Aid, " a feast/7 Is the knowledge of God. Kurban, "sacrificing"* (killing victims), denotes annihilating the brutal spirit. Rozah, cc fasting,"2 has three degrees. The first degree is guarding the belly and the sexual organs from what is improper; the se- cond degree is guarding one's self from unbecoming words and deeds; the third degree is guarding the heart from whatever is contrary to God. Jahad, " holy war upon unbelievers," signifies combating the spirit of deceit. Mmnen, " right faith/' implies adherence to whatever is essential to the true wor- ship of God, and tendency to it by any way which God wills, for— " The road towards the idols is formed of the great number of sighs of " the creatures." The lord Ain ul-Kazat said, he has learned upon 1 The immolation of an animal in honor of the Eternal on the pre- scribed day is of canonical obligation: every Museiman, free, settled, and in easy circumstances, is bound to offer in sacrifice a sheep, an ox, or a camel. Several persons, to the number of seven, may associate for such a purpose. To this is added the distribution of alms to the poor, con- sisting of killing one or more animals, sheep, lambs, goats, to be dressed, a part of which is tasted by the sacrificer and his family, and the rest given to the poor. (Ibid., t. II. p. 425. 2 Fasting, with the Muhammedans, imposes an entire abstinence from all food whatever, and a perfect continence during the whole day from the first canonical hour of morning, which begins at day-break, until sunset. There are different sorts of fasts; canonical, satisfactory, expia- tory, votive, and supererogatory. Each of them, although determined by different motives, requires, nevertheless, the same abstinence during the whole day.—(Ibid., t. III. p. 1).