sirgin i gao 


ghushaya. 


Crack 


xi. 83 


darz 


darz 


darz. 


Cream 


iii. 12 


mala! 


kaimagh 


perawai. 


Creditor 


vi. 22 


karz Khwah 


karz khwah 


porawurai. 


Crime 


• 


gunah 


gunah 


gunah 


Crooked 




terha 


kaj 


kog 


Cross out, to 




Ijalam khlnch- 
na 


fcalam kashi- 
dan 


fcalam nakhkal 


Crowbar 




gadala 






Cubit (1J feet) 




hath 


dast 


las. 


Cup 


iii. 9 


piyala 


piyala, finjan 


piyala. 


Current 




bahao 


jiriyan 


terawalai. 


Cut, to 


i. 47 


katna 


buridan 


prekawal. 


Dagger 


ix. 27 


chhura 


peshkab? 


chara. 


Dal 


ix. 52 


mung, dal 


mash 


dal. 


Damage 


xi. 73 


nuksan 


nuksan 


nuksan. 


Damp 


iii. 40 


gila* 
dahohat 


tar 


lund. 


Danger 


ix. 73 


Miajra 


dar. 


Dangerously 










wounded 


xii. 25 


kari zakhmi 


kari zakhmi 


saklit zhobal. 


Dark 




andhera 


tarik 


tarik 


Dark blue 




gahra nila 


tiragun nil 


tor rang nil. 


Date 




khajur 


khurma 


Miajura. 


Daughter 


« 


beti 


dukhtar 


lur. 


Day 


ii. 71 


din 


roz 


wradz. 


Day before 










yesterday 


v. 26 


parson 


pari roz 


bul parun. 


Day after to- 










morrow 


v. 26 


parson 


pas i farda 


bal saba. 


Dead 




mua 


murda 


marai, mar 


Deaf 




bahra 


kar 


kurir. 


Dear 




piyara 


'aziz 


'aziz. 


Dear (in price) 


vi. 7 


mahnga 


giran 


gran. 


Death 




maut 


maut 


marg. 


Debtor 


vi. 23 


kar?dar 


kar^diir 


porawurai. 



Digitized by 



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VOCABULARY AND INDEX. 



103 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pasftiu. 


Defeat 


xii. 26 


shikast 


shikast 


mati. 


Defendant 


x 


mudda'a 'alai- 


mudda'a 'alai- 


mudda' a 'alai- 






hi 


hi 


hi 


Degrees of Ion. 




Jul o 'arz ke 


darjaha e Jul o 


darjaha e Jul o 


& lat. 




darje 


'arz 


'arz. 


Delay 


viii. 55 


der 


takhir 


dil. 


Depth 




gahral 


'umuk 


zhawarwalai. 


Descend 




utarna 


faro raftan 


kuzedal. 


Desert, a 




jangal 


sahra 


maira. 


Desire, to 




chahna 


khwastan 


ghuKhtal. 


Dew 


iv. 16 


OS 


shabnam 


parkha. 


Diagonal 




munhani 


munhani 


munhani. 


Diamond 




hira 


almas 


almas. 


Diarrhoea 


xiii. 10 


dast 


shikam rau 


da gede bahe- 
dal. 


Die, to 


viii. 60 


marna 


murdan 


mral. 


Difference 




farak 


tafawut 


fark. 


Difficult 


ii. 99 


mushkil 


mushkil 


gran. 


Dig, to 


xi. 25 


khodna 


kandan 


kandal. 


Dinner 


iii. 2 


khana 


tu'am nan 


dodai. 


Direction 


ix. 1 


Jaraf 


su 


khwa. 


Dirty 


xii. 7 


maila 


chirkin 


khiran. 


Disease 


xiii. 4 


bimari 


mar a? 


bimari. 


Dish 


iii. 10 


rikabi 


kab 


talai. 


Dislocated, to 










be 


xiii. 24 


atar jana 


baramadan 


Hiatal. 


Dismount, to 


viii. 3 


utarna 


payan shudan 


kuzedal. 


Disowning, a 










son 




'ak 


'ak 


'a*. 


Distance 


x. 12 


fasila 


fasila 


wut. 


Distinctly 


ix. 32 


sahih 


sahlh 


sahih. 


District 


iv. 5 


'ilSka 


?ilia'* 


'ilaka. 


Distribute, to 


viii. 48 


bantna 


taksim k. 


weshal. 


Divide, to (dis- 










tribute) 










Division 




taksim 


taksim 


wesh. 


Divorce 




Jalal? 


iilak 


Jalak. 


Doctor 




hakim 


hakim 


Jabib. 


Dog 


ii. 93 


kutta 


sag 


spai. 


Door 


ii. 8 


darwaza 


darwaza 


war. 


Door bar 




musabbar 


darband 




Double 




dochand 


dochand 


dwazala. 


Down 


ii. 11 


niche 


payan 
kashidan 


kuz. 


Drag, to 


x. 23 


khinchna 


tskawal. 


Drain 




mori, nali 


abrau or ju 


la&htai. 


Draw, to 










(plans) 


vii. 4 


banana 


kashidan 


kKhkul. 


Drawers 




pae jama 


pae jama 


partug. 



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104 



YOCABULA.BY AND INDEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Drawing, a 




naksha 


naksha 


naksha. 


Dreadful 




daraonl 


hail 


khaufhak. 


Dream, a 




sapna 


khwab 


Blob. 


Drill, military 




kawa'id 


^awa'id 


kawa'id. 


Drink, to 


i. 33 


pina 


noshidan, 
khurdan 


tskal. . 


Drive,to(game) 


viii. 73 


hanka lana 


randan 


ra arawal. 


Droop, to 


xi. 36 


latakna 


awekhtan 


zwarand kedal. 


Druggist 




pansari 


daru farosh 


pasari. 


Drum 


xii. 28 


dol 


duhal 


dol. 


Dry 


i.50 


sukha 


khushk 


wuch. 


Duck 




bajak 


bat 


baja. 


Dumb 




gunga 


lal 


gung. 


Duty 


xii. 25 


naukri 


naukri 


naukari. 


Dwell, to (live) 


i. 23 








Dyer 




rangrez 


rangrez 


dobi. 


Each 


v.15 


har ek 


har yak 


har yau. 


Ear 




kan 


gosh 


ghwag. 


Earlier 


ii. 60 


age 


peshtar 


wrande 


Early 


ii. 82 


bar! fajr 


'ala-ul-sabah 


sabai wak^ti. 


Earth 


xi. 44 


mitti 


gil 


khawra. 


Easy 




asan 


asan 


asan. 


Easily 




asani se 


ba asani 


pa asantiya 


East 


ix. 78 


purab 


mashrik 


sara. 
nmar khata. 


Eat, to 


i. 34 


khana 


khurdan 


khwaral. 


Eaves spout 




parnala 


abrau 


parnala. 


Eclipse of sun 


v. 26 


suraj gahan 


kusuf 


da nmar tandar 


Eclipse of 




chandragrahan 


khusuf 


da myashte 


moon 








tandar. 


Edge 


Viii. 2 


kinara 


lab, kinara 


ghara. 


Edge (of a 










tool) 




dhar 


kinara 


ghara. 


Education 


vii. 17 


ta'lim 


ta'lim 


tarbiyat. 


Egg 


iii. 6 


anda 


tukhm 


oya or ha. 


Elbow 




kuhni 


mirfak 


marwand. 


Elephant 
Embroidered, 


i. 9 


hat hi 


fil 


hati. 




tila bafta 


murassa', zar- 


jiladar. 


with gold 






doihta 




Empty 
End 


ii. 66 


khali 


kkali 


tash. 


v. 20 


akhir 


akhir 




Enemy 


xii. 19 


dushman 


hasud 


dukhman. 


Enlist, to 


xii. 2 


bharti k. 


mukarrar k. 


naukarawal. 


Enough 




bas 


kafi 


bas. 


Enquire, to 


xi. 72 


puchhna 


daryaft k. 


pukhtana k:. 


Entertainment 




?iyafat 


?iyafat 


milmastya. 


Equal 




barabar 


yaksan 


bahabar. 



Digitized by 



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VOCABTJLABY AND INDEX. 



105 



English. 



Escape 
Estimate 

Even (adv.) 

Evening 

Exactly 

Examine, to 

Excavation 

Excellent 

Extinguish, to, 

put out 
Extreme 
Eve 
Eyebrow 

Face 

Fair 

Fall, to 

Fall into, to 

False 

Family 

Famine 

Fan (punkha) 

Far (distance) 

Fare (hire) 

Farrier 

Fast 

Fat 

Fate 

Father 

Fault 
Fear 
Fear, to 
Feed, to (act.) 
Feed, to, as 

birds 
Fever 
Few 
Field 
Fig * 
File 
Fill, to 
Find, to 
Fine, a 
Fine 

Finish, to 
Fire 
Fireplace 



Bef. 



iv. 3 
viii. 47 
v.25 
xi. 74 
xi. 52 



x. 4 



i.51 



ix. 89 

ii. 48 
ii. 54 



viii. 49 
ix. 21 
iii. 31 

i. 4 

ix. 74 
ii. 69 

viii. 75 
xiii. 3 

i. 4 
iii. 20 
viii. 54 
vi. 26 
vii. 12 
ii. 3 
ii. 101 
v. 23 



Urdu. 



bachao 
ta£hmina, 

timat 
bhi 
sham, 
thik 

mulahaga k. 
khodal 
bihtar 

bujhana 
akhirl 
ankh 
bhawen 

munh 

gora 

girna 

milna 

ihuth 

kutumb 

kal 



na'lband 

jald 

charbi 

kismat 

bap 

^usur 

dar 

darna 

khilana 

chugna 

bukhar 

thora 

khet 

anjir 

retl 

bhar dena 

pana 

jurimana 

mahin 

tamam k. 

ag 
angithi 



Persian. 



18- 



rihai 
taHimmlkimat 

ham* 

sham 

'ain 

mulahaga k. 

t^andak 

ktub 

gulk. 
a£biri 
chashm 
abru 

ru 

sufed 

uftadan 

raftan 

darogh 

kabila 

kahj 



na'lband 

zfid 

charbi 

kismat 

padar 

gunah 

kbauf 

tarsidan 

kburanidan 

char i dan 

tap 

chand 

kisht 

anjir 

suhan 

pur k. 

yaftan 

jurimana 

barik 

tamam k. 

atish 

atish fchana 



Pashtu. 



bach, 
takhmini 

mat. 
ham. 
makham. 
barabar. 
katal. 
kandana. 
khuh. 

marawal. 
wrustanai. 
starga. 
barwate. 

ma&fe. 

spin. 

prewatal. 

gadedal. 

darogh. 

tabar. 

jp*h$. 



na'lband. 

garandai. 

wazda. 

nasib. 

plar. 

kusur. 

wyara. 

wyaredal. 

khurawal. 

tsaredal. 

taba. 

lag. 

kafai. 

indzar. 

suhan. 

dakawal. 

mundal. 

tawan. 

barik. 

pura k. 

or. 

ngiiarai. 



