THE HISTORY OF METHODS 27 a new affective education," in Germany half a century later Fechner and Wundt founded experimental psychology. The two currents grew and developed separately in the schools. Academic pedagogy continued to evolve on the old foundations, whilst side by side mental tests were given to the students which, however, did not affect education in the least. The experiments of Itard on the contrary, carried out only slightly earlier, were a real beginning of scientific education, capable of modifying both educational methods and the pupils. As it came into being among deficient children, however, it was not taken into serious consideration in the educational world. But the merit of having completed a real educational system for defective children belongs to Edward Seguin, who was first a teacher and then a doctor. Beginning with the experiments of Jtard, he applied them, modifying and completing the method, during ten years of experience with children who had been taken from the asylum and brought together in a little school in the rue Pigalle in Paris. This method was published for the first time in a volume of about six hundred pages, published in Paris with the title, Traitement Moral, Hygiene et Education des Idiots. Later on, Seguin emigrated to the United States of America, where there were founded many institutions for defectives, and where Seguin, after twenty years more of experience, published a second edition of his method which bore a different title, Idiocy and its Treatment by the Physiological Method. This- volume was published in New York in 1866. In it Seguin defined clearly a method of education which he called a physiological method. He no longer refers in the title to the education of idiots almost as if it were special to them, but he speaks of idiocy as being treated by a physiological method. If we remember that pedagogy had always been based on psychology and that Wundt postulated a physiological psychology, one must be struck by the coincidence of these conceptions and be led TO suspect that the physiological method may have some connection with physiological psychology.