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derns gave him the name of Imam, and to his pre-

cepts that of Imdinet. The unusual customs, which
are called indjasdt,' cc miracles," l and kirdmdt, " pro-
" digies,"2 have been submitted to investigations
from which it results that the vital spirit, or soul, is
the cause of the accidents which are manifested in
our body, such as anger and violent emotion. It
may be that the vitality attains such a force in every

y mdjezet, is an extraordinary thing, operated by prophets
for the confirmation of their prophecy.

2 SUlkS", herd met, signifies a prodigy, or sign, manifested by any
pious person without his claiming prophetic dignity.  (See Pococke,
Sp.ecim. Hist. Arab., p. 186. 1st edit.)

The Asiatic Doctors admit that extraordinary things may be operated
by men who pretend to be deities, prophets, Valis (Saints, of whom more
hereafter), and magicians, who are supposed to command demons. Thus
they quote Pharaoh, who arrogated divinity to himself, and performed
miracles, and thus it shall be with the Antichrist. Celestial favors granted
to Valis are believed by the orthodox Muhammedans, upon the strength of
the Koran and authentic traditions. To these are added innumerable
tales accredited among the superstitious, some of which are ingenionsly
combined with a moral lesson. Jami, in his Lives of Siifis, quotes the
following words of another illustrious personage, whom he does not name:
" The principle5 on which all is comprised is, that, when a man performs
" an extraordinary action, renouncing something which other men are
'* wont to do, or which he himself was wont to do, God also, on his
'k part, by a sort of compensation, changes, in that man's favor, some-
" thing in the ordinary course of nature. It is that which the vulgar call
" Kerdmet. But distinguished men understand by this word the divine
*' favor which gave a man aid and force to renounce the things to which
" he was accustomed. This is what we understand by Keramet. This
explanation differs from that given above. The whole doctrine relative to
this subject is united with that of Sufism, which is hereafter to be deve-
loped. (See Notices et Ex traits desMSS., vol. XII. pp. 357-369.)