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Full text of "The Declaration of Independence and Your Complete Constitution - With Easy Guide to Public Enforcement"

The Declaration of 
Independence 

and 

Your Complete Constitution 

of the 

United States 



Complete with a practical guide for public enforcement. 



The Declaration of 
Independence 



IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776. 

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united 
States of America, 



When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the 
political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of 
the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God 
entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare 
the causes which impel them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed 
by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the 
pursuit of Happiness. —That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, 
deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, —That whenever any Form of 
Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to 
abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and 
organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and 
Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be 
changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that 
mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by 
abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and 
usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under 
absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to 
provide new Guards for their future security.— Such has been the patient sufferance of these 
Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems 
of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated 
injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny 
over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. 

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the 
public good. 

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing 
importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be 
obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. 
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of 



people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the 

Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and 

distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of 

fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. 

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly 

firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. 

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be 

elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have 

returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the 

mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions 

within. 

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose 

obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to 

encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new 

Appropriations of Lands. 

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws 

for establishing Judiciary powers. 

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, 

and the amount and payment of their salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to 

harrass our people, and eat out their substance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent 

of our legislatures. 

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil 

power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our 

constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of 

pretended Legislation: 

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: 

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which 

they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: 

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: 

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: 

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury: 

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences 

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, 

establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so 

as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same 

absolute rule into these Colonies: 

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering 

fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: 

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with 

power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and 

waging War against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed 

the lives of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat 

the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of 



Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally 

unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear 

Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and 

Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to 

bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose 

known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and 

conditions. 

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble 
terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose 
character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a 
free people. 

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from 
time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. 
We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We 
have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties 
of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our 
connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of 
consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our 
Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. 
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, 
Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, 
do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and 
declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent 
States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political 
connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; 
and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, 
contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which 
Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm 
reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, 
our Fortunes and our sacred Honor. 

The 56 signatures on the Declaration appear in the positions indicated: 

Column 1 

Georgia: 

Button Gwinnett 

Lyman Hall 

George Walton 
Column 2 
North Carolina: 

William Hooper 

Joseph Hewes 

John Penn 
South Carolina: 

Edward Rutledge 

Thomas Heyward, Jr. 

Thomas Lynch, Jr. 

Arthur Middleton 



Column 3 
Massachusetts: 

John Hancock 
Maryland: 

Samuel Chase 

William Paca 

Thomas Stone 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton 

Virginia: 

George Wythe 

Richard Henry Lee 

Thomas Jefferson 

Benjamin Harrison 

Thomas Nelson, Jr. 

Francis Lightfoot Lee 

Carter Braxton 

Column 4 

Pennsylvania: 

Robert Morris 

Benjamin Rush 

Benjamin Franklin 

John Morton 

George Clymer 

James Smith 

George Taylor 

James Wilson 

George Ross 
Delaware: 

Caesar Rodney 

George Read 

Thomas McKean 
Column 5 
New York: 

William Floyd 

Philip Livingston 

Francis Lewis 

Lewis Morris 
New Jersey: 

Richard Stockton 

John Witherspoon 

Francis Hopkinson 

John Hart 

Abraham Clark 
Column 6 
New Hampshire: 

Josiah Bartlett 

William Whipple 
Massachusetts: 

Samuel Adams 

John Adams 



Robert Treat Paine 
Elbridge Gerry 

Rhode Island: 
Stephen Hopkins 
William Ellery 

Connecticut: 
Roger Sherman 
Samuel Huntington 
William Williams 
Oliver Wolcott 

New Hampshire: 
Matthew Thornton 




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The original parchment of The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America 



The Constitution of the 
United States 

Note: The following text is a transcription of the Constitution in its original form. 
Items that are underscored blue have since been amended or superseded. 



We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect 
Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for 
the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the 
Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and 
establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 



Article. I. 

Section, l. 

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which 
shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. 

Section. 2. 

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by 
the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications 
requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature. 

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five 
Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, 
be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be 
included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined 
by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term 
of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons . The actual 
Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the 
United States, and within every subsequent Term often Years, in such Manner as they shall 
by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, 
but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be 
made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, 
Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New- York six, New Jersey 
four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South 
Carolina five, and Georgia three. 



When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority 
thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies. 

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the 
sole Power of Impeachment. 

Section. 3. 

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by 
the Legislature thereof for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be 
divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class 
shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of 
the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third 
may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, 
during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary 
Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies . 

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been 
nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of 
that State for which he shall be chosen. 

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no 
Vote, unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence 
of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, 
they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the 
Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two 
thirds of the Members present. 

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and 
disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: 
but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, 
Judgment and Punishment, according to Law. 

Section. 4. 

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be 
prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law 
make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first 
Monday in December , unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day. 

Section. 5. 



Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own 
Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller 
Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of 
absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide. 

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly 
Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member. 

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, 
excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the 
Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be 
entered on the Journal. 

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, 
adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses 
shall be sitting. 

Section. 6. 

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be 
ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, 
except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their 
Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the 
same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other 
Place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to 
any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the 
Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any 
Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in 
Office. 

Section. 7. 

All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate 
may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills. 

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before 
it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States: If he approve he shall 
sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have 
originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider 
it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be 
sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be 
reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all 
such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of 
the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House 
respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays 
excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as 
if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which 
Case it shall not be a Law. 



Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of 
Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented 
to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved 
by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House 
of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. 

Section. 8. 

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay 
the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but 
all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; 

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; 

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the 
Indian Tribes; 

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of 
Bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of 
Weights and Measures; 

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United 
States; 

To establish Post Offices and post Roads; 

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors 
and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries; 

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; 

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against 
the Law of Nations; 

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures 
on Land and Water; 

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer 
Term than two Years; 

To provide and maintain a Navy; 

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces; 

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress 
Insurrections and repel Invasions; 



To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part 
of them as maybe employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States 
respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia 
according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding 
ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, 
become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over 
all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, 
for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock- Yards, and other needful Buildings; —And 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the 
foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the 
United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof. 

Section. 9. 

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think 
proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight 
hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each Person. 

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of 
Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. 

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. 

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or 
enumeration herein before directed to be taken . 

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. 

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one 
State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, 
clear, or pay Duties in another. 

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by 
Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public 
Money shall be published from time to time. 

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of 
Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, 
Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State. 

Section. 10. 

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and 
Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender 
in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the 
Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility. 



No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or 
Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the 
net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for 
the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision 
and Controul of the Congress. 

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or 
Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or 
with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger 
as will not admit of delay. 



Article. II. 

Section, l. 

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall 
hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen 
for the same Term, be elected, as follows: 

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of 
Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may 
be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of 
Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom 
one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make 
a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall 
sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, 
directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of 
the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be 
counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such 
Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than 
one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of 
Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person 
have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner 
chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the 
Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a 
Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be 
necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the 
greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should 
remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the 
Vice President . 

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they 
shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States. 

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the 
Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any 



Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and 
been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States. 

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability 
to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice 
President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation 
or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as 
President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a 
President shall be elected . 

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall 
neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, 
and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or 
any of them. 

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or 
Affirmation:— "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of 
President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend 
the Constitution of the United States." 

Section. 2. 

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of 
the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he 
may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive 
Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall 
have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in 
Cases of Impeachment. 

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, 
provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with 
the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and 
Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose 
Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: 
but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think 
proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. 

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of 
the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session. 

Section. 3. 

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and 
recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; 
he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of 
Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them 
to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public 
Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all 
the Officers of the United States. 



Section. 4. 

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from 
Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and 
Misdemeanors. 



Article III. 

Section. 1. 

The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such 
inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both 
of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, 
at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished 
during their Continuance in Office. 

Section. 2. 

The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this 
Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under 
their Authority;— to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;— to 
all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;— to Controversies to which the United States 
shall be a Party;— to Controversies between two or more States;— between a State and Citizens 
of another State ,— between Citizens of different States,— between Citizens of the same State 
claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, 
and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. 

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a 
State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases 
before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and 
Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make. 

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall 
be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not 
committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by 
Law have directed. 

Section. 3. 

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in 
adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of 
Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in 
open Court. 

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of 
Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person 
attainted. 



Article. IV. 

Section, l. 

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial 
Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the 
Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof. 

Section. 2. 

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the 
several States. 

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from 
Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the 
State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of 
the Crime. 

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into 
another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such 
Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or 
Labour may be due . 

Section. 3. 

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be 
formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the 
Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of 
the States concerned as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations 
respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this 
Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any 
particular State. 

Section. 4. 

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of 
Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the 
Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic 
Violence. 



Article. V. 

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose 
Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of 



the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, 
shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the 
Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, 
as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that 
no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight 
shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; 
and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. 



Article. VI. 

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, 
shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the 
Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance 
thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United 
States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound 
thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State 
Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the 
several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no 
religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the 
United States. 



Article. VII. 

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of 
this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same. 

The Word, "the," being interlined between the seventh and eighth Lines of the first Page, the 
Word "Thirty" being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page, The 
Words "is tried" being interlined between the thirty second and thirty third Lines of the first 
Page and the Word "the" being interlined between the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the 
second Page. 

Attest William Jackson Secretary 

done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of 
September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the 
Independance of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have 
hereunto subscribed our Names, 

G°. Washington 

Presidt and deputy from Virginia 



Delaware 

Geo: Read 

Gunning Bedford jun 
John Dickinson 
Richard Bassett 
Jaco: Broom 

Maryland 

James McHenry 

Dan of St Thos. Jenifer 

Danl. Carroll 

Virginia 

John Blair 
James Madison Jr. 

North Carolina 

Wm. Blount 

Richd. Dobbs Spaight 

Hu Williamson 

South Carolina 

J. Rutledge 

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 

Charles Pinckney 

Pierce Butler 

Georgia 

William Few 
Abr Baldwin 

New Hampshire 

John Langdon 
Nicholas Gilman 

Massachusetts 

Nathaniel Gorham 
Rufus King 

Connecticut 

Wm. Saml. Johnson 
Roger Sherman 

New York 

Alexander Hamilton 

New Jersey 

Wil: Livingston 
David Brearlev 



Wm. Paterson 
Jona: Dayton 

Pennsylvania 

B Franklin 
Thomas Mifflin 
Robt. Morris 
Geo. Clymer 
Thos. FitzSimons 
Jared Ingersoll 
James Wilson 
Gouv Morris 




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The Bill of Rights 



The Preamble to The Bill of Rights 



Congress of the United States 



begun and held at the City of New-York, on 

Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty 

nine. 

THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their 
adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent 
misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and 
restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public 
confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its 
institution. 

RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses 
concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of 
the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, 
all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said 
Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said 
Constitution; viz. 

ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United 
States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of 
the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution. 



Amendment I 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the 
free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of 
the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of 



grievances. 



Amendment II 

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the 
people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. 



Amendment III 

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the 
Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 



Amendment IV 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against 
unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, 
but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing 
the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 



Amendment V 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a 
presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval 
forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall 
any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor 
shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived 
of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be 
taken for public use, without just compensation. 



Amendment VI 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public 
trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been 
committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be 
informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses 
against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to 
have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. 



Amendment VII 

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the 
right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re- 
examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common 

law. 



Amendment VIII 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual 
punishments inflicted. 



Amendment IX 

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or 
disparage others retained by the people. 



Amendment X 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it 
to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 



AMENDMENT XI 

Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795. 

Note: Article III, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 11. 

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in 
law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of 
another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State. 

AMENDMENT XII 

Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804. 

Note: A portion of Article II, section 1 of the Constitution was superseded by the 12th 
amendment. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and 



Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with 
themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in 
distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists 
of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and 
of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit 
sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the 
Senate; — the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of 
Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; — The 
person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such 
number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have 
such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three 
on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose 
immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be 
taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this 
purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a 
majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of 
Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve 
upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall 
act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the 
President. --]* The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall 
be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors 
appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the 
list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist 
of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall 
be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of 
President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 

^Superseded by section 3 of the 20th amendment. 



AMENDMENT XIII (Article XIII) 

Passed by vote 0/26-1 as recorded by Gales and Seaton in 1853. Ratified March 12, 
1819 

"If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain any title of 
nobility or honour, or shall without the consent of Congress, accept and retain any 
present, pension, office, or emolument of any kind whatever, from any Emperor, King, 
Prince, or foreign Power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States, and 
shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under them, or either of them." 



AMENDMENT XIII 

Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865. 

Note: A portion of Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution was superseded by the 13th 
amendment. 

Section 1. 



Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the 
party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place 
subject to their jurisdiction. 

Section 2. 

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 



AMENDMENT XIV 

Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868. 

Note: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th 
amendment. 

Section 1. 

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction 
thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State 
shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of 
citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or 
property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the 
equal protection of the laws. 

Section 2. 

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their 
respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding 
Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for 
President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the 
Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is 
denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,* and 
citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in 
rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the 
proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of 
male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. 

Section 3. 

No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and 
Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under 
any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an 
officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or 
judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have 
engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the 
enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such 
disability. 

Section 4. 

The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts 
incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection 
or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall 
assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against 



the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such 
debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. 

Section 5. 

The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions 
of this article. 

*Changed by section 1 of the 26th amendment. 



AMENDMENT XV 

Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870. 

Section 1. 

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the 
United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of 
servitude- 
Section 2. 
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

AMENDMENT XVI 

Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913. 

Note: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 16. 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever 
source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to 
any census or enumeration. 

AMENDMENT XVII 

Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913. 

Note: Article I, section 3, of the Constitution was modified by the 17th amendment. 

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, 
elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The 
electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most 
numerous branch of the State legislatures. 

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive 
authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That 
the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary 
appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. 



This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any 
Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. 



AMENDMENT XVIII 

Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919. Repealed by 
amendment 21. 

Section 1. 

After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or 
transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the 
exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction 
thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

Section 2. 

The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article 
by appropriate legislation. 

Section 3. 

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to 
the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, 
within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. 



AMENDMENT XIX 

Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920. 

