tual forms, and in this degree the Siifis give to the true highest and absolute Being the name of " All- " Wise/' The impulsion of divine wisdom to pro- cure to his fixed ideals the superiority over non- entity is by them entitled iradet,l'' providence,"and the name of mtu/rid, c< he who wills," attached to God. As often as the divine knowledge becomes joined to accomplishment and victory, as having are realities of things inclosed in the science of God, that is to say, the figures of realities of divine names in the scientific presence. They are posterior to God only as to essence, and not as to time; for they are eter- nal, as much on the side of the past as on the side of the future. When it is said, that God produces them by emanation, the posteriority which is thereby expressed, refers but to essence, and is not true in any other sense.—(See Jorjani's Definitions in Ext. et Not. des MSS., vol. X. p. 65.)—We may, in a language more familiar to us perhaps, express them by " eternal ideals," or " prototypes of realities." Silvestre de Sacy adds to Jorjani's explanation, that the question is here about divine names, that is, attributes of God as emanating from his essence, and residing in him, but not yet produced externally by any action. The scientific pre- sence mentioned in this explanation appears, to him, to signify the divine majesty, inasmuch as manifesting its presence to beings which have no other existence but in the science of God. i vJlotJ, "inclination, design, will," According to Jorjani's Definitions (see Ext. et Not. des MSS., vol. X. p. 37), iradet is a qua- lity which produces in a living being a state, the effect of which is that he acts in one manner rather than in another. In its exact sense, it is a faculty which has no other object in view but that which does not exist; for " the will" is an attribute, the special object of which is to give exist- ence to any thing, and to produce it conformably with the words of the Koran: " When he wills a thing he says to it: "Be," and it is." Iradet is also interpreted an inclination to any thing which follows the opinion of utility, and in this sense I have translated it above " providence."