CRITICAL CONSIDERATIONS 3 to it, for we cannot educate anyone unless we possess direct knowledge of them." The authority of Sergi gave rise to the conviction that once the individual was known through the medium of experiments the art of education would come into existence almost naturally, and, as often happens, that gave rise in his followers to con- fusion of ideas, namely of confusing the experimental study of the pupil with his education. And since the one was made to appear as the way to reach the other, which ought to spring from it naturally, pedagogic anthropology founded by Sergi was there- fore called in Italy Scientific Pedagogy. The converts to the new term carried as their standard the " Biographical Chart," supposing that once the flag was boldly raised on the school battlefield, the victory would be won. Hence the school of Scientific Pedagogy taught the teachers to make anthropometric measurements, to use instruments for ascertaining tactile sensibility, to collect data for case histories. In this way the body of scientific masters was formed. Certainly, in other countries, nothing better or more extensive was done. In France, in England and especially in America, there were attempted studies in anthropology and pedagogic psycho- logy in the elementary schools, inspired by the illusion of ex- tracting from anthropometry and from psychometry the reform of the school. Following this came the study of the individual, extending from the psychology of Wundt to the tests of Binet, but all the theories were vitiated by the same mistake. Besides, scarcely ever was it the teacher who carried out such research, but doctors who were more interested in their own special science than in education, and who sought to make experimental con- tributions to psychology and anthropometry rather than to organize their work and their objects for the building tip of scientific peda- gogy. Finally, the anthropology and the psychology were never applied to educating the children in the schools; never did the teachers in their practice rise to the level of the theoritical scientist.