(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The dispossessed majority."

THE 




MAJORITY 




WILMOT ROBERTSON 



THE DISPOSSESSED MAJORITY 



WHAT EXPERTS AND NONEXPERTS 
SAID ABOUT EARLIER EDITIONS 



"A work of vast scope and scholarship. . . . It carries a heavy blow to the 
solar plexus. . . . The style is simple, lucid, and in places inspiring." Carleton 
S. Coon, professor of anthropology. Harvard University. 

"A scholarly as well as an arresting study of the plight of the American Majority 
and the bearing of its predicament on the deterioration of our society. Wilmot 
Robertson presents a case which every concerned American should ponder." 
Robert N. Cunningham, former dean, Phiilips Exeter Academy. 

"I am, needless to relate, hypnotized, as if I were facing a cobra." New England 
Social Registerite. 

"The appearance of a book like this only confirms . . . that the time was bound 
to come when the essential Western intellect, the author of all the scientific 
and technical marvels we see all around us, must at last turn its attention to 
the problems of Western man's fast worsening situation." Publisher of interna- 
tional news digest. 

"One of the greatest books I have ever read. I do not know of any other work 
that has impressed me so much because of its authoritative content, the care 
with which statements have been documented, and the way in which it is writ- 
ten." Alton Ochsner, The Ochsner Clinic. 

"Extremely readable, fascinating in content, and guaranteed to make the reader 
keep turning pages while he wonders about the future of his country." Hart 
Fessenden, former headmaster, Fessenden School. 

"Politically the most important book published in this country since 1939— 
perhaps since 1917. It is a concise and strictly objective survey of ail the 
essential aspects of our present plight, and it clearly identifies the causes that 
have now made the survival of the United States extremely doubtful." Professor 
of classical literature. 

"A pioneering accomplishment of the first order. How long will this book last? 
Probably a century." Air Force officer. 

"If I say wonderful book, I mean it. I have read it, and even reread some portions, 
with growing interest and also admiration. ... I am so impressed by it, that 
I have recommended it to some of our Cabinet Ministers and Rectors of universi- 
ties." Foreign churchman. 

"The author thinks the unthinkable and says the unsayable." New Jersey house- 
wife. 



$25 



THE DISPOSSESSED 
MAJORITY 

WILMOT ROBERTSON 



In part an elegy, in part a galvanic recall 
to greatness, this mind-rousing book 
hammers home the theme that America 
has changed, and changed for the worse, 
not because of a hardening of its eco- 
nomic arteries, the Vietnam war, the gen- 
eration gap, inflation or a callous disre- 
gard for Negroes, but because its once 
dominant population group, the Ameri- 
cans of Northern European descent, the 
Majority, has been reduced to second- 
class status. 

To put it more graphically, the sickness 
of America is the sickness of the Ameri- 
can Majority, which is presently racked 
by a double infection: (1) the moral de- 
bility of liberalism, which has brought 
about a near-fatal split in the ranks of 
the Majority at the very time it should 
be most united; (2) the rampant virus 
of minority racism, which has sapped the 
Majority's powers of resistance and di- 
luted its group consciousness. 

Sick to the point of moral disintegration, 
the Majority has become the loser in a 
racial war. In this context the book exam- 
ines the backgrounds, strengths, and 
weaknesses of the combatants, with spe- 
cial emphasis on the assimilable and 
unassimilable minorities. It records the 
sorry chronicle of Majority reverses on 
all the important battlegrounds — cul- 
tural, religious, political, economic, and 
diplomatic. Since the liberal-minority co- 
alition has emerged victorious on all 
fronts, it is not an overstatement to de- 
scribe the losers as the Dispossessed 
Majority. 

(Continued on backflap) 



The Majority's defeat is a great misfire 
of history, a harbinger of decadence and 
downfall. For the Majority is America, If 
the former goes, the latter goes, as re- 
cent events are making all too clear. The 
question is no longer the survival of hal- 
lowed political, legal, and economic dog- 
mas, but the survival of Western man 
in the New World, and perhaps in the 
Old. Those who are assuming control of 
the United States have a long history of 
failure in the art of civilization. As always, 
what they cannot measure up to, they 
are driven to destroy. 

But there is still hope, and throughout 
the book many iconoclastic yet essential 
measures are proposed for the realiza- 
tion of this hope. The regeneration of a 
dying people is an all-or-nothing mission 
that will strain Majority capabilities to 
the limit. It is no easy task to reject the 
indoctrination of half a century, to rescue 
a magnificent idea from its despoilers, 
and to return to the very old in order 
to create the very new. 



Wilmot Robertson is a native Pennsylva- 
nian whose family goes back to colonial 
times and whose forebears fought on 
both sides of the Civil War. The author 
waited for decades for a qualified Major- 
ity scholar to write this book. Having 
waited in vain, he decided to take on the 
project himself and devoted ten years 
to it. His credentials are long periods of 
study in American and foreign universi- 
ties, three years' overseas service as an 
army officer in World War II, a varied 
career in journalism, advertising, and 
small business and, above all, an over- 
whelming concern for the darkening 
tragedy of his people. 



Howard Allen Enterprises, Inc. 

P.O. Box 76 

Cape Canaveral, Fl. 32920 



ii ordei in possess wluu yuu du not possess 
Vdii must go by llie way of dispossession. 
— T, S. Kliui, I-'ottr Qittnlct* 



Fot'RTII UKVISLDKDITION 
Ninth i'liniing 



J tun ri:uii»u:.] .S i ;i n<i;u d Honk Numbn: -<H -l. : "i7tM5-l 
l.ibrao'ol <:on^rrss(; ;l t;ilo K Ciird Nuinhn: 7 1 1 <J764<) 

© 1990, 1981,1971-,, 107.1, [07« Howard All.-n Km,,,,, ises, |„, 

All rights reserved. For inloniKitinri write Howard Allen 

Ktiterpnscs, Inc., Kox 7(>, C-.i\n- Canaveral, FL 33920. 

Print*',} in l/w / 'nitftl St<tU-\ oj Ann-noi 



Contents 



Frtface 






PART I 
Racial Dynamics 

/ The Qmcspl oj foac& 3 

2 Racism 7 

3 Racial Metaphysics / / 

4 The Physiological Stratum qf Race 25 



PARI II 

Racial Composition olihe United States 

5 While- Immigration 41 

6 Nonwhite Immigration #3 

7 The Fusion and Mosaic Fallacies 53 
H A Racial Census of the I haled Suites 3 7 



PARI" III 
The Majority at Hay 

9 A 1 a jo n ty Origi >ls g 9 

1 7 he Decline of the Majority 80 

1 1 The Split m the Rank\ iqq 

12 The Aesthetic Pmp ijy 

vii 



VI 11 



Contents 



PARI' IV 
The Minorities: Assimilated and Un assimilable 



13 The Assimilated 1\ linarities 

14 UnGSSimiktblr White Minorities 

1 5 The Jews 

16 Nouwhife Minorities 

17 7 n e Negroes 



125 
144 
152 
201 
217 



PART V 
Tlie Cultural Clash 



/(V The Dissolution of Art 

1 9 7 '/?« iVn* larization of Religion 

20 The A trophy of tutu cation 



217 
261 
2S7 



PART VI 

Tin' Political Clash 



21 The Adoptability of Dogma 

22 'The 'Three Phases of Dnrtarmcy 
21 The Metamorphosis of Liberalism 
2-1 ( lonsrtvatisw Redefined 



107 
315 
332 
342 



PARI VII 

The F.conomit" Clash 



25 The Hiologs oj ItetHifudon 

26 The Proletarian Syndrome 

27 TtiePisfttt nafttmmt 



357 
370 

770 



PART VIII 
The Legal Clash 



2H The. Adulteration of (he Law 

29 The I. egisluting Judicial 

30 The Minority Underground 



vn 

■100 



CrmtrntA 



IX 



PART IX 
The Foreign Policy Clash 



31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 



The Denationalization of Foreign Policy 

The United States and Western Europe 

1'he United States and Russia 

The United States and the far East 

The United States and the Middle East 

The United Slates and Africa 

The United States and the Western Hemisphere 



447 
460 
468 

484 
495 
516 

525 



PARI X 

Prospects and Perspectives 



3H Nut km Hypnosis 

39 Northern European Ingathering 



541 

551 



Appendixes 
Hibtoogrnphy 

Index 



563 
579 
583 



Preface 



HP mk \rosr truly disadvantaged are those who are haled fVu 
A their virtues not theii vires, who insist on playing ihe game 
of life with opponents who have long ago abandoned the rules, 
who stubbornly go on believing that a set of highly sophisticated 
institutions developed by and fox a particular people at a parti* u 
lar poim in time and spat e is operational for all peoples under all 
tiit umstances. 

I he intent ol this hook is to supply members of this dis» omflt- 
ed and threatened group — here provisionally defined as the 
American Majority — wilh a systematic diagnosis of the diseases 
and debilities that have laid them low and some suggestions for 
then recovery. 

So manv liberals having heroine minority racists and no mart) 
conservatives having beiome rootless < ranks, so much religion 
having become social science and so much social science having 
heroine intellectual sleight-of-hand, the thoughtful Majority mem- 
ber lias nowhere to turn but to himself. This, however, may be his 
salvation, lu isolation the critical faculty cuts deeper. Only now is 
it possible to understand the tragi* and humiliating (ate ol" the 
American Majority because only now are a few Majority minds, 
deepened by decades of solitary c ontemplation and sharpened bv 
die grim chronicle of events, finally inning io die emergency 
wavelength of 'collective survival. 

On the surface America appears lost. But the aniiuali/aiion of 
The body and the brulalization of the spirit, the desecration of the 
environment, the venality of politics, the drug and homosexual 
plagues, AIDS, the taste-killing shock waves ol pornography. 



Xll 



PREFACE 



gtieUO savagery, the feminist madness, reverse discrimination, the 
degeneration of ilie military, the torrents of illegal immigrants, the 
apostasy of th€ professors anil journalists, the mindlessness of the 
students, the phobic materialism and Babbittry of their parents — 
all these, perhaps, are not the irreversible regressions they seem 
but merely short-term roadblock* or detours on the Great Trek to a 
higher and more luminous life form. In the sequence of organic re- 
birth., what is to lx- done must first be undone. Unthinking must 
precede rethinking. According to the 1 sine curve of human anion, 
degeneration alternates with regeneration. Quite possibly the pres- 
ent phase is one of rt'tuhr pour rainrx semter. 

( hi the hopeful side the chromosomal material, the fust and fun- 
damental requirement for an American resurgence, is still in abun- 
dant supply. Life scientists and ihose few social scientists worthy of 
the name are seething with insights and breakthroughs which can- 
not help but unbait some of the dogmatic traps that have been de 
liberalely set for the more active Majority intellects. From the 
raked-over ashes of burnt-out hisiorirism Hashes a spark or two of 
authentic history. There is even the glimmer of a new religion (or 
the rejuvenation of the old) m die Promethean utterances and rid- 
dles of the new ontology. 

At all events, the Majority will soon be out of limbo. There is no- 
where for it to go but up — or all t he way down. It is really ;i matter 
of timing, a race between the encroaching jungle and the ripening 
harvest. The moon walk may turn out to be the last mile, or the 
crossing of the Rubicon. 



rART I 



Racial Dynamics 



CH AFTER 



The Concept of Race 



'^JOTHINC. has raised man in higher peaks of creativity or low- 
A^ltred him to greater depths of destmctivcness than the dual 
OOtiCFi of human similarity and dissimilarity. 

Every mam is like every other man in that lie belongs to the 
same species. Homo sapums* The seven-foot Watusi, the four-fooi 
Pygmy, the milk-whiu- Swede, the coffee-colored Latin Auiernan 
mestizo, and the almond-eyed .and almond-tinted Oriental ai e 
all capable of interbreeding* Consequently, Lhe idea of human like- 
ness has biological origins. But so does the idea oj human urn- 
likeness. Every man differs physically and menially from every 
other man, which accounts huth for human individuality dud crroilD 
differences^ As Shakespeare wrote; 

Strange is ii that our bloods. 
Of colour, weight, ami heat, pour'd all together. 
Would (|uite roiiluund distinction, yet stand off 
hi difl'rrcnccs so mighty. '' 

lhe average person probably starts life as a similarist and ends 

as a dissimilarist. The child grows older and wanders ironi ihe 
family hearth, onlv to find that all lathers do not look like his father, 



1. Fven idc-niital twins dill'ci slightly in height, weight, head length, and head 
uiddi. 1„ ('.. Dvmi and I heodosius Doh/hansky, Heredity, liiicr &nd So titty, New 
American Library, New Yoik, l l .)60, p. '11. "Deux jumeaux tdetttlQliei, provenant 
dn nienic oeiit, possedanl la iiu'-mc ( cmMituLion geneliqne, iii;inirrsiml eharun 
nut- proiannalue. difTermre." Alexis Carrel, L'h&mmi cd ine&nnu, l.ihr.inc Pl<>n, 
Paiis, 1935, p, 336. 

t MJ\ WkU I'hatEn&s Wdl, act % seeae S, 



4 The Dispossessed Majority 

all mothers not like his mother, all children not like his 

brothers and sisters. As he si rays Can her afield, he discovers 
noticeable physical and cultural differences among the pop- 
ulations of big cities and foreign countries.* Inevitably he 
recognizes that some human beings have a set of physical 
and cultural characteristics similar to his own while others 
do not. With or without the help or advice of father, mother, 
teacher, book, or television, he has separated one group of 
people from another. Lake it or not, he has subscribed 10 the 
concept of race. 

The belief thai every man belongs to a distinct human breed 
is the bugbear of social anthropologists and a challenge to 
physical anthropologists who have been trying to eradicate 
such "loose thinking" by coming up with a more rigorous defini- 
tion o[ race, So lar their efforts have been largely concentrated 
on the accumulation and classi Heat ion of" biomet ric data 
and have produced as much controversy as agreement. Even 
if they eventual]}' succeed in establishing the physiological, 
component of race on firm scientific ground, they will still 
be faced with the mvstcries and complexities of the psychologi- 
cal conn port em, Race, as every American politician is well 
aware, goes far beyond ihe realm of the physical. 

Unfortunately for those anthropologists and biologists who 
work with tape measures and computers, and will only permit 
biological factors to determine and define race, the concept 
ol race leans as heavily on the awareness oi blood relation- 
ship as on the tat t . 

Statesmen, poels, and prophets take a less scientific approach. 
The$> know the immense power that feelings of kinship exert 
on human affairs and the vast political and social transformations 
that take place when these feelings are kindled or rekindled in 
human hearts. When men cannot appeal io anthropology to 
justify 1 lii* existence of race, ihey will often appeal to history 
and folklore. "The device of myths to establish a common 



3. One social scien list, <Ji-urge Munlm k, chums i<> Ikivc IouikI 7 a" dements < (mi- 
llion to all cultures, HfnefTg iru-ni: conrufrip, darning, division oi'kihor, education, 
family, folklore, gAotfei, hail styles, hospitality, law, ami magic. Thi Science of Man in 
the World Gratis, editor Ralph I.inion, Columhiu bniviisirv Press, New Yoik, L945, 
p. KM. 