*i- 



Digitized by 



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106 



VOCABULARY AND INDEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pathtu. 


Fire, to 


i. 64 


chalana 


sar kardan 


chalawaL 


Firewood 










(wood) 




lakri 


hezam 


largi. 


First 


vii. 9 


pahla 


awwal 


wrambai. 


Fish 


iii. 17 


machhli 


mahi 


kab. 


Fit, to 


viii. 51 


bithana 


durust k. 


lagawal. 


Flag 


x. 4 


jhandi 


bairak 


janda. 


Flat 


xi. 62 


hamwar 


hamwar 


barabar. 


Flame 




bhabuka 


shu'la 


shu'la. 


Flash 




chamak 


shu'la 


shu'la. 


Flea 




pisii 

bhagna 


kaik 


wraga. 


Flee, to 


xii. 23 


gurekhtan 


taMltedal. 


Flesh (meat) 










Flint 




chakmak 


chakmak 


bakar. 


Flood 


xi. 73 


sailab 


sailab 


niz. 


Floor 


xi. 80 


farsh 


farsh 


farsh. 


Flour 


ix. 49 


ata 


ard 


oruh. 


Flow, to 


ix. 63 


bahna 


raftan, jari sh. 


bahidal. 


Flower 


i. 54 


phiil 


gul 


gul. 


Flurry, to 


viii. 28 


ghabrana 


tarsanidan 


darawal. 


Fly, to 




urna 


paridan 


alwatal. 


Fly, a 




makhi 


magas 


much. 


Fog 


v. 26 


kuhasa 


bukhar, kusuf 


dtind. 


Food 




khana 


khorak 


khurak. 


Foolish 


ii. 107 


bewukuf 


ahmak 


ahmak. 


Foot 


i. 60 


pariw 


pi 


pkha. 


Foot, on 




paidal 


piyada 


piyada. [dana. 


Forage 




chara 


chara 


wakiuh au 


-Force 




zabardasti 


zabardasti 


zorawari. 


Fore 


viii. 53 


agla 


peshin 


randinai. 


Forehead 


xiii. 1 


matha 


peshani 


tandai. 


Fork 




kanta 


changal, do 
shakta 


do kkhakkha. 


Forest 


ix. 19 


jangal 


jangal, besha 


dzangal. 


Forget, to 


ii. 4 


bhtilna 


faramosh k. 


herawal. 


Forgiven 




mu'af 


mu'af 


mu'af. 


Formerly 


i. 68 


peshtar 


peshtar 


wrande. 


Fort 


ii. 16 


kil'a 


kil'a 


kil'a. 


Forward 


ii. 81 


age 


pesh 


wrande. 


Foundation 


xi. 5 


bunyad 


bunyad 


wekh. 


Fowl 


iii. 36 


murghi 


makiyan 


chirga. 


Fox 


i. 64 


lomri 


robah 


soya. 


Frequently 


iv. 4 


akgar 


akgar 


akgar. 


Fresh 


iii. 7 


taza 


taza 


taza. 


Friend 




dost 


dost 


yar. 


Frightened, to 










be 


viii. 29 


darna 


tarsidan 


daredal. 


Frog, of foot 


viii. 51 


putli 


miyan i sum 


putlai. 



Digitized by 



^ 



VOCABULABY AND INDEX. 



107 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


JPashtu. 


Front, in 


ix. 23 


age 


pesh 


wrande. 


Freeze, to 


iv. 5 


jam jana 


ya&h bastan 


kangal kedal. 


Fruit 


iv. 17 


phal 
boar 


mewa 


mewa. 


Full 




pur 
bebak 


dak. 


Full, in 


xi. 2 


kull 


piira. 


Gallop, to 










(trans.) 


ix. 40 


daurana 


doanidan 


zghalawal. 


Game 




shikar 


said 


shikar. 


Garden 


ii. 112 


baghicha 


bagh 


baghcha. 


Gardener 




mail 


baghban 


mali. 


Garlic 




thim 


sir 


yage, uga. 


Gelding 


viii. 62 


akhta 


akhta 


Jtasl. 


Generally 


vi. 14 


akgar 


akgar 


akgar. 


Geometry 




'ilm i masahat 


'ilm i masahat 


kach. 


Get, to 




hasil k. 


yaffcan 


mundal. 


Ginger 




sonth 


adrak 


adrak. 


Girl 




larki 


dukhtar 


worki. 


Girth 


viii. 32 


tang 


tang 


tang. 


Give, to 


i. 18 


dena 


dadan 


warkawal. 


Ghee 


vi. 15 


ghi 


raughan i zard 


ghwari. 


Glad 




khush 


khush 


khwakh. 


Glass 




shisha 


shisha 


shisha. 


Glove 




dastana 


dastana 


dastana. 


Goat " 


i. 35 


bakri 


buz 


wzah. 


Go, to 


i. 44 


jana 


raftan 


tlal. 


Goldsmith 




sunar 


zargar 


zargar. 


Gold 




sona 


zar 


sru zar. 


Gold mohr 


vi.l 


ashrafl 


ashrafi 


butkai. 


Gong 


v. 25 


ghanta 


jaras (a bell) 


ganta. 


Good 




achchha 


Jtub 


ttuh. 


Goods 


vi. 23 


asbab 


asbab 


mal. 


Goose 




rajhans 


kaz 


loya baja. 


Government 




sarkar 


sarkar 


sarkar. 


Grain 


vi. 7 


gtalla 


^alla 


ghala. 


Gram 


viii. 65 


channa 


naMltid 


charire. 


Grandfather,/). 


i. 7 


dada 


jad i padari 


nikuh. 


„ m. 




nana 


jad i madari 


nana. 


Grandmother 










P- 




dadi 


madar i padar 


nya. 


„ m. 




nam 


madar i madar 


nanai. 


Grape 


iii. 20 


angur 


tak 


angur. 


Grass 


viii. 8 


ghas 


kah, gyah 


wakhuh. 


Great 


ii. 100 


bara 


buzurg 


loe. 


Green 


iii. 30 


hara 


sabz 


shuwa 


Groom 


ii. 13 


sais 


sals 


sals. 


Ground 


ii. 83 


zamln 


zamin 


zmuka 


Guard 


xii. 6 


gard 


iilaya 

Digitize 


garat. 

d by Google 



108 



VOOABULABY AND INDEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Guest 




mihman 


mihman 


mihman 


Guide 




rasta batane 


rah numa, 


lar ^ayunkai. 






wala 


badrafca 


- 


Gun 


i. 42 


banduk 


tufang 


tupak. 


Gun, cannon 


xii. 17 


top 


top 


top. 


Gunpowder 


xii. 16 


barut 


barild 


daru. 


Haii 


iv. 11 ' 


ola 


zhala 


zhalai. 


Hair 




bal 


mu 


wekhtuh. 


Half 


v. 5 


adha 


nim, nisf 


mm. 


Halter 


viii. 39 


agar! 


kamand-i-pesh 


tarsarai. 


Halting place 


viii. 55 


parao 


manzll 


manzil. 


Hammer 




martol 


chakush, pu- 
chak 


tsatak. 


Hammer of 


, 








gun (cock) 


xii. 7 








Hand 


i. 27 


hath 


dast 


las. 


Handle 


xi. 29 


dasta 


dasta 


lastai. 


Handkerchief 




rumal 


ruinal 


riimal. 


Handsome 


i. 10 


itubsurat 


itubru 


kk^ayasta. 


Hang, to (act.) 


ii. 86 


latkana 


awezanidan 


zwarand k. 


Hard 




sakht 


saBit 


sa^t. 


Hare 


i.39 


khargosh 


Ktiargosh 


soya. 


Harness 


Yiii. 44 


saz 


saz o saman 


da as asbab. 


Harvest 


iv. 13 


fasi 


fasl 


fasal. 


Haste 


ii. 6 


jaldi 


zudl 


zir. 


Hat 


i. 18 


topi 


kulah 


topai. 


Have, to 


i. 28 


rakhna 


dashtan 


laral. 


Head 


i. 26 


sir 


sar 


sar. 


Headache 


xiii. 7 


dard i sar 


dard i sar 


dard i ear. 


Headstall 




nukta 


nukta 


sardawal. 


Heal,to(neut.) 




changa hona 


jor shudan 


joredal. 


Health 




mizaj 


mizaj 


mizaj. 


Heap 




dher 


toda 


derai. 


Hear, to 


i. 61 


sunna 


shunldan 


auredal. 


Heart 




dil 


dil 


zruh. 


Heat (hot 










season) 


iv. 1 








Heavy 




bhari 


sangin 


drund. 


He 


i. 23 


wuh 





hagha. 


Heel 




eri 


ka'b, pai, 'akab 
rasanhaepasin 


punda. 


Heel ropes 


viii. 40 


pichhari 


picharai. 


Height 




unchai 


bulandi 


uchatwalai. 


Heir 




warig 


warig 


warig. 


Hemp . 


xi. 9 


san 


san 


sarir. 


Her 


i. 10 


us-ka(-ke, -ki) 


-i -o or -ash 


da haghe. 


Here 


xi. 40 


yah an 


inja 


dalta. 


Height 




unchai 


bulandi 


uchatwalai. 



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YOCABULABY AND INDEX. 



109 



J&nglish. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Hill 


viii. 1 


pahar 


koh 


ghar. 


Hills, the 


iv. 21 


pahar 


kohistan 


ghruna. 


Him 


i. 61 


us ko 


o or ash 


hagha. 


Hind 


viii. 53 


pichhla 


pasin 


wrustanai. 


Hindrance 




roktok 


insidad 


muzahamat. 


Hinge 




kabza 


kabza, chap- 
ras, H. 


kabza. 


Hip 




khutar 


surin 


kunatai. 


Hire 


viii. 36 


karaya 


karaya 


kiraya. 


His 


i. 6 


us-ka (-ke, -ki) 


-i -o or -ash 


da hagha. 


History 


vii. 16 


tarlkh 


tawariki 


tarikh. 


Hither 


ii. 1 


idhar 


inja, Insu 


dale. 


Hold, to 




thanbna 


giriftan 


niwal. 


Hole 


i. 67 


chhed 


surakh 


surai. 


Hollow 










Home, at 


ii. 32 


ghar men 


ba khana 


ha kor ke. 


