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given to the existence of knowledge the superiority
over contingencies, in this degree they call this vic-
tory kadaret, " might;" and in this degree origi-
nated the name of Kctdir, 6C Almighty." With re-
spect to the seeing of God, as the meaning of know-
ledge is his presence in face of the existing external
figures of contingencies, in this degree, the name
of Bdsir, " the All-Seeing," offered itself. Like-
wise, the meditation upon God, by those who, pray-
ing, recite his emblematic attributes, is the time of
propitiating ; and the granting of these prayers is
called sdmid, " hearing:" whence proceeded the
name samia, " hearer." Further, the will of God,
the Highest, becoming concentrated in this state,
having joined the letter kaf (k) to the letter nun (n),
so as to manifest by action kun faikim, { " Be, and it
"is:" this state they called kaldm, " the word/'
and the name ofmutkalem, " speaker," was produced
on this account.

The lord Shaikh Muhainmed Shosteri, 2 in his
treatise Hak al yoking " the truth of conviction," has

2  I tbink it ougbt to be Shdbisteri instead of Shosteri, as I find in
Baron von Hammer's Gulshen-raz (pp. 27-32) a treatise entitled Hak ol
•yakin, as above, attributed to tbe before quoted Mahmud Shebisteri (vol.
I. p. 82), of whom more hereafter.    The whole title of the above-men-
tioned work is Hak ol yukin fi mdarifet-i-rebbil dalemin, k< the truth of
" conviction in the knowledge of the Lord of the world."

3   The word yakin signifies u an intuitive certainty," produced by
energy of faith, and not by arguments and proofs.

v. in.                                                                        15