RACIAL DYNAMICS fi 

ancestry for an ethnic gnnip," psychologist E. K. Francis noted a 
half century ago, "is a very ancient one."' 1 

Ethnic group is a favorite term of those social anthro- 
pologists who wish to drain race of its emotional content 
and subjectivity. Even more anemic is population group. But 
changing man's vocabulary does not necessarily change his 
thinking. Although ethnic group, population group, dine, For- 
menkreiSj and the like are handy and appropriate labels for 
classifying certain segments of mankind with minimal fric- 
liou, thev fall far short oi telling the whole story. 

1 here are other - , less watered-down synonyms for race, a few 
of i he more common being stock, hired, and nationality. 
They still hit rather wide of the mark. More descriptive, though 
more awkward, are such neologisms as we-fceling and we- 
group. William Graham Sumner, a pillar of the once dom- 
inant Conservative school ol' sociology, had a particular fond- 
ness for ethos, a word of Greek origin for the ideas, standards, and 
habits thai characterize an individual or a group.'* Ethos, how- 
ever, leaves much to he desired because of its tendency to 
sidestep the physical stratum. 

Perhaps the word that most closely approximates race is 
people, cithei modified by a possessive pronoun, my, our, 
your, or as used by Oswald Spongier when he wrote, "The Ro- 
man name in Hannibal's day meant a people, in Trajan's time 
nothing more than a population." 1 ' More highly charged ex- 
pressions for rate air the I rude but communicative "blood 
brother" and "soul brother," which black store owners some- 
times paint on their windows during ghetto riots to escape the 
wrath ol arsonists and looters. 

So meaningful and at the same lime -so meaningless, the 
concept oi rare encompasses so many facts and fancies, so 
ninth love and hate, so much reason and unreason that it is 
more easily sensed than understood. In some respects race- 
is similar to < ertain other four-letter words in English. It throws a 



■1. "1 he Nature oi the I'.ihnk (iiouj)," American Journal of St'ftiufogt, March 1 *MV f 
p. 596, 

b. William (irahain Sumner, Fu/kwtty\, (Jinn 8c Co., Boston, 1906, p. 12. 

6. '/'he Decline uj the Writ, Hans. G F. Atkinson, Knopf, New Yoik, L9&*F, Vol. 

II. i). Id 



The Dispossessed Majority 




.ency 01 me race idea. * 

Man is the amalgam of his physiological inheritance 
unl his sociological acquisitions. Her can shed the latter 
>ut nol the former. He j ca-n give up his religion, his conn- 
ry, and his culture, fir cannot give up his race. Or, more 
precisely, lie cannot give up the physical side of his race, 
which, apart from superficial alterations by plastic sur- 
geons and brauiicians, is inexorably determined by the 
laws of genet ics. ft 

7. Kdj»;u T. Thompson. "Race in the Modern World," journal 9/ Nfgro i'.dttcatian, 
Simimci , 1944, p, H. 

K. hven the phenomenon ol passing is primarily involved with 11011-physiral as- 
pect* of rati-. Essentially the man who pusses is trading the cultural UUppingS Of 
one community for those of another. Biologically sp-eaking, the black who "looks" 
jo while that he is accepted as a white is still a fractional Mark. 



CHAPTKR 2 



•isrn 



\ sthf. Tni'..\ is to ideology, so die concept of race is to racism. 1 
***Th"U leads to the definition of racism — die British rail it racial- 
ism — as a belief in the race idea. Hut belief implies some measure 
oi assent, some inward or outward activation of the belief. Racism, 
accordingly, can be desrril>cd as the over! or covert expression 
of the concept of race at one or more levels of human activity — 
in politics,, art, religion, business, community life, and in the pri- 
vacy of the home. 

Racism, which presupposes a common ancestry, is not the same 
as nationalism, which presupposes a common citizenship, h is 
usually, but not invariably, associated with such an exalted form 
of nationalism as patriotism, such extreme forms of nationalism 
as chauvinism and jingoism, such localized forms as sectionalism, 
regionalism and provincialism. Racism is present both in the foun- 
dation ami in the dissolution of empires. It may reinforce naiional- 
ism in homogeneous societies and oppose it in multiracial states. 
In proletarian revolutions and fascist counterrevolutions it may 
play a far more important role than class.* 

I. "An ideology is a complex of ideas or notions which represents itseli" to 
the thinkei us an absolute truth for the inter pi elation of the world and Ins 
situation within it; it leads the thinker to accomplish an act of self-deception 
for the purpose of justification, obfuscation, evasion, in some irnsc or other 
to his advantage. " Karl Jaspers, 1 h? Origin and Gotii ' 0/ History, trans. Michael 
Bullock, Yale I Inivcrsity Press, New Haven, 1*168, p. I'.VJ.. "Roughly defined, an 
ideologist is a thinker convinced he has discovered clear solutions 10 certain 
human problems or predicaments — solutions capable of expression in general 
theoretical terms." Timrs Literary Suppbmtnt ( London) ■ )an. 29, 1*)70, p,l. 

g. Sec Chapter 25. 



H 



Ihe Dispossessed Majority 



Whet i ract-s are geographically separated or- isolated, ra- 
cism is likely to be directed externally across and beyond I lie boun- 
daries of one province, region, or state to another province, re- 
gion, or state. Where races live side by side, in the same 
neighborhood or school district, racism is apt to be directed 
internally to the city block or classroom* Racism of both types 
is present in most large nations (Japan and China being the 
most obvious exceptions)* Russia, the principal heir of the 
decomposed Soviet Union, having become much more homo 
geneous with the breakup of the communist imperium, is an ex- 
ample of a country 1 hat practices externalized rax ism, in con- 
trast to the United Stales, where owing to the many dissimilar 
racial elements living cheek by jowl, especially in large met 
ropolitaji areas, racism is more Internalized, 

As far as can be ascertained, practically every nation or society 
has passeil through one or more racist cycles. Despite their 
endless internecine wars and political and cullural rivalries, 
the ancient Creeks, according to historian IT. A. I ,. fisher, "be- 
lieved themselves to be one in race, language and institutions. "** 
They classified all foreigners as barbarians and generally I rear- 
ed them as inferiors, ironically the same stains conferred later on 
the Hellenes by the Romans, who considered them to be corrupt 
weaklings. Even to this day, many Jews have indulged in the idea of 
separateness and "Chosenness." Prototypical racial attitudes of the 
Spanish conquerors and British colonialists infused all their deal- 
ings with American Indians and Negroes. 1 he traditionally hostile 
sentiments of Chinese towards nou-Chiiiese need no elaboration; 
neither does the white supremacy once endemic in the mind-set of 
the European empire builders.' 1 

lake national defense or the balance of payments, racism 
is frequently regulated and modified by outside events and in- 
fluences. Although a homogeneous or a heterogeneous society 
may display few signs of racism in times of peace, once a 
neighboring state begins lining aggressively, once a few thou- 
sand fellow citizens or racial cousins abroad, become the vie 

'i. As quoted by T. J. H.uuhotT, V'/w Stranger at ttw (late, Longmans Green, La CI* 
(Ion, 19:58, p. viii, 

■1. Kor a more detailed siuiimaiy of rut 1st niani testations aiiiong the jwoplcs of 
the world, see Sumner, op. ai., p. 25£ 



RACIAL DYNAMICS 



<> 



tims of oppression, the dormant racism of the nation or of one or 
more population groups within the nation may be quickly aroused 
and assume a dynamic instead of a static character 

Racism, it should also I>e observed, operates in different orbits in 
different locations. Consider two American soldiers, one of Scan- 
dinavian, the other of Southern Italian origin, guarding a lonely 
outpost facing the North Koreans or North Vietnamese. At home 
the first might have railed the second a Latin or an Italian when he 
was trying to be polite, a "wop" or a "greaser" when he was not. 
Now he feels he is in the presence of a fellow white. 

Perhaps the first law of racism is that racism begets racism. Par- 
adoxically, su does aniiracisin, which focuses so much attention on 
race and implants it so deeply in the public consciousness that the 
net amount of racism is actually increased. Antirarism, moreover, 
permits many people to practice racism vicariously by adopting the 
cause ol everv race but their own. 

In one respect racism is a form of group morale. It provides a 
protective psychological shell for the most defenseless and defen- 
sive peoples. It is also hugely responsible for the high a^rcsstmi quo 
(u:/i! of dvnamic peoples- In the course of promoting tribalism in 
both the most retarded and most advanced nations, racism makes 
the modern industrial state with its sophisticated technology a fear- 
some opponent. Kverything else being equal — manpower, industrial 
plant, scientific proficiency, and natural resources — a racist state 
ran muster I deadlier military force than a nonracisL state. Since 
families have more lighting spirit than less closely related groups, 
when war breaks out the tribe or rare will often act as the exten- 
sion of the Ian lily. I Jeaih comes easier to those who believe I hey are 
(King lor their people as well as for their country. The soldier with 
onlv a modicum of rare consciousness may have more d\iTn ulty be- 
ing brave. Conscientious objectors, pacifists, and draft evaders are 
in short supph in rat Lilly oriented societies. 

So much of racism remains below the surface in anv given his- 
torical setting that students of the past seldom give it proper em- 
phasis. Quite possibly, it is the finer majt'ur in human achievement — 
and human failure. Who can prove the contrary.- 1 Who can prove 
that racism is not a better clue to the rise and fall of civilizations 
than economics, religion, organic growdi and decay, weather, great 
men, or even fate? 



10 



Tht* Dispossessed Majority 



Take the United .States with the homogeneous genetic substrate 
of" i he Founding Fathers, the racial struggle with ihe Indians, the 
racial overtones of the Civil War, the racial differences of the Old 
and New Immigration, the racial mechanics of big-city and South- 
ern politics, the mounting tempo of minority demands and agita- 
tion. Take the United Nations, now coalescing into a conglomera- 
tion ofracial blocs, fake (lie twenrieth-century revolt of the colored 
peoples of Asia and Africa against white colonialism. Weigh aJI this 
evidence, then wonder at the liberal and conservative historians 
who grind out their thickly annotated histories which either avoid 
racism altogether or treat it as a disease rather than as a basic ele- 
meni of human nature. 

At present, worldwide movements are afoot to abolish racism. 
But as indicated by events in ihe United States and foreign coun- 
tries, far from being abolished anywhere, it is becoming intensified 
everywhere. 

Instead of attempting to destroy the indestructible, ii might be 
wiser to learn more about man's racial reflexes. Research into the 
sources of racism might produce effective ways of civilizing it, con- 
trolling it, and directing it into more creative and constructive 
channels. 5 Such knowledge might also aid in distinguishing l>e- 
iween the racial behavior that helps build nations and the racial lx> 
havior that tears them apart. 



5. The application of [his principle [racism] hft* governed (lie evolution at all 
advancing societies since soon utter the beginning of ain"iciilinrr." C 1). Darling* 
ion, Th? Evolution of Man and Sodeiy, George Allen and (Juwin, Uindon, 1969, 
p. (U)7. 



CHAPTER 3 



Racial Metaphysics 



TlfF.r.DNcErrot rack and the racial ideologies thai, how from it 
permeated the greitt civilizations of antiquity. The Bible 
divided the races of mankind into the sons of Shem (Semites), 
Ham (non-Semitic Mediterraneans), 1 and Japhet (Northern peo- 
ples) . Among the sons of Shem were the Jews, who were warned 
by Jehovah to preserve their racial identity, as they were "a special 
people unto himself, above all the people that are upon the 
face of the earth."-' 

The Aryans who invaded India were .so concerned with race 
that they set up a complex caste system, by means of which the 
priestly Brahmans partially succeeded in preserving their original 
physical type for more than l J ,500 years, although their once fair 
complexions, ;ls a result of mutations and some miscegenanon 
are now better adapted to the blasting Indian sun. 3 The tomb 
and temple paintings of the ancient Egyptians depicted a simpler 
and less sophisticated form of racism. The gods and pbaraohs 
were larger than life, whereas Negroes and other outlanders 
were posed in (ringing obeisance. 1 



1 . Christian theologians later gi alukously added Nejjjroes to this white racial 

category. 

2. IVui. 7:6. Strictures against exogamy are found in ?&. 

8. "The first caste division . . . was not by stains but by color; it divided long 
noses from broad noses, Aryans from Nagai and Hravidiaru .... The caste sys- 
tem had the eugrnic value of keeping the presumably finet Uraim tnmi dilu- 
tion. , , ." Will Duranl, Our (hinitii! Htti£ag9, Simon and Schuster, New York, 
1954, pp. 398, 487. 

4, References to Negroes in the Knglish captious of Uiese wall paintings on 
view at the British Museum in 1 ■.)(>& Iiad f>ecn pujlially erased. Apparently some 

ii 



12 



Hie Dispossessed Majority 



As might be expected, the Greeks were the first to look for nat- 
ural causes of racial difTerenc.es and to philosophize about racial 
mailers. Hippocrates' essay, On Airs, Waters and Places, gave climate 
and geography as possible reasons for variations in human physiol- 
ogy and temperament. 5 Plato thought it would be good to in- 
culcate a feeling of racial purity in youths destined for the future 
leadership of the commonwealth* Such an idea, which lie de- 
scribed as a "noble lie,* would develop a greater measure of pride 
and responsibility in the young elite — qualities which presumably 
made for heifer statesmanship, 6 On the other hand!, Aristotle helped 
institutionalize slavery with his theory of the "natural-born" slave. 7 

Full -blown "scientific" racial theories, however, did not take 
form tar another 2,000 years, ii was not until the late eigh- 
teenth and the first half of the nineteenth century that enough 
data had been collected to permit a few intrepid anthropologists 
and biologists to categorize mankind according to race. Along with 
die classifications came the value judgments. Since whites had now 
conquered or settled much of the earth and were remaking it in 
their image, an innately superior bloodline was proposed for the 
supermen, who were variously described as Aryans, Indo-Kuropeans, 
Anglo-Saxons, Nordics, Celts, Alpines, and Teutons. 

The theory of Northern European racial, supremacy was assisted 
and expanded by the discovery of a surprising linguistic relation- 
ship between the Aryan (in this instance meaning a specific divi- 
sion of the white or Caucasian race) invadei s of India, I [ittites, Kas- 
sites, Persians, Greeks, and Romans of' the ancient world, and the 
French, British, Germans, Slavs, ami other peoples of modern Lai- 
rope. Although 3 common language does not necessarily pre- 
suppose a common race, the Indo-Kuropcan languages/'' as they 



modern descendant* of rhe victim* of ancient. Egyptian r&cisRP had nor. wanted lo 
be reminded of past indignities. 

5. Hippoo ales. On Aim, Waters, and Places, Trails. FnEBCM Adams, (m-af ftooks ot 

the Western World, Chicago, Voi 10, p. IS. 

6. ttrfmhlu; UI, 41 MS, rtiins. Paul Shorcy, The CoUtcUd Dialogues of Pinto. Kol- 
ingen Series, l.XXI, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey; 1 '.>«>*.). 

