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THE BEGINNING OF MUSICAL ART 357
the written name, the black faces of the discs are thus exposed.
Evidently many discs will find places on the same line or along the
same space. When the notes are all placed they must be turned
up without displacing them; the names can now be read and
reveal to the child any mistake which he has made.
The third piece of material is a double board on which the
notes are placed in a rhombus. By detaching the two boards,
the notes are disposed as in the treble and bass staffs. Having
learnt this the children are able to read little tunes and reproduce
them on the bells. And, vice versa, they can write down little
tunes after having played them from ear on the bells or on an
instrument, and have thus found out the notes for them.
This part of musical writing has a noteworthy development at
a slightly more advanced age, that is, in the elementary cksses.
In the Montessori school at Barcelona the children have music
copybooks almost like those for writing.
It is seen that the three exercises dealt with—rhythmic move-
ments, performances on musical instruments and the writing of
music—may go on separately and independently. As an instance
of this fact there may be cited not only the existence of independent
exercises but also of complete methods which cover only one of
these items. One example of the latter is the Dalcroze method
which develops only rhythmic gymnastics and also that of Dol-
metch which cultivates the art of drawing harmonies from an
instrument. The old methods of teaching music began with knowl-
edge of the notes on the musical scale, independently of music.
But ours is an example of what we call analysis, that is, separating
out the parts of a very difficult and complex whole into exercises
which may by themselves constitute interesting work.
Rhythm, harmony, writing and reading are joined together in
the end and form three interests, three stories of graded work
and joyful experiences, which burst out into the full splendour of
one single victory.