Hook 




kunda 


kinara 


kunda. 


Hook, fish- 




kundi 


kulab 


kundai. 


Horn 




singh 


sbakk 


shkar. 


Horse 


i. 9 


ghora 


asp 


as. 


Horse-shoe 




na'l 


na'l 


na'l. . 


Hospital 




aspital 


dar-ul-shafa 


shafa khana. 


Host 




mihmandar 


mezban 


mihman. 


Hot 


iii. 5 


garm 


garm 


garma. 


Hot weather 


iv. 1 


garmi 


garmi 


orai. 


Hour 


v. 10 


gbanta 


sa'at 


ganta. 


House 


i. 3 


ghar 


khana 


kor. 


How 




kisjarah 


chitaur 


tsaringa. 


How many 


i.20 


kitna 


chand 


tsomra. 


Hungry 


i. 59 


bhukha 


gurisna 


wugai. 


Hunt, to 




shikar khelna 


shikar k. 


kkhkar k. 


Hunter (man) 




shikari 


shikari 


kkhkari. 


Hurt, to 


xiii. 13 








Hyena 




lakar bagha 


kaftar 


kaftar. 


I 


i. 30 


main 


man 


zuh. 


Ice 




barf 


yakh 


kangal. 


Idle G az j) 








. 


Idol 




but 


but 


but 


If 


i. 56 


j° 


agar 


ka 


Ignorant 


vii. 18 


nadan 


nadan 


be'aU 


111 


xiii. 5 


bimar 


bimar 


najor 


Imagination 




khiyal 


wahm 


wahm. 


Immediately 




jhatpat 


fauran 


sani da lasa. 


Important 




ahamm 


ahamm 


loe ?aruri. 


Impudent 




shokh 


gustakb 


be adab. 


In 


i. 21 


men 


dar and ba 


kldie or ke. 


Included 


lix. 47 


shamil 


shamil 


shamil. 



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110 



VOCABULABY AKD I1H)EX. 



English. 


Bef. 


- Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashta. 


Indian corn 


ix. 51 


jawar 


jawar 
bad ha?ml 


juwar. 


Indigestion 


xiii. 20 


bad ha? mi 


bad hazml. 


Indigo 




nil 


nil 


nil. 


Index 


vii. 15 


fihrist 


fihrist 


fihrist. 


Indus 


ix. 89 


darya e afak 


abba sin 


abasin. 


Industrious 




mihnati 


tandih 


mihnati. 


Influence, in- 










terest 




wasila 


zari'a 


madad. 


Information 










(news) 










Ink 


vii. 1 


siyahi 


roshni 


mashwanrai. 


Inspect, to (ex- 










amine) 










Insect 




kira 


kirm 


chinjai. 


Inside 


xii. 19 


bhitar 


darun 


da nana. 


Instead 


iii. 30 


bajae 


bajae 


pa zai. 


Intend, to 


ii. 114 


irada rakbna 


irada k. 


nyat k. 


Intention 


ii. 41 


irada 


irada 


nyat. 


Intelligent 


ii. 85 


hoshyar 


zirak 


hokhiyar. 


Interest 


vi. 24 


sud 


sud 


sud. 


Interval 




fasila 


fasila 


wut. 


Intoxicated 




matwala 


makhmur 


sarmast. 


Invention 




ijad 
da'wat 


ijad 
da'wat 


ijad. 


Invitation 




da'wat. 


Iron 


xi. 22 


loha 


ahan 


ospana. 


Irrigation 




sincha sicbai 


abyari 


abdihi 


Is 


i. 1 


bai 


ast 


dai. 


Island 


ix. 80 


tapu 


jazira 


bela. 


Ivory 




hatbi dant 


dandan i fil 


da hati ghak^ 


Jam 


iii. 14 


murabba 


murabba 


murabba. 


Jewel 




jauhar 


jauhar 


jauhar. 
lagawal. 


Join, to 




jorna 


paiwastan 


Joint 


xi. 16 


jor 


darz 


darz. 


Joke, a 




thatha, bazi 


mazaUl 


toka. 


Journey 


viii. 47 


safar 


safar 


safar. 


Joyful (glad) 










Juice 




'arak 


shira, ab 


lu'ab. 


Jump, to 


viii. 26 


kudna 


paridan 


top wahal. 


Justice 




in§af 


insaf " 


insaf. 


Key 


ii. 67 


kunji 


kalid 


kunji. 


Keep, to 


i. 29 


rakbna 


dashtan 


laral. 


Kick, to 


viii. 44 


lat marna 


lakad zadan 


lagata wahal. 


Kid 


iii. 37 


bakrl ka bacb- 

cba 
mar dalna 


buz ghala 


wuz kurai. 


Kill 


i. 39 


kushtan 


wazhal. 


Kiln 


xi. 56 


bbatti 


pazawa 


batai. 



Digitized by 



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VOCABUXABT AND INDEX. 



Ill 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu, 


Persian. 


Paahtu. 


Kind 




Ipsm 


rakm 


kism. 


Kind (adj.) 




mihrban 


mihrban 


mihrban. 


Kindness 




mihrbani 


mihrbani 


mihrbani. 


King 


i. 71 


padshah 


badshah 


badshah. 


Kink 


x. 24 


girih 


girih 


ganda. 


Kiss, to 


i. 76 


chumna 


bosidan 


kkfrkwalawul. 


Knave (scoun- 










drel) 










Knee 


ix. 82 


guthni 


zanu 


pandai. 


Knife 




chhuri 


kard 


charuh. 


Know, to 


ii. 40 


janna 


danistan 


pohedal. 


Knowledge 


vii. 18 


'ilm 


'ilm 


'ilm. 


Labour 




mihnat 


mihnat 

* 


mihnat. >, 


Labourer 










(cooly) 










Ladder 


xi. 12 


sirhi 


nardban, zina 


andarpaya. 


Ladle 




bara chamcha 


kafgir » 


tsamtsa. 


Lady 


ii. 112 


mem sahib 


bibi 


bibi. 


Lake 




talao 


talab 


talaw. 


Lamb 


iii. 17 


halwan 


barra 


psuh. 


Lame 




langra 


lang 


g u £. 


Lamp 


ii. 9 


chiragk 


chiragh 


diwa. 


Lance 


xii. 15 


barcha 


neza 


naiza. 


Land 




zamin 


zamim 


zmuka. 


Language 




zaban 


zaban 


zhaba. 


Large 




bara 


kalan 


loe, 


Last year 




par sal 


sal i guzashta 


paros kal. 


Late (adv.) 




awere 


na wakt 


na wakht. 


Late (delay) 










Laugh, to 


ii. 107 


hansna 


^andldan 


khandal. 


Laugh at, to 




khili k. 


rish ttandi k. 


toke k. 


Law 




shar'a 


shar'a 


shar'a. 


Lay, to, as 










bricks 


xi. 10 


lagana 


.chaspanidan 


lagawal. 


Layer 


xi. 61 


radda 


tab 


tau. 


Lazy 


ii. 104 


sust 


kahil 


sust.i* 


Lead 


xii. 11 


sisa 


surb 


sika. 


Leaf, of tree 




patti 


barg 


panri. 


Leaf, of book 




warak 


warak 


panri. 


Lean 




dubla 


la^ir 


dangar. 


Learn, to 




slkhna 


amofchtan 


zda k. 


Leather 




chamra 


charm 


tsarman. 


Leave go, to 


viii. 33 


chhorna 


guzashtan 


pregdal. H 


Left 


ii. 12 


baen 


chap 


guts. 


Leg (foot) 










Leisure 


ii. 17 . 


fursat 


fursat 


wuzgartya. 


Lemon 




nirabu 


limun 


nimbu. 



Digitized by 



Googk 



112 



VOCABULARY AND IITOEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Lemon-juice 


iii. 13 


nimbu ka 'arak 


ab i limu 


da nimbu 'arak 


Lend, to 


vi. 25 


kar? dena 


karz dadan 


por warkawai. 


Let alone, to 


ii.7 


rahne dena 


guzashtan 


prekhal. 


Letter 


vii. 1 


cbitthi 


l&aji 


khat. 


Level 


xi.15 


ham war 


hamwar 


barabar. 


Lid 


xi. 99 


dhakhna 


takhta i bala 
sar posh 


da pas takhta 
bargholai. 


Lie, to 


ii. 24 


letna 


daraz shudan 


tsumlastal. 


Lie (false) 










Lift, to 




uthana 


bar dashtan 


purta kawal. 


Light, not 










dark 




roshan 


roshan 


rokkhan. 


Light, to 


ii. 9 


jalana 


afro^tan 


balak. 


Light, not 










heavy 




halka 


subuk 


spuk. 


Lighten, to 


iv. 20 








Lightning 




bijli 


bark 


tandar. 


Like, to 


iii. 20 


pasand k. 


pasand k. 


kfcwakhawal. 


Limbs 


xiii. 8 


a'?a 


a'za 


andamuna. 


Lime 


xi. 5 


chuna 


ahak 


chuna. 


Lime, quick 




dalla chuua 


ahak i jandar 


zhwandai 
chuna. 


Lining 




astar 


astar 


astar 


Lip 




honth 


lab 


shunda, lab. 


List 




fihrist 


fihrist 


fihrist 


Litter 


xi. 66 


kura 


itas Utashak 


khasokhashak 


Little, a 


ii. 88 


zarra 


kadare 


lag or lug. 


Live, to, dwell 


i. 23 


rahna 


mandan 


osedal. 


Liver 


xiii. 2 


jigar 


jigar 


dzigar. 


Lizard 




chhipkali 


chilpasa 


tsarmukitka. 


Load 


viii. 48 


bojh 


bar 


bar. 


Load, to, a cart 


viii. 23 


ladna 


bar k. 


barawal. 


Load, to, a gun 


xii. 20 


bharna 


pur k. 


dakawal. 


Loan 


vi. 22 


kar? 


kar? 


por. 


Lock 


ii. 67 


tala 


kufl 


jandra. 


Lock, of gun 




chanp 


chakmafc 


chakhma&h 


Long 


ii. 102 


lanba 


daraz 


plan. 


Look for, to 


viii. 59 


talash k. 


talash k. 


latawal. 


Loophole 


xii. 29 


randa 


tirkash 


morcha. 


Loss (damage) 










Loose 


viii. 30 


dhila 


narm 


narma. 


Low 




nicha 


faro, pain 


lande. 


Loudly 


ii. 49 


zor se 


ba awaz i bu- 


pa zor. 








land 




Lucerne 


ii. 52 


shaftal 


shaftal 


shantala. 


Mad [glass 




pagal 


diwana 


lewanai. 


