237 " lion of material substance/' or Enka.1 According to the. SiiGs, matter is mddum, cc not eternally ex- " istent." They call the absolute body " the uni- " versal body." The Siifis say, as is found in,.the Favdtah, that the spirit of mankind is the absolute spirit of the divinity; thus the spirit of mankind, for the sake of elocution - that is, excellence—expresses itself by sound; and sound, for the sake of elocu- tion, by various distinct modulations, which in utter- ance are made sensible, becomes a word, and by the combination of words a language acquires reality. The Shaikh Muhammed Ldhaji* says, in his Com- mentary on Gulshen raz,3 Ct the Mystery of the Rose- <c bower," that the meaning of the expression " the " divine spirit," is " the revelation of truth in the " circus of multiplicity," and in the Shark mahtaser, " abridged Commentary (epitome)" on Gulshen, is found that, in like manner as the spirit of mankind becomes sound, and sound a word, so also the divine 1 See hereafter an explanatory note upon Enka. 2 See page 141, note 3. 3 A work already quoted (vol. I. p. 82) composed by Mahmud Shebis- ten'. His native place was Shebister, distant eight parasangs (about twenty-eight miles) from Tabriz, near which place he was buried in A. D. 1320. He wrote the Gulshen-raz three years before his death, as an answer to fifteen questions addressed to him by the great Shaikh Hus- sein, of Khorassan, who died A. D. 1318, one year after the composition of the just-mentioned most celebrated didactical work upon the doctrine of the Sufis.