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the 
United States or by any State on account of sex. 

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

AMENDMENT XX 

Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933. 

Note: Article I, section 4, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of this 
amendment. In addition, a portion of the 12th amendment was superseded by section 3. 

Section 1. 

The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of 
January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of 
January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been 
ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. 

Section 2. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at 



noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. 

Section 3. 

If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect 
shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not 
have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President 
elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until 
a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case 
wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President shall have qualified, declaring 
who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be 
selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall 
have qualified. 

Section 4. 

The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from 
whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of 
choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons 
from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall 
have devolved upon them. 

Section 5. 

Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of 
this article. 

Section 6. 

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to 
the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
years from the date of its submission. 



AMENDMENT XXI 

Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933. 

Section 1. 

The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby 
repealed. 

Section 2. 

The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United 
States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, 
is hereby prohibited. 

Section 3. 

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to 
the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, 
within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. 

AMENDMENT XXII 



Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951. 

Section 1. 

No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person 
who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a 
term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of 
President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the 
office of President when this Article was proposed by Congress, and shall not prevent 
any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the 
term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or 
acting as President during the remainder of such term. 

Section 2. 

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to 
the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven 
years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress. 



AMENDMENT XXIII 

Passed by Congress June 16, i960. Ratified March 29, 1961. 

Section 1. 

The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in 
such manner as Congress may direct: 

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of 
Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it 
were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in 
addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes 
of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and 
they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article 
of amendment. 

Section 2. 

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

AMENDMENT XXIV 

Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23, 1964. 

Section 1. 

The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for 
President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator 
or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or 
any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax. 

Section 2. 



The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

AMENDMENT XXV 

Passed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10, 1967. 

Note: Article II, section 1, of the Constitution was affected by the 25th amendment. 

Section 1. 

In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the 
Vice President shall become President. 

Section 2. 

Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall 
nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of 
both Houses of Congress. 

Section 3. 

Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to 
discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written 
declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice 
President as Acting President. 

Section 4. 

Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the 
executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit 
to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the 
powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers 
and duties of the office as Acting President. 

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability 
exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and 
a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other 
body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro 
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written 
declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. 
Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that 
purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the 
latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after 
Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the 
President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President 
shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall 
resume the powers and duties of his office. 

AMENDMENT XXVI 



Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified July 1, 1971. 

Note: Amendment 14, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 1 of the 
26th amendment. 

Section 1. 

The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote 
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. 

Section 2. 

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 



AMENDMENT XXVII 

Originally proposed Sept. 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992. 

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, 
shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened. 



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EKiKfif CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STSTES ; 

AT THE FIRST SESSION, 

Begun and held at the city of Washington, in the territory of Columbia, on Monday, 
the seventeenth of October, one thousand eight hundred and three. 




Resohed by the g&CHfttt and ^OttSC of 3£U]tf0Stttf3ttttt0 of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, 

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Original parchment of Amendment 12 






(JfMittlTUTEOT OT I'jSlTIb S»1TL3. XMl 

t*n highMt numbers on tha YM t the frbaate aboil ehoos* fie Vita t'rmi. 
deul l 4 qaoru m for . the jHar|jh!w whttU aanant of lw^-tliirde of the v/hvh 
Dumber of Jtiiihfan N uda ci^jprllj' of the whole number ahftJl be iieeeifcucr 
totctolw. -"' ' 

J. Hut tjq perwh fOiwtLlutiDiiajLv itifilj^iMc to tLc office of J'rwidenl 
bhlU 1h atigifalo V* |h«t of Vice rr&BitloHt of the United Btatca. 

, ARTICLE XUL 

If mj titiaen of the Ujiitad fitatea Hh*l! accept, chum, rewire, Or rutuin 
*dj titb of npbititf Of honor, or bIihJI, without tLe comwatt of e>n£tv«H h 
imetpt or rot»in. aiyj prwant, panaion, offlffl, or «uolllUiaiit of any kind wLflJ- 
arer^ front any; emperor, tint, pri &cp r or foreign powgr, jnah peraon (ball 
«Wt* bo » citi*«a of the United State*, ar.d shall b& incaptUt of Lulding 
my flflfc* of tniit or profit uodir thorn, or either of lliem, 

ARTICLE XTV\ 

1. Halther BkVQtj nor involuntary acr-vltud*, except m ft punishment for 
«tm* vli*M0f Iho parly ibal] b*vc bcon daly mnTioteJ, fiiJl esriat within 
thfl United 3tit» H or mj place aubjeel lo their jurwUotion. 

& Cfe^jT*#B Ah*11 hivfl power to enforce this nrticlc by appropriate 3eg La- 



Record of Amendment 13 Article 13 

(restored from records surviving civil war destruction and 

extirpation by British agents — see Appendix 3. Note the 

correct insertion numbering of the amendments.) 

THE COMPILED 



LAWS OF WYOMING 



i«t RHxn Siifi*y or tux Lw:*utlyb Aeksbcv «r »aiu 

TaitiHRlf T»mit Vaa uvea Liwn at HIS L'kitip Statu 

Irf illt AWLU'iSlB TO f?i[& TEHMT-falLl i ALSO TlitT Tj£lTI£a lulls Virtu 

TUB *iaCI J>S& SBWJHpXR TmWS OF JjCMAXi IS TOE TLac 

11*3; WLTII 1 tVEQrtll «K EHI PllE-EllFTICWi Ucme- 

jiixu isa MtfiJtu Laiti *i nil tViuo Staxei. 



ririOJHUCP IV AL[»n|irV WT'Je ALr-jVTMi: IWUftt L»U£\TJV£ .UMIkBlV Mr 
HAill VtKILirrNV. l.-SfTIT!,:KU 

•j& Atrrocuxptu Uttn klihii ihk i..iviwm VMM It II Tlltimr 

~ EXH1BI 

J. U. lVHlTEMKAlJ, SlL'EtlVflSlM:** uf CUIMLlTCOy. 



H: GLAFCKE; 

1S7Q. 



Source. 









m\xii-8o^M & mms fff ty huj^ § tate of ^ mer i ra ; 



session, 



Begun and held at the City of Washington, on Monday, the £.£/& . day of December, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-^' 



A RESOLUTION 



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UCOllU'CO by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Ifnited States of Jlmerica in Congress assembled, 






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Original parchment of Amendment 14 



f f ortietij (Tongrcss of tlje llnitct) States of America; 

%\ the rTTT, i $mm, 

Begun and held at the city sf Washington, on Monday, the &^t*-e^t*^£Wi day of % £-e&u±&*-<, ; one thousand eight hundred andjivfe-^l^-' 



r / r y UXLO&&G, ci-i/t, eu>t-isc£^e^c 



A RESOJLITTIOIV 



lltsoloci) bit the Semite and Home of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, 
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Original parchment of Amendment 15 



I 



S. J. Res. 40. 



Jikfg-fcsf Cetjnss jrf % Unifcb States of America; 

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the fifteenth day of March, 
one thousand nine hundred and nine. 



JOINT RESOLUTION 

Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 



Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each House concurring 
therein), That the following article is proposed as an amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States, which, when ratified by the legislatures of 
three-fourths of the several States, shall be valid to all intents and purposes as a 
part of the Constitution: 

"Article XVI. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes 
on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the 
several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration." 




Jtosfc-. 



Speaker of the House of Reprtgentatwes. 

s'Vice-Efresident of the United States and 

/ President of the Senate. 



tV- /Ju 






. 






/%. % m -i. 



Original parchment of Amendment 16 




H. J. Res. 39. 



^kig-jsmmb Csagros »f % Inittb J&iates M America; 

&1 tfe jijeetrnd J^essitra, 

Jfepin ami held at the City of Washington on Monday, the fourth day of December, 
one thousand nine hundred and eleven. 



JOINT RESOLUTION 



Proposing an amen., merit to the Constitution providing that Senators shall h 
elected by the people of the several States. 



Resolved Iry the Senate and House of Representatives of the United Slates 
of America in Congress assembled (two-third's of each House concurring 
therein), That in lieu of the first paragraph of section three of Article I of the 
Constitution of the United States, and in lieu of so much of paragraph two of 
the same section as relates to the filling of vacancies, the following be proposed 
as an amendment to the Constitution, which shall be valid to all intents and 
purposes as part of the Constitution when ratified by the legislatures of 
three-fourths of the States : 

"The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from 
each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years ; and each Senator shall 
have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications 
requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. 

" When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, 
the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such 
vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the 
executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the 
vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. 

" This amendment shall not be so construed as to affeet the election or 
term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. ' ' 



, 




Pice President of the United Stales and 

President of the Senate. 



Original parchment of Amendment 17 




1W 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 




S.J. Res, 17. 




Sfetji-fiflJ Congress of % irattb States uf America; 

^t the j&xond Jiession, 

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the third day of December, 
one thousand nine hundred and seventeen. 



JOINT RESOLUTION 

Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 



Unsolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each House concur- 
ring therein), That the following amendment to the Constitution he, and hereby 
is, proposed to the States, to become valid as a part of the Constitution when 
ratified by the legislatures of the several States as provided by the Constitution : 

" Article — . 

"Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the 
manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the 
importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and 
all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby 
prohibited. 

" Sbo. 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power 
to enforce this article by appropriate, legislation. 

" Sec. 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified 
as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, 
as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the 
submission hereof to the States by the Congress." 



du»w| 




m 



Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Vice President of the United States and 

President of the Senate. 



% 




Original parchment of Amendment 18 



H. J, Res. I . 



&1 tlte pest #oaou; 

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the nineteenth day of May, 
one thousand nine hundred and nineteen. 



} 



JOINT RESOLUTION 



Proposing an amendment to the Constitution extending the right of suffrage 

to women. 



Eesohed by the Semite and House of Representatives of the United State? 
of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each Home concurring therein), 
That the following article is proposed as an amendment to the Constitution, 
which shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution when 
ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States. 

"Article . 

" The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or 
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. 

"Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 
legislation." 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 






( 



Vice President of the United Slides and 

President of the Senate, 



Original parchment of Amendment 19 




S. J. Res. 14—2 

" Sec. 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of 
October following the ratification of this article. 

" Sec. 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been 
ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of 
three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date 
of its submission." 




V ' ( 

Speaker of the House o/_ Representatives, 




c 



"^ 



Vice President of the United States and 

President of the Senate. 



Original parchment of Amendment 20 



S.J. Res. 211 



$mrti%-*tm& dfoagress of tfa amtot plates of gwcrica: 

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the fifth 
day of December, one thoLUand nine hundred and thirty-two. 



JOINT RESOLUTION 



Proposing nn amendment to the Constitution of the United States 



If csolved by the Senate ami House t>f Kepreaentetfoe* of the United 
State* of America in t'wir/resx amenthled (two -third* of each Home 
coneun-mff therein), That the following article is hereby proposed 
as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which 
^hull be valid to all intents mid purposes us part of the Constitution 
when ratified by conventions in three-fourths of the several States: 
•'Arti'le — 

■■Swtion 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to thu Constitu- 
tion of the United States is hereby repeated. 

"Sec. 2. The transportation or importation into amy State, Terri- 
tory, or possesion ol the United States for delivery or use therein 
of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby 
prohibited. 

w Sec, 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been 
ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the 
several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years 
from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.'' 

Speaker of the Bouse of Representatives. 

si?. 



Vice President of the United States and 

President of the Semrtc 



%. 




Original parchment of Amendment 21 



<8t0htii[th tytmytm of tfa Vnittd jStotes of gmunra 

at (he jf irsft Sifsteion 

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Friday, the third 
day of January, one thousand nine hundred and forty-seven 



JOINT RESOLUTION 



Proposing ;m amendment to the Constitution of the United States 
relating to the terms of office of the President. 



Resolved bij the Senate and Seme of Representative* of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each Home 
concurriiHj therein). Thai the following article is hereby proposed as 
:tn amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which shall 
he valid to nil intents and purposes as part of the Constitution when 
ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several Slates: 

"AUTK.LK — 

"Section 1. Xn person shall be. elected to the office of the President 
more than twice, and no person who lias held the office of President. 
or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which 
some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office 
of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply 
to any person holding the office of President when this Article was 
proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may 
he holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the 
term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the 
office of President or acting rs President during the remainder of 
such term. 

"Sec. '2. This article shall he raoperative unless it shall hare been 
ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of 
three -fourths of the several States within seven years from the date 
of its submission to the States by the Congress." 




Speaker of the Hoim- of Representatives. 



GUsf-inq President of the Senate pro tempore. 



Original parchment of Amendment 22 



S. J. Res. 39 



Sghtg-awth Congress of the United States of America 

AT THE SECOND SESSION 

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Wednesday, the sixth day of January* 
one thousand nine hundred and sixty 



Joint ■Resolution 

I'n >p.»si ng an amendment to the Constitution ot the United States granting 
representation In the electoral college to (Tie District of Columbia. 

Resolved oy the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in. Congress assembled {two-thirds of each 
Howie concurring therein) y That the following article is hereby pro- 
posed us an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, 
which shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Consti- 
tution only if ratified by the legislatures of three- fourths of the several 
States within seven years from the date of its submission by the 
Congress: 

"Akticj-h — 

''Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of 
the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may 
direct : 

*'A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to 
the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to 
which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event 
more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those 
appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the pur- 
poses of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors 
appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform 
such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment. 

"Sec. 2. The Congress shall have raver to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation". 



Sp, 




^%7> 



Vi a; Pr& r id ent-of tike Uni t ed Sterna a nd 

$c£i U. '-' President of^the Senate^A y~o 




Original parchment of Amendment 23 



S. J. Res. 29 



Sjghtpetimth Congress of the United States of America 

AT THE SECOND SESSION 

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Wednesday, the tenth day of January, 
one thousand nine hundred and sixty-two 



Joint 'Resolution 

Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating to the 
qualifications of electors. 

Resolved by t?ie Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled^ That the following 
article is hereby proposed as an amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States, which shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part 
of the Constitution only if ratified by the legislatures of three- fourths 
of the several States within seven years from the date of its submis- 
sion by the Congress : 

"Article — 

"Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in 
any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for 
electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representa- 
tive in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States 
or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. 

