THE BEGINNING OF MUSICAL ART 357 the written name, the black faces of the discs are thus exposed. Evidently many discs will find places on the same line or along the same space. When the notes are all placed they must be turned up without displacing them; the names can now be read and reveal to the child any mistake which he has made. The third piece of material is a double board on which the notes are placed in a rhombus. By detaching the two boards, the notes are disposed as in the treble and bass staffs. Having learnt this the children are able to read little tunes and reproduce them on the bells. And, vice versa, they can write down little tunes after having played them from ear on the bells or on an instrument, and have thus found out the notes for them. This part of musical writing has a noteworthy development at a slightly more advanced age, that is, in the elementary cksses. In the Montessori school at Barcelona the children have music copybooks almost like those for writing. It is seen that the three exercises dealt with—rhythmic move- ments, performances on musical instruments and the writing of music—may go on separately and independently. As an instance of this fact there may be cited not only the existence of independent exercises but also of complete methods which cover only one of these items. One example of the latter is the Dalcroze method which develops only rhythmic gymnastics and also that of Dol- metch which cultivates the art of drawing harmonies from an instrument. The old methods of teaching music began with knowl- edge of the notes on the musical scale, independently of music. But ours is an example of what we call analysis, that is, separating out the parts of a very difficult and complex whole into exercises which may by themselves constitute interesting work. Rhythm, harmony, writing and reading are joined together in the end and form three interests, three stories of graded work and joyful experiences, which burst out into the full splendour of one single victory.