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Full text of "The development of later types of locomotives used by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company / submitted by Thos. H. Graham."

THE DEVELOPMENT OF LATER TYPES OF LOCOMOTIVES USED BY 
THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD 
COMPANY. 



** 



** 

SUBMITTED 
BY 
THOS. H. GRAHAM 
FOR INITIATION 
INTO 
THE PHI MU FRATERNITY. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF LATER TYPES OF LOCOMOTIVE;-. USED BY 
THE BALTIMORE ASD OHIO HAILHOAD 
COMPANY. 

For a long period of time following its establish- 
ment, the American people were dis trustful of the railroad. 
A great majority were skeptical that the locomotive would 
ever replace the horse, the ox, or even the boat as a means 
of transportation. In fact, some time after the advent of 
the locomotive, and after lines were laid out carrying 
freight and passengers, enormous sums of money were spent 
building canals for the transportation of freight, by boat, 
between the principal cities of the east. 

But by 1850, the locomotive had partirlly overcome 
these obstacles and upon it was resting the burden of trans- 
portation. Railroading was a more prosperous business. 
Hew lines were extended in all parts of the eastern states 
and were steadily pushing westward. Rapidly growing indust- 
ries were placing new responsibilities on the railroads. 
Therefore, it was necessary that more dependable locomotives 
be built, since those previous to this were incapable. 

Moreover , a new era began about 1850 for the 
Baltimore and Ohio locomotive when standardized types began 
to be seen: when locomotives identical in appearance were 
numbered in sequence, so that one only needed to say "the 
two hundreds", or "the four hundreds" to denote them, 



-2- 

The day wr.s past 'when experimentation produced 
locomotives of widely different design as well as appearance. 
At the beginning of the locomotive there Was so little known 
about steam, and so few devices available to utilize this 
power for locomotion, it was neeessary for inventors in both 
Jingland and America to create various locomotives and numerous 
mechanisms in order to choose the most practical and most 
efficient. But by 1850, locomotives hsd lost their individ- 
ualism, and they were built to conform to certain standards 
of design which were found most practical for their particular 
\ises» 

There ere two factors which counteract each other 
in the design of a locomotive—speed and power. One may 
be increased, but only at a loss of the other. If speed is 
desired, the drivers must be made as large as possible, and 
as few in number as will permit steadiness. If power is 
wanted the drivers are made much smaller in diameter and a 
number of them are used in tandem. In other words , we see 
that speed is a function of the diameter of the drivers, 
and power is determined b;/ the number used, 

Passenger trains d em ended more dependability and 
more speed, so in 1856, .illiam Mason, a maker of cotton 
machinery from Taut on, Massachusetts, took the lead in design- 
ing and building locomotives that were the forerunners of the 
famous American type. These had two pair of drivers 60" in 
diameter, with a leading four wheel truck to add steadiness. 



-3- 

A new feature for this locomotive was the use of a link motion 
valve gear, the first to be installed on any locomotive. 
Because of its short wheel base.it was the fittest type for 
the peculiar conditions existing in this country at that time - 
uneven track:, bad curves, and many grades • 

These locomotives were used extensively for passenger 
service and were built until 1893 when, like the Atlantic type, 
they had to give way to engines with more traction. They had 
become too light for the heavier traffic. 

An attempt was made to utilize this type by increasing 
the size of the boiler and firebox and adding a pair of trailer 
wheels under the cab to support this added weight. These were 
built in 1900 and named the Atlantic type, but only six engines 
were constructed since they were still lacking in traction. 
Therefore, another pair of drivers were added in 1906 and the 
popular Pacific type of locomotive was created which reaches 
the height of its perfection in the "President" series. 

Furthermore, The heavy steel trains of the present 
needed a still more powerful locomotive to draw them over the 
unusually steep grades of the Allegheny Mountains ,so another, 
or fourth pair of drivers was added and in 1926, the Mountain 
type was built. 

Thus, we may trace the development of the Baltimore 
and Ohio passenger locomotive from 1850 to 1928, from the 
small 28 ton William Mason type to the huge Mountain type 
with its 400,000 pounds weight. 



-4- 

The development of the freight locomotive used by 
the Baltimore and Ohio Bailroad may, in a like manner, be 
traced from 1848 to the present day, 

Hoss Winans , of Baltimore, realizing the need of a 
more powerful and efficient freight locomotive, designed one 
with four pairs of drivers to give the utmost traction. 
He placed the engineer's cab over the entire boiler giving 
rise to its being called the Winans "Oamelback" engine. 
It was placed in operation June 1848, 

This type was very successful and was used as the 
standard until the introduction of the Consolidation type in 
1873. About forty of these locomotives were built. 