"Sec. 2, The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation." & ^S 




President of the SmafosfW JX^^J^ 




Original document of Amendment 24 




S. J. Res. 1 



Sghtpinth Congress of the flnited States of America 

AT THE FIRST SESSION 

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the fourth day of January, 
one thousand nine hundred and sixty-five 



Joint Resolution 

Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating' to 
succession to the Presidency and Vice Presidency and to cases where the 
President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of bis office. 

Resolved by the Senate and Bourn of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled (two-thirds of each House 
concurring therein), That the following 1 article is proposed as an 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which shall be 
valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution when rati- 
fied by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within 
seven years from the date of its submission by the Congress: 

"Article — 

"Section- 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or 
of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President, 

"Sec. 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice Presi- 
dent, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take 
office upon confirmation by a majority vote of botli Houses of Congress. 

"Sec. 3, Whenever the President transmits to the President pro 
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives his written declaration that lie is unable to discharge the powers 
and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written decla- 
ration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by 
the Vice President as Acting President. 

"Skc. 4, Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the 
principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body 
as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore 
of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their 
written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers 
and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume 
the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. 

"Thereafter,, when the President transmits to the President pro 
tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume 
the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a 
majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or 
of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within 
four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker 
of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the 
President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. 
Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty- 
eight hours for that purpose if uot in session* If the Congress within 




Original document of Amendment 25 (pi) 



S. J. lies. 1—2 

twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if 
Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is 
required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses 
that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his 
office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting 
President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties 
of his office." 




Original document of Amendment 25 (p2) 



S. J. Res. 7 



Binetgsecond Congress of the United States of America 

AT THE FIRST SESSION 

Begun and held at the Ctiy of Washington on Thursday, the ttventy-first day of January, 
one thousand nine hundred and seventy-one 



Joint "Rtsototton 

Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States extending the 
right to vote to cltiaeos eighteen yearn of age or older. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled (tnco-thirds of each Bouse 
concurring therein), That the following- article is proposed as an 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which shall be 
valid to all intents and purposes as part of the Constitution when 
ratified by the legislatures of three- fourths of the several States within 
seven years from the date of its submission by the Congress : 

"Article — 

"Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are 
eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged 
by the United States or by any State on account of age. 

"Sec. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation." 



Speaker of the House of Jcepfesentativei, 





Original document of Amendment 26 






ARCHIVIST OF THE UNITED STATES 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME, 

GREETING: 

KNOW YE, That the first Congress of the United States, at its first 
session, held in New York, New York, on the twenty-fifth day of 
September, in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine, 
passed the following resolution to amend the Constitution of the United 
States of America, in the following words and figures in part, to wit: 

The Conventions of a number of the States having 
at the time of their adopting the Constitution, 
expressed a desire, in order to prevent 
misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that 
further declaratory and restrictive clauses should 
be added: And as extending the ground of public 
confidence in the Government will best ensure the 
benificent ends of its institution; 

Resolved by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the United States of America 
in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses 
concurring, that the following Articles be 
proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, 
as Amendments to the Constitution of the United 
States, all or any of which Articles, when ratified 
by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be 
valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the 
said Constitution, viz.: 



Original document of Amendment 27 (pi) 



Articles in addition to, and amendment of, the 
Constitution of the United States of America, 
proposed by Congress and ratified by the 
Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the 
fifth Article of the original Constitution. 



Article the Second...No law, varying the 
compensation for the services of the Senators and 
Representatives, shall take effect, until an 
election of Representatives shall have intervened. 



And, further, that Section 106b, Title 1 of the United States Code provides 
that whenever official notice is received at the National Archives and 
Records Administration that any amendment proposed to the 
Constitution of the United States has been adopted, according to the 
provisions of the Constitution, the Archivist of the United States shall 
forthwith cause the amendment to be published, with his certificate, 
specifying the States by which the same may have been adopted, and that 
the same has become valid, to all intents and purposes, as a part of the 
Constitution of the United States. 

And, further, that it appears from official documents on file in the 
National Archives of the United States that the Amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States proposed as aforesaid has been ratified 
by the Legislatures of the States of Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, 
Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, 
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, 
Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, 
New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, 
South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, 
West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. 



Original document of Amendment 27 (p2) 



And, further, that the States whose Legislatures have so ratified the said 
proposed Amendment constitute the requisite three fourths of the zuhole 
number of States in the United States. 



NOW, Therefore, be it knoivn that I, Don W. Wilson, Archivist of the 
United States, by virtue and in pursuance of Section 106b, Title 1 of the 
United States Code, do hereby certify that the aforesaid Amendment has 

to all intents and purposes, as a part of the Constitution of 
Te United^ 

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, 

I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the seal of the National 
Archives and Records 
Administration to be affixed. 

DONE at the City of Washington 

this I *VW day of (V^o.^ 

in the year of our Lord one 

thousand nine hundred and ninety-two. 




DON W. WILSON 



presence on this 
1992. 



Original document of Amendment 27 (p3) 



The "Unratified" Amendments 



Throughout the history of the Constitution, 27 changes have been made 
through the Amendment process. Amendments are not easy to pass, and 
several amendments have been proposed over time, but which failed to pass 
the second hurdle - acceptance by the states. This page lists the amendments to 
the Constitution which have not yet passed. Some, because of the language of 
the bill that passed the Congress, have no expiration date and are still pending 
ratification. Others have built-in expiration dates. The text details which of the 
amendments are expired. 



Article 1 of the original Bill of Rights 

This amendment, proposed in 1789, dealt with the number of persons represented by each 
member of the House, and the number of members of the House. It essentially said that once 
the House hit 100 members, it should not go below 100, and once it reached 200, it should 
not go below 200. Since there are over 400 members today, this amendment would be de 
facto moot today. It is, however, still outstanding. Congressional research shows that the 
amendment was ratified by ten states, the last being in 1791. 
The text: 

After the first enumeration required by the first article of the Constitution, there 
shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall 
amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by 
Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor 
less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number 
of Representatives shall amount to two hundred; after which the proportion 
shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred 
Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty thousand 
persons. 

The Anti-Title Amendment 

This amendment, submitted to the States in the 11th Congress (in 1810), said that any 
citizen who accepted or received any title of nobility from a foreign power, or 
who accepted without the consent of Congress any gift from a foreign power, by 
would no longer be a citizen. This amendment was actually ratified. (See 
addendum below this section.) In any case this amendment is still outstanding. It is 
included in this section because an attempt was made to extirpate this amendment by British 
agents after destruction of many documents by arson. Congressional research shows that the 
amendment was ratified by at least twelve states, the last being in 1812. (See also appendix 
III below.) 
The text: 

If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive or retain any title 
of nobility or honour, or shall, without the consent of Congress, accept and 
retain any present, pension, office or emolument of any kind whatever, from any 



emperor, king, prince or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of 
the United States, and shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit 
under them, or either of them. 

The Slavery Amendment 

In 1861, an amendment prohibiting the Congress from making any law interfering with the 
domestic institutions of any State (slavery being specifically mentioned) was proposed and 
sent to the states. This amendment is still outstanding. Congressional research shows that the 
amendment was ratified by two states, the last being in 1862. This amendment is also known 
as the Corwin Amendment, as it was proposed by Ohio Representative Thomas Corwin. 
The text: 

No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to 
Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within any State, with the domestic 
institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or service by the 
laws of said State. 

The Child Labor Amendment 

In 1926, an amendment was proposed which granted Congress the power to regulate the 
labor of children under the age of 18. This amendment is still outstanding, having been 
ratified by 28 states. Ratification by 38 states is required to add an amendment. 
Congressional research shows that the amendment was ratified by 28 states, the last being in 

1937- 
The text: 

Section 1. The Congress shall have power to limit, regulate, and prohibit the 
labor of persons under eighteen years of age. 

Section 2. The power of the several States is unimpaired by this article except 
that the operation of State laws shall be suspended to the extent necessary to 
give effect to legislation enacted by the Congress. 

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) 

The ERA's first section states "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged 
by the United States or by any State on account of sex." It was intended to place into law the 
equality of men and women. It was sent to the states in March, 1972. The original seven year 
deadline was extended to ten years. It expired unratified in 1982. 
The text: 

Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the 
United States or by any State on account of sex. 

Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate 
legislation, the provisions of this article. 

Section 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of 
ratification. 

The Washington DC Voting Rights Amendment 

Granted the citizens of Washington DC the same full representation in Congress as any state, 



and repealed the 23rd Amendment granting the District votes in the Electoral College (since it 
would have been moot). Proposed in 1978, it expired unratified in 1985. 
The text: 

Section 1. For purposes of representation in the Congress, election of the 
President and Vice President, and article V of this Constitution, the District 
constituting the seat of government of the United States shall be treated as 
though it were a State. 

Section 2. The exercise of the rights and powers conferred under this article 
shall be by the people of the District constituting the seat of government, and as 
shall be provided by the Congress. 

Section 3. The twenty- third article of amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States is hereby repealed. 

Section 4. This article shall be inoperative, unless it shall have been ratified as 
an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the 
several States within seven years from the date of its submission. 



The Real Thirteenth Article of Amendment 

to the Constitution of the United States - 

Titles of Nobility and Honour 

Amendment Article XIII 

"If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain 
any title of nobility or honour, or shall without the consent of Congress, 
accept and retain any present, pension, office, or emolument of any 
kind whatever, from any Emperor, King, Prince, or foreign Power, such 
person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States, and shall be 
incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under them, or either of 
them." 

The Real Thirteenth Amendment , shown above, was ratified March 12, 1819 
with the vote of the Virginia General Assembly to publish the Revised Code of 
the Laws of Virginia with this article of amendment included in the Constitution 
of the United States, and thus it became an integral part of the Constitution for 
the United States of America. This amendment added a heavy penalty, not 
included in the original exclusion of Titles of Nobility provided in Article I, 
Section 9 of the Constitution, upon any person holding or accepting a Title of 
Nobility or Honour, or receiving any emolument, other than their legitimate 
earnings, under any guise from external sources, by making that person 
"cease to be a citizen of the United States" and "incapable of holding any 



office of trust or profit under the them, or either of them." This amendment 
was proposed, properly ratified, and was a matter of record in the several 
States archives until 1876, by which time it was quietly, and fraudulently 
"disappeared", never repealed , during the period of Reconstruction after the 
Civil War and the presently acknowledged Thirteenth Amendment was 
substituted. 

The original records of the real Thirteenth Amendment were thought to be 
destroyed at the time of the burning of the capitol during the War of 1812, but 
have since been found in the archives of the British Museum library in London 
and in the archives of several of the States and territories. The fact of its 
existence had been lost to memory until researchers accidentally discovered in 
the public library at Belfast, Maine a copy of the 1 825 Maine Constitution and 
that of the United States which included this amendment. Subsequent research 
shows that it was in the records of the ratifying states , and subsequently 
admitted states and territories until 1876. The last to drop it from record was the 
Territory of Wyoming after 1876. The most intriguing discovery was the 1867 
Colorado Territory edition which includes both the "missing" Thirteenth 
Amendment and the current 13th Amendment, on the same page. The current 
13th Amendment is listed as the 14th Amendment in the 1867 Colorado edition. 
Ref. colo68-1.jpg , colo68-2.jpg , colo68-3.jpg , colo68-4.jpg , and colo68-5.jpg . 

The 1876 Laws of Wyoming similarly show the "missing" Thirteenth 
Amendment, the current 13th Amendment (freeing the slaves), and the current 
15th Amendment on the same page. The current 13th Amendment is listed as 
the 14th and the current 15th Amendment is listed as the 15th, the current 14th 
amendment being omitted in the 1876 Wyoming edition. Graphics of these may 
be viewed by clicking on these links, wvo76-1.jpg , wvo76-2.jpg , wvo76-3.jpg 

The Founders Fathers of Our Nation held an intense disdain and distrust of a 
privileged "Nobility" as a result of a long history, during Colonial times, of 
abuses and excesses against the Rights of Man and the established Common 
Law and Constitutions by the privileged "Nobility", and therefore placed in the 
new Constitution two injunctions against the use or recognition of "Titles of 
Nobility or Honor" and acceptance of any emoluments whatever from external 
sources, the first pertaining to the federal government, Article I, Section 9 , and 
the second pertaining to the individual states, Article I, Section 10 . 

The Revolutionary War for Independence was primarily waged to eliminate 
these abuses and excesses of the "Nobility" from the life of the Nation, 
recognizing the Equality of all men. As there was no penalty attached to 
accepting, claiming, receiving or retaining a title of nobility or honor or 
emoluments in the Constitution as originally ratified, the Thirteenth Amendment 
was proposed in December of 1809 to institute penalty for accepting or 
using a "Title of Nobility or Honour" to set oneself apart from, or superior 
to, or possessing of any special privileges or immunities not available to 
any other citizen of the United States. It also instituted the same penalty for 
accepting and retaining any present, pension, office, or emolument of any 
kind whatever, from any Emperor, King, Prince, or foreign Power. An 



emolument is payment in any form for services rendered or to be rendered, or 
as understood today, a graft or a bribe . 

Thus it was, that on January 1 8th of 1 81 0, Senators led by Philip Reed of 
Maryland issued their first version of a proposed amendment to the 
Constitution, (known now as the T.O.N, or TONA, or more properly -- the 
original Thirteenth Article of Amendment to the Constitution for the United 
States of America). Records show that the vote to send the final version of the 
amendment to the states for ratification was taken on Thursday, April 26th, first, 
a motion to delay voting on the proposed amendment was defeated 8-20, then 
the proposal was approved by the margin of 26 to 1 , with seven Senators either 
absent or not voting. Biographical data of the Senators in office at the time of 
the vote on the amendment may be found at Appendix II . They were very able 
and worthy men, some of the most extraordinary and illustrious Americans of 
that day. 