Magnifying 




Jcturd bin 


&hurd bin 


khurd bin 



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VOCABULARY AKD HTDEX. 



113 



English. 


Btf. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Make, to 




banana 


saltan 


jorawal. 


Mallet 


viii. 22 


mallat 


mekhkob 


dabalai. 


Malleable 


xi. 22 


suchchi patti 

ka 
admi 


kuft pazir 


narma. 


Man 


i. 1 


mardum 


sarai. 


Mango 




am 


amba 


amb. 


Manner 


x. 11 


Jarah 


Jaur 


shan. 


Manure 


xi. 66 


khat 


khashak 


sura. 


Many 




bahut 


bisyar 


der. 


March, to 


xii. 18 


kunch k. 


kuch k. 


rawana k. 


Mare 


viii. 61 


ghorj 


madiyan 


aspa. 


Mark 


x. 3 


nishan 


nishan 


naklia. 


Market 




bazar 


bazar 


bazar. 


Marriage 




shadi 


shadi 


waduh. 


Marsh 


viii. 67 


jhli 


chaman, gilab 


jn- 


Master 


ii.32 


sahib 


sahib 


sahab. 


Mast 




mastul 


tir i jahaz 


da jahaz tir. 


Mathematics 


vii. 17 


'ilm i riya?i 


'ilm i riyazi 


'ilm i riyaz. 


Matting 


xi. 84 


chatai 


boriya 


puzai. 


Meaning 




ma'nl 


ma'ni 


ma'na. 


Measure 


vi. 26 


paimana 


paimana 


paimana. 


Measure, to 


xi. 51 


napna 


paimaish k. 


kach k. 


Meat 


i. 34 


gosht 


gosht 


ghwak^a. 


Medicine 




dawa 


daru 


dawai. 


Meet, to 


viii. 42 


milna 


mulaki shudan 


milya kedal. 


Mend, to 


xi. 87 


marammat k. 


marammat k. 


maramat k. 


Merchant 




saudagar 


tajir 


saudagar. 


Mere 


ii. 91 


sirf 


sirf 


sirp. 


Messenger 


vii. 10 


kasid 


kasid 


kasid. 


Metalled 


ix. 40 


pakka 


pukhta 


pakha. 


Midnight 




adhi rat 


nimshab 


nimashpa. 


Middle 




bich 


miyan 


myanz. 


Milk 


iii. 12 


dudh 


shir 


pai. 


Milk, to 


iii. 35 


dohna 


doshidan 


lweshal. 


Mill, hand- 




chakki 


asya e dastl 


mechan. 


Mill, water- 




panchakki 


asyab 


asyab. 


Mind, to 


ii. 20 








Mine, a 




khan 


kan 


kan. 


Minute 


v. 12 


laraha 


lam ha 


lahza. 


Miixor 




aina * 


aina 


aina. 


Mix, to 


iii. 27 


milana 


amefchtan 


gadk. 


Moist (damp) 










Moment 










(minute) 










Money 




rupaie 


nakd 


naghd. 


Monkey 




bandar 


bozna 


bizo. 


Montb^ 


ii. 56 


mahina 


milh 


miyasht. 


Moon 1 


v. 24 


chaud 1 


mah 


miyasht. 



Digitized by 



Googk 



114 



TOCABULABT AND INDXX. 



EnglUh. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Periian. 


Pashtu. 


More i 


ri. 8 


aur \ 


riyada 


eyat. 


Morning i 


riii. 65 


subh i 


§ubh 


saba. 


Mortar 3 


ri. 8 


chuna 


riiamir i ahak 


chuna. 


Most i 


lx. 27 


akgar 


akgar 


der. 


Mother 




ma 


madar 


mor. 


Mould 


rii. 11 


sancha 


kalib 


kalab. 


Mount, to 


riii. 3 


sawar hona 


sawar shudan 


Bwaredal. 


Mouse 




chub a 


mush 


rouga. 


Moustache 




much 


barut 


bret. 


Mouth 




munh 


dahan 


Ulluh. 


Move, to (act.) 




sarkana 


iumbanidan 
bisvar 


khwazawal. 


Much 


iv. 20 


bahut 


der. 


Mud 


ix. 81 


kichar 


fcfcuab 


chikare. 


Mulberry 










(tree) 


ix. 67 


tut 


tut 


tut. 


Mule 




itachchar 


katir 


Uiachchar. 


Musician 


xii. 28 


bajewala 


mujrib 


dum, bajewal. 


Musket 


ix. 27 


banduk 


tufang 


topak. 


Mustard 




rai 


fchardal 


sarsham. 


Must 


ii. 105 








Mutiny 




baghawat 


baghawat 


yaghitob. 


Mutineer 


xii. 20 


baghi 


baghi 


yaghi. 


Mutton 


iii. 31 


bheri ka gosht, 
matan 


goshtigospand 


dapsa ghwa- 
klia. 


My 


i. 1 


mer-a (-e, -I) 


-i-manror -am 


dzama. 


Nail, iron 


xi. 101 


preg 


meJsh 


me^. 


Nail, hand 




nakkun 


nakhun 


nuk. 


Naked 




nanga 


birahna 


luts laghar. 


Name 


ii. 21 


nam 


nam 


num. 


Narrow 




saur, tang 


tang 


tang. 


Native country 


ii. 53 


wajan 


wajan 


wajan. 


Near 


ii. 1 


nazdik 


nazdik 


nizhde. 


Nearly 




karib 


karib 


karib. 


Neck 




gardan 


gardan 


gardan. 


Necktie 




galaband 


guluband 


gardan baud. 


Necessary 


iv. 8 


zarur 


Dakar 


zariir. 


Needle 


xi. 101 


sui 


sozan 


stan. 


Negligent 


ii. 104 


ghafil 


ghafil 


ghafil. 


Never 


v. 22 


kabhl na 


gahe na 


hechere na. 


New 


ii. 95 


naiya 


nau 


nauwai. 


News 


ii. 38 


khabar 


khabar 


khabar. 


Newspaper 


vii. 18 


akhbar 


akhbar 


akhbar. 


Nice 




achchha 


khub 


ktuh. 


Nicely 


vii. 7 


achchhi &arah 


ba l&ubi 


pa khuh shan. 


Niche 




tak 


tak 


Jak. 


Night 


ii. 42 


rat 


shab 


shpa. 


Nipple, gun 


1 xii. 10 | topi dan 


pata]&i dan 


topi dan. 








Digitized by VjC 


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TOCABULAET AND INDEX. 



115 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Noise 


ii. 18 


ghul 


shor 


shor. 


None 


xi. 16 


koi nahin 


hech na 


hets na. 


Noon 


iv. 15 


do pahar 


nim roz 


gharma. 


North 




uttar 


shimal 


kutub khwa. 


Northern 


ix. 77 


uttar wala 


shimali 


shimali. 


Nose 




nak 


bini 


poza. 


Not 


i. 66 


na, nahin 


na 


na. 


Note, letter 




chitthi 


ruk 'a 


khajt. 


Nothing 




kuch nahin 


hech na 


hets na. 


Now 




abhi, ab 


aknun 


OS. 


Oath 




saugand 


^asam 


saugand. 


Obey, to 




manna 


farman bar- 
dari k. 


manal. 


Obtained, to be 


ix. 50 


milna 


hasil shudan 


milya kedal. 


O'clock 


iii. 34 


baja 


nawaMlt (baja) 
sa'at 


baja. 


Officer 




sardar 


'uhdedar 


sardar. 


Oil 


ii. 90 


tel 


raughan 


tel. 


Old 


v. 16 








Old, man 




budha 


pir 
kuhna 


zor, spingirai. 


Old, thing 




purana 


zor. 


Olive 


ix. 67 


zaitun 


zaitun 


khowan. 


On 


i. 23 


ke upar, par 


bala e, ba 


pa— bande. 


Onion 




piyaz 


piyaz 


piyaz. 


Only 


xi. 39 


sirf 


sirf 


sirp. 


Open, to 


ii. 8 


kholna 


wa k. 


lare k. 


Or 


ii. 48 


ya,ki 


1* 


ka. 


Orange 


iii. 18 


narangi 


naranj 


naranj. 


Order (com- 










mand) 










Order, to 




farmana 


farmudan 


farmayal. 


Other 


ii. 110 


aur 


digar 


nor. 


Oar 


i. 60 


hamara (-e, -i) 


-i-ma 


dzamuug. 


Out 




bahar 


berun 


bahar. 


Over 


ix. 5 


upar 


bala 


pas. 


Owl 




ulu 


bum 


ulu. 


Own 


ii. 20 


apna (-e, -i) 


-i-Uiud 


khpuL 


Ox 




bail 


nargao 


ghwayai. 


Pack up, to 


viii. 24 


band k. 


band k. 


bandawal. 


Pack saddle 




pal an 


palan 


palan. 


Pace, a 


x.8 


kadam 


kadam 


^adam. 


Page 


vii. 8 


safha 


safha 


mu£h. 


Pain 


xiii. 12 


dard 


dard 


dard. 


Paint (color) 










Pair 




jora 


juft 


jora. 


Pale 




zard 


zard 


zyar. 



i2 

Digitized by UOOQ IC 



116 



VOCABCLABT AND INDEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Pan, priming 




ranjak dan 


ranjak dan 


ranjak dan. 


Paper 


i. 13 


kagbaz 


kaghaz 


kaghaz. 


Parapet, of 










Port 


xii. 29 


sina panah 


sina panah 


sina panah. 


Parapet 


xi. 75 


manderi 


diwar i parda 


da tsang diwal. 


Pare 


xi. 98 


chbilna 


tarashidan 


tsiral. 


Parrot 




tota 


toil 


%o%l. 


Partridge 


iii. 38 


titar 


durraj 


tsanzarai. 


Partridge, 










striped 




chakor 


kabk . 


zarka. 


Party 


x. 1 


raadad 


madad 


madad. 


Pass, a 


iv. 7 


kho 


darra 


dara. 


Pass, to 




guzarna 


guzashtan 


teredal. 


Pat, to 


viii. 27 


tapki dena 


dast malidan 


las makhal. 


Path, foot 


i. 57 


pagdandi 


rah i fchurd 


wara lar. 


Patience 


ii. 14 


sabr 


sabr 


sabr. 


Pattern 




namuna 


namuna 


namuna. 


Pay (wages) 










Pea 




matar 


mash 


moth. 


Pear 


iii. 18 


nashpati 


nashpati 


naspat. 


Peg 


ii. 86 


kbunti 


mekh 


mogai. 


Pen 


vii. 1 


kalam 


kalam 


kalam. 


