>62 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CHILD workmen's dwellings, but at the same time a centre of propa- ganda, in which there was working—a matter worth mentioning— a gloomy,, severe journalist, whose name was to become famous .and fatal in the world, namely Benito Mussolini. It was the Umanitaria which organized a general move for- ward, undertaking the manufacture of material, that is, the scientific apparatus I designed for the first Children's House. After this the Beni Stabili opened schools in the tenement buildings which existed in various parts of Rome, this time for middle-class people, who had asked for the privilege of Children's Houses for their children also. Then there was founded the first Children's House for the aristocracy, opened by the English ambassador in Rome and accommodating children from the highest ranks of society. After a disastrous earthquake which destroyed the city of Messina in Sicily, there were gathered together in Rome 60 children found wandering among the ruins, and for this group of little unknown creatures, now orphans, bewildered and stupified by the terrible shock, was founded the Children's House in the Via Giusti, kept by the Franciscan sisters Missionaries of Mary. The 'Children's House in the Via Giusti became celebrated because of the transformation wrought on these little ones, to whom was restored the joy of life; it inspired novels and poetry, like the Montessori Mother of the American authoress Dorothy Can- field-Fisher. Children's Houses were opened in various places, after Baron and Baroness Franchetti provided a first course of training for teachers, which was originally intended for the prepa- ration of Italian teachers for rural schools, but which in that first session included teachers from nine European nations. After that in 1913S on the very eve of the first world war, there was organized, on the initiative of Americans, a first international course ia Rome, which was attended by students from European countries, from America, Africa and India. , Scientific pedagogy for children had come into existence with immense energy to modify education.