The House of Representatives voted to approve the amendment May 1st, 1810. 
With considerable support both from Federalists in New York and 
Massachusetts, and Democratic-Republicans in the south, the amendment was 
approved by a vote of 87-3. Eighteen of the 21 members from Virginia voted for 
it. Seventeen of the 18 members from Pennsylvania voted for it, while those 
from New York numbered 7 for, 1 against, with 6 absent or not voting. Rhode 
Island's Robert Jackson, Jr. was absent, but the Revolutionary War veteran 
Elisha R. Potter voted for it. 

In its final form, as sent to the Legislatures of the seventeen States for 
ratification, it reads as follows: 

"If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, 
receive, or retain any title of nobility or honour , or shall 
without the consent of Congress, accept and retain any 
present, pension, office, or emolument of any kind whatever, 
from any Emperor, King, Prince, or foreign Power, such 
person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States, and 
shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit 
under them, or either of them." 

The first state to ratify the amendment was Maryland, which did so Christmas 
Day, December 25, 1810. A Table showing the dates on which the remaining 
states voted to ratify or reject the amendment is shown at this hyperlink . So also 
are shown the official publications which researchers have uncovered in the 
various archives. The researchers are now in physical possession of other 
extant volumes of the same after years of searching old bookstores and 
auctions. The researchers' collection also includes many private printings and 
newspapers that contain the Thirteenth in its proper place. 

The ratification by Maryland was followed closely by Delaware, Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, Georgia, North Carolina, Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee, all 
of which ratified the amendment in 1811. Massachusetts and New Hampshire 
ratified in 1812 by which time the War of 1812 had commenced. New York and 



Connecticut rejected the amendment in 1813 and Rhode Island did so in 1814. 
South Carolina tabled the proposal Dec. 21, 1814. This left the proposed 
amendment one shy of final ratification, the vote of Virginia either lost or not 
taken in the chaos and confusion of the War of 1 81 2. 

Authorized by an act of the Virginia General Assembly (February 15, 1817), the 
complete revision of the State's laws were entrusted to five of Virginia's most 
prominent lawyers and legal scholars: William Brockenbrough, Benjamin 
Watkins Leigh, Robert White, and judges of the supreme court of appeals, 
Spencer Roane and John Coalter. When their work was concluded, the Virginia 
General Assembly voted on March 12, 1819 to publish the Revised Code of the 
Laws of Virginia with both the Constitution of Virginia and the Constitution of the 
United States including the Thirteenth Amendment intact and in its proper 
place. Thus, the vote of Virginia was accomplished and the amendment was 
ratified. 

The General Assembly of Virginia authorized the distribution of the Revised 
Code of 1819 with ten copies designated for the executive branch of Virginia, 
five copies for the Clerk of the General Assembly, and four copies for the 
Secretary of State of the United States; one copy each for Thomas Jefferson, 
James Madison, and President James Monroe; one copy each for the federal 
Senate, House, and Library of Congress, and one copy for every judge in the 
courts of the United States in Virginia. Thus was the Federal Government 
notified of the actions of the Virginia General Assembly ratifying the 
Thirteenth Amendment. 

By February of 1820, sufficient copies of the Revised Code had been printed to 
make it available for public sale, and it was advertised as such in a Richmond 
newspaper. Research conducted on this subject indicates that at least six or 
seven other Virginia newspapers also carried advertisements for the new Code. 



Historical Background 
What prompted the need for the Thirteenth 

Amendment? 

In that day, just as there are today, there were unprincipled nations, 
corporations and men, both within and without our Nation, seeking every 
means of power and control, appealing to the egos, lusts and greeds of men. 
The Constitution had no means of enforcing a penalty on their attempts to 
suborn our citizens and to subvert the Constitution and our fledgling Republic. 
Thus the need for the Thirteenth Article of Amendment to the Constitution as 
the monarchies of Europe tried to extend their hegemony over the United 
States and the Western Hemisphere. 

This Article of Amendment is intimately connected to questions of war and 
national defense. It is designed to combat internal subversion and discord 



sowed by people who are adhering to foreign powers without stepping across 
the bold Consitutional line of treason. The authors of the TONA wrote it after 
some additional experience with how the British Empire, as well as other 
European nations, actually conduct their affairs. It is a corrective and 
supplemental measure to go along with Constitutional treason. 

A short time after the Thirteen Amendment was ratified, President Monroe in his 
annual address to Congress, December 2, 1823 enunciated the Monroe 
Doctrine excluding European colonization or interference in the affairs of the 
Nations in the Western Hemisphere. 



"The sovereignty, the honor, and the best interests of America have been 
assailed," said George Poindexter , Delegate from the Mississippi Territory, "by 
Francis James Jackson, Minister Plenipotentiary of His Britannic Majesty." 
Speaking of the British ambassador on the floor of the House of 
Representatives on December 30th, 1809, the gentleman from Woodville used 
all the florid constructions of political speech making then common, and 
sharpened his attack, like any good westerner would do. 

The British ambassador was, in his words, "a Minister sent among us to excite 
the demon of discord and division; a legalized spy, prowling from Hampton to 
New York and through every city, town, and village, to designate the victims of 
corruption, and to subvert, if possible, the allegiance of the citizens from their 
Government, and thereby promote the views of the King, his master." 

Thousands of Creek and Seminole warriors lived peaceably in the many towns 
and settlements which dotted the rivers west of the Georgia frontier. However, 
their kinsmen living in Florida, under Spanish rule, were undisciplined raiders by 
comparison, and their towns were havens for runaway slaves. Men of the 
western frontier were well aware that the great Creek leader, Alexander 
McGillivray, had served as a colonel in the British Army during the Revolution, 
and had grown wealthy as a civil servant of Spain. Shortly before his death in 
1793, McGillivray, chief of the Creek and Seminole, had repudiated the treaty of 
peace negotiated in 1790 at New York. 

Poindexter, a Virginia-born lawyer, was fully cognizant of what almost all the 
men of the western frontier knew at that time. British policy under the leadership 
of Sir James Craig, Governor-in-Chief of Canada, was to encourage the Indian 
tribes and clans from southern Ontario to western Florida to resist both 
American diplomacy and expansion. To accomplish his goals Craig recruited 
the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, who was the son of a Creek woman and thus 
respected in their Upper and Lower Towns. 

"The British Ministry," said Poindexter, who was openly disdainful of New 
England's Federalists in the House, "on every occasion which required 
extraordinary duplicity, have availed themselves of this incendiary [Francis J. 
Jackson]." British hypocrisy in their own relations with the Indians was 



insignificant, compared to the threat that civilized, intelligent Creek leaders, like 
William Weatherford, the nephew of McGillivray, might quickly turn against their 
American neighbors. 

When Poindexter's comments are coupled with an equally critical, and lengthy, 
speech that had been given by Senator William Branch Giles of Virginia on 
December 8th, 1809, there can be no doubt that the growing antagonism 
against Britain, and her new ally, Spain, had reached a slow boil in the 
Congress of the new United States. 

New England Federalists had their own set of antagonisms, focused on 
Napoleon Bonaparte's family and his tendency to foment revolution, and then to 
replace weakly-drawn republican governors with aristocratic titles for his kinfolk, 
enforced by imperial French armies. In that way Joseph Bonaparte was made 
King of Naples in 1806 and Jerome (or Jarome) Bonaparte, well-known to 
Americans, having been married to an American named Elizabeth Patterson for 
three years became the King of Westphalia in 1807. 

Both of the principal factions in the Senate had reasons to seek a constitutional 
solution to the threats that the powerful, rich, and quarrelsome European 
monarchies and the far-reaching banking establishments posed to their young 
Republic. 

It is most important to note that the same conditions prevail today, only 
more so, and the need for the Thirteenth Amendment is even greater today as 
we enter a new millennium, with the United States interfering in the affairs of the 
nations of Europe and Asia. With China and other nations buying voting blocks 
with illegal donations, i.e. "emoluments" , "grafts" and "bribes" , to the campaign 
funds and personal pockets of presidents, senators and congressmen, and 
others of our elected and appointed servants. With lobbying groups and multi- 
national corporations, which might properly be termed "foreign powers", doing 
the same. With the duplicity evinced in the unprincipled, unethical and 
immoral conduct of a number of our elected representatives, who have 
subverted the Constitution at every step, who would destroy the Sovereignty of 
the United States of America. With the repudiation of the good sense of the 
policy of non-interference given by President Munroe in the Monroe Doctrine . 

The real importance of the Thirteenth Titles of Nobility and Honour 
Amendment to our American Republic, soon to enter upon a new 
millennium, lies in its origins. Its original purposes were: 

a) to protect the State and Federal election processes from bribery, graft 
and political chicanery, and 

b) to shield the federal government itself from both espionage and the 

domestic intrigues of foreign agents-provocateur, by placing a 
severe penalty on citizens so engaged. 



The Amendment was proposed in the midst of an ever-deepening diplomatic 
crisis in the early years of the 19th century, with the continued impressments of 
sailing men from American ships on the high seas, with Spain falling into the 
arms of the British lion after being conquered by France. Our Second War of 
Independence with Britain in 1812 had commenced during the ratification 
process. With the burning and destruction in 1814 of the Library of Congress 
and the loss of many of the secret journals of the House of Representatives, it 
is impossible to know exactly what was on the minds of the men led by Philip 
Reed of Maryland, who drafted and approved this measure in the Senate of the 
United States. 

When a major war is in progress, with British ships raiding the coast and 
blocking the whole Chesapeake from commerce, and bloody fights with the 
Creek and other Indians progressing all through the southwestern frontier, and 
with an apparent plot to swing power to revolutionaries in Spanish New Mexico 
going on, the whole era has come into focus as being a time of incredible and 
convoluted intrigues. 

Clearly the Thirteenth Amendment was written to stop the depredations of 
Ambassadorial level spies like Francis Jackson of Britain, and corrupted 
officials like General James Wilkinson and Aaron Burr. Wilkinson was definitely 
a Spanish royal agent. All the rest is incidental. The large number of lawyers 
and men who served as judges either before going to Congress or after voting 
for the Titles of Nobility and Honour amendment indicates that this was not 
about any monopoly power of lawyers at that time. The continuous fight 
over banking in that era was part of the background of this process, but not the 
motivation for the men who wrote or supported this measure. 

Land speculation was an issue, maybe a key issue. "Pensions" in that day and 
age almost always meant land which paid a rent or which brought an annuity 
with it. Emoluments also meant any other form of payment, i.e., Spanish gold or 
silver, and the large amount of land in Spanish Florida, Spanish New Mexico 
(which included Texas), and Cuba which could have been used by British 
agents on behalf of their Spanish allies. The British bought the allegiance of 
Indian tribes from southern Ontario to northern Florida, to ensure that they 
either stayed neutral, or worked against and fought against the new United 
States. They did so with trade goods and guarantees of arms, and food, which 
indicates that the hunting grounds were going bare even as early as 1809. 
Although the British opposed slavery, they had no problems with the southern 
Indians keeping control of their own slaves. 

The Thirteenth Amendment was a measure against British imperialism in the 
wake of their alliance with Spain, and it was supported by Federalists who were 
eminently suspicious of the "democratic clubs" fomented by the Bonapartes, 
who would always follow a republican revolution with their own seizures of 
power and creation of new titles. 

This we do know, the Thirteenth Titles of Nobility and Honour Amendment 
was written and passed by a Congress which was reacting to the 
depredations of British aristocrats and Spanish grandees, to safeguard a 



government which was an infant among the nations of the world, but a 
strong one. It was clearly designed to defeat the plans and to retard the 
plots of skilled men of espionage, worldly-wise diplomats and to stifle 
homegrown Bonapartists. It was not the work of xenophobic men, but of 
hard-skulled and practical political leaders from both the Federalist and 
the Madisonian factions. 

After it was ratified, a large number of subsequent publications of the original 
Thirteenth Amendment appeared throughout the nation. It appeared in books of 
State law, in volumes of history, collections of Presidential addresses, in 
newspapers and special publications of the Constitution, for example, in the 
Whig Party Almanac of 1845, as issued by the New York Tribune. Throughout 
the Jacksonian era, men of government read their law books and those books 
included the Thirteenth Titles of Nobility and Honour Amendment as the lawful 
Article XIII. 

"The rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government 
to their selfish purposes. ..Distinctions in society will always 
exist under every just government. Equality of talents, of 
education, or of wealth can not be produced by human 
institutions. In the full enjoyment of the gifts of Heaven and 
the fruits of superior industry, economy, and virtue, every 
man is equally entitled to protection by law; but when they 
undertake to add to these natural and just advantages 
artificial distinctions, to grant titles, gratuities, and exclusive 
privileges, to make the rich richer and the potent more 
powerful, the humble members of society - the farmers, 
merchants, and laborers - who have neither the time nor the 
means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to 
complain of the injustice of their government." - President 
Andrew Jackson, following his resounding veto of The Second 
Bank of the United States 

The suppression of the T.O.N.A. now boils down to a fight, then and now, 
over the control of the currency and speculation in the land and resources 
of the United States, by foreign agents and multi-national corporations, 
willingly and willfully aided and abetted by the legal establishment and the 
judiciary of the United States. 

"Permit me to issue and control the money of a nation and I 
care not who makes the laws..." Mayer Amschel Rothschild 
(1744-1812) 

"Governments do not govern, but merely control the 
machinery of government, being themselves controlled by 
the hidden hand." -- Benjamin Disraeli Chancellor of the 
Exchequer; Prime Minister of Britain (I am trying to source this 
quote) 



"When plunder becomes a way of life for a group of men 
living together in society, they create for themselves in the 
course of time, a legal system that authorizes it and a moral 
code that glorifies it." - Frederic Bastiat - (1801-1850) in 
Economic Sophisms 

"It is easy to understand why the law is used by the legislator 
to destroy in varying degrees among the rest of the people, 
their personal independence by slavery, their liberty by 
oppression, and their property by plunder. This is done for 
the benefit of the person who makes the law, and in 
proportion to the power that he holds." - Frederic Bastiat - 
(1801-1850) in The Law 

"This is a government of the people, by the people and for 
the people no longer. It is a government of corporations, by 
corporations, and for corporations." - U.S. President 
Rutherford B. Hayes 

"The balance of power has shifted in recent years from 
territorially bound governments to companies that can roam 
the world." - Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New 
World Order 

When the Thirteenth Titles of Nobility and Honour Article of Amendment was 
made to "disappear", it did not vanish all at once but it was, rather, replaced by 
stages and by degrees. This gradualism was simply ignored by a legal 
establishment and judiciary loyal to the international banking establishment, and 
the privileged "nobility" of the rich, both of the United States and of Europe, 
and the common man knew nothing of it. The fact cannot be ignored that 
it is with the willingly purchased aid of both the judiciary and the legal 
establishment that the rich and powerful bend the acts of government to 
their selfish purposes. Jefferson warned of this. 

