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236               THE DISCOVERY OF THE CHILD

institutes of a professional character for the admission of men
to work.

On the other hand, Itard's studies had immediate practical
results in the heart of education and resulted in the curing of
partly deaf children, who regained their hearing by the strength-
•ening of their auditory faculty by means of exercise; and at the
same time they regained speech. From this beginning there arose
the education of the real deaf-mutes and then of the defectives.

The schools established throughout Switzerland, Germany,
France and America spread this work of redemption of unhappy
children and raised the mental and social level of all the children
"who were affected by them.

And directly the same methods were introduced into the
schools for normal children, a profound change in the school was
the result, an elevation of the personality of the child which has
spread through the whole world the social conception of indepen-
dence and the liberation of the child.