Penal Code, 




ta'zirat i hind 


ta'zirat i hind 


ta'zirat i hind. 


Indian 










Penknife 


xi. 97 


chaku 


chaku, kalam 
tarash 


chaku. 


People 




log 


aalk 


khalk. 


Pepper 




mirch 


pilpil 


mruch. 


Perfectly 


x.20 


thik 


durust 


jukkt. 


Permanent 




pakka, musta- 
ijazat 


mustalpl 


mustakil, pott 


Permission 




ijazat 


ijazat. 


Perpendicular 


xi. 50 


sldha 


'amudan 


negh. 


Persian wheel 




arhat 


dolab 


arat. 


Pestle&mortar 




kutak kundi 


dasta ha wan 


molaibagharal. 


Petition 




'arzi 


darkhwast 


darkhwast. 


Pickles 


iii. 41 


achar 


achar 


achar. 


Pick up, to 


i. 38 


uthana 


bardashtan 


porta k. 


Pick-axe 


xi. 40 


gainti 


kulang 


gentai. 


Picture 


vii. 14 


taswir 


taswir 


taswir. 


Piece 


iii. 26 


tukra 


para 


tuk. 


Pier 


xi. 74 


pai 


pal 


pl&a. 


Pierce, to 




chhedna 


suftan 


arpar yastal. 


Pillow 


ii. 89 


takya 


balish 


baiikht. 


Pin 


xi. 31 


pin, alpin, sui 


sozan, mekh 


stan, maugai. 


Pine apple 




annanas 


annanas 


annanas. 


Pistol 


i. 43 


pis tol, tam anchi 


tufangcha 


tamancha. 


Pistachio nuts 


iii. 18 


pista 


pista 


pista. 



Digitized by 



Google 



YOCABTTLAEY AHD INDEX. 



117 



English. 


Btf. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Pitch, to, tent 


viii. 18 


khara k. 


istada k. 


darawul. 


Pitcher 




ghara 


sabo 


garai. 


Place 


x. 21 


jagah 


ja 


dzae. 


Plainly 


xi. 3 


saf 


sahih 


tsargand. 


Plan 


vii. 4 


naksha 


naksha 


naksha. 


Plane 


i. 56 


ran da 


randa 


randa. 


Plant, to 


xi. 53 


jam ana 


nihal kardan 


butai lagawal. . 


Plantain 




kela 


mauz 


kela. 


Plaster 


xi.94 


plastar 
bartan 


astarkari 


plastar. 


Plate 




bushkab 


talai. 


Play, to 


ii. 112 


khelna 


bazi k. 


lobe k. 


Pleasure 




khushi 


khurrami 


khwakhi. 


Plough, a 




hal 


kulba 


kulba. 


Plough, to 


ix. 55 


lal jotna 


kulba randan 


yawl k. 


Pluck, to 


iii. 37 


par ukharna 


par kashidan 


par yastal. 


Plumb Kne 


xi. 11 


sahul 


sahawul 


sahul. 


Pocket 




jeb 


jeb 


jeb. 


Poetry 


vii. 16 


nazm 


nazm 


nazam. 


Pole 




ball! 


situn, tir 


ballai 


Pole, tent 


viii. 19 


chob 


chob i ktaima 


lakara. 


Police- station 


xi. 83 


thanna 


kotwali 


tsaukai. 


Polish 


i. 65 


saikal k. 


saikai k. 


saikai k. 


Polisher 




sikll gar 


saikal gar 


saikai gar. 


Pomegranate 


iii. 21 


anar 


anar 


anar. 


Pony 


viii. 36 


tattu 


yabu 


tatu. 


Poppy 


- 


khashkhash 


khashkhash 


khashUiash. 


Poor 




gharlb 


gharib 


gharib. 


Porter (coolie) 










Post 




tham 


situn 


stan. 


Post, mail 




dak 


dak 


dag. 


Postage 


vii. 11 


mahsul 


mahsul 


mahsul. 


Potter 


xi. 78 


kumhar 


kulal, kuzagar 


kulal. 


Potter's wheel 




charfch, chak 


charkh i kuza- 
gar 


tsarkh. 


Pouch 


xii. 13 


tost dan 


tost dan 


toshdan. 


Pound, for 










cattle 




kanji haus 


maweshikhana 


kanji ghar. 


Pound, to 


iii. 28 


pisna 


saldan 


maida k. 


Pour, to 


iii. 29 


dalna 


andakhtan 


toyawal. 


Prescription 




nuskha 


nuskha 


nuskha. 


Present 


i. 69 


hazir 


hazir 


hazir. 


Preserves 


iii. 18 


murabba 


murabba 


murabba. 


Prevailing 


xiii. 4 








Price 


vi. 5 


dam 


kimat 


baya. 


Priming 




ranjak 


ranjak 


ranjak. 


Principal 


vi. 24 


a si 


a si 


asl. 


Print, to 


vii. 13 


chhapna 


ma$bu' k. 


chap k. 


Printer 


vii. 18 chhapnewala 


mulbi* 


chap kawunkai 








Digitizec 


byGoOQle 



11% 



T0CA.B1TI.ABT ABTD INDEX. 



Engltih. 


Be/. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Prison 




je khana 


kaid liana 


kaid Miana. 


Prisoner 




fcaidi 


fcaidi 


kaidi, bandi. 


Procrastina- 










tion. 




tal maholi 


lait o la'l 


zand. 


Promise 


ii. 65 


wa 'da 


wa'da 


wada. 


Promotion 




tarakfci 


tarakfci 


tarakfei. 


Pronounce 


vii. 5 


talaffuz k. 


talaffuz k. 


talaffuz k. 


Properly 




achchhi larah 
se 


ba khubi 


pa khuh shan 
sara. 


Prose 


vii. 16 


nagr 


nagr 


nagar. 


Proverb 


vii. 15 


magal 


magal 


matal. 


Pull (drag) 










Pulse 


xiii. 21 


nab? 


nabz 


nabz. 


Punkha 


ii. 71 


pankha 


bad kash 


pakai. 


Punish, to 


ii. 110 


saza dena 


saza dadan 


saza warkawal. 


Punishment 




saza 


saza 


saza. 


Pure, metal 


vi. 21 


Utah's. 


Mali's 


kara. 


Purgative 


xiii. 16 


jalab 
bujhana 


mushil 


jar. 


Put out, to 


ii. 10 


gulk. 


mrah k. 


Quail 




batera 


budna 


maraza 


Quarter 


v. 7 


pao or chau- 
thai 


chaharum £i§- 
6 a, ruba' 


tsalorana. 


Question 




suwal 


suwal 


suwal. 


Quit (leave go) 










Quick 




jald 


zud 


zar. 


Quickly 


ii. 15 


jaldi 


ba zudi 


zar. 


Quiet (silent) 










Quiet, tame 


viii. 43 


gharib 


gharib 


asil. 


Quince 


iii. 18 


bihi 


bihi 


bihai. 


Quite 


iv. 10 


Stub 


bi-1-kull 


tuk. 


Radiating 


xi. 13 


chalaki men 


mail ba markaz 


markaz ta mail. 


Eafter 




kari 


tir 


tir. 


Eag 


xiii. 25 


kapra 


latta 


tsirra. 


Rain, to 


i.57 


pan! parna 


baran shudan 


baran kedal. 


Rainbow 




dhanuk 


kaus i kuzah 


da budai taL 


Eaise, to 




uncha k. 


buland k. 


porta k. 


Eaised, to be, 










a regiment 


xii. 1 


khara bona 


mukarrar sh. 


mukarrarkedal 


Eaisin 


iii. 16 


kishmish 


munak^a 


mawlz. 


Earn, to 


xi. 95 


kutna 


kuftan 


takawal. 


Earn rod 




gaz 


gaz 


gaz. 


Rammer 


xi.42 


durmat 


gil kob 


durmat. 


Eank 


xii. 4 


'uhda 


'uhda 


'uhda. 


Eat (mouse) 










Ravine 


ix. 18 


nala 


ab rau, ju 


khwar. 


Razor ' 




ustara 


paki, ustara 

Digitized by V_ 


pakai. 



TOCABULABT AND INDEX. 



119 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Bead, to 


vii. 2 


parhna 


khwandan 


lwustal. 


Beady 


ii. 75 


taiyar 


taiyar 


jor. 


Beason 


ii. 107 


sabab 


sabab 


sabab. 


Rebate 


xi. 81 


patam 


jari 


patam. 


Bebellion 




balwa 


baghawat 


yaghigari. 


Beceive 


xi. 2 


pan a 


yaftan 


mundal. 


Beceipt 




rasid 


fcabz ul wasul 


rasid. 


Becipe (pre- 










scription) 










Recognize 


ii. 31 


pahchanna 
lal 


shinakhtan 


pezhandal. 


Bed 


iii. 30 


surkh 


sur. 


Beed 


viii. 73 


sarkanda 


nai 


darwai. 


Beins 




ras 


ligam 


bage. 


Begiment 


xii. 1 


paltan 
bayan k. 


dasta-i-sipah 


paltan. 


Belate, to 




bayan k. 


bayan k. 


Relation, a 




rishtadar 


rishtadar 


rishtadar. 


Belationship 




rishtadari 


rishtadari 


^palwi. 


Remain, to 


v. 1 


rahna 


mandan 


osedaL 


Remember, to 


ii. 4 


yad rakhna 


yad dashtan 


yad laral. 


Benew, to 


xi. 84 








Best 




aram 


aram 


aram. 


Best, to 


viii. 46 


mukam k. 


kaiyam k. 


tikao k. 


Beservoir 




talab 


hauz 


talab. 


Beturn, to 


ii. 30 


phir ana 


baz ainadan 


ragarzedal. 


Beward 




in' am 


in'am 


in'am. 


Bheumatism 


xiii. 3 


bai 


rih 


bad. 


Bhinoceros 




kargadan 


kargadan, k. 


gendai. 


Bib 




pasli 


ustukljwan i 
pahlii 


pukjhtai. 


Rich 




daulatmand 


ghani 


dunyadar. 


Bice 


vi. 15 


chaiiwal 


birinj 


wrizhe. 


Biding 


ix. 2 


sawar 


sawar 


swor. 


Rifle 


xii. 7 


rafal 


tufang i raihr 
dar 


rakjjdar tupak 
jazail. 


Bight, band 


ii. 12 


dahina 


rast 


shai las. 


Bight (correct) 










Bight angles, 










at 


x. 17 


gunya men 


'amud 


khi gut. 


Bind 


iii 22. 


chhilka 


post 
nalfca 


postakai. 
nalka. 


Bing 




chhala 


Bing, finger 




anguthi 


angushtari 


guta. 