In 1875, a freight locomotive with three pairs of 
drivers was designed and built at the Mount Glare shops. 
It had a two wheel leading truck. But, although this type, 
named the Mogul type, was a good engine, it needed another 
pair of drivers to furnish sufficient traction. 

Therefore from the Mogul type was developed the 
Consolidation type by the addition of the other pair of drivers. 
This locomotive was capable of hauling heavy coal trains over 
the steep grades of the mining regions, so it was developed 
and built as late as 1910, although the Mikado, the Mallet, 
and the danta Fe types were taking its piece. 

The Consolidation locomotive reached a limit to its 
size and power when the firebox could not extend beyond a 
fixed point due to lack of support. It was not thought 
advisable to add a pair of trailer wheels under the cab because 



-5- 



Of the resulting loss of traction, but the Baldwin locomotive 
Works built, in 1897, one of this type with the trailer wheels, 
and named it the Mikado locomotive since it was for the Nippon 
Hailroad of Japan, 

The loss in traction was compensated by the increased 
boiler capacity and weight, so that, today, the Mikado 
locomotive hauls all of the fast freight for the Baltimore 
and Ohio, It replaced the Consolidated engine and, except 
for unusually heavy freight, is the universal locomotive. 

The idea for the articulated locomotive was obtained 
from Europe due to the necessity for them to utilize the 
ultimate heat value of coal, since that fuel was scarce, 
A double or articulated locomotive was developed which consist- 
ed of two engine units under one boiler. The size and number 
of wheels prohibited its use for fast service but this type 
proved ideal as a pusher for heavy freight. 

The first of this kind was built in 1904 for the 
Baltimore and Ohio from plans of Anatole Mallet, a native of 
France, Each unit consisted of three pairs of drivers, but 
all "Mallets" made since then have four pair of drivers per 
unit. These locomotives are used exclusively on the main 
lines thru the Allegheny Mountains where a higher factor of 
traction is needed for the steep grades. 

An intermediate type of freight locomotive with five 
pairs of drivers was built in 1914 for slower freight service 
then the Mikado serves. This type, with a two wheel leading 
truck and trailing truck, has been named the Santa Fe locomotive. 



-6- 



From these facts, it might be concluded that the 
locomotive developed "by the mere addition of drivers. 
However, the super -heater, the automatic stoker, improved 
valve gearing, and other important features not mentioned be- 
fore, contributed largely to its development* The invention 
of the air brafce, and the improvement of steel were signifi- 
cant steps toward the construction of modern high speed all 
steel trains. 

Never-the-less, the height of perfection is not 
attained. Today, numerous problems trouble the designer, 
since he constantly strives for a more powerful locomotive 
to meet the always increasing demands of transportation. 



APPENDIX 



** 



Containing a more intimate description of 
the various locomotives mentioned 
in the text. 



-1A- 



TH13 AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE 




Designed and built in 1856 by Will ism Mason of Taunton, Mass, 

Wheel arrangement 4-4-0 

1856 1893 

{first engine) detest engine) 

Weight (pounds) 56,000 123,400 

Tractive Power (pounds) 12,883 

Cylinders 15"x 22" 18fc n x 24"- 23"x 24" 

Steam Pressure (pounds) 165 

Diemeter of Drivers (inches) 60 

This type was built for speed and was suitable for 
hauling the light passenger trains of the last century, but 
with the coming of heavier, faster equiptment, it was necessary 
to provide more traction for the locomotive. This type, 
with only two pairs of drivers , was therefore replaced by others. 

The locomotive, described as built in 1856, was the 
first to have the link motion valve gear. The latest of this 
type was the first compound locomotive ever built and was 
exhibited at the Chicago Worlds Pair, 



-2A- 



THE PACIFIC LOCOMOTIVE 



?7"«£ft* RftCIFHC TVPE LOCO No 5320 THEflUJtNT CL£v£LaND) 



CLA33 P-9 




TctJi. wr. or tcmpu f^ctooc lb? 

