H APT E R XVII READING EXPERIENCE has taught me to recognize a distinct difference between writing and reading and has shown me that the two acquirements need not necessarily be made at the same time. In our first experi- ment, writing precedes reading, though I know that this is in con- tradiction to the common practice. I do not call 'reading* the attempt which a child makes when he is verifying the word which he has composed with the movable alphabet, that is when he is : translating signs into sounds, as at first he translated sounds into signs, because in such a verification he already knows the word, having repeated it to himself many times as he composed it. (That is, in a phonetic language.) ' I call reading the interpretation of an idea by means of graphic signs. The child who has not heard the word spoken, butwho recog- nizes it on seeing it put together on the table in movable letters and can tell what it means (the name of a child, a city, an object, etc.), that child reads. This I say because the word 'read* corresponds in written language to the word we listen to in spoken language, which serves to receive the language transmitted to us by others.