7. Ernest Baikn , The Pofttit i oj A tubule, O.iwiulon Pie.ss, I >xtoul, l!l. r >l),pp. 1,'M-l. 

8. One Indo-Kwope;in root word: name (English), namn (Old Persian), nama 
(.Sanskrit), oru/ma (Cifck), Twrtirn (I-atin), TiPtW (Italian), iwmfae (Spanish), nam 
(French} j Name ((Vimnn) t eemya (Russian). 



RACIAL DYNAMICS 



13 



came to be called, and the Indo-EufOp£9tn speakers gave birth 
to a racial hypothesis in which a blond, lighi-comptexioned peo- 
ple with rare creative gifts fertilizes new civilizations or ro- 
fortili/rs moribund ones.- 1 

Among the chief udvnt ates of this hypothesis, often designat- 
ed as the Aryan theory, were; Arthur de Gohineau (1816-1882), 
a French count and ( KTmauophile who wrote one of the 
first coherent, though somewhat fanciful, racial interpretations 
of history; 10 1 louston Stewart Chamberlain ( 1 855-1927), an 
Englishman who became a naturalized German citizen and 
whose grandiose Wttiemschaufitig detected Teutonic genes in 

allBOSl all the great men of the past, including Jesus; Madi- 
son Grant (I 865- J DM 7) , American lawyer and mil oralis! who 
expounded on the decline of the great culture-bearing, cul- 
ture-creating Nordic peoples and whose arguments were help- 
ful in securing the passage of restrictive United States im- 
migration laws in the early 1920s; t.othrop Stoddard (1883* 
1950), American political philosopher, also active in the im- 
migration issue, who warned that whites would soon he over- 
whelmed by the fecundity ol the colored races. 11 

Although his Spanish am cstrv and his Puritan associations in 
New England precluded any special affection for the Teuton, the 
philosopher George Sautavana was one of the most vigorous 
subscribers to the Idea of racial hierarchies, as the following 
paragraph demonstrates: 

Some races are obviously superior to others. A more thorough 
adjustment to the conditions ol existence has given theiu spirit, 
vitality, scope and a relative stability. ... It is therefore of the 
greatest importance riot to obscure this superiority by intermar- 
riage with inferior stm k, and thus nullify the progress made by a 
painful evolution and a prolonged sifting o] souls. Reason pro- 
tests as much as instim I against any fusion, lor instance, of white 



9. Some examples: .Viyan invasion of India, Dm (ran invasion ol Gieeee; Ger- 
manic overrunning ol the Wrsieru Roman I'.nipire; Norman conquest of Noi- 
mandy and Sicily. I'oi moie on the lndi>-Kuropean peoples, SCC Oiaptei 9. 

10. "La ou l'cleriK-iii gei manirnie n'a jamais pene-iir," tie Gobineau declared, 'it 
n'y a pas de civilization a noire manure." Ewai ff.tr Cinema lUe drs races, humaincs, 1 alv 
rarie tie Fitmiu-Didoi, Park, 1384, Vol. I, p. WS. 

11, (mambei Iain's principal woi k was l)i» (hundlagrn dss ne-uiUflititen jahr 
hu mints; ( l .i;im's, Tht Passing of the (Wait liitt,: Suh Maui's, The lining Tide of Color. 



14 



he Dispossessed Majority 



and black peoples. . . , The Jews., the Greeks, the Romans, (Jit English 
were never so great as when they confronted other nations. . . but 
this greatness hills whenever contact leads to amalgamation. 1 -' 

In the lOMOs, probably for the first time in history, the- 
ories of racial superiority became state doctrine when the 
Nazi Party took command in Germany. 1 * But after the inventory 
of Miller's racial politics was taken at the close of World War 0, 
all arguments for racial supremacy were placed beyond the pale 
of permissible thought. 

Race bcin^ so deeply personal a subject, it conies as no sur- 
prise that advocates of racial superiority usually belong to, or 
think they belong to, the race they consider superior. It is 
equally no surprise that in America the opposition to theories 
of Nordic or Northern European superiority was led by anthro- 
pologists and social scientists who were in most cases members 
of minority groups. Perhaps in the belief that one good myth 
deserves another, Fran/ Boas (1858-1942), a scholar of Ger- 
man-Jewish origin and professor of anthropology at Columbia 
University, advanced the first comprehensively developed the- 
ory of racial equality. Boas hypothesized that nurture, not na- 
ture, was the chief determinant of important racial differences. 
He went so far as to assert that even such a persistent genetic 
trail as head shape (cephalic index) 1 " 1 could be altered by environ- 
mental changes in one or two generations. ia 



12. The Life o) Rm\on,Sciibnv.i's r New York, 10^1 Vol. II, pp, Uio-67. 

13. Or was it the second time? Alexander Stephens, vice-president of the 
( >>nredenu y, once declaimed: 'This our new government, is the fust in the histmy 
of the World based upon tins gieat physical, philosophical, and moral truth. . .that 
Liu- Negro i* noi equal to the white man, that skiveiy— subordination to the sujxt- 
ioi race— is his natural and normal condition." Chailes and Mary Beard, The Rise 
oj Amniaui Civilization^ Macmillan, IS9&, Vol. 2, p. 68. 

14. Cephalic index k maximum he*d breadth divided by maximum head 
length times 100. The lower the index, the longer the head. Like physical sci- 
entists, anthropologics have a fondness for using long-winded (ireek derivatives 
for simple and precise Knglish expressions. Dolichocephalic is long-headed; 
bnuhycephalie is round-headed. 

16. l'Yanz Boas, "Changes in Bodily Form of Descendants of Immifnmu/ 
Atnsrican Anthropologist, New Series, 14:530-62. Boas's ciuasi-hamiirckiaii views 
were refuted by Heniy Pratt Fairchikl, a prominent social scientist, in Racr and 
Nationality, Ronald Press, New York, 1947, p. 105. 



RACIAL DYNAMICS 



15 



Ashley Montagu, a physical anthropologist of Anglo-Jewish or- 
igin, became the great vul^ai i/.er of racial equalitarianism with a 
seemingly endless stream of best-selling books, television appear- 
ances and speeches before learned and unlearned societies. 16 
Other leading members of the equalitariau school, not all of 
them anthropologists, were Oiiu KJineberg, Melville Herskovits, 
Alexander Goldenweiser, lsador Chein, Theodosius Dobzhansky, 
Gene Weltfish, Kenneth (dark, and two vociferous Anglo-Saxon 
females, Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead. 17 Gene Weitfjsh 
achieved some notoriety by asserting the American army 
had resorted to germ warfare 1 in the Korean War. Kenneth 
Clark, a black, took a leading part in convincing the Supreme 
Court to order school desegregation in ttwwv v. Board of Ed- 
ucation (1954). In his scholarly monographs, Dabzhansky, a 
graduate of the University of Kiev, tactfully acknowledged 
some differences in racial capabilities, hut practically denied 
them in his writings for public consumption. Leslie While's 
evolutionist school of anthropology and W. li. Sheldon's at- 
tempis to associate leinperarneni with body type (endontorph, 
inesonmrph, ectomorph) received scant recognition because 
ol their anii-Roas stance. 

Overall racial equality received the official sanction of the 
United Nations up 0ft the publication of the 1950 and 1962 
UNESCO statements on race. Sounding more like declarations 
of faith than reasoned scientific argumenls, the UNESCO pa- 
pers generated the following axioms; 

1 he scientific evidence indie ales that the range of mental ea- 
pabilities in all ethnic groups is much the sarin-. ... As for 
personality and character, these may be considered race less 
.... [G]iveu similar degrees oJ' cultural opportunity to realize 

]<">, As one of the sponsors, rogrther with the late Bishop James Pike and 
British-born Zen Buddhist Alan Watts, of I rompnter dating service, Mon- 
ta^u mav have been able to put his theories lo the ultimate 1 (esc S/irt Francisco 
Ststoday Examiner £f Chronicle, Date Book. Jan. 19, 1969, p. 24. 

17. Mead and Benedict belonged lo a somewhat exotic breed ol WASP woman- 
hood. They weir lesbian lovers for :■ time, and the former claimed Lo have had 
I Sephaidir grandmothei . Mary C. Bate-son, With u Daughter's E\c, William 
Morrow, New York, 19H-1, pp. 72, 106. Mead's semi-classic, Cormng oJ Ag? in Samoa, 
war, effectively skewered by Australian anthropologist Derek Freeman in Mar 
garvt Mesul and Samoa, 1 huvaid University Press, 19H/V 



16 



The Dispossessed Wajonity 



their potentialities, the average achievement of the members of 
each ethnic group is about the same. 

Although really intending CO describe the behaviorist school of 
psychology, which went hand in glove with die euiialitarian an- 
thropologists by stressing human malleability, sociologist Horace 
Kallcn aptlj summed up the UNESCO statements in words 
which should be curved on Roas's and Montagu's tombstones: 
"Ar birth human infants, regardless of their heredity, are as equal 
as Fords." 18 Several decades earlier, J. B. Watson (1878-1058), the 
founder and explorer of behaviorism, had provided a psycho- 
logical basis for rqualiiarianism by stating, "There is no such 
tiling as an inherimnee of capacity, talent, temperaineut , mental 
constitution and characteristics." 1 ' 1 His most famous disciple, H. F. 
Skinner, later conditioned rats so successfully that it was as- 
sumed lu i could perform equal wonders with humans, hi fact, 
Skinner designed a Utopia around his reinfon em ml tech- 
niques in a hook, Wulden If, which served as a combination 
Bible and Constitution for a live commune which never worked 
out too well. It should he stated, however, that the inventor of 
the Skinner Box never denied the importance of genetic fat tors 
in human behavior. 

By the early 1960s the idea of innate racial equality had become 
so firmly established in modern education and in the rommunica- 
tions media that it was difficult to question it and still maintain 
one's academic or professional respectability. Nevertheless, a 
largely unpublici/ed but persistent reaction set in, stimulated bv 
school desegregation and the violence 1 thai accompanied increas- 
ing Mack demands for a place in the Ainerie an sun. 

Carleton Putnam, American air transport pioneer and historian, 
declared dial the Boas school of anthropology based its conclu- 
sions concerning racial equality on a misconceived self-interest Ad- 
vocating a realistic acceptance 1 of the sharp differential in black 
t hoy git i patterns and learning capacity; he argued that racial in- 
tegration on all but the economic level would lead to a steadv. re- 
lentless deterioration of American education, social lite, culture 



IK. See Kitten's aniclc, "Behaviorism," Encyriofwtiiu of Som/l Science Mat mill. u: 
New York, 1965, Vols. 1-2, p. 498. 

19. J. B, Watson, Behaviorism* W.W. Nwrum, New York, 1930, p 9-1. 



RACIAL DYNAMICS 



17 



and national power, as well as to the deterioration of the 1 Negro 
himself. 20 Boas and his followers, Putnam maintained, gave 

the Negro the idea that he has a grudge against the White 
man and the White- man the notion he should feel guilty 
about the Negro. The grudge incites the Negro to riots and 
crime, and the guilt leads the While man to a policy of per- 
petual permissiveness and appeasement 88 

Elsewhere Putnam staled, The core of the deceit has been in 
teaching that the greater ]>art of the differences in status of in- 
dividuals and groups among us is due to social injustice', wheroas 
the scientific fact remains that, frequent as injustice is, these differ- 
ences are primarily attributable to innate differences in capacity."'^' 

Henry K, Garrett* chairman of the Department of Psychology, 
Columbia University, went further than Putnam by calling the 
eepialitarian dogma "the- scientific hoax of the- century." Garreti 
ace -used social scientists of relying on moral denunciation when 
then real evidence regarding Negro mental abilities became fee- 
ble. He blamed church leaders for falsifying science to holster 
their ethical arguments i'ui- racial equality. - H 

William Shockley, who won the Nobel Prize in physics lor co- 
inveniing the transistor, joined the controversy when he suggested 
that all contemporary programs for Negro betterment were based 
on false premise's. "The major deficit in Negro intellectual perfor- 
mance," Shockley asserted, "must be primarily of hereditary origin 
and thus irremediable by practical improvements in environ- 
ment.' 1 '-' 1 He- -Also stressed that the high birthrate of the poorest 
and most disadvantaged blacks was a Vlysgcnic tragedy.* 

Other believers in disparities in racial intelligence- included Sir 
Cyril Burl- and H. J. Hysenck in Britain, ), Philippe Rushton in 

20. Sec- PiH nam's KW <ntd Rm\on (llH'd) and AW <tn<t /i'm///y { 1967), I toward 

Alton Enterprises, In.-., P.O. Brae 76, Cape Can*ven& Ften&s 92^20 

21 . Paper on "(ienrral Rare Differences/ Feb. 5, 1969. 
Tl Cmgr&siojial Hctonl, Nov. 13, 19f>9, pp. K9630-32. 

23. Sec Garrett's article, 'The Ktpialitaiian Dogma," in frnpecintts in ihuloffi and 
Medicine, Summer, 19(>1. 

21. Speech before National Academy of Sricntes, April <M, I'.HtfC 
2. r i. Bint's studies of identical twins reared apart were inipoiiaiu pixrpi ol the 
hrrcditariaii argument. In 197h, Oliver (lillic, a Ki kish joui nalisi, launched a 
posthumous, ad hoiiiinem attack on Burt, who died in l 97 l , asseiiing lie }uu\ 



18 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Canada, Arthur Jensen and the British-born Raymond Cauell in 

the United States, [enseri created a sensation by refining to attrib- 
ute the 15-potnt shortfall in black I.Q, scores to environmental 
causes or to tests that were "culturally biased." With scant regard 
for consistency. Julian Huxley, tin- noted British biologist who 
helped prepare the UNESCO statements decrying race, went on 
record as stating thai it was probably true, "Negroes have a slightly 
lower average 1 intelligence than die whites or the yellows." 

A few leading twentieth<entury anthropologists and sociolo- 
gists attempted to stand above or straddle the question of racial 
differences, among them A.L. Kroeber, Ales Jlrdlicka, 21 ' and Pit- 
iriin Sorokin."'-' 7 1 Irdih ka warned ol the danger of a mass inflow oi 
black genes into the American population but refused to say why 
it w;is a danger. Sorokin admitted there was evidence of mental 
differences among races, but underplayed the function of he- 
redity. Some oi this reticence was doubtlessly due to fear, some to 
the natural reluctance of bona fide scientists to generalize on 
what they considered to be insufficient data. One of the great 
modern anthropologists. Professor Carleton Coon of Harvard, 
wrote, The subject of racial intelligence. . .has not progressed far 
enough to merit inclusion in a general work of racial history. wg8 

Nevertheless, Coon provided powerful ammunition for the anli- 
equalitarian or hereditaria!! school with a startling and illuminat- 
ing theory on the origin of races. For thousands of years ii had 
been taken for granted that the races of man had descended or 
branched out from a single species. In direct and iconoclastic 
contradiction to this traditional doctrine, Coon staled that the 
five living races of mankind, which be named Caurasoid, Mon- 
goloid, Australoid, Capo id and Congoid, had evolved separately 
into Homo sapiens following different timetables. If Gx>n was 
right about the parallel genesis of races, there now existed an 



lulsififd his research, a charge latei picked up and repeated by Leon Kiimin and 
Stephen Jay Gould* rwo vituperoua Jewish academicians. Some yean laiej cwo 

Ixxiks, The Burt Ajjuir by Robert IV Joynson and Science, Ideology niui the Media; the 
Cyril Burt Suit ui ul hy Ronald Fletcher, rehabilitated die dead Briton. 