Bing, to 


xi. 64 








Ripe 


iii. 30 


pakka 


pu]&ta 


pakh. 


Rise, to, sun, 










Ac. 


v. 24 


nikalna 


julu 'shudan 


rakbatal. 


Rise, to make 










birds 


viii. 74 








Biver 


viii. 2 


naddi 


darya 


sind. 








Digitizec 


by Google 



120 



YOCABFLABY AND INDEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Eoad 


viii. 5 


rasta 


rah 


lar 


Eoast, to 


hi. 17 


kabab k. 


kabab k. 


kabab k. 


Bobbery 




chori 


duzdl 


ghla 


Bod 


x. 13 


gaz 


gaz 


hamsa 


Boof 


xi. 12 


chhat 


sakf 


kotah 


Boom 




kamara 


hujra 


hujra 


Boom, space 


xi. 34 


jagah 


jae 


dzae 


Boot 


i. 53 


j ar 


bekh 


wuli 


Bope 


i. 38 


rassi 


respan 


purai 


Bose 




gulab 


gul i surkh 


gulab 


Bosewater 




gulab ka 'arak 


gulab 


da gulabo 'arafe: 


Bot, to 


i. 66 


murjhana 


pazhmurda sh. 


mur kedal 


Bound 




gol 


mudawwar 


gard 


Bound, to go 


viii. 42 


ghumna 


gardidan 


gardedal 


Bub, to 


viii. 63 


malna 


malidan 


mukhal 


Buby 




la'l 


la'l, yakut 


yakut 


Budder 




paswar 


paswar, H. 


singawanr 


Bug 




kalicha 


kalin 


kalin 


Buler 


xi. 96 


misjar 


misjar 


mistar 


Bun, to 


i. 70 


daurna 


dawidan 


zghaledal 


Bun, to (flow) 










Busty 


xii. 8 


morcha khaya 
hua 


zangdar 


zangdar. 


Saddle 


iv. 15 


zin 


zin 


zin 


Safe 




salamti se 


ba aman 


salamat 


Safety 




salamti 


aman 


salamatya 


Sailor 




manji 


mallah 


mainrgai 


Salt 


iii. 41 


namak 


namak 


malga 


Same 


v. 19 


ekhi, yahi 


hamin, haman 


ham dagha 


Sand 


xi. 39 


ret 


reg 


shuge 


Sand grouse 


viii. 70 


bantitar 


baghal £ara 


tsanzarai, sisal 


Sapphire 




nilam 


safir 


safir 


Saucer 


iii. 9 


pirich 


na'lbaki 


rekabai 


Saucepan 




degchi 


degcha, deg 


degchai 


Saw 


xi. 18 


ara 


arra 


ara 


Say, to 


ii. 49 


kahna 


guftan 


wayal 


Scabbard 


xii. 12 


miyan 


miyan 


tuka 


Scaffold 


xi. 88 


sandali 


sandali 


andarpaya 


Scales 


vi. 20 


tarazu 


tarazu 


tulah 


School 


vii. 17 


ra ad rasa 


madrasa 


madrasa. 


Scimitar 


i. 65 


talwar 


shamsher 


tura. 


Scissors 


xi. 102 


kainchi 


mikraz 


byatai. 


Scorpion 


ix. 72 


bichchhti 


kazhdum 


lar am. 


Scoundrel 


ii. 100 


badma'ash 


badma'ash 


badkar. 


Scrape, to 










(pare) 










Scratch, to 


Ii. 52 


chbilna 


kharashidan 

Digitized by VJ 


ghutsawal. 

ooQle 



VOCABULABT UTD IlfDII. 



121 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pathlu. 


Scratch out, to 




mitana 


mahw k. 


mahwa k. 


Screw 


xi. 23 


pech 


pech 


pech. 


Screwdriver 




pech kash 


pech kash 


pech kash. 


Screen, sieve 


xi. 68 


chhanna 


gfeirbal 


parwezai. 


Screen, curtain 




parda 


parda 
bahr 


parda. 


Sea 




samundar 


kari daryab. 


Seal 


vii. 11 


muhr 


muhr 


muhr. 


Search, to 


ii.43 


talash k. 


justan 


latawal. 


Season 




mausim 


mausam 


mosam. 


Second 


vii. 8 


dusra 


doyum 


dwayam. 


Sedan 


ix. 3 


doll 


palki 


palkai. 


See, to 


i. 35 


dekhna 


dldan 


katal. 


Seed 




by 


tu&hm 


tukhm. 


Seer 


vi. 11 


sir 


agar 


ser. 


Seize 


vi. 22 


pakarna 


giriftan 


niwal. 


Sell, to 


vi. 29 


bechna 


farokhtan 


Uhartsawal. 


Send, to 


i. 30 


bhejna 


faristadan 


legal. 


Sentry* 


xii. 6 


pahrewala 


pasban 


pahra dar. 


Servant 


i. 31 


naukar 


inulazim 


naukar. 


Serve, to 


xii. 3 


naukri k. 


mulazimat k. 


naukari k. 


Severe 


ii. 110 


sakht 


sakht 


sakht. 


Sew, to 


i. 70 


sina 


dokhtan 


gandal. 


Shade 


ii. 73 


fan us 


fanus 


pan us. 


Shake, to 


i. 55, & 
t 22 


hilana 


jumbanidan 


tsandawal. 


Shame 


JLt £i£i 


sharm 


sharm 


sharm. 


Shape 


ii. 98 


shaki 


shakl 


shekl. 


Sherbet 


iii. 15 


sharbat 


sharbat 


sharbat. 


Shawl 


vi. 10 


sbal 


shal 


shal a. 


She 


i. 29 


wuh, yih 





da, hagha. 


Sheep 


i. 32 


bher 


gospand, mesh 


gud. 


Sheepskin 


ii. 103 


postin 


postin 


postin. 


Sheeshum 


ix. 67 


shisham, sisu 




shawa. 


Sheet 




chaddar 


chaddar 


tsadar. 


Shelf 


ii. 74 


ta&hta 


takhta 


Jak. 


Shine, to 


i. 65 


chamakna 


darakhshidan 


dzaledal. 


Shivering 


xiii. 19 


larza 


larza 


larza. 


Ship 




nao 


jahaz 


jahaz. 


Shirt 




kamis 


pairahan, kamis 


j kurta. 


Shoe 


ii. 74 


juti 


pae posh 


parire. 


Shoemaker 




mocki 


paizar doz, or 
kafsh doz 


mochi. 


Shoot, to 




bandufc cha- 
lana 


bandu^: sar k. 
or chalani- 
danH. 


topak chalawal 


Shoot, to, game 




shikar khelna 


said k. 


k^kar k. 


Shooting or 










hunting 




shikar 


1 shikar 

Digitize 


k£hkar. 
dbyGoOQk 



122 



TOCABULAET AND INDEX. 



"English, 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Shop 


ii. 92 


dukan 


dukan 


dukan, atal. 


Short 


i. 12 


chhota 


kfcurd 


wor. 


Shot, small 




chharra 


sachraa 


chare. 


Shot, gun 


xii. 16 


gola 


gola 


golai. 


Shoulder 


xiii. 24 


kandha 


shana, dosh 


mut. 


Show, to 




dikhlana 


namudan, ni- 
shan dadan 


kkayal. 


Shrink 


xi. 57 


ghatna 


kotah gashtan 


warukai k. or 
Ian dedal. 


Shut 


ii. 70 


band 


band 


pura. 


Shut, to 


ii. 8 


band k. 


band k. 


pura k. 


Sick, ill 




bimar 


marl? 


randzur najor. 


Sickness 










(vomit) 










Side 


viii. 42 


Jaraf 


jaraf 


Hiwa. 


Siege 




muhasara,kil'a 
band! 


muhasara 


kil'a bandl. 


Sieve (screen) 










Sift, to 


xi. 68 


chhanna 


beEttan 


chanrawul. 


Sight, a 




tamasha 


tamasha 


tamasha. 


Sight 


ix. 9 


nazr 


nazr 


nazar. 


Silent 


ii. 3 


chup 


khamosh 


chup. 


Silver 


vi. 20 


chandi 


slm 


spin zar. 


Sing, to 




gana 


saraidan 


sandare wayal. 


Sink, to 


ix. 81 


phasjana, dub- 


faro raftan 


dubedal. 


Sir 


ii. 57 


na 
sahib, ji 


sahib, janab 


sahiba. 


Sister 


i. 5 


bahin 


khwahar, ham- 
shira 


H^or. 


Sit, to 


ii. 24 


baithna 


nishistan 


kenastal. 


Skin 




chamra 


charm 


tsarman. 


Skin, to 


Hi. 37 


khal utarna 


post kashidan 


postakai yastal 


8ky 


iv. 10 


asman 


asman 


asman. 


Skylight 




khirki 


tabdan 


roshandan. 


Slake, to 


xi. 92 


bharkana 


khamir k. 


kfcamir k. 


Slave 


vi. 23 


ghulam 


ghulam 


ghulam. 


Sleep 




nind 


khwab 


khob. 


Sleep, to 


iv, 16 


sona 


£huspidan 


khob k. 


Sleeve 




astin 


astin 


lastarirai. 


Slip, to 


i. 60 


phisalna 


laghzidan 


khoedal. 


Slippery 
Slight 


i. 57 

xii. 25 


phisli 
Khaflf 


laghzan 
khafif 


Guyana, 
lug. 


Slope 


ix. 42 


salami 


salami 


salami. 


Sloping * 


ix. 42 


salami men 


salami dar 


salami. 


Slow, a horse, 










Ac. 


i. 9 


sust 


sust, kam rah 


sust. 


Slowly 


ix. 31 


ahisti 


ahisti 


roro. 


Small 


iii. 26 


chhota 


kkiird 


wor. 



Digitized by 



Googk 



TOCABULAET AND INDEX. 



128 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pushtu. 


Smell, to 


i. 46 


sunghna 


boidan 


boe k. 


Smoke 




dhuan 


dud 


lugai. 


Smooth 


i. 56 


chikna 


hamwar 


hamwar. 


Snake 


ix. 72 


samp 


mar 


mar. 


Snipe 


viii. 67 


chaha 


karak 


kakuwai 


Snow 


iv. 4 


barf 


barf 


barf. 


Snuff 




naswar 


naswar 


naswar. 


Soap 




sabun 


sabun 


sabun. 


So 


ii.36 


aisa 


in Jaur 


dase. 


Soft 


viii. 59 


narm 


narm 


narm. 


Soil 


xi. 37 


mitti 


gil 


khawra. 


Soldier 


ix. 6 


sipahi 


sipahi 


spai. 


