EDUCATION OF THE SENSES 189 observers of their environment because they must utilize to the- utmost extent all its riches. Today, art also is based, as in Greek times, on the observa- tion of truth. The exact sciences progress directly through observation; all discoveries and the applications of them which for a century have been the means of transforming the world in which we move were arrived at by this very route. We ought, therefore, to prepare the new generations for this attitude of mind which is rendered necessary as a form of modern civil life and as the indispensable means for continuing efficiently the work of human progress. We see as the result of observation the discoveries of the Rontgen rays, the Hertzian waves, the vibrations of radium, and similar great applications from the Marconi telegraph^ Meanwhile, in no epoch to such a degree as in ours, has thought, based upon positive research, thrown so much light on philo- sophical speculations and on spiritual subjects. The theories of matter themselves, after the discovery of radium, have led on to metaphysical ideas. So it might be said that by training the power of observation we have also prepared ways leading to spiritual discoveries. The education of the senses, by producing keen observers, not only fulfils a generic office of adaptation to the present epoch of civilization* but also prepares directly for practical life. Up till now, I consider we have been holding very imperfect views about what is necessary for practical life. We have always started off with ideas and followed up with practical work. The- educational method has always been to teach intellectually, and then proceed to action* Generally speaking, in teaching, we speak of the object which interests its, and try to induce the pupil, when he has understood, to carry out a piece of work connected with that object. Very often the child who has grasped the idea finds enormous difficulty in carrying out the work which has been assigned to him, because there is lacking in his education a factor of prime importance--the training of the senses.