26. Proceeding* oflht Third liar* Betterment Conference, Jan. I9S8J, pp. 8-1-85. 

27. Csintempuraiy Socioiogieal Theories, Harper Be Bros., N.Y., 1928, pp. 291-93. 

2tt. 'Hit. Race* of Europe, Macinillan, NY, 10>1, p. vii. Coon died in 1981. His hist 
work, Racial Aptitudes, Nelson-Hull, Chicago, 1982, dors touch on this snbjet i. 



RACIAL DYNAMICS 



h) 



evolutionary basis for racial differences, and the case against the 
equalitarians was strengthened. Even more damaging to the equa- 
litarian viewpoint was Coon's assertion dial the Negro racer, which 
he assigned to (he Congoid group 7 was the last of the major races 
to evolve '1'he blacks, according to Coon, h<\d been in a sapiens 
state for a shorter time than the white and yellow races (40,000 ver- 
sus 210,000 years)/-' This led inexorably to the conclusion that 
blacks were the least developed and least articulated of man- 
kind's principal racial divisions. 

The violent and vituperative reaction which greeted Coon's the- 
ories vividly demonstrated the metaphysical nature of the race 
(juesuon. Ashley Montagu, who before the publication of 
Coon's work had said that the multiracial origin of man was "in- 
admissible," declared that (loon's facts were fraudulent and 
compared die onetime president of the American Association 
of Physical Anthropologists to "the racial anthropologists |of| a 
hundred years ago." :i0 Marvin K. Oplcr, another anthropologist 
of die Boas persuasion, was equally vehement, stating, "it is easy 
to see why dorm's iheory should make him the darling of segrega- 
tionist committees and racists everywhere-, . -he cannot convinc- 
ingly write human history, even racial history. He will have to 
acquire more knowledge, more compassion and more humility 
for ihal." M 

Instead oi invective, which is often self-defeating because it 
publicizes the target, the silent treatment was given to another 
great modern anthropologist, Sir Arthur Keith (1866-1955), 
who held die view that the greatest outburst of man's biological 
progress occurred in the hunting band, when a combination of 
geographical isolation and group cohesion produced the balanced 
gene pool necessary for (lie efficient functioning of the cvolu- 
tionarv process. Keith was afraid that the total racial integration 
demanded bv the more dedicated equali tarians might have a 
dysgenic effect on man by swamping beneficial mutations before 
they had a chance to take hold. The Scottish anthropologist, also 



£9, Goon, The Origin n] fit ice \, Knopf, New York, I'.lu^, pp. !i, 1, M r >. f^VStf, and 
The Story of Man, Knopf, New York, 196&, 2nd edition, pp. S5-38. 

50. Man in ftiHevs, New Ameru.im Library, New Yoik, 1961, p. KKl, :m<l M<tu\ 
Mast IhnigTou^ M)fh, World, Cleveland, tUOl, p. mi, 

51, t\ T ni> Yoik f iFialii Trilniitt', Booh Srrtion, Dec, \), 1962, p 7. 



20 



The Dispossessed Majority 



pointed out thai prejudice, discrimination, xenophobia, an<3 cer- 
tain other human achievements now considered sinful may ao 
mally serve an important evolutionary purpose. They may be na- 
ture's chief tools for race-building and creating favorable growth 

conditions for the variegated cultures and peoples that have made 
the mosaic of man so rich and colorful. 33 

If professional anthropologists can descend to the lowest levels 
of polemics, vindictiveness, and thought control, how, it may be 
asked, can the layman acquire enlightened ideas about race? 
One answer is to look at the historical evidence, which points in- 
escapably to tin* fuel thai certain racer, or peoples have accom- 
plished kir more Mian others in tin- fields of technology, material 
comfort ami popular government. If these accomplishments are 
due to genetic causes, the low-achieving races in Western lands will 
always he saddled, as they have been in the past, with the- stigma of 
underperlormance, even though they may be perfectly capable of 
overperlonnancc hi their ancestral societies, many of which are 
still extant- 
Much of the bitterness of the present-day racial debate stems 
from sume ra< es !>omg forced tO compete Ol chOi >smg to ompete, 
in a world they never made. The all-important question of whether 
heredity or environment lias the upper hand in the shaping of 
human destiny has degenerated into a quasi-theological dispute 
Involving such crucial psychological ingredients as pride and face- 
saving. One side appeals to heredity to explain past successes; 
the other to environment, society, and "historical accidents" to 
excuse past failures. 

If heredity was proved beyond a shadow of a doubt to be 
the central factor in human achievement, the proof would almost 
certainly be rejected in the present climate of modern thought. 
Anti-hereditarians have too much at stake, both physically and 
spiritually, to abandon their cause lor any reason, least of ah a 
negative scientific verdict on the validity of their ideas and pro- 
grams. They are only too well aware that the acceptance or ac- 
knowledgement of importem genetic diversities in man would 
seriously undermine the entire foundation ol" prevailing political 

32, See Keith's 4 New Thrmy of Hitman EvatutioHi Watts, IxhuIou, I9'>0; Eisays oti 
Human fbvltttwn, \V;itts, hMrt. 



RACIAL DYNAMICS 



21 



and social dogma, the iountainliead of the miraculous changes 
wrought in the status ol privileged and underprivileged minorities. 

Nonetheless, time seems to he working un0aggingly for the 
hereditaria n party. All hough investigations into racial intel- 
ligence are still largely taboo, research learns keep approaching the 
subject tangentiallv with significant new discoveries relating to ra- 
cial divergences in brain structure, resistance to disease, blood 
group distribution, glandular function, hormone activity, and 
gene recombination. 

By the hue 1960s the investigations of Nikolaas Tinbergen, a 
Hollander, and Konrad Lorenz, a German, into the- heritability 
of aggressive and territorial instincts had been widely published, 
both under their own names and by populari/er Robert Ardrey, 
whose profuse digressions often reached high levels of political 
and social commentary. If man bad been a hunter for millions 
of years, a farmer for M),ui)(), and a factory worker for 150, Ardrev 
wanted to know how his deeper instincts — his repnlian and mam- 
malian brains — could be changed by a few years of inferior educa- 
tion, The author advised those who wished to improve man in 
understand, not ignore, his instinctual nature. 

Another blow was struck against the environmentalist heg- 
emony with the publication in 1974 oi fiacBhy [ohn R. Baker, an 
internationally renowned Oxford biologist and a Fellow oi the 
Royal Society. 33 Dr« Baker mimed no words and ducked no issues 
in what one respected scientific journal called "perhaps the best 
documented Ixiok on human races ever published." In contrast 
to the Boashes, Baker found significant mental as well as phys- 
ical differences among the races which he classified, analyzed, 
and evaluated with such professional skill that hardly anyone 
rose to challenge him. In the United States the book was gen- 
erally ignored bv the mass media, an exception being the Wash- 
ington Post, which ran a splenetic review by Amitai Kty.ioni, a 
sociologist and former Israeli commando. 

A year later Kdward O. Wilson, a Harvard entomologist, opened 
up new vistas for genetic detennniisis when he practically invented 
die science of $ociobie*logy. Genes, act ording to Wilson, not only gov* 



*1'V DrigiEKtlK published tiv Oxford I'nivnsitv Press, RaciY/as i epi n t te-cl in 1 ( JH] 
by the Fo tin elation foj Human UiuJcrstamliXig, Athens, Georgia. 



22 



The Dispossessed Majority 



em individual behavior but social behavior as well. Death on the 
battlefield, for example, is a .supreme act of altruism in which one 
sacrifices one's own genes so that the closely related genes of one's 
family or one's group will survive. Xenophobia is simply an in- 
herited response to threats of contamination of the gene pool by 
outsiders, ** 

Wilson's ideas, together with the fascinating speculations of 
theoretical biologists R. L, Trivers, W. I). Hamilton, J. Maynard 
Smith, and Richard Dawkins stirred up a vortex of controversy. 
Two minority scientists, Richard Lewomin and Stephen jay Gould, 
reacted by insinuating that soclobiology was racist. Other scien- 
tists, such as George Wakl, a highly politicized Nobel laureate, 
lashed out at Wilson and the determinist school of biology by 
calling [or an cad to amniocentesis, the screening of fetuses for 
genetic defects. Walter Bodmer and Lie be (/aval li-Sforza wanted 
CO outlaw investigations into black and white l.Q. differences. 
Siill others demanded a government ban on any research that 
might substantiate 1 racial theories or lead to any form of genetic 
engineering, When Pope John Paul II joined the fray and Ieni 
his considerable support to ihrsr strictures, * !j a strange inqui- 
sitional alliance between the uitrareligious and the ultraleft seemed 
in the making. 

That so many auti-Wilsonians were minority members of the 
Marxist persuasion was probably lite effect raiher than the cause 
of their apparently innate abhorrence of even a hint of biological 
determinism. Although Marx had once tried to dedicate Das Kiipilal 
to Darwm, a -sarong believer in iuheiited racial differences, his fol- 
lowers have always nourished a secret fondness lor Lamarck, 
who believed in the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In 
his desperate attempt to force science to yield to ideology, Stalin 
elevated the charlatan Lysenko to die higher reaches of Soviet 
science, while allowing a brilliant geneticist like Nikolai Vavilov 
to perish in a gulag. Kvcn il biology says no, most Marxists still 
want man to be 100 percent moldable. Moldable men can be 
made into good Marxists, whereas genes have no ears to hear the 



M. Kdwanl O, Wilson, SoriotiioUigy: The New Synthesis, Harvard \ .'nivriMiv Press 
Cambridge, Mass., 1975, 

35. Speech to UNESCO representatives in Puns, |unc2, DS0. 



RACIAL DYNAMICS 



23 



revolutionary blandishments ofaLenin. Indeed the attachment 
for Lamarck is so persistent that, though his theory has been total- 
ly discredited, it keeps cropping up, not only in the pamphlets of 
extraterritorial Marxists (Russia and the oilier former Soviet repub- 
lics have now rehabilitated Mendelian genetics), but also in the 
Ixjoks and sermons of Christian fundamentalists. 

The war against Wilson in particular and against all scientific re- 
search into genetically induced behavior all too frequently de- 
scended from words to acts— often rather sordid acts. Wilson him- 
self was physically threatened and doused with water during a 
conference, William Shockley had some of his college lectures 
disrupted by black and while radicals. II. J, Lysenck was as- 
saulted during a lecture in London, and his eyeglasses smashed. 
Richard llerrnsiein, who hardly mentioned race, was continu- 
ously harassed for proposing that a meritocracy might derive 
from high I.Q. maiings. Edward Ban field, an urbanologtsi who 
had some unkind things to say about ghettos, had to sii silently on 
a podium, while being threatened by left-wing and minority stu- 
dents flaunting brass knuckles. The trials and tribulations of Ar- 
thur Jensen will be recounted in a later chapter. The only allega- 
tions of racial] dificrences which do not provoke a bitter reaction 
from the intellectual establishment are those proposing the super- 
iority of Jews. 

As man's environment becomes increasingly man made, its 
efTeer on creating and perpetuating racial differences is bound to 
shrink. 1 hunan surroundings are growing increasingly similar, par- 
ticulat Iv in highly civili/ed areas where a common technology, a 
common educational system, a common communications nciwork, 
and common occupations prescribe a common way of life. Accord- 
ing to equalitarian theory, the performance and achievement lev- 
els of different races will converge as their environments converge. 
( lonsequently, the supreme lest of environmentalism may come 
in the not ioo distant future. 

Meanwhile, as the issues raised by the heredilarians become 
more relevant each day, it is hard to believe that the scientific 
curiosity of the world's most scientifically curious societies can be 
prevented much longer from penetrating one of the most chal- 
lenging and most exciting frontiers of knowledge. Il should be 
kept in mind, however,, that the meiaphysics of racial equality, 



The Dispossessed Majority 



although so far having failed to provide any workable solutions 
So modern man's most difficult problems, still fires ihc hearts of 
tens of millions, who when if comes down to ii can be forgiven 
for refusing Jo accept the harsh possibility that nature practices a 
form of racial Calvinism. 

Because the faithful are certain not to relinquish their cherished 
eqi laluarian dreams without a Sght f it fa more likely there will be a 
Galileo of genetics before there is a Newton. 



CHAPTER 4 



The Physiological Stratum 
of Race 



IT I ias iskkn KKMARKKi) that race begins with the physical. To pro- 
. vide a clearer picture of the physiology of race, a lew of ihe 
belter known systems of racial classification will be briefly sum- 
marized in the first part of this chapter. The second part will be 
concerned with the race-sorting methods of the man in the 
street, whose amateurish yet appraising eye is sometimes more per- 
spicacious in such matters than the cold professional scrutiny ol 
i he physical anthropologist. 

According to zoologists there are well over one million living 
species of animals. Man, I Inmu sapiens, is one of them. The deriva- 
tion goes like this: Animal Kingdom; Phylum Chordaia; Subphy- 
luitl VVrtebrata; Class Mammalia; Order Primates; Family Homin- 
idae; Genus Homo; Species sapiens.* Here /oology stops and 
anthropology takes over. After the species comes the race. 

Serious attempts at racial classification began almost two cent- 
uries ago. Most have heen based on skin color with primary empha- 
sis on the three most common and most noticeable shades of 
pigmentation: White (Caucasoid), Yellow 7 (Mongoloid), Black 
(Negroid), j. I. Blumenbach (l7. r /2-lS40) , the father of physical 
anthropology, decided that the Brown (Malayan) and Red 
(Amerindian) races should be Included in the color spectrum. ■- 
Using such criteria as nose form, slature and head shape 1 as 



1. R. W. llrgnor and K. A. Stiles, Gtlbgr Zvafogy, Mru'niilhm. New York, h). r >'J, pp. 

6, 1. 

t, J V. tthniK'ubach, TM Anthrnpoh^Kal 'fnnbsrs, trims. Thomas Hrndyslir, Long- 
mans, Ixmrion, lH(i_ r j. 