Some 


iii. 12 


kuchh 


kadare 


tsuh lug. 


Son 


i.2 


beta 


pisar 


zoe. 


Song 




git 


sarod 


sandare. 


Soon 




jaldl 


ba zudi 


zar. 


Sore, a 


xiii. 18 


zakhm 


za^m 


za^m. 


Sort, kind 




kism 


kism 


kism. 


Soup 


iii. 5 


sharur 


shorba 


shorwa. 


Sour 


iii. 21 


khatta 


tursh 


triw. 


South 




dakkhan 


janub 


janub. 


Southern 


ix. 77 


dakkhan wala 


janubi 


janubi. 


Sow, to 


ix. 53 


bona 


kashtan 


karal. 


Spade 


xi.28 


belcha 


belcha 


yum. 


Span 




gn 


badist 


lwesht. 


Spark 




chingara 


sharara 


batsarai. 


Speak, to 


ii. 49 


bolna 


guftan 


wayal. 


Spectacles 




chashmak 


'ainak 


chashme. 


Speech 




takrir 


tafcrir 


takrir. 


Speech, ora- 










tion 




Khujba 


thujba 


J^ujtba. 


Spice 


iii. 28 


masalah 


masalah 


masalah. 


Spider 




makri 


'ankabut 


julagai." 


Spin, to 




katna 


tanidan 


oudal. 


Spinning wheel 




charkha 


chart^a 


tsarina. 


Spit 


iii. 38 


si^ 


sikh 


sikb 


Spit, to 




thukna 


tuf k. 


tukal. 


Splash, to 


xi.90 


chirkna 


anda^tan 


charkao k* 


Spleen 




till 


jihal [k. 


jihal. 


Split, to 


i.53 


chirna 


shigaftan, shak 


tsiral. 


Split, a 




chir 


chak 


chak. 


Sponge 




isfanj 


isfanj 


isfanj. 


Spoon 


iii. 15 


chamcha 


chamcha 


tsamtsa. 


Sprain 


xiii. 23 


moch 


pech 


^atalai. 


Spread, to 


viii. 40 


bichbana 


gustaranidan 


ghorawal. 


Spring 


iv. 5 


chashma 


chashma 


china. 


Spring, the 


iv. 17 


bahar 


bahar 


bahar, sparlai. 


Sprinkle, to 


ii. 83 


chirkna 


pashidan 


chirkao k. 



Digitized by 



Googk 



124 



VOCABCLABY AND INDEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu* 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Sprout, to 


ix. 53 


ugna 


bar amadan 


zarghunedal. 


Square, a 


xi. 11 


gunya 


kairaa, gunya 


kalma. 


Square 




chaukona 


murabba' [H. 


tsalor gutai. 


Stable 




isjabal 


asjabal 


asjabal. 


Stack 


xi.7 


chatta 


toda 


derai. 


Stack, to 




karwanja laga- 
na, dheri la- 
gana 


toda k. 


derai k. 


Staff, levelling 


x. 10 


gaz 


neza 


janda. 


Staircase 




sirhl 


zina, nardban 


andarpaya. 


Stale 


iii. 24 


basi 


bisyar roza 


beganai. 


Stand, to 


ii. 23 


khara hona 


istada shudan 


daredal 


Stand still, to 










(remain) 










Star 




tara 


sitara 


storai. 


Start, to 


viii. 45 


rawana hona 


rawana shudan 


rawanedal. 


Stay, to 




thahrna 


mandan 


osedal. 


Steal, to 


i. 40 


churana 


ba duzdl bur- 
dan 
dukhan, dud 


ghla k. 


Steam 




dhuan 


lugai. 


Steel 




ispad, faulad 


faulad 


faulad. 


Step (pace) 










Steep 


ix. 42 


khara 


istada 


negh. 


Steining 


ix. 57 








Stick 


i. 27 


lathi 


chob i dasti 


largai. 


Stiff, clay 


xi. 38 


chikna 


charb 


ziga. 


Stir, to 


iii. 15 


hilana 


jumbanidan 


khwazawal. 


Stirrup 


viii. 6 


rikab 


rikab 


rikab. 


Stomach 


xiii. 11 


pet 


shikam 


geda. 


Stone 


i. 21 


patthar 


sang 


kaiirai. 


Stone (in 




patthri 


sang i magana 


sang i ma§ana. 


bladder) 










Stony 


ix. 24 


patthrela 


sanglakhi 


kanriza. 


Stop, to (act.) 


ii. 42 


rokna 


istada k. 


darawal. 


Store 




god am 


asbab J&ana 


asbab khana. 


Storm 


iv. 24 


andhi 


Jufan 


silal. 


Studded 




jara bua 


mura8sa , 


murafsa*. 


Straight 


ii. 81 


sidha 


rast 


negh. 


Straw, a 




tinka 


kah 


khalai. 


Straw, bedding 


viii. 40 


bichhali 


kah 


lu^a. 


Strike, to 










(gong) 


v. 25 


bajana 


zadan 


ghagawal. 


String 


xi. 14 


sut 


tar 


mazai. 


Strong 


xi. 88 


mazbu$ 


mazbu( 


ma?bu$. 


Stumble, to 




thokar khan a 


budri U&wur- 
dan, sikanda- 
ri khwurdan 


budri khwaral. 


Subscription 


chanda 


chanda 


chanda. 








Digitized by Vjl 


30Qk 



VOCABULARY JLSD INDEX. 



125 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Subtract, to 


v. 1 


minhal k. 


minha k. 


tafrik k. 


Sugar 


iii. 11 


misri 


kand 


nabat. 


Suit, clothes 


ii. 95 


jora 


jora (H.) 


jora. 


Summer 


iv. 9 


garmi 


mausim i garm 


orai. 


Sun 




suraj 


aftab 


nmar. 


Sunrise 


viii. 45 


suraj nikalna 


tuhV i aftab 


da nmar ifratal 


Superstructure 


xi. 5 


'imarat upar ki 


kar i bala 


da pas kar. 


Supplies 


ix. 50 


rasad 


ajnas 


rasad. 


Supply, to 




pahunchana 


rasamdan 


rasawal. 


Swallow, a 




ab bil 


ababil 


ababil. 


Swallow, to 


iii. 22 


nigalna 


faro burdan 


nagharal. 


Swamp(marsh) 










Sweep, to 


ii. 113 


jharna 


ruftan 


jaru k. 


Sweeper 




mihtar 


khak rob 


metar. 


Sweet 


iii. 21 


mitha 


sblrin 


khog. 


Sweetmeat 


iii. 24 


mithal 


shirini 


khwaguh. 


Swift 


i. 9 


tez rau 


tez rau 


garandai. 


Swim, to 


ix. 80 


pairna 
£amchi 


shinawari k. 


lanbowahal. 


Switch 


ix.68 


kamchin 


la^hta. 


Sword 




kirich 


shamsher, saif 


tura. 


Symptom 


xiii. 9 


nishani 


'alamat 


na£ha. 


Table 


i. 20 


mez 


mez 


mez. 


Tailor 




darzi 


khaiyaj 


darzi. 


Take, to 


i. 43 


lena 


giriftan 


a£hustal. 


Take away, to 


iii. 18 


lejana 


burdan 


wral. 


Talk, to 


i. 73 


guftgu k. 


guftgu k. 


khabare k. 


Tall 


i. 11 


lanba 


buland 


lwar. 


Tank (reser- 










voir) 










Tape 


x.7 


fita 


fita 


mazai. 


Target 




chand, nishan 


nishan, amaj 


nakha. 


Tea 


iii. 4 


cha 


chae 


chae. 


Teapot 




cha pochi 


cbaedan 


chadan. 


Telescope 




durbin 


durbin 


durbin. 


Tell, to 


ix. 37 


kahna 


guftan 


wayal. 


Temple 


viii. 13 


mandir 


but kada 


d arm sal. 


Temporary 




kacha, chand 
roza 


chand roza 


chand roza. 


Tent 


viii. 16 


dera 


ihaima 


fehema. 


That 


i. 2 


wuh 


an 


hagha. 


Than 


i. 11 


so 


az 


la ... na. 


Their 


i. 3 


unka (-ke -ki) 


-i-eshan 


da bagho. 


Then 


ii. 12 


tab 


an wakt, baz 


no, hagha 


There 


ii. 23 


wahari, udhar 


an ja, an su 


halta. [waiht 


They 


i. 24 


we, ye 


eshan 


haghoi. 


Thick 


i. 13 


mota 


luk, purkar, 
ghali 


gk&\. 


Thief 


n. 110 


chor 


duzd 

Digitiz 


ghal. 
3 dbyGoOQle 



126 



VOCABULARY AND INDEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


JPashtu. 


Thin 




patla 


barik 


mahin. 


Thin (lean) 










Thing 




chiz 


chiz 


tsiz. 


Think, to 


iv. 14 


samajhna 


pin dash tan 


kbiyal k. 


Third, a 


v. 6 


tihai 


§ul§, soyumi 
hissa 


dreyama hi$a. 


This 


i. 1. 


yih 


in 


da. 


Thorn 


ix. 69 


kanta 


ihar 


aghzai. 


Thread 




sut 


tar, rishta 


mazai. 


Thread, screw 


xi. 23 


churl 


shigaf 


manz. 


Threat 




dhamkl 


takhwif 


daraka. 


Threaten 




dhamkana 


tarsanidan 


wyarawul. 


Throat 




gala 


halk 


halk. 


Through 


viii. 31 


men se 


az miyan-i- 


la na. 


Throughout 


xi. 65 


andar bahar se 


derun o berun 


be^hi. 


Throw, to 


i. 37 


phenkna 


and a kh tan 


ghurzawul. 


Throw away 




pherik dena 


and a titan 


ghurzawul. 


Thumb 




angutha 


angusht i nar 


ghata guta. 


Thunder 


iv. 20 


g ar j 


ra'd 


bre£hna. 


Tie, to 


ii. 93 


bandhna 


bastan 


tarul. 


Tiger 




sher, bagh 


palang 


zmarai. 


Tight 




tang 


tang, chust 


tang, chust. 


Tighten, to, 










girth 


viii. 32 








Tile 


xi. 79 


kbapra, nariya 


sifal 


kapra. 


Till 


iii. 36 


tak 


ta 


pa pore. 


Time 


v. 9 


wakt, baja 


wakt 


wa&ht. 


Time, in 




wakt par 


bar wafct 


pa waifrt. 


Tin 




kala'I 


fcala'i 


kalai. 


Tired 


i. 72 


thaka 


roan da 


sturai. 


Title 




lakab 


lafcab 


khijab. 


To 


i. 18 


ko 


ra, ba 


ta. 