Conclusion 

America's growing "aristocracy" depends on the growth and maintenance of a 
Servile State. Slave whips went out in 1865, but no matter - far more 
sophisticated ways of control have been, and will continue to be, developed as 
long as evil remains profitable and is contested by nothing more than the 
wishful thinking of the ballot. See Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars 

It has long been insisted that America's fundamental problem is more legal than 
political and that unless the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution 
are respected as America's fundamental legal source, We, the People are 
doomed to continue suffering under the tyranny of the "aristocracy", and the 
lawmakers and the judges. 



We the People must stop seeking remedy by squandering our substance 
on elections. Wishful thinking will avail us nothing. Instead, we must unite 
in the demand that the uncorrupted Bill of Rights and the Real 13th 
Amendment be respected. To do this, we must take back our courts from 
those who have assumed a constitutional authority they do not rightfully 
possess. Government, its agents and the increasingly greedy 
establishment they serve, will never willingly respect the unalienable 
rights of each of the People unless the People force them to do so. 

It is a misfortune born of human nature, that, when profit born of evil remains 
unchecked, evil will be nurtured by the profiteers with the substance of 
their victims. 

We, the People, certainly have to build the immediate case ourselves, but as to 
the rhetoric - what could we possibly say that the Founding Fathers themselves 
haven't already said as eloquently and profoundly as it could possibly be said? 

According to James Madison: 

"It will be of little avail to the people that the laws are made 
by men of their own choice, if the laws be so voluminous that 
they cannot be read, or so incoherent that they cannot be 
understood; if they be repealed or revised before they can be 
promulgated, or undergo such incessant changes that no 
man who knows what the law is today can guess what it will 
be tomorrow." - The Federalist No. 62 

"Another effect of public instability is the unreasonable 
advantage it gives to the sagacious, the enterprising and the 
moneyed few, over the industrious and uninformed mass of 
the people. Every new regulation concerning commerce or 
revenue; or in any manner affecting the value of the different 
species of property, presents a new harvest to those who 
watch the change and can trace its consequences; a harvest 
reared not by themselves but by the toils and cares of the 
great body of their fellow citizens This is a state of things in 
which it may be said with some truth that the laws are made 
for the [benefit of] few and not for the many." - Ibid 

"The greatest calamity, to which the United States can be 
subject, is a vicissitude of laws, and continual shifting and 
changing from one object to another, which must expose the 
people to various inconveniences. This has a certain effect, 
of which sagacious men always have, and always will make 
an advantage. From whom is advantage made? From the 
industrious farmers and the tradesmen, who are ignorant of 
the means of making such advantages." - Ibid, Speech in the 
Virginia Ratifying Convention, 11 June 1788 



APPENDIX I 

Definitions from Webster's New World Dictionary, College Edition 

Bribe - 1 . Anything, especially money, given or promised to induce a person to 
do something illegal or wrong; 2. Anything given or promised to induce a person 
to do something against his wishes. Also (vt) 2. To get or influence by bribing. 

Emolument - gain from employment or position, payment received for services 
rendered or to be rendered. 

Graft - 3. a) The act of taking advantage of one's position to gain money, 
property, etc. dishonestly, as in politics; b) anything acquired by such illegal 
methods, as an illicit profit from government business. 

Honour - high rank or distinction of superiority to be treated with deference or 
obeisance. 

Nobility - [Artificial] high station of rank or privilege in society, especially when 
accompanied by a title. 

"These had anciently duties annexed to their respective honors. They are 
created either by writ, i.e., by royal summons to attend the house of peers, or by 
letters patent, i.e., by royal grant of any dignity and degree of peerage; and they 
enjoy many privileges, exclusive of their senatorial capacity." 1 Blackstone's 
Commentaries 396. 

"Title of Nobility" is defined in relevant part as follows: "The qualities which 
constitute distinction of rank in civil society, according to the customs or laws of 
the country; that eminence or dignity which a man derives from birth or title 
conferred, and which places him in an order above common men. In Great 
Britain, nobility is extended to five ranks, those of duke, marquis, earl, viscount 
and baron." Webster's American Dictionary of 1828 

Title - an appellation given to a person as a sign of privilege. An [artificial] claim 
of right. 



APPENDIX II 

The following are brief biographical sketches of the Senators who voted 
on the Thirteenth Titles of Nobility and Honour Amendment , based on the 
vote of 26-1 as recorded by Gales and Seaton in their 1853 Debates and 
Proceedings 

Delaware: 



Outerbridge Horsey -- born March 5, 1777 in Sussex County. Admitted to the 
bar in 1807 and practiced at Wilmington, Delaware. Elected as a Federalist to 
replace Samuel White (who died). Served January 12, 1810 through March 3, 
1821, when he retired to "Needwood," his wife's estate in Frederick County, 
Maryland. Died June 9, 1842. 

James Asheton Bayard, Sr. -- born July 28, 1767 in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. Graduated from Princeton College in 1784 and was admitted to 
the bar in 1787, practiced in Wilmington, DE. Served in the House as a member 
of the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh Congresses, Federalist, appointed as a manager for 
the impeachement of William Blount, Senator from Tennessee, 1798. Elected 
upon the resignation of William Hill Wells and served in the Senate from 
November 1 3, 1 804 to March 3rd, 1 81 5. Joined John Quincy Adams in 
negotiating the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812. Died on August 
6, 1 81 5. NO VOTE RECORDED 

Pennsylvania: 

Andrew Gregg -- born June 10, 1755 in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and was 
educated at the Latin School, moved to Newark, Delaware for further education 
and served in the militia of the Revolution. Merchant and farmer, elected to the 
Second Congress and re-elected continuously until he went to the Senate on 
March 4, 1807. Served until March 3, 1813 and was elected President pro 
tempore of the Senate on June 26, 1809. Secretary of the State of 
Pennsylvania for the years 1820-1823 but failed to win election as governor in 
that last year. Engaging in banking and retired to Bellefonte, PA where he died 
in 1835. NO VOTE RECORDED 

Michael Leib - born January 8, 1760 in Philadelphia, PA, and educated in the 
common schools, and at the University of Pennsylvania. Practicing physician in 
Philadelphia, surgeon of Eyre's Philadelphia Militia during the Revolutionary 
War. Elected to the Sixth Congress as a Democrat and served four terms, from 
March 4, 1799 to February 14, 1806, when he resigned. Elected to the Senate 
and served from January 9, 1809 through February 14, 1814 when he resigned 
to become Postmaster of Philadelphia. Served in the Pennsylvania House of 
Representatives in 1817 and 1818. {Note PA publications} Died on December 
22, 1822 while serving as prothonotary of the U.S. District Court in Philadelphia. 

New Jersey: 

John Condit -- born in Orange, New Jersey on July 8, 1755 and attended the 
public schools there; studied medicine and served as a surgeon in the 
Revolutionary War, with Heardy's brigade. Founding father of the Orange 
Academy and was one of its trustees, 1785, which was followed by service in 
the New Jersey legislature. Elected to the Sixth and Seventh Congresses as a 
Democrat. Appointed to the Senate and then subsequently elected, and served 
from September 1, 1803 to March 3, 1809. Again appointed and then elected to 
replace Aaron Kitchell, and served from March 21, 1809 to March 3, 1817. 



Served eleven years as the assistant collector of the Port of New York and 
retired in January of 1 830, and died in Orange Township on May 4th, 1 834. 

John Lambert -- born in Lambertville, New Jersey on February 24, 1746. 
Owned and managed a plantation, and engaged in agricultural pursuits, Acting 
Governor in 1802 and 1803, elected to the House of Representatives for the 
Ninth and Tenth Congresses, and elected to the Senate in 1808, serving from 
March 4, 1809 to March 3, 1815. Returned to his farming and died near his 
home town on February 4, 1823. 

Georgia: 

William Harris Crawford -- born in Nelson County, Virginia on February 24, 
1772 and moved with the family to Columbia County, Georgia in 1783. 
Educated privately and at Richmond Academy in Augusta, studied law and was 
admitted to the bar in 1799. Member of the State House of Representatives in 
1803-1807. Elected to the Senate on the death of Abraham Baldwin and served 
from November 7, 1 807 to March 23, 1 813. Minister to France for two years, 
ending in 1 81 5. Secretary of War in 1 81 5, and then Secretary of the Treasury 
for both James Madison and James Monroe, concluding March 3, 1825. 
Unsuccessful candidate for President in the election of 1824. Returned to 
Georgia and served as a judge. Died on September 15, 1834, at "Woodlawn," 
his estate in Oglethorpe County, Georgia. 

Charles Tait -- born in Hanover County, Virginia on February 1, 1768, and 
moved to Wilkes County in Georgia where he attended Wilkes Academy. At 
Cokesburg College in Maryland in 1 788, and a professor of French there for five 
years, 1789 through 1794. Studied law and admitted to the bar in Elbert County, 
Georgia. Elected to the Senate upon the resignation of John Milledge, and 
served from November 27, 1809 to March 3, 1819, whereupon he moved to 
Alabama, and then served as U.S. District Judge for Alabama for six years. 
Died on October 7, 1835, and was buried on his country estate in Wilcox 
County, Alabama. 

James De Wolf -- born in Bristol, Rhode Island on March 18, 1764, and 
shipped as a sailor boy on a private armed vessel during the Revolutionary 
War, was twice captured and imprisoned on Bermuda. Later before he was 
twenty years old became captain of a ship. Elected to the Rhode Island state 
legislature in 1797-1801 and served again from 1803 to 1812. He fitted out a 
privateer and sailed against the British in the War of 1812. One of the pioneers 
in cotton manufacturing, he built the Arkwright Mills in Coventry, R.I. in 1812. 
Elected again to the State House of Representatives 1817, and was Speaker of 
that body from 1819 to 1821 when the Rhode Island legislature voted to 
approve the printing of the State laws published in 1822 with the TON attached. 
Elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate and served from March 4, 1821 to 
October 31 , 1 825, when he resigned. Returned to the State House in 1 829, he 
served there until 1 837, when he died in New York City, December 21 , 1 837. 
De Wolf was not in the Senate when the TONA vote was taken but is 



nonetheless a fascinating character from that era. (The Liberty Ship hull number 
1460 built during World War 2 was christened James De Wolf after him) 

Connecticut: 

Chauncey Goodrich -- born October 20, 1759 in Durham, Middlesex County, 
he prepared for collegiate studies. Entered Yale College and graduated in 1776 
and was then employed at Hopkins Grammar School. Taught at Yale from 1778 
to 1 781 , when he undertook the study of law. Admitted to the bar and practiced 
at Hartford. A Federalist, he was elected first to the State House and then to the 
Fourth Congress, where he served three terms. After returning to the law 
practice he was elected to the Senate upon the death of Uriah Tracy and 
served from October 25, 1 807 to May of 1 81 3. He was also both Mayor of 
Hartford and the Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut for two years. Participated 
in the "Hartford Convention" of 1814, and died on August 18, 1815. 

James Hillhouse -- born October 21 , 1 754 at Montville, and attended the 
Hopkins Grammar School in New Haven. Was graduated from Yale College in 
1773 and admitted to the bar after studying law, in 1775. Served in the 
Revolutionary War and was a Captain of the Governor's Foot Guards when the 
British invaded New Haven. After serving in the State House for several years 
he was elected to the Second Congress and served three terms. Elected to the 
U.S. Senate in 1796 upon the death of Oliver Ellsworth and was re-elected 
three times, serving from December 6, 1796 to June 10, 1810, when he 
resigned. A strong Federalist, he was a member of the "Hartford Convention." 
Treasurer of Yale College from 1 782 to 1 832, when he died, at New Haven, on 
December 20th. 

Massachusetts: 

James Lloyd -- born in Boston in December of 1769, and prepared at the 
Boston Latin School. Graduated Harvard College in 1787 and engaged in 
mercantile pursuits. Served in the State Senate in 1804. Elected as a Federalist 
to the U.S. Senate upon the resignation of John Quincy Adams, and served 
from June 9, 1 808 until May 1 , 1813. Again elected to the Senate upon the 
resignation of Harrison Otis Gray and served from June 5, 1822 through May 
23, 1 826, when he retired from public life. Died in New York City in 1 831 . 

Timothy Pickering -- born in Salem on July 17, 1745 and attended grammar 
school there; entered Harvard College and was graduated in 1763. Worked as 
a clerk and studied law, commencing practice in Salem, 1768, and later elected 
to the Committee of Correspondence and Safety, 1774-1775. Registrar of 
deeds and a judge in 1775, he resigned to enter the Army in 1777. Appointed 
adjutant general in May of 1777 and became Quartermaster General of the 
Army in 1780. Later appointed Postmaster General and then Secretary of War 
under George Washington. Assumed duties of Secretary of State on December 
1 0, 1 795, where he remained until 1 800. Chief Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas, and then was elected as a Federalist to the Senate, serving from March 
4, 1 803 to March 3, 1811. Unsuccessful candidate for re-election, but was later 



elected to the House of Representatives and served two terms, from 1813 
through 1817. Chairman of the Salem School Committee in 1821 and continued 
to reside there until his death in 1829, on January 20, at 83 years of age. 