2a 



2<> 



The Dispossessed Majority 



well as skin color, Joseph Denlker devised a sophisticated catalog of 
eighteen races. 5 A. L. Kroeher, professor of anthropology at the 
University of California, abided four races — Australoid, Veddotd, 
Polynesian, Ainu— to the basic three. 4 Carleion Coon's raciology 
has been mentioned in the previous chapter, One or two anthro- 
pologists have classified races according to hair form: straight, 
woolly, and curly. 5 Relying on such identifiable genetic trails as 
blood groups, W. C. Boyd divided man into thirteen races. 6 

As regards the racial classification of whines, the most popular, if 
not the most accurate, is that of William Z. Ripley, a prominent 
American anthropologist whose tine*' categories deserve notice 
because of their influence on shaping racial theories in the early 
part of the century. Ripley's white races, together with their "racial 
markers" and Old World homelands, arc listed lielnw, 7 



NoRmr. H Physical characteristics: Kong head, narrow or el- 
liptic face, fair complexion, light brown or blond hair, light 
colored eyes, narrow nose, regular features, tall and slender 
physicj i u\ Old World habitat: Scandinavia, Northern Ger- 
many, Netherlands, Scotland, England. There are also scat- 
tered Nordic populations in Ireland, Belgium. Northern 
France, Central and Southern Germany, Switzerland, Austria, 
Poland, and Northwest Russia (including the Baltic states). 



3. Goon, The Raws t)f Europe., pji. 281-82. 

•1. A. L Kroebti, Anthrttpulttgf, Ihiiccnut Hi ace, New York, 1948, p. 132. 

..». Encyclopaedia Bniannka, Vol. 18, pp. Bo4&5, Kor reasons of iw own, the Rri- 
tnnmca conreaWI for ypnrs reFrri-nre* to its 14th edition. The copyright date, 
1962, is the only means of identifying the volumes cited throughon! ihi* study, In 
1974 the publication of ihe 15ih edition was announced with great fanfare by phi- 
tosophei Moriimer Adlei in his capacity' as chaiiijun of die board of editors, Re- 
vised in t3&5, the 15th edition comprises &2 volumes. 

ti. Coon, f'fir Liiing Race* nf Man, pp. 18-1,'J. 

7. W. Z. Ripley, TiisRaasofEumpe t A\>\y[eu.in, New York, 1910, Chapu-i (V 

ft. Must contemporary anthropologist are leery of such racial designations. 
When they do use tbri.ii, they make it plain they are referring io frequencies and 
averages, mindful ol the extensive lacial overlapping dm makes classification of 
tile while races so dillicult and so h ustrating. A Nordic in current anthropological 
language nu-iely means an individual, who possesses muie Nordic tlian Alpine oi 
Mediterranean traits. Aiiei millennia of racial mixing, pure races are hard to 
come by, although then- an: still many individuals who closely approximate ideal- 
ized racial models. 



RACIAL DYNAMICS 



27 



Al.PlKE. Physical characteristics: round head, broad face, brown 
bait and eyes, ruddy complexion, stocky, medium height. Old World 
habitat Ireland, Belgium, ]'Y:iiic<\ Germany, Switzerland, Northern 
Italy, Central Europe, the Slavic-speaking countries. 

Ml'.DI TKKRANKAN. Physical cliarnctmstirs: long head, thin face, 
dark brown hair and eyes, olive complexion, regular features, small 
io medium height. Old World habitat: Portugal, Spain, Southern 
France, Southern Italy, Greece, the Middle East, North Africa, the 
Mediterranean islands. 

Many anthropologists, both before and after Ripley, developed 
more complicated, more suhde, and often contradictory classifica- 
tions lor the white portion of mankind. Carleion Coon, who added 
seven more white races to Ripley's three* made a special point 
about ihe Alpines, stressing not only their physical dissimilarities, 
hut their different origin in time and place. According to Coon 
ami several European anthropologists, Alpines are descended from 
Upper Palaeolithic races which retreated to ihe remote areas and 
mountain fastnesses of Europe upon the arrival of Neolithic (Nor- 
dic and Mediterranean) invaders. In Coon's view the Alpine repre- 
sents the r ee merge nee ol die Old Furopeau, a racial reincarnation 
increasing in frequency and seemingly favored by urbanization.® 

Of special interest to Americans is the ethnological research of 
K. A. Hooton, who proposed nine separate racial divisions for the 
white population of the United Slates, in the list below only the 
races, their physical trails and their European points of origin are 
j.;iven. 10 Their quantitative distribution will be found in Chapter S. 

NORDIOMED! I 'KRRASKAN. Longheaded With lighl eyes and dark 
hair or dark eyes and (air hair. Old World ladrdat: British Isles. 

Nordic-Alpine. Round-headed with high concentration of 

hlondism or Nordic features and physical build. Old World habiUd: 
Slavic lands, Germany, France. 



9. Goon, TheRam of Europe, pp. 220, 28<M>3, 510, MiO. 

10. K. A. Hooton, Twilight of Man, G. P. 1'uljuun, Nrw York, ISS9, pp. 203-S10. 
lln' a hove classification was hased on the physical slitdies ol some 29jQ0'Q adult 
American males by ihe llarvuul Anthropological MiiM'iim 



2fl 



lit. 1 Dispossessed Majority 



PREDOMINANTLY Nordic;. Not quite die pure Nordic. Old World 
liulrdat: BnLun, Scandinavia, 

DlNAKIC. Round*headed, narrow nose, with great range of pig- 
mentation. Old World fwhittit: Si uUand, France, Germany, Polaod, 
Near East 

Kkltic, Long-headed, red or reddish hair with blue eyes; or 
dark liairwiili blue eyes. Old World hahit at: Southern Ireland* 

PURE MEDITERRANEAN. Long-headed, dark eyes, dark hair. Ohl 
World hsil.'iiat: Portugal, Spain, Italy. 

Eas I Baltic:. Pure hlond ronnd-headi wit Li shore broad noses. 

Old World hfdfi tut: Grrrnanv, Poland, Russia. 

PURE AM'INF.. 11 Dark-ha'ued. dark-eyed, round-heads uidi broad 
noses. Did W&M habtf&U Frsrice* Spain, Portugal, Poland, Balkans, 
Near East 

Pi IRE NORDU -. Long-headed, ash blond or golden hair, pi ire blue 
or pure gray eyes. Old Woiid habitat: Britain, Scandinavia. 



I he forma] terminology ol I looton's races lias by no means pen- 
eiraied the popular idiom. While the average layman may agree in 
prim iple with some of the broad ra< ial categories of die professional 
anthropologist, he resorts to a briefer nomenclature. To die ordinary 
American, Mediterranean is the name of a sea and has no racial sig- 
nificance. Ihe popular synonym for Mediterranean, in its anthropo- 
logical sense, is "Latin." "Foreign looking,*' an even more ambivalenr 
term, also describes ihe American who has darker than average 
skin, bail and eye coloration. Bui not too dark a coloration! The 
American black is noi "loreign-looking. M 

Amateur anthropologists are not afraid to subdivide Latins. When 
someone is perceived to be "Italian-looking" or ''Spanish-looking," it 
signifies that persons ol Italian or t Jreek descent can presumably be rec- 
c.ognizcd on Mgft[. Other popular aLteiupIs to identify Mediterraneans, 



11. HooUsn, unlike- many ol his coMeijjurs, dor.i not subdivide his Alpine Cil- 
egon' 10 inrluilr Annnund, the daik, round-headed Alpine-Mvdiiei i anean hybrid 
of l'.ast-Soudu-.tst r.uio{>e and the- Middle E*5L 



racial dynamics 



29 



by nationality group as will as by race, are indicated by such slur 
words as l \vop" (Italian), "dago" (Spaniard or Italian), and ^Spic* 
or "greaser" (applied to all Latins and to the part-Mediterranean 
Mexican mestizo). Occasionally even American Indians are cat- 
egorized as Latins by urbanites and suburbanites who have never 
been near a reservation. 

Alpine is another rat ial term never used by the general public. 
The stocky, round-headed assembly-line worker from Central and 
Eastern Europe and the barrel-necked bartender from Ireland 12 are 
too blurred a racial type to have earned a special category in popular 
anthropology. They may still bear the peasant look of their Old 
World ancestors, but they no longer have a peasant's occupation, 
In general, the popular classification ol Alpines in ihe United Stales 
has been limited to localized slang terms like "Bohuxiki* ptfld ^Po* 
lacks" — expressions thai are often disparaging and based largely on 
national and geographic origins. 

Nordic is the only white racial designation of the professional an- 
thropologists to have found a place in ihe vernacular. Although the 
term is most frequently applied to Scandinavians, many Americans, 
particularly the willowy, blond film stars, are described as "Nordic- 
looking."' Bui because of its frequent association with ihe J liilerian 
theory of a master race, Nordic is used rather sparingly; An un- 
flattering and imprecise substitute is the acronym WASP (White 
Anglo-Saxon Protestant), now a common tag for Americans with a 
preponderance of Northern European physical i raits, although 
millions of fair Americans are neither ProiesLanl nor Anglo-Saxon. 
Since, racially speaking, there is no such thing as a nonwhite An- 
glo-Saxon, a less redundant and equally stinging acronym would Ik 1 
ASP. 

Majuritv is another term of increasing importance in the Amer- 
ican racial dictionary. Practically ignored by professional anthro- 
pologists, the American Majority comprises the Nordic, Alpine, 
Nordic-Alpine and Nordic -Mediterranean elements of t he 
population, as distinguished from the darker Mediterranean 
and colored elements. Ii is lar from being an authentic race, 
but it does contain demonstrable traces of an "American* 



12. An Alpine racial specimen. The red-headed, ire< -kle-I'ac I :d Irish Aanei u an 
nd the blue-eyed colleen have a lot of Noidie genes. 



so 



The Dispossessed Majority 



physical norm. When traveling abroad, Majority members will 
"look like Americans" to the local populace, to whom American cit- 
izens of Mediterranean, Oriental or Negro extraction will not look 
"American.* Even on the home front — among the towheaded 
school children of the Midwest farm belt, among air force officers, 
airline pilots and astronauts, among skiers, surfers, polo players 
and members of yachl clubs — there are those who appear more 
"American" than others, meaning thai they are well within the ra- 
cial parameters of the Majority physical model. If there is an Amer- 
ican racial type in the making, it will almost certainly emerge from 
tlie Majority gene pool. 13 

Professional anthropology is as reluctant to extend racial rec- 
ognition to the American Majority as it is 10 bestow racial status on 
American Jewry. Noi one physical anthropologist in a hundred will 
arimii thai there is a Jewish race, although Carletou Coon has 
found some uniformity of cephalic index, facial, structure, and col- 
oration among Russian and Polish Jews, who account for 80 per- 
mit of the American Jewish population.' ' A few ethnologists have 
detected a certain u nostriIity w in Jews, hut deny there is a unique 
set of Jewish facial expressions and gestures. 1|r ' "Although Jews in 
Europe," writes C. 1). Darlington, "always have different fre- 
quencies of blood groups from the Christian populations around 
them, they depart from the average Jewish frequencies in the direc- 
tion of these populations." 16 

Historically, Jews were Semites and belonged to the Near Eastern 
branch of the Mediterranean race. Many Sephardir fews Still retain 
Neat Eastern physical traits, often characterized as Jewish in the 
Untied Stales because only recently has there been a large influx of 
Arabs. Many Northern and Central European Jews, including some 
Sephardim who gravitated to Holland after then expulsion from 
Spain in .1492, possess a Few Nordic traits and a measure ofblond- 
ism. Eastern Kuropean Jews, who also exhibit occasional signs of 
light coloration, arc racially distant from the olive-skinned, long- 



13. For Wyndliam Lewis*! discovery of a "Super-Kin opcan" Anieiican physical 
typo, sec Chapter 1L\ The Ai-sthrlir Piop. 

14. Tht Utter. ,>f f'jsrnj't; pp. fVt!i-it, 

15. George Eaton Simpson and J. Milfoil Vin^rr, Rm hi I and Cultural Mnwritin, 
Harper, New York, Revised Fxiition, 1958, pp. 57-59, 

lb. Darlington, Thf Evolution of Man and Society, pp. -IriV-oH. 



RACIAL DYNAMICS 



33 



headed Sephardim of the Mediterranean area, Their round heads 
probably derive from intermarriage with Armcaokfa and Alpine 
.Slavs. 

One of the hoariest of racial old wives' tales attributes the origin 
oi the Ashkenaziin (Eastern Kuropean Jews) to the conversion of the 
Turkish tribe of Kha/.ars to Judaism in the eighth century. Arthur 
Koestler, a novelist and essayist, who in his lifetime has traversed 
the entire ideological spectrum from Communist party activist to 
vitalism, wrote a whole hook on the subject. 17 Intrigued by the leg- 
end, A. F. Niourant, who specializes in blood group analysis, tested 
thousands ot Jews in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East and 
came to the conclusion that a strain of genetic homogeneity does 
i Liu through Jewry, but not a Khazar strain. Even in Russia, Mour- 
ani lound very little evidence of KJiazar additions to the Jewish' — or 
nonjewish — gene pool. What Mouranl and two associates did find 
was that jews as a whole exhibit an admixture of WO percent Ne- 
gro genes, which they may have picked up in their stay in ancient 
Egypt or in miscegenation with North African peoples. 13 Another 
argument tor a common Jewish biology is a number of specifically 
Jewish genetic diseases: Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick, and Cuacher's. 

Whatever the biological verdict may be, a sizable part of the 
American public, as well as many Jews themselves, continue to 
think oi Jews :us a separate and distinct rate. They base their 
judgment on biblical references to a common Jewish historical 
origin and on various sets oi physical traits which have a higher 
incidence among lews than among members of anv other 
American population yroup. The concentration of Jews in the 
more visible occupations and dieir irrepressible group solidarity 
does much to nourish the popular idea of Jewish race hood. 

In classifying the Mongoloid population groups in the United 
States, amateur and professional anthropologists again pari com- 
pany. The general public considers American Indians a race apart, 
in line with traditional while attitudes towards the '*Rvk[ Man," but 
physical anthropologists put (hem in the broader Mongoloid racial 



17. Ai dun Korsilca , The I'hnWsnth Trihr, Random I tousr, Ww Yoi k, l u 7t). 

1H. A. K. Monranl, Tkt (Parties efjnwi, ( Aa\ endon Pirss, Oxford, 1978, If Moiti- 
unt is i igl ii, the anti-ZionisiS who claijn /.i<»nists have no biological lies to Piilcsi inc 
are wrong. The argument ilrai David Ben-f an ion, Gold a Mrii , and Mcn;u licm He- 
gin are thr dtSCCnd^nlS of non-Jewish Kha/ai * ninsi llu.n be abandoned. 



32 



The Dispossessed Majority 



category. 19 Vo the man in the street, the Mongoloid race is the yrl- 
low rare and is composed entirely of Orientals — Chinese, Japanese 
and other Fast Asians — who "all look alike,*' presumably because 
popular techniques of identifying Mongoloids do not proceed 
much beyond the slanted eye (epicaruhic Fold}.* Professional an- 
thropologists also place Eskimos and Polynesians generally in the 
Mongoloid racial niche, while recognizing the Australoid presence 
in the Polynesian racial background. 21 Nonprofessionals often con- 
sider Kskimos and the ever diminishing number of pure Polyne- 
sians, especially 1 kiwaiians, as belonging to separate races. 

