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world, and are called in Persian vhhahderiin,' * inter-
" nally pure," or rouchen-dil, " enlightened minds,"
or Y6kdna-bin, " seers of unity ;" in the Hindu lan-
guage, Rakhisher (Rakshasas) and Tapisher (Tapasis\
Gyanisher and Gydni (Jnanis), or Atma-jndnis. The
lord Maulavi /ami, in his work entitled Resdlah4-
vajudiah, " treatise upon existence,"1 states, that
the universal Being is distinct from any intellectual
and exterior existence, inasmuch as every individual
from among the intellectual and exterior beings
belongs to some class of beings; but the universal
Being is not subordinate to the condition of any
thing ; he is absolute and sovereign, and not general,
not partial, not special, not common, and not one
by (the number of) unity; for, it is neither a sub-
stance nor an accident, but by itself one, and not a
multiple. These things however are necessary in

perceive a great difference between the doctrine of a Sofos and that of a
Sufi, which latter bears most especially an Asiatic character, and the
origin of which remounts to the kings Mahabad and Jemshid (Dasartir,
Eng. Transl., pp. 23, 97). Our author says: " SuGsm is to be found
" among all nations." The first Muhammedan Sufi is said to have been
Abu Hashem, a native of Kufa, who died in the year of the Hejira 150
(A. D.767).(See Notices et JExtraits des manuscrits de la bibliotheque
du Roi et d'autres bibliotheques, vol. X. p. 290.) The origin of such a
character among Muselmans, if not in name, yet in fact, may be traced
further back to the first century of the Hejira.(See note 2, p. 18.)

1 The more correct title of this work is Resalah fil vujud. ($w.
Geshichte der Schonen RedeMnste Persiens von Joseph von Hammer,
S. 314j.