Maryland: 

Philip Reed -- born in Kent County in 1760 and completed preparatory studies, 
then served in the Revolutionary Army, attaining the rank of captain of infantry. 
He was Sheriff of Kent County from 1 791 to 1 794 and a member of the 
executive council in 1805-1806. Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1806 upon the 
resignation of Robert Wright, he served from November 25th of that year until 
March 3, 1 81 3. Considered to be the author of the original Thirteenth 
Amendment and was in charge of the Senate committee which wrote every 
known version of it. Upon completion of his term in the Senate, Reed returned 
to Maryland. Commanded the First Regiment, Maryland Militia, during the war 
as a Lieutenant Colonel, and led American forces to victory at the Battle of 
Caulk's Field, was then elevated to Brigadier General of the Maryland Militia. 
Elected to the Fifteenth Congress and to the Seventeenth Congress, serving in 
the House of Representatives, and concluding his service on March 3rd, 1823. 
Died at Huntingtown, Maryland on November 2, 1829 and was laid to rest in 
Chestertown, at the cemetery of Christ Church. 

Samuel Smith -- born on July 27, 1752 in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and moved 
with his family to Baltimore in 1759, where he attended the public schools. 
Graduated from Princeton College and engaged in mercantile pursuits, and 
served in the Revolutionary War as an officer -- awarded a commemorative 
sword by act of Congress for the defense of Fort Mifflin -- and later entered the 
shipping business. After serving in the State House of Delegates he was 
elected to the Third Congress and served from March 4, 1783 to March 3, 1803. 
Appointed and then elected to the Senate, he served from March 4, 1803 to 
March 3, 1 81 5. Four times elected President pro tempore of the Senate. He 
was also appointed a Major General of the Maryland Militia and helped organize 
the defense of Baltimore in 1814. Elected to the House of Representatives after 
leaving the Senate he served from January 31 , 1 81 6 to December 1 7, 1 822. He 
was then elected to fill the vacancy in the Senate caused by the death of 
William Pinkney and was re-elected, serving until March 3, 1833. Mayor of 
Baltimore in 1837, Smith then retired from public life. Died there on April 22, 
1839 and was buried at the Old Westminster Burying Ground. He was 
apparently not related to Representative Samuel Smith of Erie, Pennsylvania, 
who served in the Ninth, Tenth, and Eleventh Congresses and who also voted 
to approve the original Thirteenth Amendment in 1810. 

South Carolina: 

John Gaillard -- born in St. Stephens, South Carolina on September 5, 1765, 
and educated for the law in England; served in the State House and the State 
Senate and was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1804, to fill the vacancy of Pierce 
Butler. Continuously re-elected for the next 22 years and served as President 
pro temp of the Senate on eight different occasions, including the Second 



Session of the Eleventh Congress. A Democrat, he died while serving in the 
Senate on February 26, 1826 and is buried in the Congressional Cemetery. 

Thomas Sumter -- born in Hanover County, Virginia on August 14, 1734 and 
attended the common schools. Surveyor. Moved to South Carolina in 1760 and 
settled on a plantation near Stateburg: colonel of the Sixth Regiment of the 
Revolutionary Army, later made brigadier general of militia in 1780. Elected to 
the State Senate in 1781 and 1782. A Delegate to the State Convention for 
Ratification of the Constitution (and which he opposed), then elected as a 
Democrat to the First and Second Congresses. Served again in the Fifth, Sixth, 
and Seventh Congresses and resigned on December 15, 1801, to enter the 
Senate. Sent to the U.S. Senate after the resignation of Charles Pinckney, and 
won re-election in 1805. Resigned on December 16, 1810 and retired to his 
plantation at South Mount, near Stateburg. His grandson, Thomas De Lage 
Sumter, was twice elected to the House of Representatives. Considered to be a 
States Rights Democrat and a hard-liner on Free Trade. Died June 1, 1832 and 
is buried in the family grounds of his estate. 

New York: 

Obadiah German - born on April 22, 1766, in Amenia, New York; attended the 
local schools and studied law; entered the bar in 1792 and practiced at 
Norwich, N.Y., and was elected four different times to the State Assembly. 
Elected as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate and served from March 4, 1809 to 
March 3, 1815. Again elected to the State Assembly in 1819, where he served 
as Speaker. Later became affiliated with the Whig Party upon its organization, 
and lived until September 24, 1842. Died in Norwich, New York and was 
interred at the Riverside Cemetery. 

John Smith -- born in Mastic, Long Island, February 12, 1752 and completed 
preparatory education; member of the New York State Assembly 1784-1789, 
and also a Delegate to the ratifying convention which approved the federal 
Constitution. Elected as a Democrat to the Sixth and three subsequent 
Congresses, and served from February 6, 1800 to February 23, 1804 when his 
resignation became effective. Elected to the Senate to fill the vacancy caused 
by the resignation of De Witt Clinton. Served from February 23 of that year until 
March 3, 1 81 3. Later appointed Major General of the New York militia. Died on 
August 12, 1816 in his hometown of Mastic, New York. VOTED NO. 

Ohio 

Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr. - born on November 16, 1764 at Middletown, 
Connecticut, and was graduated from Yale College in 1785; studied law and 
was admitted to bar, and practiced in Marietta, Washington County of the 
Northwest Territory, 1788. Veteran of the Indian wars of that era, and a 
Territorial Judge in 1802-1803. Chief Justice of the Ohio Supreme Court. Officer 
in the U.S. Army, in the St. Charles District of Louisiana, 1804-1806. Judge of 
the U.S. District Court of Michigan Territory, 1807-1808. Upon his return to Ohio 
he was elected to the United States Senate and served from December 12, 



1 808 to May 1 , 1810, voting for the TONA. Returned to Ohio and then served 
as Governor from 1 81 to 1 814. Postmaster General for James Madison and 
James Monroe. Retired to Marietta, Ohio, where he died on March 29, 1825. 

Alexander Campbell -- born in Frederick County, Virginia, 1779 and later 
moved with his family to Kentucky, near Lexington. Educated at Pisgah 
Academy and then studied medicine at Transylvania University, and 
commenced practice in Cynthiana in 1801. Member of the State House in 1803. 
Moved to Ohio and settled in Brown County, where he engaged in mercantile 
pursuits and continued to practice medicine. Member of the Ohio State House 
in 1807, re-elected in 1808 and 1809, when he served as Speaker of that body; 
elected to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of 
Edward Tiffin and served from December 11,1 809 to March 3, 1 81 3. He did not 
vote on the TONA. Moved to Ripley, Ohio to set up practice as its first 
physician, 1815. Again elected to the State House in 1819. Presidential elector 
for James Monroe in 1820, and then served in the State Senate from 1822 to 
1824. Helped establish the first general anti-slavery society in Ohio in 1835, and 
was its vice-president. Mayor of Ripley, Ohio, for five years and lived there until 
November 5, 1857. 

Virginia 

William Branch Giles, a Representative and a Senator from Virginia; born near 
Amelia Court House, Amelia County, Va., August 12, 1762; pursued classical 
studies and graduated from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton 
University) in 1781 ; studied law; was admitted to the bar and practiced in 
Petersburg, Va., 1784-1789; elected to the First Congress to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Theodorick Bland; reelected to the Second and to the 
three succeeding Congresses and served from December 7, 1790, to October 
2, 1798, when he resigned; member, State house of delegates 1798-1800; 
elected as a Republican to the Seventh Congress (March 4, 1801 -March 3, 
1803); appointed to the United States Senate as a Republican to fill the 
vacancy in the term beginning March 4, 1803, caused by the resignation of 
Abraham B. Venable; while holding the office of Senator-designate was elected 
on December 4, 1804, to fill the vacancy in the term beginning March 4, 1799, 
caused by the resignation of Wilson C. Nicholas; was reelected in 1804 and 
1 81 1 and served from August 11,1 804, to March 3, 1 81 5, when he resigned. 
Giles was on the committee with Phillip Reed which drafted the final version of 
the TONA, but was not recorded as voting. Member, State house of delegates 
1 81 6-1 81 7, 1 826-1 827; unsuccessful candidate for election to the United States 
Senate in 1 825; Governor of Virginia 1 827-1 830; was a member of the State 
constitutional convention in 1829 and 1830; again elected Governor in 1830, 
but declined; died on his estate, 'Wigwam,' near Amelia Court House, Amelia 
County, Va., December 4, 1830; interment in a private cemetery on his estate. 

Other Members of Congress or Government of importance in the history of the 
TONA — 



Poindexter, George -- a Delegate, a Representative, and a Senator from 
Mississippi; Party: Jacksonian; Anti-Jackson born in Louisa County, Va., in 
1779; had a sporadic education; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1800 
and commenced practice in Milton, Va.; moved to the Territory of Mississippi in 
1802 and practiced law in Natchez; attorney general of the Territory; member, 
Territorial general assembly 1805; elected as a Delegate from Mississippi 
Territory to the Tenth, Eleventh, and Twelfth Congresses (March 4, 1807-March 
3, 1813); United States district judge for the Territory 1 81 3-1 81 7; served in the 
War of 1812; upon the admission of Mississippi as a State into the Union was 
elected to the Fifteenth Congress and served from December 10, 1817, to 
March 3, 1819; chairman, Committee on Public Lands (Fifteenth Congress); 
Governor of Mississippi 1 81 9-1 821 ; unsuccessful candidate for election in 1 820 
to the Seventeenth Congress and in 1822 to the Eighteenth Congress; 
appointed in 1830 to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of Robert H. Adams; subsequently elected, and served from October 15, 
1830, to March 3, 1835; unsuccessful candidate for reelection; served as 
President pro tempore of the Senate during the Twenty-third Congress; 
chairman, Committee on Private Land Claims (Twenty-second Congress), 
Committee on Public Lands (Twenty-third Congress); moved to Kentucky and 
resumed the practice of his profession in Lexington; returned to Jackson, Miss., 
and continued the practice of law until his death on September 5, 1853; 
interment in Jackson Cemetery. 

James Wilkinson -1757-1825, American general, b. Calvert Co., Md. 
Abandoning his medical studies in 1776 to join the army commanded by 
George Washington, he served as a captain in Benedict Arnold's unsuccessful 
Quebec campaign. Later he was Gen. Horatio Gates's deputy adjutant general 
in the Saratoga campaign and was given the honor of bringing to Congress the 
news of General Burgoyne's defeat. Congress censured Wilkinson for delay in 
carrying the dispatch but rewarded him by promoting him to brigadier general 
(1 777) and making him secretary to the board of war (1 778), a position he was 
forced to leave because of his implication in the Conway Cabal. He was (1779- 
81) clothier general of the army but resigned when charged with irregularities in 
his accounts. Wilkinson moved to Kentucky in 1784. Shortly thereafter, he 
became a key figure in the plan to induce what was then the SW United States 
to form a separate nation allied to Spain. Wilkinson apparently took an oath of 
allegiance to Spain and received a Spanish pension of $2,000 (and later 
$4,000) a year. To the Spanish authorities in New Orleans he represented his 
agitation for the separation of Kentucky from Virginia as part of this scheme; 
there is no indication, however, that he revealed any such motivation to the 
Kentucky conventions, in which others had expressed sentiments in favor of a 
separate republic of Kentucky. In 1791, Wilkinson reentered the army as a 
lieutenant colonel, and in 1792 he again attained the rank of brigadier general, 
serving under Anthony Wayne. On Wayne's death (1796) Wilkinson became 
ranking army officer. While governor (1805-1806) of the Louisiana Territory, he 
became involved in the schemes of Aaron Burr. Alarmed when he realized that 
his association with Burr was common knowledge, Wilkinson informed 
President Jefferson that Burr was plotting to disrupt the Union. Although he was 
chief prosecution witness at Burr's trial, he narrowly escaped indictment. 
Subsequently (1811) he was cleared, but just barely, by an army board of 



inquiry. In the War of 1812 he failed signally in the campaign to take Montreal 
and was relieved of his command. Once again an official inquiry left him 
untouched. He wrote Memoirs of My Own Times (3 vol., 1816) in an attempt to 
answer his many critics. He died in Mexico, where he spent his last years. See 
biographies by J. R. Jacobs (1938) and T. R. Hay and M. R. Werner (1941); J. 
E. Weems, Men without Countries (1969). 

This essay was placed on the web by Bob Hardison with the Historical 

Research 
and editing assistance of Richard C. Green, Brian March, and Alan and 

Suzanne Nevling 

Reproduction of all or any parts of the above text may be used for general 

information. 



APPENDIX III 

Titles of Nobility and Honour Thirteenth Amendment 
Ratification and Publication Table 

This is a compilation of data known to date, from researching the 
various archives for official publications. There are undoubtably 
more publications which are undiscovered. To view the latest 
researched data and images of official publications found visit the 
TONA Research Committee Site www. amendment- 13 .org 



State 


Admission 


Rank 


Ratified or 
Recognized 


Ratification 
Date 


Pre 1820 

Official 

Publ. 


Post 1820 
Official Publ. 


Delaware 


Dec. 7, 
1787 


1 


Yes 


Rat. Feb. 2, 
1811 






Pennsylvania 


Dec. 12, 

1787 


2 


Yes 


Rat. Feb. 6, 
1811 


1818 


1824,1831 


New Jersey 


Dec. 18, 

1787 


3 


Yes 


Rat. Feb. 13, 
1811 






Georgia 


Jan. 2, 
1788 


4 


Yes 


Rat. Nov. 22, 
1811 


1819 


1822,1837,1846 


Connecticut 


Jan. 9, 

1788 


5 


Yes 


Rej. May 
11,1813 




1821,1824,1835, 
1839 


Massachusetts 


Feb. 6, 
1788 


6 


Yes 


Rat. Feb. 27, 
1812 


1816 


1823 


Maryland 


Apr. 28, 

1788 


7 


Yes 


Rat. Dec. 25, 
1810 







South 
Carolina 


May 23, 
1788 


8 


Tabled 


Dec. 21, 1814 






New 
Hampshire 


June 21, 
1788 


9 


Yes 


Rat. Dec. 10, 
1812 






Virginia 


June 25, 
1788 


10 


Yes 


Rat. Mar. 12, 


1819 




1819 


New York 


Feb. 6, 
1788 


11 


Rejected 


Rej. May 1, 
1813 






North 
Carolina 


Nov. 21, 
1789 


12 


Yes 


Rat. Dec. 23, 
1811 


1819 


1828 


Rhode Island 


May 29, 
1790 


13 


Yes 


Rej. Sep. 15, 
1814. 




