WRITTEN LANGUAGE 243 After a long series of experiments and following the guidance of ideas about the origin of geometric figures, Seguin found out that the easiest figure to draw was the triangle. "When three lines meet together in this way, they always form a triangle, whilst four lines may meet in a hundred directions, without keeping exactly parallel, and therefore presenting an imperfect square. "From these experiments and observations, confirmed by many others which it would be superfluous to quote, I deduced the first principles of writing and drawing for idiots—principles the applications of which is too simple for me to dwell longer on it." The above describes the methods used by my predecessors in teaching writing to defectives. To teach reading, Itard proceeded in the following way. He hung from nails on the wall geometrical figures like triangles, squares, circles; then he drew the exact repro- duction of them on the wall. After that, having removed the figures, he had them replaced on their respective nails by the Savage de 1' Aveyron, who had to be guided by the drawings. It was from these drawings that Itard took the idea of the flat insets. Finally, Itard made letters of the alphabet in printed capitals and used them in a way similar to that which he had used for the geometrical figures; that is, he drew them on the -wall and placed nails at such a height that the child could hang up letters over the drawings. Later on, Itard used a horizontal plane instead of the wall, drawing the letters on the bottom of a box and getting the drawing covered with the solid letters. Twenty years later, Seguin had not changed his method. Criticism of the method used by Itard and Seguin for teaching writing and reading seems to me superfluous. There are inherent two fundamental mistakes which make it inferior to the methods, in use in schools for normal children. The first is that of teaching writing with printed capital letters; the second lies in preparing for writing a study of rational geometry, which we reserve today for pupils in secondary schools. In doing this Seguin really confaises ideas in a way which surprises us. He suddenly jumps.