221 world, and are called in Persian vhhahderiin,' * inter- " nally pure," or rouchen-dil, " enlightened minds," or Y6kdna-bin, " seers of unity ;" in the Hindu lan- guage, Rakhisher (Rakshasas) and Tapisher (Tapasis\ Gyanisher and Gydni (Jnanis), or Atma-jndnis. The lord Maulavi /ami, in his work entitled Resdlah4- vajudiah, " treatise upon existence,"1 states, that the universal Being is distinct from any intellectual and exterior existence, inasmuch as every individual from among the intellectual and exterior beings belongs to some class of beings; but the universal Being is not subordinate to the condition of any thing ; he is absolute and sovereign, and not general, not partial, not special, not common, and not one by (the number of) unity; for, it is neither a sub- stance nor an accident, but by itself one, and not a multiple. These things however are necessary in perceive a great difference between the doctrine of a Sofos and that of a Sufi, which latter bears most especially an Asiatic character, and the origin of which remounts to the kings Mahabad and Jemshid (Dasartir, Eng. Transl., pp. 23, 97). Our author says: " SuGsm is to be found " among all nations." The first Muhammedan Sufi is said to have been Abu Hashem, a native of Kufa, who died in the year of the Hejira 150 (A. D.767).—(See Notices et JExtraits des manuscrits de la bibliotheque du Roi et d'autres bibliotheques, vol. X. p. 290.) The origin of such a character among Muselmans, if not in name, yet in fact, may be traced further back to the first century of the Hejira.—(See note 2, p. 18.) 1 The more correct title of this work is Resalah fil vujud.— ($w. Geshichte der Schonen RedeMnste Persiens von Joseph von Hammer, S. 314j.