1822 


Vermont 


Mar. 4, 
1791 


14 


Yes 


Rat. Oct. 24, 
1811 






Kentucky 


June 1, 
1792 


15 


Yes 


Rat. Jan. 31, 
1811 




1822 


Tennessee 


June 1, 
1796 


16 


Yes 


Rat. Nov. 21, 
1811 






Ohio 


March 1, 
1803 


17 


Yes 


Rat. Jan. 31, 

1811 


1819 


1824,1831,1833, 
1835,1848 


Louisiana 


Apr. 30, 
1812 


18 


Yes 






1825,1838 


Indiana 


Dec. 11, 
1816 


19 


Yes 






1824,1831,1838 


Mississippi 


Dec. 10, 

1817 


20 


Yes 






1823,1824,1839 


Illinois 


Dec. 3, 
1818 


21 


Yes 






1823,1825,1827, 
1833,1839,1845 


Alabama 


Dec. 14, 
1819 


22 


Not Known 








Maine 


Mar. 15, 
1820 


23 


Yes 


The 1825 Constitutions of 
Maine and the US is the 
rediscovery document 


1825,1831 


found by Dodge and Dunn 
in 1983 




Missouri 


Aug. 10, 
1821 


24 


Yes 






1825,1835,1840, 
1841,1845 


Arkansas 


June 15, 
1836 


25 


Not Known 








Michigan 


Jan. 26, 
1837 


26 


Yes 






Terr. 

Publication 

1827,1833 


Florida 


Mar. 3, 


27 


Yes 






Terr. 





1845 










Publication 
1823,1825,1838 


Texas 


Dec. 29, 

1845 


28 


Not Known 








Iowa 


Dec. 28, 
1846 


29 


Yes 






Terr. 
Publication 


1839,1842,1843 


Wisconsin 


May 29, 
1848 


30 


Yes 






N.W. Terr. Publ. 
1833 


California 


Sep. 9, 
1850 


31 


Not Known 








Minnesota 


May 11, 
1858 


32 


Yes 






N.W. Terr. Publ. 
1833 


Oregon 


Feb. 14, 

1859 


33 


Not Known 








Kansas 


Jan. 29, 
1861 


34 


Yes 






1855,1861,1862, 
1868 


West Virginia 


June 20, 
1863 


35 


Yes 






Va. Publ. 1819 


Nevada 


Oct. 31, 
1864 


36 


Not Known 








Nebraska 


Mar. 1, 
1867 


37 


Yes 






Terr. Publ. 1855, 

1856,1857,1858, 

1859,1860,1861, 

1862, 

State Publ. 1873 


Colorado 


Aug. 1, 
1876 


38 


Yes 






Terr. Publ. 1861, 
1862,1864,1865, 
1866,1867, 1868 




North Dakota 


Nov. 2, 
1889 


39 


Yes 






Terr. 

Publication 

1862,1863,1867 


South Dakota 


Nov. 2, 
1889 


40 


Yes 






Terr. 

Publication 

1862,1863,1867 


Montana 


Nov. 8, 
1889 


41 


Not Known 








Washington 


Nov. 11, 
1889 


42 


Not Known 








Idaho 


July 3, 
1890 


43 


Not Known 








Wyoming 


July 10, 
1890 


44 


Yes 






Terr. 
Publication 





1869,1876 



Of the first 24 states, Delaware thru Missouri, all but three have either ratified 
the Thirteenth Amendment or recognized it in their official publications. New 
York rejected ratification and we have not uncovered any official New York 
publications. It is not known whether definitive action was taken in Alabama or 
if that state had any official publications showing the Thirteenth Amendment. 

Christopher Runkel of the National Archives acknowledged in 1994 that 
Virginia ratifed the original Thirteenth Amendment on March 12, 1819, and the 
evidence of the ratification by Virginia is the special printing of 4000 copies as 
part of their organic state laws. 

All of the other States, except New York, had either ratified the Thirteenth 
Amendment or published it as part of their organic state laws before the 
admission of Arkansas in 1836. By the time Iowa was admitted, the original 
Thirteenth Amendment had been included in official publications in every state 
except New York. The State of Rhode Island, which had rejected this 
Amendment in 1814 included it in their official publication of 1822. 

Two copies of the five volume Bioren and Duane publication, "The Laws of the 
United States of America, from the 4th of March, 1789 to the 4th of March, 
1815" are available in the archives of Yale University and we have an excellent 
set in our possession. In the text of the U.S. Constitution given by Bioren and 
Duane, on page 74 , the "Titles of Nobility" section is listed as Article XIII and 
the notation given indicates that it was passed out of the Eleventh Congress in 
the Second Session. The Bioren and Duane edition of 1815 was published by an 
Act of Congress . This publication, in five volumes, represents the first 
authorized edition of the Laws of the United States and the U.S. Constitution 
issued following the destruction of the Library of Congress and the other 
records of the government by the British army in 1814. The lawmakers then 
seated as the Thirteenth Congress authorized the spending for this special 
edition on February 16th, 1815. This was official recognition of the ratification of 
the Thirteenth Amendment by the Congress of the United States of America. 

All constructions of jurisprudence rely on the precise meaning of "ratify," i.e., 
"to approve or confirm, to give formal sanction to," which is precisely 
what a state or territory does when it publishes its laws and the U.S. 
Constitution together. These are the foundation documents of our Republic. 

We must not forget how expensive it was to make and publish books in the early 
part of the 1800s, and with what reverence a well-printed book was treated. 
That so many books from this era have survived is a testament to the skill and 
dedication of our pioneer printers. 

And today, we must never forget the skill and dedication with which 
our Founders forged the Constitution for the United States in the 
formation of the Republic of the united States of America to insure 
Liberty and Freedom and Justice for All! 



HOW THE CONSTITUTION WORKS 

- A Practical Guide 



Any laws, statutes, ordinances, regulations, rules, and procedures contrary to the U.S. 
Constitution, as written by its framers, are null and void, as expressed in the Sixteenth 
American Jurisprudence Second Edition, Section 177: 

"The general misconception is that any statute passed by legislators bearing the 
appearance of law constitutes the law of the land. The U.S. Constitution is the 
supreme law of the land , and any statute, to be valid, must be in agreement. It 
is impossible for both the Constitution and a law violating it to be valid; one 
must prevail. This is succinctly stated as follows: 

The general rule is that an unconstitutional statute, though having the form and 
name of law, is in reality no law, but is wholly void, and ineffective for any 
purpose; since unconstitutionality dates from the time of its enactment, and not 
merely from the date of the decision so branding it. An unconstitutional law, in 
legal contemplation, is as inoperative as if it had never been passed . Such a 
statute leaves the question that it purports to settle just as it would be had the 
statute not been enacted.' 

'Since an unconstitutional law is void, the general principles follow that it 
imposes no duties, confers no right, creates no office, bestows no power or 
authority on anyone, affords no protection, and justifies no acts performed 
under it ...' 

'A void act cannot be legally consistent with a valid one. An unconstitutional law 
cannot operate to supersede any existing valid law. Indeed, insofar as a statute 
runs counter to the fundamental law of the land, it is superseded thereby.' 

' No one is bound to obey an unconstitutional law and no courts are bound to 
enforce it.'" [emphasis added] 

and as expressed once again in the U.S. Constitution, Article VI: 



"This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in 
pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the 
authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the 
judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or 
laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding." [emphasis added] 

All U.S. and State government officials are therefore hereby put on notice that any violations 
of their contractual obligations to act in accordance with their U.S. Constitution, may result in 
prosecution to the full extent of the law, as well as the application of all available legal 
remedies to recover damages suffered by any parties damaged by any actions of U.S. and 
State government officials in violation of the U.S. Constitution. 



Constitution & Bill of Rights 



Supreme Low of the Land 



A Practical Guide to Public enforcement of the Highest Law 



Constitutional Challenges To Courts, 
Government, and Opponents 

By Notices, Motions, and Pleadings 

People's challenge to unconstitutional, unlawful, and unauthorized 
government, court and opponents' actions by using the following Constitutional 
based procedures, more specifically outlined in the case Metris v. Edwards. 
Challenges are done in three different successive methods, as listed below... 

Government, the courts and corporate America, by their own proven, 
established and demonstrated actions do not serve the interests of the People or 
Constitutional requirements, but only themselves, and for their own best interests, 
done at the vast expense of the People. Oaths mean little, if anything to public 
officers, who perjure those oaths at will. Our enemies will not abide by 
Constitutional and lawful requirements until We, The People, so require. 

As Constitutionalists, we do not consider Constitutional oaths taken by public 
servants to be formalities, but a sacred bond given in exchange for the Public Trust. 
We fully expect and require that all oaths taken by public servants to the federal 
and state Constitutions be abided by those public servants in their performances of 
their official duties. The challenges are intended for this purpose, and for the 
Rights of the American People to be upheld by those governments and those 
courts sworn and bound to serve the People. The methods follow: 

Challenges to Opponents, such as Corporate America 

1 . Presumptive Letters 

2. Affidavit of Truth 

3. Pleadings, Notices, and Motions 

4. Requests For Admissions 

Challenges to Governments and Courts 

A. Established Motions: 

1 . Motion For Trial By Jury 

2. Challenge of Jurisdiction 

3. Motion To Dismiss 

4. Motion For Summary Judgment 

5. Judicial Notice 



B. Motions for Judge: 

1. Motion to Claim and Exercise Constitutional Rights 

2. Motion to Require Judge to Read All Pleadings 

Direct Challenges in Court 

As stated in the previous section, we are Constitutionalists and require all 
public servants, including judges, to abide by their oaths in the performance of their 
official duties, including those before the court. This protects the American Citizens 
from government and court abuse, if enforced. The previous challenges are 
intended to stop any action before it gets to court. Those listed below are intended 
to be stated or asked by the defendant in court prior to the start of proceedings. 
They require "yes" or "no" responses; and you must hold the judge, only, to these 
answers. If you allow him to evade and avoid answering as such, then you, 
yourself, allow the judge to damage you, your lawful positions and the Powers of 
and Rights guaranteed in the Constitution to you. As you can see, either a "yes" or 
"no" answer serves your interests, if you understand the implications. 

For the sake of convenience, we shall assume the position as defendant. 
Please remember that all public servants serve under limited, delegated authority 
from the Constitution, by and through the People, for the best interests of the 
People. The American People must gain courage, en masse, and stand up to and 
challenge all forms of government, especially the courts, which are supposed to be 
the last bastion of justice. Since the Constitution cannot conflict with itself, the 
limited powers delegated to government by the Constitution can never supercede 
the powers of and Rights guaranteed in the Constitution to The American People. 
"Authority" is an extremely important word and concept. Nothing lawful can be 
conducted by government and the courts without Constitutional authority, and 
government has no authority to disparage your Rights. Keep "authority" in mind as 
you review the following statements and questions. 

CHALLENGES IN COURT BEFORE PROCEEDINGS START 

These statements and questions can be directed to the judge, for himself, 
the prosecuting attorney and state witnesses, such as police, etc., and to each one, 



individually. Not all of these need be made, so state those with which you are most 
comfortable. If both you and your opposition, including the judge, fully understand 
the very serious, lawful positions and Constitutional implications of the statements 
and questions, usually, only the first one is needed for Constitutional justice to be 
served. 

When the judge asks if the parties are ready to proceed, we say, "No, not 
just yet, sir (or madam), I have a few matters I need to clarify before we begin." 

1. Then we make the statements we think most appropriate: 

a. You and the prosecutor have taken Oaths of Office to support and 
uphold the Constitution of the united States of America and that of this 
state. Is that correct? 

b. Pursuant to your oaths, you are required to abide by those oaths, in the 
performance of your official duties, including those before this 
Honorable Court. Is that correct? 

NOTE: If the judge, or the prosecuting attorney or other state witnesses say 
"no", then, obviously, they must be disqualified and/or removed from the 
bench, position or impeached as witnesses, along with their testimonies, for 
obvious reasons. This answer is evidence that the one who answered "no" 
will not abide by his oath in the performance of his official duties, therefore, 
by his own answer, his oath is meaningless to him. He is a traitor and a 
danger to the American People, and must be removed from power. 

All those who have taken oaths are required to answer "yes". This answer is 
consistent with the requirements under the oath, the bond which binds the 
oath and requirements of the Constitutions. A "yes" answer means that ALL 
actions taken by the public servant, PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE must 
be consistent with Constitutional requirements, specific to the Bill of Rights. 
If the public servant's past actions failed this, and if those actions are used in 
an action or as evidence against the defendant, then those actions were not 
taken pursuant to his oath and were done in opposition to Constitutional 
requirements. Therefore, the public servant perjured his oath, invoked the 
self-executing sections 3 and 4 of the 14th amendment, vacated his office, 
and forfeited all benefits of that former office, including salary and pensions. 



All charges must be dismissed, with prejudice. 

He must be disqualified from his position, and if a witness, he and his 
testimony must be impeached and all his unconstitutional, unlawful actions 
and evidence against the defendant must be denied, and the charges 
dismissed. All present and future actions by the judge and court must be 
conducted pursuant to the Constitutions, federal and state. In this situation, if 
you are fully aware of your Rights and the full extent of the "yes" answer, 
you will prevail. However, if the judge were to then after violate his answer 
by his actions, you must inform him of his answer and his Constitutional 
requirements thereto, and his liability if he were to fail in his duty. 

2. I appear before this Honorable Court as a living, breathing natural-born 
American Citizen, with, and claiming, all Rights guaranteed to me in the 
Federal and State Constitutions, and with my name properly spelled in upper 
and lower case letters. 

After this is stated, wait a few seconds to look at the prosecutors and the 
judge, then say: 

Is there any objection to what I just stated? 

