134 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CHILD transversal bars along which they climb whilst they can slide down on the other side. This " pagoda" was built specially in those places where some kind of tennis-court existed. This court was very useful; small children pushed small handcarts there, sometimes with another small child in them, or they used it for cycling. Children of three years of age can very well use bicycles (built according to their size) and those of four become real cyclists. In Holland, where there are special cycle-paths, many children come to school on cycles instead of by tram. Also swimming pools were built in many of our schools; the first having been built in Vienna. There they had a pool in the shape of the figure eight with various depths for smaller and bigger children. We thus had an opportunity to observe that children of four years of age can learn how to swim (as for that matter we can see the children of Italian fishermen doing, even without any formal teaching, at that-same age). All these possibilities are like games, very amusing but not necessary. That is why later on we did not speak about them any more and we substituted for them practical work and perma- nent abilities (like cycling and swimming). Another reason why in kter years we did not stress them was that these applications are not easily realized in schools for the poor. SILENCE: THE INHIBITION OF MOVEMENTS In the common schools, for long, it has been thought that silence could be obtained by a command. The meaning of the word has not been studied. It has not been realized that it demands immobility, almost the suspension of life for that particular instant during which silence, is main- tained. Silence means the suspension of every movement; it is. not, as is generally considered in schools, in a rough and ready way, the secession of noises greater than the normal noises tolerated in the place.