236 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CHILD institutes of a professional character for the admission of men to work. On the other hand, Itard's studies had immediate practical results in the heart of education and resulted in the curing of partly deaf children, who regained their hearing by the strength- ening of their auditory faculty by means of exercise; and at the same time they regained speech. From this beginning there arose the education of the real deaf-mutes and then of the defectives. The schools established throughout Switzerland, Germany, France and America spread this work of redemption of unhappy children and raised the mental and social level of all the children "who were affected by them. And directly the same methods were introduced into the schools for normal children, a profound change in the school was the result, an elevation of the personality of the child which has spread through the whole world the social conception of indepen- dence and the liberation of the child.