In the darkest areas oi the racial palette, professional and pop- 
ular anthropologists are again at odds. The former estimate that 
the white contribution to the genetic composition of American Ne- 
groes ranges from a low of four percent in some Southern areas to 
a high of twenty-six perceni in Detroit."'* 2 The public has adopted a 
less sophism aied approach, simply designating as a Negro anyone 
with the slightest touch of the tarbrush. F.xeept in a few large dues 
where they have been given a distinct racial status of their own, the 
darker breeds ol Puerto Ricans are generally labeled Negroes, even 
those who have more Mediterranean than Negro genes. The same 
loose treatment is frequently 1 given to many Mexicans, who are an 
Amerindian-Mediterranean racial mix and have not a single Negro 
gene in their DNA. In general, sensitivity in skin coloration is so 
great that most white Americans would call a high-caste I lindu, the 
possessor of ;i narrow face, long nose, and other aristocratic traits, 
a Negro because of the shade of his epidermis. 

The principal variations in the popular ami professional racial clas- 
sifications of the American population are summarized in the table 
on the next page, a table designed to emphasize and reemphasize 



19. In the frontier clays, because of their wat paint and the sun's reflection 
on their liighlv toned skin, Indians were tailed Red Men, From ihii came the 
e<jmri>i of a red race, an ethnological oversimplification thai was lain aban- 
doned, Actually, Indian sfcin coUji raries from light yellow to mahogany, 
Coon, I hf Living ltuti-\ oj t \frtrt, i*. [53 

20. Americans who have had firsthand experience in the Far F.ast or who have 
lived in ElauMli or San Francisco have [earned to detecl certain racial differences 
among Mongoloids, pa rut ularty the darVei roloratSon of southeastern Asians. 

Ji Coon, op. ctL, pp L38, lEM.SKH 
22 Baker, /Wr T pp. 22H-M. 



RACIAL DYNAMICS S* 

die overriding itnponanee some anthropologists and almost all lay- 
men attach to skin color. 

PIGMENTATION SPECTRUM 



SKIN 

COLOR 


light Wliiic- 


While 


Dark 
White 


Vrllow 

Mahogany 


Lighi Tan 

bo 

Black 


PHYSICAL 
ANTHRO- 
POLOGY 


NumIh Alpnir 

Keltic 

Nimiii Mf.li. 
lei i .viiran 


Alpuw 
Eas« 
Baltic. 

Din.u u 


MedUfrrantan 
\\ mtnoid 


MtnijJtiltnf! 


X'Ffrro 
Mulatto 


POPULAR 

A.NTHRO 
FN HJ *GY 


While 1-ahn 

Wasp 

Angto 


Mexiean 
( 'liu iinu 
Latifaa 

Oriental 


( loloted 
Black 



Tin- designation Hispanic, which has been adopted by many federal agenewg, 
ii .hi umbrella term I'm various Mfcdftemaetn, Mongoloid, and Negro mixtures 
oi'Spanisli- and V<u iugnrw^>eakiii^ jx-opl.s in the Western Hemisphere. 

Broadly approximate and far from rigorous in its presentation 
ol the American racial amalgam, the Pigmentation Spectrum, in 
addition to illustrating the spectroscopic method of racial iden- 
tification! does serve to clarify in graphic fashion what seem to 
be ihe four cardinal rules of American rare relations and racial 
etiquette: 



a) IV tardier apart races are in the SpecLrmn, the more race- 
rnnseions will be the behavior of their members towards each other, 
and the more Llsey Will treat each other as stereotypes rather than as 

individuals, 

h) The doser together races are in iiie White area oi the Spectrum, 
the more easily their members may submerge or ignore their racial 
ililiert'iii c. even To the point of claiming the same racial :il Minium. 

c) The farther a race is to the right of (he Spei [.mm, tJie num.- n 
will vary from the American physical norm as defined by Majority 
racial parameters, In this respect, the Spectrum serves as an "as- 
similation meter." With one important exception, the Jews, the 
mute races differ from the Majority in skin color, the less chance 
their members have of assimilation* 



M 



The Dispossessed Majority 



d) The farther apart races are in the Spectrum, the more 
the members of one race will accentuate the color differ- 
ences of the other. Whites will find Latins darker, Orientals 
yellower, anil Negroes blacker than they really are. Converse- 
ly, members of colored races will think whiles much paler 
than their pigmentation merits. 

Rule (a) refers to the extensive use which the ordinary citizen 
makes of stereotypes in racial classification. The banc of pro- 
fessional anthropology, stereotypes often come in pairs: the ideal- 
ized version of one's own race and the caricature of the Other per- 
son's race. The degree of caricature may depend on the degree of 
tension between any two races at any particular moment 

Its the Philadelphia suburbs, for example, the Main Line family 
of old American lineage may identify with the Nordic stereotype of 
the lad, handsome blond with regular features, light eyes, elevated 
brow, and long head. In Philadelphia's inner city, Negroes may 
have a different image of their Main Line neighbors. The neck is 
thicker, the head rounder, the build stockier. Cruel lips, cold eyes, 
and a frigid expression add Up 10 an almost brutish appearance. 
The blond or brunet beast instead of IYin< e Charming. 

Alpine stereotypes, many imported from the Old World* range 
{depending on who is doing the stereotyping) from the bloated 
Milwaukee burgher to Santa Clans, from the thick-jointed, flat- 
faced trucker to the nulbrown maid. Latin stereotypes are divided 
between grimacing gangsters and soulful Valentino*, Carmcus and 
( larmelites. 

To many non-Jews, the jew is often a squat, plutocratic vulgarian 
or a fx-spectacled, hothouse egghead. The Jew himself < lings to lite 
stereotype of an aristocratic, white-maned Moses, an ingenious No- 
bel Laureate or a swashbui kling Israeli sabra, Negroes like to iden- 
tify with towering black athletes, charismatic preachers, Emperor 
Joneses, and rifle-toting Black Panthers. Many whites, on die other 
hand, cannot dissociate the Negro image from Uncle Torn, Aunt 
jemima, Step'm Fetchit, urban muggers, or head-hunting cannibal 
chiefs with, hemes through their noses. 

The physiological stratum of race also includes character and in- 
telligence, insofar as such trains have a genetic origin. Plato, who 
equated the beautiful with the good, posited a direct relationship 



RACIAL DYNAMICS 



35 



between physical appearance and moral conduct 23 Hippocrates 
found that people with blond complexions were "in disposidon 
and passions haughty and sell-willed." 2 '* Hansen's famous study of 
the temperamental and character differences of the fair and dark 
populations of Norway was cited by Havelock Ellis in his compari- 
son of skin color with performance, 25. Dr. Morgan Worthy, a (Geor- 
gia psychologist, has shown that light-eyed persons are more self- 
paring, imore inhibited, and less reactive to their environment than 
their dark-eyed counterparts. 26 

Low foreheads and pointed heads have long been accepted as 
signs of stupidity and imlweility. In Kli/abeihan Kngland there was 
a proverb: "Very Pound head, forgetful and stupid. Long head, clev- 
er and attentive."" 7 In Shakespeare's AnLitny mid CJeojmtra- (act 3, 
scene S), the heroine asks: "Bears't thou her face in mind? is' t long 
Of Found?* The messenger replies, "Round even to faultiness * Cle- 
opatra: "For the most part, ioo 8 they are foolish thai are so." The 
Knglishman's poor opinion of brachycephalism may be explained 
by the fact that the English have a lower Incidence ot round- 
headed ness than any other N on hern European population*** 
Cromwell's Roundheads were so tailed, not because of "their head 
shape, but incause of their bowl-shaped haircuts, which contrasted 
sharply with the long, flowing hair of the Cavaliers. 

No mailer how controversial or exaggerated they may be, racial 
stereotypes which go tn-vond surface physical characteristics can- 
not be ignored if they provide meaningful Clues to popular concep- 
tions of racial differences. A case in point is the average white 
American of Northern Kuropean extraction who considers himself 
and "his kind" to be wise, hard-working, brave, dedicated, honest 
and Cod-fearing — on the whole a slightly donated combination of 
Puritan divine, Virginia planter and Western pioneer. ( >n the in- 
telligence stale he rates the 1 Orientals and Jews rather high, but 
buds more craftiness than wisdom, lie views Latins as frivolous. 



23. Lysis, titid, trans. J. Wright, Tfa (MUtted Dialogues oj Plata. 

2-1. On Ah\ Waters, and }* laces, Hans. Y\ amis Adams, tireil luniks, Vol. 10, p, 18. 

B5. A Study tf British Cenins, 1 lou^hum Mitilin, liosttm, L9S6, pp. 30&-?, 
S&. Moigiin Worthy, Eye Color > Sex and llnre, Drake- I Ions*-/ Hallux, AikUimhi, 
South Carolina, 1974. 

27. Thomas 1 till, Pleasant Histuvy, bmrlon, ISIS. 
2#. Coon, Thtl.nm\ft Rates of Man, p. MB, 



36 



The Dispossessed Majority 



sexual h volatile, superficial and prune to organized crime and 
treachery. He believes Indians, Mexicans and Negroes lo he stupid, 
shiftless, unclean, and over fond of alcohol and narcotics* 29 

In return, the more sophisticated Latins and Jews classify the 
average Majority member as a plodding, credulous, loutish Philis- 
tine, while viewing themselves as the inheritors of a superior reli- 
gion and culture. To the Gentile, Jews are often as avaricious as 
Shy lot k, whereas they view themselves as extremely charitable. In- 
dians and Negroes are likely lo typecast whites as unbridled horse 
traders, paragons of insensitiviity, specialists in genocide, sexually 
repressed Horatio Algers and whip-cracking Simon I, egrees. 

Many such stereotypes dissolve and many new ones emerge 
as the political, economic, and social status of Americans alters. 
Since a change of stains usually occurs long before a change of 
stereotype, ii may lake a little time for the public stereotype to 
catch up with the publicized stereotype. In less than a century, 
however, thejewish pawnbroker has yielded to the affectionate Jew- 
ish supermother; the shuffling and obsequious Negro lo the cham- 
pion prizefighter; the drunken Irish brawler to the kindly priest; 
the opium-smoking, pigrailed coolie to Charlie ('ban. The re- 
pulsive trails, both physical and psychological, now heaped upon 
Nazis and Arabs were once reserved for the "unspeakable Turks," 
In many a television, motion picture and Broadway production the 
blond hero has become the blond villain. 

Today racial stereotypes have come under as sharp an attack as 
racism itself. Bui those most opposed to stereotypes usually have 
their own, and in the end all thai is accomplished is the sub- 
stitution of one set of stereotypes for another. Rather than con- 
centrate on die abolition of stereotypes — as impossible a task as 
abolishing our innate tendency to generalize — social scientists 
might welcome them as instructive signposts for the study of inter- 
group behavior. They have an impressive pedigree, deriving not 
only from gossip, hearsay and the lower depths of human de- 
pravity, but from folklore, myth, religion, literature, an, and music. 
Some of i lie most sublime expressions of man's creativity have 



29. Motlill McOormick's Hatrmeni thai Theodore Rooscvcli understood the 
"psychology of tJic mutt" reveals smothei common attitude ol oldftne American* 
toward? all other Americans, white or colored R it hard l-tofatadter, Th* American 

PoUlkal Tradition, Knopf, New York, 1949, p. 230. 



RACIAL DYNAMICS 



37 



made liberal and extended use <>f racial stereotypes, 

Carleton Coon is one of the few modern anthropologists who is 

noi too disturbed about stereotypes: "Popular, subjective labels in 
tile designation of races, used among persons ignorant of the ex- 
istence of physical anthropology, are often truer than the hesitant 
results of erudite wanderings in the labyrinth of numbers. 1 " s0 

To arrive at a broader understanding of American racial dynam- 
ics, it is row time to enter "the labyrinth of numbers" and move 
from the qualitative to the quantitative aspects of race. 



30. The Races ofEitrwpe, \>. S&3 



PART II 



Racial Composition of 
the United States 



CHAPTKR5 



White Immigration 



i" riSTRUl'. that all Americans — Indians includt'd — arc tilhci im- 
■*■ migrants or the descendants of immigrants. Ir is equally true 
thai radically dilUrcnt kinds of immigrants came to America fur 
radically different reasons. One thinks of die Indian nulling liis 
way over die Aleutian land bi idgc in search of food, die Pilgrim 
building his city of ( iod in the New Kngland wilderness, the Negro 
chained to the hold of a slave ship. 

I'Yoni the earliest < olonial times to almost the middle of ihe 
nineteenth century, white immigrants were motivated by love of 
lame and adventure, by land hunger, by fortune hunting, bv the 
hope oi retaining and expanding their religious identity, 1 bv mis- 
givings about the governments of their homelands and their gov- 
ernments' misgivings about diem, by a concern for lilierty, 8 and, 
perhaps most of all, by the nagging and endemic. Northern Eu- 
ropean wanderlust. The immigration stream was composed of farmers. 
artisans, tradesmen, and soldiers of fortune, with a light (roth of dissi- 
dent aristocrats and a thin sediment of jailbirds. Though it is often 



1. The jrii^ious uioiiv.uioii musi noi 1m- overrated. Only a small percentage <>l 

ihr early CoIanilW were cliuirh mr in Iters (sre Ohaptei I *>) . One umsoti Un the Pil- 
grims' truiisatluiilir gmuage was the frai dial their ion* unci daughlci \ would "wed 
out in ihr world" if they prolonged llu-ir period uf exile in what could ilu-n be 
etcteribed as the "swinging" Netherlands. 

1*. 0. 11 l.awrem e argued that the Puritans were running away ham liberty and 
wen- unwilling lo put up with the ineieasing humanism of post-Renaissance Eng- 
land. In fawrenre's view there was far more religious tolerance in the England 
(hey kll tlian in ihe New England they founded. Studies in (Ibutsiral Ammrem Lit 
rtahitr. Viking Press, New York, 196-1, pp. S, 5. 

•11 



42 



fhe Dispossessed Majority 



forgotten, many of the early white immigrants had already enjoyed 
a fair measure of prosperity in their native lands. 3 Where ii existed 
the economic drive was important, but it was directed more to- 
wards economic gain than economic security. 

