DRAWING AND REPRESENTATIVE ART 345 -emphasize the point, in order that I jnay be clearly understood, that the proceedings which I describe form only one of the factors in the analysis of writing. We have stated that our children do not produce of their own accord, which is left free, those dreadful drawings which are dis- played and lauded in modern schools of advanced ideas. They, however, draw ornaments and figures which are much clearer and more harmonious than those strange daubs of the so-called " free drawing," where the child has to explain what he intends to represent by his incomprehensible attempts. We do not give lessons in drawing or in modelling, and yet many children are able to draw flowers, birds, scenes and even imaginary sketches in an admirable manner. Very frequently it is noticed that our children adorn with drawings even their pages of writing and arithmetic, sometimes adding to a page of numerical operations the figure of a child writing, or surrounding the page with fantastic ornamentation. Even the geometrical drawings sometimes become frames for figures, or tHe outline of the geometrical figure is garnished with ornamental drawings, It must then be concluded that the preparation of the hand and of the senses gives natural aid not only to writing but also to expressive drawing. We do not teach drawing by drawing, however, but by providing the opportunity to prepare the instruments of expression. This I consider to be a real aid to free drawing, which, not being dreadful and incomprehensible, encourages the child to continue. Another form of assistance is that which we give to every Icind of learning: the analysis of difficulties, or the analysis into components. In drawing itself there are various elements, such as outline and colour. Now for these two items, there is offered the tracing of the outlines of the insets and filling the drawings by means of lines, which prepare the hand for steady muscular exertion. For colour, we provide paint-brushes and water-colours, with which it is possible to represent drawings even without having an outline prepared. We give pastels also, and show how to use them.