225 ences, and under the condition of " a thing and no- " thing," is the form of the universe.l Some of the sagacious have stated that, in the same manner as the sun is radiant, so the real Being manifests himself at once; for in opposition to it is ddem, " non-entity," and from the superabundance of manifestation the tongue and language (in the effort) to express and to describe, to define and to explain, become dumb. The final explanation of the two words, vojud, " existence," and ddem, " non- " entity" may be, that existence is the negation of non-entity, and non-entity the negation of existence; and the Lord of unity is the grand origin of the mul- tiplicity of names and attributes. The first attri- bute, which emerged into manifestation by this Lord from within, was intelligence; and in this degree all adydn saUtah, " fixed realities,2 were under intellec- 1 The above shi and lashi is evidently the sad asat, " being, not *' being," of the Hindus, an attribute of the divinity, combined with its unity. "For," says the author of Gulshen Raz (see German Transl., p. 17), " unity exists in non-existence as well as in existence; multipli- " city proceeds but from relation; difference and variety of things pro- ** ceed from the change of the possible: as the existence of both is but *« one, they furnish the proof that God is but one." 2 <5^W! .jlf^l. Adyan signifies 'c substances:" these are things which maintain themselves by themselves; or realities, which occupy a space by themselves, without their existence in space depending upon the concomitant existence of another thing. This is the contrary of acci- dents, the existence of which depends upon the concomitant existence of the substance which serves to support them, or which is the place by which they are supported. Adyan sabitah, that is, " fixed substances,"