Obviously, pursuant to oaths taken by the judge, prosecutors or opposing 
attorneys, there can be no lawful objection to what you just stated, because 
all that you just stated, includes, but is not limited to, truth and fact. If what 
you just stated is true, namely, that you are a natural born American Citizen, 
it would be lawfully foolish and absurd for the judge, the prosecutor or your 
opposing attorneys to object. If they were to object, then, they would be 
forced to support their objections with fact and law, or their objections are 
reduced to opinions, only, and opinions are not valid bases in any court of 
Constitutional competence upon which to state objections or claim lawful 
positions. In such an event, you must specify this. 

When no objection is made, then, you appear before the Court as you 
stated. If there are any assumptions or presumptions made by any of your 
opposition regarding any alleged contracts or requirements with the fictitious 



entity, those assumptions, contracts, etc., were just removed with your 
statement and no objections made. If the case against you is based upon 
those contracts and assumptions, the entire basis for the case has been 
removed by your own direct and simple statement. 

3. This court abides by all the powers of and Rights guaranteed to American 
Citizens in the federal and state Constitutions, including Due Process of Law. Is 
that correct? 

NOTE: A "no" answer carries the same conditions as above. A "yes" answer 
is in compliance with Constitutional requirements for American Citizens and 
is consistent with the "yes" answer to #1 above. Again, if you are fully aware 
of your Rights and the conditions underlying the affirmative answer, you will 
prevail. Remember, bind the judge by his answer. 

4. I am entitled to and guaranteed a fair and impartial trial presided over by a 
fair, unbiased and impartial judge, in a court of record, before and decided by 
a well-informed jury of my peers. Is that correct? 

NOTE: A "no" answer is consistent with conditions stated above. A "yes" 
answer confirms the conditions of the statement, including: (1) Right to a fair 
and impartial trial; (2) unbiased and impartial judge; (3) a jury of my peers; 
(4) which jury decides guilt or innocence. 

5. I am presumed innocent of all aspects of the alleged charges, presumptions and 
assumptions in, by and of this court, unless proven guilty by a well-informed 
jury of my peers, beyond a reasonable doubt, based solely on verified evidence 
and proof. Is that correct? 

NOTE: Either answer is consistent with conditions as stated above. 
However, in this statement, with a "yes" answer, you are confirming several 
vital positions: (1) presumed innocent of all ASPECTS of the alleged 
charges; (2) presumed innocent of ALL PRESUMPTIONS and 
ASSUMPTIONS of this court; (3) unless PROVEN guilty by a JURY OF MY 
PEERS; (4) proven guilty BEYOND A REASONABLE DOUBT (5) based 
SOLELY ON VERIFIED EVIDENCE AND PROOF. 



6. 



A. "Proof" consists of verified and demonstrated evidence, and not 



opinion, especially opinion unsupported by fact, law and evidence. Is 
that correct? 

NOTE: In this statement, by the judge's answer, you are confirming 
the nature and status of "proof . It is highly unlikely that any judge will, 
on the public record, answer "no" to this statement, since his answer 
will defy the very loudly proclaimed concept of American justice, will 
defy due process of law, deny Constitutional Rights and allow 
"opinion", unsupported or otherwise, to be used as "proof. 

When the judge answers "yes", that will be consistent with the judge's 
oath, Constitutional requirements and his other "yes" answers. He will 
confirm the statement, and the fact that opinion, verified or otherwise, 
is not proof. This is a major position, a major lawful gain and benefit. 
Many "testimonies" by witnesses are simply opinions, usually 
unsupported and unverified. The defendant can now be assured that 
only verified and documented proof, and not opinion, from anyone, 
can be used against him. 

B. "Beyond a reasonable doubt" consists solely of decisions and verdicts 
from a well-informed jury of my peers based entirely on proof that 
absolutely and conclusively confirms guilt, without any reservations or 
questions, whatsoever, from the jury. Is that correct? 

NOTE: A "no" answer is consistent with conditions above stated. A 
"yes" answer confirms ALL the conditions of the statement, due 
process of law, Constitutional requirements, the judge's oath, and 
assures that a jury of your peers will make its verdict based solely on 
PROOF, not opinion, that absolutely confirms guilt, without any 
questions, whatsoever. 

7. Opinion from any witness or prosecuting attorney unsupported and unverified 
by fact, law and proven evidence is simply opinion, and opinion, as previously 
established, is not proof. Is that correct? 

NOTE: A "no" answer is consistent with conditions stated above. A "yes" 
answer again confirms the status of "proof as different from opinion. Thus, 



any plaintiff, (or opponent), prosecutor or witness MUST have verified proof, 
as described, and not opinion to support his statements. This is of vital 
importance to American Citizens. Therefore, "proof" by the prosecutor and 
testimony of witnesses is only opinion, unless supported as above stated, 
and if not, it is meaningless, frivolous, null and void and not accepted by the 
court as proof of anything, including guilt. 



A. Since I am guaranteed a fair and impartial trial, how is that possible 
when you, the presiding judge, the prosecuting attorney and all the 
witnesses against me work for and are paid by the state that is the 
plaintiff in this case, and my opponent? In this situation, it is impossible 
for me to have a fair trial. Is that correct? 

B. Further, any data used against me is obtained from sources who, are 
also paid by the state, the same plaintiff against me. At minimum, 
conflict of interest takes place. 

NOTE: A "no" answer is consistent with above conditions. If the judge 
were to answer "no", he is essentially saying, on the public record, 
that it is possible for a defendant to have a fair trial, even though he, 
the judge, the prosecutor and the state witnesses all work for and are 
paid by your opponent, and that all the so-called "evidence" against 
the defendant was obtained from sources paid by the state, again, the 
opponent. Even the most avowed critic can see through this fraud. A 
"yes" answer confirms the conditions of the statement, and 
conclusively demonstrates that a presiding judge recognizes, on the 
public record, that the referenced court conditions are not fair, not 
partial, and, as such, unconstitutional. This is a major Constitutional 
and lawful victory for the people, with far reaching implications. 



9. Since I am presumed innocent of the charges and all aspects, presumptions and 
assumptions of those charges and this court, I have challenged the jurisdiction 
of this court, which this court has not proven, on the public record. Therefore, 
since I am presumed innocent of all aspects of the charges and presumptions of 
the court, and since jurisdiction has not been proven, jurisdiction is simply a 
presumption of this court, of which I am presumed innocent. Therefore, I move 
for dismissal of all charges for lack of jurisdiction. Pursuant to the foregoing, 
and to numerous federal and Supreme Court rulings, this case must be 
dismissed, with Dreiudice. and I herebv move for dismissal of all charses and 



this case, with prejudice. 

NOTE: By prior "yes" answers, it has been established that the defendant is 
presumed innocent of all assumptions and presumptions of the court. 
Jurisdiction is both an assumption and presumption of the court, of which the 
defendant is presumed innocent. The defendant challenged the jurisdiction 
of the court, which the court failed to prove, on the record. Therefore, since 
the defendant is presumed innocent of jurisdiction, has challenged 
jurisdiction, which the court has failed to prove, on the public record, the 
court lacks jurisdiction and since jurisdiction does not exist, the charges 
must be dismissed, with prejudice. 

If the judge were to deny this lawful position and insist that his court has 
jurisdiction, without his having proven it, on the public record, the following 
could be stated: 

Since the judge has stated that this court conforms to all Constitutional 
requirements, then, this court conforms to the Bill of Rights, Article III of the 
federal Constitution and to due process of law. Jurisdiction is directly related 
to the foregoing, is an aspect of the charges, and a presumption of this 
court, of which the defendant is presumed innocent, yet this court has failed 
to prove jurisdiction, on the record. Thus, this court defies Constitutional 
requirements, due process of law, federal and Supreme Court rulings, and 
therefore forfeits any "perceived jurisdiction", has no Constitutional authority 
to hear this case, so this case must be dismissed, with prejudice; or the 
presiding judge, pursuant to his oath, perjures that oath, commits 
insurrection and sedition against the Constitution, on the public record, and 
treason against the American People. 



10. 



The jury swears an oath to the Constitution. Is that correct? In its 
deliberations and in its verdict, the jury is required to abide by its oath. Is 
that correct? NOTE: Since the jury swears an oath and is required to abide 
by that oath, it is obvious that a "yes" answer is required. The 
Constitutional and lawful position here is that the jury must abide by its 
oath in making its verdict. If it fails to do so. then the iurv Deriures its oath. 



its actions and verdict are unconstitutional and the jury verdict null and 
void, without force or effect, whatsoever. Just as a public servant is 
required to abide by his oath in the performance of his official duties, so is 
the jury. However, the People must know and demand their Rights, or they 
have none. 

If the judge were to answer "no", which is highly unlikely, then as a 
defendant I would move for immediate dismissal of all charges, with 
prejudice, because any judge or court that permits an unconstitutional 
jury to perjure its oath and reach an unconstitutional verdict, pursuant 
to its oath, operates as an open fraud upon the People, denies and 
defies the Constitution and the powers of and Rights guaranteed 
therein to the American people, denies due process of law and has no 
jurisdiction over any American Citizen, whatsoever. 

. If the jury, pursuant to its oath, makes its verdict in perjury of its oath 
or in opposition or contradiction to the Constitutions and the Rights 
guaranteed therein to American Citizens, or based in false information 
and fraud, that verdict is plainly unconstitutional, thus null and void. 

NOTE: Answer given in previous note. Further, pursuant to oaths 
taken, any jury verdict based, either in whole or in part, in fraud, 
deception, manipulation, lies or false information is null and void. 

If the judge were to say that this is not correct, then I, as a defendant, 
would inform him, pursuant to his oath and pursuant to his preceding 
"yes" answers, why his response is not only incorrect, but 
unconstitutional and unlawful. Further, I would inform him that he has 
no Constitutional authority to deny, on the public record, the very 
Constitution to which he, bound by bond, and the jury swore an oath. 
Further, he has no Constitutional authority to exceed his limited 
Constitutionally delegated authority, or to step outside that authority. It 
is obvious that the judge is not a higher authority than the 
Constitution, therefore, he cannot overrule it. 

If the judge were to insist that the jury verdict, even when based in 
fraud, etc., as above described, is valid, I would remind him of his first 



"yes" answer to statement #1 , in which he is required to conduct his 
professional duties pursuant to his oath, as is the jury also required. I 
would then remind the judge of his other "yes" answers, in which he 
confirmed, including, but not limited to, the Constitutional duties of the 
court. His response is made in contradiction to his oath, as is the 
jury's verdict, thus, both are unlawful, unconstitutional, without force 
or effect whatsoever, and not binding in a Constitutionally compliant 
court, which the judge stated, on the public record, is the status of this 
court. 

At this point, I would move for immediate dismissal of all charges and 
this case, with prejudice, for, including, but not limited to, lack of 
jurisdiction, lack of Constitutional authority, defiance of the federal 
and state Constitutions, denial of due process, perjury of oath, 
insurrection and sedition against the Constitution, and treason against 
the American People, in the instant case, the defendant. 

If the "judge" were to remain firm, then, as a defendant, I would inform 
him that I am entitled to a fair and impartial trial, by a jury of my peers, 
as he has previously agreed, and as is Constitutionally guaranteed, 
yet this jury is not a jury of my peers for many reasons, including, but 
not limited to: (1) jury members are not part of my ethnicity; (2) they 
do not work in the same profession I do; (3) they do not come from 
the same background and education that I do; (4) they are not 
Constitutionalists and supporters of the Supreme Law of the Land, as 
I am; (4) they are traitors to the Constitution and to the American 
People, which I am not. 

I would then, again, move for dismissal of all charges and the case, 
with prejudice, based upon previously stated grounds, and further 
include the fact that the judge would permit an unconstitutional verdict 
by a lawless, unconstitutional jury not of my peers. The Constitutions 
guarantee me a jury of my peers, yet this judge denies this 



Constitutionally guaranteed Right to me. Pursuant to his oath, he has 
no Constitutional authority to overrule the very same Constitution to 
which he swore an oath, and, further, is not a higher authority than 
the Constitution. If the judge were to remain firm, I would again inform 
him that, by his own actions and responses, he committed 
insurrection, sedition and treason against the American People, is a 
traitor to this Nation and its People, and must be removed from the 
bench for his treason. I will immediately file criminal and civil charges 
against him, personally, and in his professional capacity, and take 
action against him in an Article III federal court, which I will demand, 
by Motion. 

Questions To Ask The Jury: 

1. Are you aware that the Constitution of the united States of America, to which 
you swore an oath when you were initiated into jury duty, is the Supreme Law 
of the Land — the Highest Authority in this Nation -- and that, as such, no other 
law, statute, rule or ordinance can supersede it, and no other authority, 
including the Supreme Courts, federal and state, any judge, prosecutor, district 
attorney, attorney general or other public officer, can be a higher authority 
than the Constitution? 

2. Are you aware that the Constitution is the foundation of all forms of American 
government, including the courts, and that it LIMITS the power of government 
to take away any of the People's inherent Sovereign Rights? 

3. The Constitution, specifically the Bill of Rights, guarantees to all Americans 
their inherent, unlimited, inalienable Rights, including, but not limited to, all 
due process Rights, such as those set out in the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th 
Amendments to the Constitution. 

a. Are you, as jurors, fully aware of what these Amendments mean and 
how they apply in this proceeding? 

b. If not, will you request the court provide you with copies of the 
Constitution so you can fully understand due process of law? 

c. If you do so, will you make your verdict in this trial in strict compliance 
with Constitutional due process of law and uphold all Constitutionally 
guaranteed Rights of the Defendant? 

4. Pursuant to your oath, is there anyone on this jury who will not abide by 
his/her oath in the performance of his official duties, including, but not limited 
to, jury deliberations and reaching jury verdict? 

5. Are there any jury members who believe and will abide by the belief that the 
government is superior to the People and that government is Sovereign in this 
Nation, and that the People are required to obey the government in all 
situations, no matter how unlawful and unconstitutional that government or its 
actions may be? 



6. Are there any members on this jury who are lawyers, government officers, or 
work for any form of any government, in any capacity, or are employed by 
corporations or companies that work for government? 

7. Are there any informants, paid or otherwise, spies or provocateurs on this jury, 
for anyone or anything? 

8. You have been asked these questions and are expected to, and will be held to, 
your answers, pursuant to your oaths. Does anyone wish to change his answer? 



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