To-day 


ii. 46 


*j 


imroz 


nun. 


Toe 




panw ki ungli 


angusht i pa 


da pj&e guta. 


Together 




sang 


baham 


sara. 


To-morrow 


i. 57 


kal 


farda 


saba. 


To-night 


xii. 5 


aj rat 
chimta 


imshab 


nun shpa. 


Tongs 




atashgir 


nusai. 


Tongue 


xiii. 22 


jib 


zaban 


zhaba. 


Tool 


xi. 70 


auzar 


auzar 


asbab. 


Tooth 




dant 


dandan 


gha^. 


Tootii-brush 
Tooth-pick 


ii. 94 


miswak 


miswak 


miswak. 




dand, itilal 


ktilal 


khilal. 


Tooth-powder 


ii. 94 


manjan 


misi 


manjan. 


Top, hill- 


viii. 1 


choti 


kulla 


tsuka. 


Torch 




mash'al 


mash'al 


mashal. 


Touch, to 


x. 13 


lagna, chuna 


chaspldan, mas 
k., dast zadan 


lagedal, mas k 



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VOCABULARY AND 


INDEX. 


127 


English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Tower 


xii. 15 


burj 


burj 
kariya 


burz. 


Town 


v. 13 


kasha 


kalai. 


Toy 


ii. 112 


kbilona 


bazlcba 


gudai. 


Traitor 


xii. 21 


namak haram 


namak haram 


namak haram. 


Translation 


ix. 36 


tarjuma 
safar k. 


tarjuma 


tarjuma. 


Travel, to 




siyahat k. 


safar k. 


Traveller 




musafir 


saiyah 


musafir. 


Tribe 


ix. 28 


kaum 


kabila 


kaum, khel. 


Trick 


ii. 91 


fareb 


fareb 


fareb. 


Trotting 


viii. 30 


dulki 


ba poya 


dulki. 


Trousers 




pantlun 


pae jama 


partug. 


Trowel 


xi. 10 


karni 


gil mala 


karandai. 


True 


ii. 40 


sach 


rast 


riHltiya. 


Trumpet 


xii. 28 


karna 


fcarna 


surna. 


Trunk, ele- 










phant's 




sund 


£har$um 


Hiartam. 


Truss 


xi. 17 


kainchl 


kaiochl 


kainchai. 


Turban 


ii. 79 


pagri 


dastar 


pagrai. 


Turmeric 




haldi _ 


zard chob 


kurkaman. 


Turn, to 


ii. 12 


phirna 


gashtan 


garzedal. 


Turnip 




shalgham 


shalgham 


tipar, shalgham 


Twice 


v. 13 


do cband 


do cband 


dwa chand. 


Twist,to(neut) 


xi. 21 


terha bona 


pechidashudan 


kagedal. 


Ugly 


i. 10 


badfurat 


bad shakl 


bad rang. 


Umbrella 




chhata 


chatr 


tsatrai. 


Uncle, p. 


i. 7 


cbacba 


'ammii 


truh 


Uncle, m. 




maman 


maraun 


mama. 


Under 


i. 24 


ke niche 


zer-i- 


da — lande. 


Underburnt 


xi. 63 


kam pakka 


kam pu£hta 


nim poMi. 


Understand,to 


ix. 34 


samajhna 


fahmidan 


pohedal. 


Unless 


xi. 4 








Unmetalled 


ix. 40 


kachcha 


kham 


kacha. 


Unwilling 




kam chor 


raghib na 


raghib na. 


u p. 




upar 


bala 


pas. 


Upright 


viii. 19 


sidba 


rast 


negh. 


Upper 


xi. 62 


upar ka 


-i-bala 


da pas. 

pa kar rawral. 


Use, to 




kam men lana 


bakarawurdan 








isti'mal k. 




Useful 




kam ka 


mufid - 


faidamand. 


Vacant 

(empty) 
Valley 










x. 18 


maidan 


maidan, wadi 


darra. 








darra 




Vegetable 


Hi. 27 


tarkari 


sabzi 


sabuh. 


Very 


ii. 85 


bahut 


bisyar 

Digitize 


der. 
dbyGoOQle 



128 



VOCABULARY AKD INDEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


PasTitu. 


Vicious 


viii. 43 


badma'ash 


badma'ash 


kam afl. 


Victory 


xii. 27 


j"^ 


fath 


barai. 


Village 


v. 19 


gariw 


dih* 


kalai. 


Villager 


iii. 35 


ganwala 


dihkan 


kallwal. 


Vinegar 




sirka 


sirka 


sirka. 


Violet, flower 




binafsha 


binafsha 


na farman. 


Volume 


vii. 8 


jild 
kai 


jild 


jild. 


Vomiting 


xiii. 10 


istifragh 


kai. 


Wages 


ii. 51 


Jalab 


tankhwah 


mawajib. 


Waist 




kamar 


kamar 


mla. 


Wait, to 


v. 12 


thahrna 


mandan 


dared al. 


Wake, to 


ii. 33 


jagana 


bedar k. 


wlkhawal. 


Walk, to 


ix. 21 


kadam kadam 
ch. 


kadam t:adamr. 


kadam kadam 
tlul. 


Walk about, to 


i. 72 


phirna 


sair kardan 


garzedal. 


Wall 


xi. 15 


dlwal 


diwar 


dlwal. 


Wall-plate 




dasa 


kateba 


dasa. 


Walnut 




aUirot 


char maghaz 


al&rot. 


Want,to(wish) 










War 




larai 


Jang 


j an g- 


Warm 


ii. 79 


garm 


garm 


garm. 


Warning 


ii. 110 


'ibrat 


'ibrat 


'ibrat. 


Wash, to 


i. 51 


dhona 


shustan 


windzal. 


Washerman 


ii. 61 


dhobi 


gazar 


dobl. 


Wasp 




bhar 


zanbur 


ban bar a. 


Watchman 


viii. 24 


chokidar 


pasban 


tsokidar. 


Water 


i. 33 


pan! 


ab 


obuh. 


Water-bag 




masak 


mashk 


mashk. 


Water-carrier 




bishti 


saka 


mashki. 


Water-course 




nala 


ju, rud khana 


lakhtai. 


Water-fowl 




murghabi 


murghabi 


elai. 


Wax 




mom 


mom 


mom. 


Way (road) 










Weak 


xii. 17 


kam zor 


kam zor 


kam zor. 


Weave, to 




bunna 


baftan 




Weaver 




julaha 


bafanda 




We 


i. 32 


ham 


ma 


mung. 


Week 


v. 11 


hafta 


hafta 


hafta. 


Weigh, to 


vi. 20 


tolna 


saujldan 


talal. 


Well 


viii. 63 


achchhl Jarah 


ba khubi 


pa £huh shan. 


Well, a 


ix. 57 


kuari 


chah 


koyai. 


West 




pachchham 


maghrib 


maghrib. 


Wet, to 


xiii. 25 


bhigona 


tar k. 


lamdawal. 


What? 




kva? 


chi? 


tsuh? 


What sort ? 


i. 22 


kaisa ? 


chi jtaur ? 


tsuh ranga. 


Wheat 


ix. 51 


gehuri 


gandum 


ghanam. 



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VOCABULARY AND INDEX. 



129 



Englith. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Wheel 


xi. 41 


oaihya 


charih, i'raba 


paya. 
las g&£i. 


Wheelbarrow 


xi. 41 


hath garbi 


gardun 
kai 


When? 




kab 


kulah. 


When 


ii. 68 


jab 
kahan se ? 


chun, wakte ki 


kumwathtchi. 


Whence ? 




az kuja ? 


lachartana. 


Where 




jahan 
kahan ? 


jae ki 
kuja? 


kum zai chi. 


Where? 


i. 25 


charta, kum 

zai? 
chi. 


Which 




j° 


ki 


Which? 




kaunsa ? 


kudam? 


kum? 


Whip 


ii. 96 


kora, chabuk 


fcamchin 


chabuk. 


White 


viii. 61 


sufed 


sufed 


spin. 


Who 




j° 


ki 


chi. 


Who? 


i. 15 


kaun? 


ki? kudam? 


kum? 


Whom? 




kaun? kis ko? 


kira? 


kum? 


Why 


ii. 36 


kyun,kis waste 


chira 


wale or tsula. 


Wick 




batti 


fatila 


patila, battai. 


Wide 




chaura 


pahanawar 


plan. 


Wife 


i. 8 


joru 


zoja, kabila 


tabar. 


Willing 




mihnati 


tandih 


mihnati. 


Willow 


ix. 67 


bed majnu 


bed 


wula. 


Wind 




hawa 


bad 


bad. 


Window 


ii. 76 


khirki 


daricha 


karkai. 


Wine 


i. 58 


sharab 


sharab 


sharab. 


Winter {cold 










weather) 










Wise 




'aklmand 


'akil 


hoi&yar. 


Wish, to 


viii. 60 


chahna 


l&wastan 


ghul&tal. 


With 


ii. 108 


sath 


hamrah 


sara. 


Within 




andarun 


andarun 


da nuna. 


Without 


ii. 107 


be 


be, bagbair 


be. 


Wolf 




bheriya 


gurg 


lewuh. 


Woman 


i. 5 


'aurat 


zan 


fchaza. 


Wonderful 




'ajib 
lakrl 


'ajab 


'ajab. 


Wood 


iii. 39 


chob 


largai. 


Wool 




tin 


pashm 


warai. 


Word 


vii. 12 


lafi 


lafz. 


Work 




kam 


kar 


kar. 


Workman 


ix. 7 


mazdur 


mazdur 


muzdur. 


World 




jahan 


dunya 


dunya. 


Wound 




za^m 


za]&m 


za£hm. 


Wounded 


xii. 24 


za^hmi 


zaHimi 


za]&mi. 


Write, to 


vii. 1 


likhna 


nawishtan 


likal. 


Wrong 


ii. 98 , 


na durust 


na durust 


fctuh na. 


Tear 


v. 18 


baras 


sal 


kal. 


Yesterday 


iv. 11 


kal 


diroz 


parun. 


Yet 


ii. 62 abtak 


hinoz, ilhal 


OS. 








Digiti 


ze6b Y Google 



130 



YO0ABULABY ANT) INDEX. 



English. 


Bef. 


Urdu. 


Persian. 


Pashtu. 


Yellow 
You 
Young 
Young one 
Your 
Youth, a 


». 63 
i. 33 

i. 2 


pila 

turn 

jawan 

bachcha 

tumhara(-e,-i) 

jawan 


zard 

shuma 

jawan 

bachcha 

-i-shuma 

jawan 


zyar. 

taso. 

dzawan. 

bachai. 

sta. 

dzwan. 



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