Natura selection was extreme^ hard on the pioneering van 
guard. Half the Mayflower's passengers died either on the sea voy- 
age or during their first year in Massachusetts.' 1 In Jatnestown, 
the first permanent English colony in America, then 1 were more 
than 500 colonists in 1 609, No more than sixty were alive a year lat- 
er/' On the morning of March 22, 1022, an Indian war parly fell 
upon colonial settlements in the upper readies of Virginia's James 
River. In a few hours 347 whites were killed without respect to age 
or sex. 11 * Elsewhere famine, disease, Indian raids, and the rigors of 
the frontier tarried on a relentless winnowing, culling, and sifting 
<>f a people who, from the outset, had never been a typical cross 
se« lion of the Knglish or of any or tier Old World population, 7 

In 1689 the number of whites in the thirteen colonies was ap- 
proximately 200,000. By 1754 il had grown to a million — 500,000 
in New England, 300,000 in the Middle Colonies, 400,000 in the 
South. In 1790, the year of the first Federal Census, the national 
origins of American whites and their percentage of the total 
white population were estimated as follows: British (77), German 
(7.4), Irish (4,4), Dutch (3.3) t French (1.9), Canadian (1.6), Belgian 
(1.5) , Swiss (0.9) , Scandinavian (0.9}, other (1.1).* 

The profoundly Protestant character of white immigration per- 
sisted until the 1840s when the Irish* driven out by a potato blight, 
began crossing the Atlantic by the hundreds of thousands, together 



3 Alexis (k- TocoucviUe, lit la dhnoemtit en Amerufnr, GaUlirntrrf, Para, l l Mi|, 
Ttunr I , p. .'il . 

■1 Ellsworth Htintmglon, The Character of Racts, Scribnei"**, N.Y., 1925, p. 304 
5. William W. Sweet, Thr. Slmy of Rrfifrwn inAinaica, Har[XT, N.V., 19ft*, pp. -12, 51. 
ft Ibid., p. 81 

7, Puritans came largely from East Ajiglia, unc of England's blondest regions. 
Kills, A Study of British C*niu$, fooiiiuie, p. 39. Selective processes were going on 
in all UJI migration phases, Polish immigrants, for example, were taller and thinner 
than the Poles who remained at home. COQJV Ths RaOSS aft'.urofw, p. 565* 

8. Population fig-iu'rs in (J lis. psi a^i aph from Morns Davie, World humiliation, 
Viacmillan, N.V., liM9, [). 21. fViernUge figures from Immigration Qxioktt on thf iio- 
$U of National Chifpn, Senate llthumcril 259, 70th Congress, 



RACIAL COMPOSITION QFTHE U.S. 



43 



with large contingents of Central Kuropcans, including political 
refugees from the abortive 1848 revolutions. 9 Although its religious 
balance may have shifted a little over the next three or four dec- 
ades — 3 million Irish arrived, plus millions of continental Cath- 
olics—the United States still remained overwhelmingly Northern 
European in racial background. The Alpine, Keltic, and Dinark 
genes which hail been injected into the American bloodstream 
were of the light-complexioned variety, nm\ the few Irish and Cen- 
tral European racial traits thai were at odds with Northern Eu- 
ropean physical norms did not clash in the critical area of skin col- 
or. Even so, the oMOId Immigrants mounted a large-scakj crypto- 
racial attack against the new Old Immigrants, < [nelly the Irish, who 
in a revival of rip-roaring Reformation polemics were charged with 
"popery," 111 

Long before the Old Immigration came Jo an c\u\, descendants 
ui die original settlers began a new mass migration which look 
them to western New York and the Midwest, eventually to Texas 
and the Far West, ami denuded New England of half its Anglo- 
Saxons, it was this migration, as historically important as the one 
from Kngiand to New Kngland, which fixed an enduring racial 
stamp on much of the trans-Appalachian United Stales. 1 ' 

The 1880s marked the start ol the New Immigration, which 
brought in millions of Jews, Slavs, Italians and other Fastern and 
Southern Europeans. This time the character of white immigra- 
tion, whit h had been changing very slowly for almost hall a cen- 
tury, underwent a rapid and profound transformation. Most New 
Immigrants were hruner, olive-hued Mediterraneans or belonged 
to the darker-CMinplexioned divisions of the Alpine race. Most 



9. I*h<- Catholic Irish are to be distinguished horn Uu* Ptotrslanl Scotch-Irish, a 
large ruiiTilxr of whom 01 initiated in die lowlands of Scotland and lain moved to 
Norihem Ireland. Some 200,000 Sc.oit h-li ish arrived in the lifiv years preceding 
Amcikan independent c. Davie, ©p. i it. ( pp. 2I-2J4. 

10. I he American Parly, whose members wete called know Nothings hv lhc.ii 
|>olilical opponents, claimed torlv-llnee representatives, five senators and seven 
SUf£ governors shortly before ihe outbreak of the Civil War. lhe inn easing ur- 
gency of the slavery issue, however, played havoc with a political party which, in 
addition U> irs Protestant bias, was drawing subtle racial distinctions umiMi^ 
whites. Ibid., ]>, 8M. 

11. Stewart llolbiook, 77w Ytinhre J','.\W/o, Macinillan, New York, 19f>0, p, -1. 



■14 



e Dispossessed Majority 



came to escape starvation, not iu risk it— to crowd the cities, nol 
clear the land, Old Immigrants had been more than wilting to trad* 1 
security lor insecurity. The new arrivals had reverse priorities. Both 
groups were overloaded with dreams, hut the New Immigrants 
were more mundane- Whether the fault of genetics or environ- 
ment or both, the mental traits of the Old and New Immigrant 
types were often in sharper contrast than their physical character- 
istics. 

The last or^ani/.ed nationwide manifestation oi' what rtiighl 1h- 
called Old Immigrant solidarity was the attempt to dam the flood 
of the- New Immigration that culminated in the 1 924 Immigration 
Act. Total immigration from Europe was limited io approximately 
150,000 annually, as compared to the record high of 1,285,000 ar- 
rivals in 1007. |,J Furthermore the legislation was racially selective in 
that Kuropean countries were given quotas according io their rel- 
ative contribution to the American population as of L920- tft As Con- 
gress planned it, whatever small amount of Immigration still trick- 
led in was to he weighted in favor of the Northern Kuropean racial 
matrix. 

But events took a different course. Many Northern Kuropean 
countries left their quotas partly unfilled or tilled them with per- 
sons in transit From other parts of Europe. Congressional and Pres- 
idential dispensations were given to anti-Nazi and ami-Communist 
refugees, World War II displaced persons, and 120,432 "war hrides," 
many ol them Asians. 11 (Nonwhiic immigration is the* subject 
of the next chapier.JSome 200,000 Kuropean Jews, a large 
proportion ol thorn concentration camp survivors, came to the 
United States between 1933 and L954- 13 By the late 1050s they had 

been joined by some 50,000 Hungarians who arrived after their 
failed attempt to shake off Soviet ride. As of 1965 nearly 10 mil- 
lion legal immigrants lead come to America under the epiota 
system. 11 ' 

Both in regard I * > type and number, the immigrants who came 



12. Total immigration r lolu Snuihrrn and Eastern Kurope tor the peiiod IK20- 
1930 was ]3,Q<M,4M. 

13. Davie, op. tit., p. 377. 

14. Ency SriL, Vol. 15, pp. 467-68. 

15. James Yaffe, Thr Amen van Jrws t Random House, New Yoik, ]'.l68, p. rt. 
If). Statistic al Alwlrac Lot' [lie US, IlHl'J, p. &|. 



RACIAL COMPOSITION OK'l'IIK U.S. 



4. r . 



under the quota system violated the letter and the intent of 
the Immigration Acts of 1021 and 1924. The primary aim of 
ihis legislation had been to preserve- the racial profile of the 1 
United States as it had been defined and defended by the 
Founding Fathers 17 and as it had become "fixed" in the late 
nineteenth century. It was much too late for laws that would 
permit a privileged caste of fair-hatred Nordics to lord it 
over a bottom layer of black slaves and white ethnics. Bin it 
was not too hue for Congress to prevent the 1 Northern Ku- 
ropean racial nucleus from being physically and culturally 
submerged by continuing mass migrations of Southern and 
Eastern Europeans, 

Quotas based on national origins temporarily succeeded 
in the at complisfameni of what might be described as the 
Grand Congressional Design. The Northern European pre- 
ponderance was safeguarded in the political, economic and 
cultural realm. But after the end of World War 11 immigra- 
tion became more 1 than a trickle, and most of it was com- 
posed of the- very racial element! that Congress had sought 
to bar. 

Although the quota system, it is hardly necessary Io point 
out, had always been a running sore to liberal and minority 
organizations, it was an outrage to those- who sincerely be- 
lieved in racial equality and a stumbling block to those who were 
beginning to promote other than Northern Kuropean brands of ra- 
cism. In HK>f>, bowing somewhat cravenly to an unprecedented lob- 
bying effort that had been gathering momentum for more than half 
a century, President Kyudon Johnson signed a new immigration act 



I /. Washington WIS opposed to uiuestru ted immigration because lie wauled La 
protect (lie "Ameiican cluuaclei ." Jefferson feared that, since the. bulk of Eu- 
ropean immigration would eventually h;ive to come from Central, Southern and 
Eastern Europe, the newcoineis would import with them the ulcus arid prinripSei 
of absolute government under which they and then ancestors had livnl t«»i s<> 
many centuries. C :hiu les Heard, The Republic, Vikitfg Picks, New York, 1 96£ B pp. 10-1 1 . 
An aigumeut against all immigration was that ii limited die natural iiu uasr of the 
native population. According Lo "Walker's I. aw," which assumes that the teeundily 
of indigenous groups is reduced by immigrant competition, the 3.5 million Amer- 
ican whites ol 1790 would have increased to I iiumin-i equivalent to the present 
day population if the Constitution had forbidden nil immigration. Madison Grant, 
The (jonqurst of a C.otititirnt, Seribucr's, New York, 1933, p, 276. 



4(i 



The Dispossessed Majority 



which kept the quota system, but radically changed the nature of 
the quotas. The national origins provisions so hateful to the liberal- 
minority forces, were abolished and immigration limited to: rel- 
atives of American citizens and permanent residents (74 percent); 
members of professions ami others of "exceptional ability" (10 per- 
cent); skilled and unskilled workers certified by the Secretary of 
Labor (10 percent); refugees from political persecution or national 
calamities (6 percent). The first category, which crowded out all 
Others, was Immediately dominated by the spouses and unmarried 
children of immigrants from Greece, Italy and the Philippines. Irt 
With respect to numbers, an annual ceiling of 170,000 and 120,000 
was placed on immigrants from the Eastern and Western Hemi- 
spheres, respectively, thereby imposing a quota for the first time on 
Canadians and Latin Americans.'-' 

When the Johnson iuimigi aliun hill came before the Senate, 
only eighteen votes were cast against it, all from Southern senators 
whose constituencies contained the nadom's largest concentration 
of old-fashioned color-conscious, whites. au The great immigration 
debate, which had become the great racial debate, was over, at Least 
in regard to immigrant type. At the direction of a British-descended, 
Southern-minded, Texas-l>orn president, Congress had decided that 
the descendants of the British and other Northern Europeans, who 
had both created and put their cultural mark on the United States, 
no longer deserved legislative protection* 11 

Alter the 1955 bill became law, white immigration began to dry 
up. Notable exceptions were those who claimed refugee stat- 
us; upwards of 400,000 Jews from F.uropr via Israel and 
250,000 Jews directly from the Soviet Union (before and aftei its 
breakup) . 



18. Ne&Ym-k Times, Aug. SI, 1970, pp. 1, 37. ftriwren 19(H) and L96€ the United 
States received 30 million legal Linmi^rancs and lost 10 million emigrants. Papula- 
don Reference Bureau, as cited in the PiUstruigh Pasi-Gazette, May S, 1986. 

19. A 1976 amendinc-m to the Immigration Act extended the linn! of no more 
than 20,000 inunigianTs fx-r Old World country to New Wodd countries. 

SO. Time. On, 1, 1MB, p. |7, 

21. Representative Fmannel Celler oi New York was one ol the strangest op- 
ponents of (lie 192-1 Immigration Act, often called On- Johnson Act, after Albert 
Johnson, chairman of the House Committee on Immigration, Cefc Lived long 
enough to \x-. die Housf spoiisoi ol the 1965 bill, usually and ironically entitled 
the Kennedy-Johnson Act. 



RACIAL COMPOSITION OFTI IF U.S. 



47 



In 11)91 President Rush signed inio [aw an amended im- 
migration bill that raised t ho number of immigrants, ex- 
cluding refugees and other special cases, to 700,000 per an- 
num, with most of the slots going to family members of the 
newer breed of citizen. 

Whit€ immigrants still trickle into America. A lew European 
countries and Canada complain aboui a brain drain. Nevertheless, 
as we shall see in the next chapter, white immigration in recenl 
decades has amounted to little more than a drop in the genetic 
bucket of the total immigration, legal and illegal, which, as govern- 
ment leaders freely and supinely admit, is now out of control. 



CHAPTERS 



Nonxvhite Immigration 



IF THE F.Nf.iJsii began the Old Immigration, the Indians, who 
arrived sown- 20,000 years earlier, initiated what could be de~ 
fined as the Prehistoric Immigration. En the year 1500, there wen 
an estimated 850,000 Indians within the geographic limits of the 
present-day continental United States and Canada J By 1770 the In- 
dian inhabitants oj the area occupied by the thirteen * ol( it ties had 
been for the mosi part exterminated, evicted, or isolated. During 
and after the Winning of the West, Indians were placed on reserva- 
tions. At one time their total number may have been reduced to 
less than 250,000.* 

The Mongoloid migration to North America — Amerindians can 
be* classified as offshoots of the Mongoloid race — was revived alter 
a score or so of millennia with the arrival of til line se coolies in Cal- 
ifornia. They first toiled in the gokl mines, then helped build ihe 
western end of the transcontinental railroads. Derogatonly called 
Chinamen and Chinks, the Chinese and their esoteric customs 
raised the hackles of local whiles. From time to time western state 
legislatures and Congress tried to keep theii numbers down l>y acts 
of exclusion. In 1890 the Chinese head count was [07,000, 

Ihe Japanese immigration did nut begin until after the Civil War 
and never quite readied the proportions of the Chinese. In 1007 it 
was brought to a halt by the "Gentleman's Agreement* worked out 



1. Chtr Atttfric&n Indians at a Glance, Pacific Const Publishers M<nl<» Park, Calif, 
1961, p 6. 

% in lect-ni decades the Indian population has mucJe \\ substantial recovery. See 
Amtiitn7i Indians section, Chapter 1.6. 



RACIAL COMPOSITION OFTHE U.S. 



49 



with Japan by Theodore Roosevelt. After World War 1, Asian immi- 
gration was such a rarity that the annual quota of 100 sei for China 
and Japan hy the 1924 Immigration Act actually resulted in an in- 
crease in the number of legal immigrants from these two countries. 1 

Not aliens in the terminology of the U)24 Act, Filipinos were lat- 
er so designated by Congress. Hy 1930 some 45,000 had come to 
the United States. When the Philippines was granted indepen- 
dence in 1946, Filipinos were put in the same category as other 
Orientals and their annual quota fixed at fifty.' 1 Today, they are 
coming at the rate of almost 60,000 a year. 

The nonwhiie immigration which has had the most lasting effect 
on the nation's racial composition has been that oi the Negroes, 
Blacks from Africa were never categorized as Old Immigrants be- 
cause of their skin color and because of the- different set of circum- 
stances which brought them to America, They could not be (ailed 
New Immigrants, sine* 1 almost all of thera had! come long before the 
New Immigration had started. In point of fact, some Negroes arrived 
in the colonies almost as soon as the first whites. Like many whites, 
some came as indentured servants. Bui while the whites were able 
to work off their servitude (the average term in the Southern col- 
onies was four years) , the Negroes' status hardened into one ol per- 
manent and perpetual indenture, otherwise known as slavery. By 
Far the greater number of blacks, however, were slaves upon arrival. 

hi the year 171)0, according to the first Federal Census, there 
Were 697,623 Negro slaves and 59,338 free Negroes in the newly 
independent colonies. Few black Africans came after 1820, 
when the British outlawed the slave trade. By L8C0 the count was 
3,955,760 Negro slaves and 488,070 free Negroes. If these figures 
are accurate, this means that when slavery was the order of the day 
in the United States the Negro population sexiupled. In the next 
130 years it septupled again. 

