WRITTEN LANGUAGE 239 the laws of contrast and similarity; thus O next to I, B opposite P, T along with L, etc." According to Seguin, then, it is not necessary to teach writing; the child who draws, will write. But writing is, for this author, the printed capital letter! Neither does he go on to tell us whether or not the idiot will write in any other way. Instead, he enlarges on a description of the teaching of the drawing which prepares for writing and which includes writing—teaching which is full of diffi- culties and which is methodized by the joint efforts of Itard and Seguin. " Chapter XL. Drawing.—In drawing, the first ideas to be acquired, in the order of their importance, are that of the plane •surface intended to receive the drawing, and secondly, that of the lines traced on it. " Within these two ideas are comprised all writing, all drawing, every linear creation. " These two ideas are correlative; their relationship generates the idea, the capacity for producing lines in this sense, because lines deserve their name only when they follow a methodical and rational direction; the mark made without a direction is not aline; it is produced by chance, it has no name." " The rational mark, on the contrary, has a name, because it- follows a direction, and since all writing or drawing is none other than a mixture of different directions which a line follows, it is necessary, before dealing with writing properly so-called, to insist on these notions of plane and line which the normal child acquires by intuition, but which one has to make precise and clear for idiots, in all their applications. Through methodical drawing they will come into rational contact with all parts of the plane, and will produce, at first by imitation, simple lines at first, complicated later on. " In successive stages they will be taught—(1) to draw different lands of lines, (2) to draw them in various directions and ta posi- tions differently related to the surface, (3) to join these lines so as to form figures graduated from the simple to the complicated.