TEACHING METHODS 79 his behaviour in his usual everyday life. He becomes accustomed to a form of discipline which is not limited to school surroundings, but extends outwards into society. - The liberty of the child ought to have as its limit the collective interest of the community in which be moves; its form is expressed in what we call manners and good behaviour. It is our duty then to prevent the child from doing anything which may offend or hurt others, and to check behaviour which is unbecoming or impolite. But as regards all else, every action which has a useful purpose in view, whatever it may be and in whatever form it shows itself, ought not only to be permitted, but it ought to be kept under observation; that is the essential point. By means of scientific preparation the teacher must not only become equipped with observing powers, but must acquire an interest in the observation of natural phenomena. According to our system she ought to fill a passive role in a much higher degree than an active one. Her patience, her inactivity, will be compounded of keen scientific curiosity and respect for the phenomena which she wishes to observe. The teacher must understand and feel her position as an observer. Such is the test which should be applied in the school for little ones who are giving the first revelations of their lives. We cannot possibly estimate the consequences of preventing a spontaneous action when the child is just beginning to do things; perhaps we may be destroying life itself. The humanity which manifests itself in its intellectual splendour in the sweet and tender age of child- hood, as the sun shows itself at dawn and the flower when it first opens its petals, ought to be respected with religious veneration; and if an educational act is to be efficacious it will only be so if it tends to help towards the complete unfolding of life. In order to do this it is necessary TO avoid rigorously the arresting of spontaneous movements and the imposition of doings dictated by the will of others. From this ruling there must be excepted useless or dangerous actions, because these ought to be prevented.