*-- LCNQTH KTWEEN 9HECTS 

■**r c « tubes r^MBEif 

OaJ r3IDC PL4 



r— ■- ■ *vEEASC LJEMQ-TH - 



CulvwTuUE, 



E 






-Eh necoiMShiCNaoE . 
-*■-,*■ 4JAA-TE- area. »q rr 



T'Orri* L. ai 3 a 



VAIVC OlfAJZ 



£3-0 LIM. 
I JO V **'. 
-TO- 



FFEE erst CE_^K- 
CO TUBES i*OJToT*t_ ,-tt OV'^CB BE*KE 

I TOTAL — _.^- 4595 MfKMEATEt 

I »-JFHMCAT, N& —-.MM STOkCC 

WATEK K&OPr 



-C*P«OF-rt 



The Pacific type of locomotive is the standard modern 
passenger engine. It was first designed in 1906, and since 
then has been developed to the height of its perfection in the 
"President Cleveland'^ which was constructed in 1928 at the 

Mount Glare shops. 



-3A- 



THE WIN/.KS CAKELBACK LOCOMOTIVE 




Built by Hoss Winens of Baltimore for the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad, and put in operation June 1848. 

Wheel arrangement in 1848 was 0-8-0, but in 1869 they were made 
with wheels 4-6-0 as shown in the picture. 

Cylinders were horizontal and were first made 17"x 22", 
later developed to 19"x 22", 

Boiler horizontal with inclined top overhanging the firebox. 

Valve mechanism consisted of hook motion valve gear, but in 
1870 it was changed to the Stephenson link motion. 



These were the principal freight locomotives used 
until the Consolidation type was introduced in 1873, and a 
few were in service until 1898. 



-4A- 



THE MOGUL LOCOMOTIVE 




Built by J. C. Davis , master of machinery, at the Mount Glare 

shops in 1875. 

Wheel arrangement £-6-0 

Weight 90,400 pounds, Tractive power 14,520 pounds 
Cylinders 19"x 24" Steam pressure 110 pounds 
Valve mechanism cosisted of the Stephenson valve gear. 



This one locomotive was used originally for hauling 
heavy passenger trains over the Allegheny Mountains between 
Peidmont and Altamont, but this type was applied to freight 
service ss well. Its use was restricted, though , due to a 
lack of traction so it was not developed. 



— 5A— 



THE CONSOLIDATION LOCOMOTIVE 




First designed by Baldwin, of Philadelphia, for the Lehigh 
Valley .Railroad in 1866, It was designed and built for the 
Baltimore and Ohio by Danforth L, Morse in 1873, 



Wheel arrangement 2-8-0 

Weight (pounds) 

Tractive power (pounds) 

Cylinders 

Steam pressure (pounds) 

duality of steam 



1873 
(first engine) 

105,200 

20,400 

20"x 24" 

125 

saturated 



1910 

(latest engine) 

220,370 

42,168 

24"x 30" 

215 

super-heated 



Some notable improvements were made on this type 
by A. J. Cromwell, a capable designer, in 1888. He made 
the firebox extend over the rear wheels, and eliminated the 
previously used deck plates: he constructed a brick arch in 
the firebox to retain the flame until more of its heat value 
oould be utilized. He strengthened weak parts, and thus 
contributed a great deal tower d the development of this type 
of freight locomotive. These were used as the heaviest freight 
haulers until more improved types were necessary. 



-BA- 



THE MIKADO LOCOMOTIVE 




First designed by Baldwin in 1897 for the Nippon Railway of 
Japan, and it was built for the Baltimore and Ohio railroad 

in 1911. 

Wheel arrangament 2-8-2 





1911 
(first engine) 


1923 
(latest engine) 


'//eight (pounds) 


267,030 


281,000 


Tractive power (pounds) 


50,184 


54,600 


Cylinders 


24"x 32" 


26"x 32" 


Steam pressure (pounds) 


205 


220 


Diameter of drivers fine 


hes) 64 


64 



This type is the universal freight locomotive except 
where grades are unusually steep. 



-7A- 



TEE MALLET ARTICULATED LOCOMOTIVE 




Designed in 1904 by J.E.Muhlfeld in conjunction with the 
American Locomotive Works. 

This Mallet, the first of its kind built in this 
country, consisted of two engine units, each with three pairs 
of drivers. The two units were constructed as a compound 
engine, that is, two were low pressure cylinders and two were 
high pressure cylinders. It was found, by trail, that 
excessive back pressure was developed at any but a very slow 
speed. Hence, all Mallet locomotives made since are construct- 
ed with simple engine units. They are also made with four 
pairs of drivers per unit, as shown below. The forward 




Simple Mallet 

engine is pivoted to allow the locomotive to round curves.