Lhe largest influx of immigration since World War I did not 
originate in the Old World, but below the Rio Grande and in 
the West Indies. Although they cannot be classified as 100 percent 
nonwhiie, the millions of 1 lispanics who are cuirently lobe found 



.'*. The immigration history ol iin- Hawaiian Islands is $ut genms and will be 
Iwietlv eximiiued in Clliutpin 16. 
'I. Davie., op. eit, \>p. >S<t2-l7. 



50 



The Dispossessed Majority 



in California, the Southwest and the big northern cities art: certain- 
ly more Indian than white, Abo largely in the nonwhite category 
are the vast numbers of part-Negro, part-Mediterranean Puerto Ri- 
cans who migrated north, principally to New York City, after 1945. 5 

The 1965 Immigration Act, which purportedly ended racial quo- 
tas, had the- effect of favoring nonwhites over whites. Although the 
Western Hemisphere quota should have significantly reduced the 
genetic flow from Mexico, Other Central American countries, and 
the Caribbean Islands, Hispanica and colored Wesi Indians have 
never paid much attention to immigration controls in the past and 
are not likely to change in the near future. Of the millions of il- 
legal immigrants or aliens estimated io be in the United Stairs in 
1992, as many as 80 percent were probably Mexicans. As citizens, 
Puerto Rtcans continue io have free entry, although there has been 
some backtracking to the home island. 

The Kastern Hemisphere allotment, as well as the priorities giv- 
en to family members and to professional and skilled worker*, has 
resulted in an increase of Asians but not black Africans. The latter 
are? not noted for their o( rnpational skills and have been separated 
far too long from American Negroes to have maintained any family 
ties. On the other hand, the number of legal and illegal blacks 
from the Caribbean area has risen sharply. 

[low the 1965 Immigration Act, not fully implemented until 
I9HH, changed the pattern of American immigration is shown by 
listing the number of legal immigrants in L965 and 1992, from the 
ten principal immigration sources. 



LKt.Al.IMMIt;R,\N'rSAN[)tXH L NTKVOf()RU;iN 



]<** 



Mexico 

t fatted Ki 

Ct-mnny 

Cuba 

noniiiiif ;i 

Ualv 

<>>l<-4iibi;i 

Poland 

Arct-ntiu; 



RcpuMi< 



1993 



40JIW 


MfXii i) 


91,332 


5^.453 


Vietnam 


77,728 


29,74? 


Phlllppinei 


59,179 


*26,S57 


h'onnci Soviet I iH"n 


43,590 


20,086 


tXjmiuirau Rr[mlilii 


•iO,H It) 


10,851 


t .liiu.i ( iiiaiiiLiinl \ 


38,735 


10,544 


India 


;|'Oi 


9,700 


Poland 


34,837 


7, -158 


EJ S.ih..u!<ii 


g| 130 


5,029 


Untied Kingdi im 


19,757 



5. Simpson and Yinger, Racial and Cultural Minorities, p. 1:U>. 

(>. \ J ni> York Times, Au S . 31,1 07i>, p. 57, and /.VS' Advanet Bipe*t% May 1993, 



RACIAL COMPOSITION OF II IE U.S. 



It is noteworthy that only three ofihe countries, in the 1992 col- 
umn, die former Soviet Union, Poland, and the United Kingdom, 
furnished white immigrants (mostly Jews, it so happened):, and 
they are no! at the top of the list. The other seven countries thai ac- 
counted for the in o,s! immigrants in 1992 are nonwhire. 

Legal immigration, it should be added, is only part of the im- 
migration picture. One to two million illegal aliens, 7 the great ma- 
jority of them Hispanics, enter the United States each year, not all 
of them successfully. In 1992 the Border Patrol made L6 million 
apprehensions,, but most of the apprehended try and try again. 

Ihe current wave of minorities brings wiih it some dangerous 
and expensive baggage. Approximately 150,000 legal and illegal 
Haitians, more than a few infected with tulx'rcnlosis, venereal dis- 
ease \un.\ AIDS, made their way to Florida between [SSI ami 
1990. In the spring of 1980 a makeshift lleet of more than 
Kit). DOI) ami Castio Cubans sailed into Key West and Miami. The 
criminal element among them, the offscourings of Cuba's jails, lat- 
er lioied and burned down government installations, giving an ex- 
tra hoosi to the accelerating l r .N. crime rate. Illegals from every- 
where (pialily for well are and fi ee health services almost t he 

moment tliev arrive. Babies conceived below the Rio Grande are 

born in Amei ican hospitals ,u no < ost to theii Hispanic motherl- 
and automatic allv become American citizens. Other tens of thou- 
sands oi immigrants continue to arrive as die result of various con- 
gressional "deals. " H 

As oi August L993, no serious effort to solve the immigration 
problem has been made bv the President 01 Congress. In late 1980 
Congress did enact legislation which penalized companies thai know- 
ingly hired illegal aliens. The law also increased the si/.e of ihe Bor- 
der Patrol, but -and this is a very big but — at the same lime it of- 
fered amnesty to illegal aliens who arrived before January 1, 1982. 



7. A I 9&0 < Census H»n an ir|)oi i gue$&timatcd a total oi 5 million ilkxrals in the 
US. In r;ulv I0H6 Maurice Iniuan, general counsel of the Immigration and Nat- 
uiali/ation Scivitf, pni the uiunbci at 1'..' to I 5 million 

H. In one surli deal a coilgirssnian who intioihio'd a bill io pcnnil the enLry °i' 
r >,00() Sicilians obtained ilir Support oi anothri con^iesMiuui bv promising to vote 
foi ihe brier's bill to In in SfiOQ Iratji |rws. Tim/, Nov 21, l%<), p. Hfi. Part of the 
bribe money i;iven io congressmen in the 19Q0 A'bscatB s+an* 1 nl was an advance 
[javini-ni [oi private 1m migration billi far invihu al Arab sheiks. 



52 



The Dispossessed Majority 



The amnesty will certainly attract more millions of die euphe- 
mistically titled "undocumented workers,** who will no doubt ex- 
pect ihe same lenient treatment. By March M>88, some 1.5 mil- 
lion applications For amnesty had been received by the Im- 
migration and Naturalization Service. 

At last count immigration of one form or other, legal and illegal, 
is running at the rate of at least 2 million a year and brings with it 
an annual tab of $30. <» billion, most of it expended on free hospital 
care, welfare payments, crime prevention, and mountains of paper 
work. 9 The cost is almost bankrupting some states, particularly (.'al- 
ifornia, where Governor Pete Wilson has called lor an end to most 
welfare for Illegal immigrants, and wants to deny the right to cit 
i/enship of their children born in the United States. 

Whatever happens on the immigration front, American whites, 
although most want a sharp reduction in all types of immigration, 
will continue to be put through the racial grinder. The seemingly 
unstoppable influx of legal and illegal no n white immigrants, ref- 
ugees and asylum seekers, (ombined with the relatively high birth- 
rate of blacks, Asians and Hispanics, and the Ix'low-replacement 
birthrate of most American whites, are fostering a rapidly increas- 
ing proportion of nonwhites that is making an indelible imprint on 
the American racial mold. Not imperceptibly, the nation's com- 
plexion grows darker year by year,** 3 



9. Donald Muddle, a Rice I niveisilv economist. Nnvsuwk, August 9, 199$, p. 
19. Dr. Huddle asserts that in 1993-2002 legal inrunigFWlts will cost taxpayer $482 
billion; illegal immigrants $185. 1 billion. 

10. An eerily insightful novel, The Camp of the Saints, by Jean Raspail, a noted 
French writer, depicts an invasion of France by & vast armada of starving people 
from India. Eor hurnanitar ian reason* (foe, French government decides not to op- 
pose ibf landing. In no time tJte nation is overrun, conquered, and destroyed. 
i"he oidy military action is directed against the few Frenchmen who try to resist. 
Sinre the- original ventoa of thr book was written in 197'J, RaspaiTs imt army fore- 
sight, when applied lo what is happening to and in the pievni-ckiy I nitrd States, 
is a memorable example of history imitating air. 



CHAPTER 7 

The Fusion and Mosaic Fallacies 



THE <;rkai amkrkian drkam has been a potpourri of dreams, one 
of "the wilder variety being lliai of the Melting Pol. The Melting 
PoL visionary prophesied iluit any immigrant, no matter what his 
rate, nationality or social background, once immersed in the giddy 
liquefaclion of American life, would he transformed into a unique- 
ly American solute with all the Old World heritage of caste and cul- 
tural disparity dissolved away. 1 

Thai dream, long dying, is now dead. The Melting Hot, which 
worked to some extent in the time of the Old Immigration when 
the ingredients were more racially and culturally harmonious, (ailed 
to do its job when the New Immigration was added. Melting Pot ad- 
vocates seemed to forget that different races thrown together in 
the same environment rather than fuse are more likely to stratify 
and separate. 'The more two different peoples grow alike in 



1. Israel Zungwill Wrote a book entitled The Melting Pot (Macmillan, New York, 
1909), in which he defined America "as a crucible in which divers races and na- 
tionalities are l>eing fused into a new and greater race with a superior < iilline." II' 
/angwill was die high priesi of die Melting Pot, Emma lazarus was the- high priest- 
ess. Never much of a jx>et, Miss Lazarus was even lea* of % prophet. She may have 
invited the. "teeming refuse" of Europe lo American shores* but when the N<rw Im- 
migrants, as they were called, arrived in Ellis Island she was not there to green 
mem. In later life, she turned out to he something of a racist, with her un- 
charitable remarks alxnit Russians and ancient Creeks and her glowing Semilisin. 
See The Poems of Emma Lazarus, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 188°, particularly 'The 
Crowing of the Red Coe.k," 'The Banner of the Jew," and "Cift.v" Also see hei eth- 
nocentric communication lo Rabhi Cottheil in 11. E. Jacob's 'The World of Emrna 
Lazarus, Schockcn Hooks, New York, 1949, p. 78. 



M 



1 he. Dispossessed Majority 



externals/ George Samayana pointed out, "the more conscious 
and jealous they become of diversity in their soul "* 

What population mixing there has hern in the United Stales has 
largely taken place among nationality, rial racial, groups. As one 
demographer, Dr. Richard D. Alba, pul it, "Nearly 99% of non- 
Hispanic whites married odier non-Hispanic whiles, while 99% of 
black women and 97% of black men married within their race.* 3 
Integrationists predicted a big upswing in the black/while in- 
termarriage rale after the 1967 Supreme Court decision over- 
turning a miscegenation law in Virginia. Though there was a no- 
ticeable upu< k, it was not quite as huge as expected. One study 
counted 45,019 black, whin- births in 1989, up from 21,438 in 
197. r c 4 The total number of black/white married couples was 
24r>,0()0 in 1989, still relative!) small, when compared to the 50.9 mil- 
lion mail ied couples in the total population. 

Racial crossing in the United Slates, which began with Poca- 
hontas, did not end with the marriage of former Secretary of State 
Dean Rusk's daughter to a Negro, It has either been highly pub- 
licized, as with the interracial marriages of screen stars and celeb- 
titics., or clandestine, as with while liaisons with Indian maids on 
the frontier, ilave girls on the plantation, or fancy mulatto mis- 
tresses in Charleston and New Orleans. It is a sign of the times, and 
of the lengthening shadow of the nonwhite presence thai the hus- 
band in marital miscegenation is now mote than twice as likely lo 
be actr* while as Hie wife, except in the case of American service- 
men staiioned abroad. Despite the steady increase of interracial 
couplings, with orwhhom marriage licenses, mixed-race births still 



2. The Life of Reman, Scnbnei \ New Yoi k, L95l,Vtil.2,p< (hie 

3. New York Times, Feb, 1 I. 1985, |)i. Alba did not address the question of Jew- 
ish-Gem ile iniri]ii:ui i^gr, wlut h can Ik- answered bv saying Jews are marrying Gen- 
tile* in dtc Uppe) reaches of the economy and "society," in the professional and 
show business world, and in die smaller cities, where maiiial Gppoi tunitiea within 
the Jewish cumuniriiiy arc funked. Some stwrveya claim, perhaps exaggeratedly, 
that 50 percent oi more of Jewish marriages now involve a non-Jewish spouse, Oc- 
casionally in .such cases, the spouse, usually the wife, convert*, and die children 
air brought up as Jews. 

4. Other mixed-race bil tha in 198& Asian/white 3tf,H'.K>-, Asian/black 3,435; Auv 
erindr.tn/while 2J,0«H; Amei induin/hlack 1 ,308; Amei indian/Asian 71 1. Popula- 
tion Reference Bureau, ISA Today, Dee. 1 1, 199$, p. 7A, and the Bureau ot 

thf ("fllMl.S. 



RACIAL COMPOSITION OF THE U.S. 



55 



comprise only 3.2 percent of the annual births in the United 
States. Consequently, the decreasing proportion of whites and the 
increasing proportion ol'nonwhiu-s, two demographic factors of vi- 
ed importance, are much more the resuh of immigration than of 
racial mating. 

Interracial socializing, while becoming more popular and accept- 
able, does not necessarily mean maternity wards overflowing with 
hybrid offspring. Negro-while dating, now a commonplace in en- 
tertainment, academic, and avant-garde circles, lias not been ac- 
companied by an exponential rise in Negro-white mating. Modern 
education is apodictically color-blind, vet classroom violence and 
rowdinrss engender the separation rather than the integration of 
ract^s. Rock concerts, the rallying points of the nation's supposedly 
unHgOted youth, are often as segregated as Metropolitan Opera 
performances. 

hi direct contradiction to the Melting Pot concept, the children 
of interracial couples do not become any generalized American 
type or the progenitors of a new race. They remain Negroes or In- 
dians or Orientals. Since in some Hispanic marriages both spouses 
arc whin,, their offspring "pass" into the ranks of assimilated 
whites after a generation or two, 

In the slavery era, when huge social and psychological barriers 
separated whiles Irotn Negroes, a wave of miscegenation in the 
South introduced while genes into a large segment of the Negro 
population. Today, when many of these barriers have been low- 
ered, then- is probably less Negro-white mating than there was 
then. In spin- of the hold that rare leveling has on education and 
the media, the races of America, instead of disappearing in some 
theoretical solvent, arc- more often than not precipitating out/ 1 

With the passing of the Melting Poi fantasy has come something 
just as unreal-— the American Mosaic. The intellectual miw-en-scert£ 
has suddenly been rearranged to accommodate a new sociological 
fed, the pluralistic society, in which all t;u es and nationality groups 



5. In [930, 51 percent ot ill Deiioii Negroes lived in predoininatidy white ar - 
SAX In I960, IT) percent lived in whin- areas. TilM, Nov. 9, 1962, |>. &2. Rund 
blacks in the South., whose shanties weir m altered anions; while homes, have fled 
by the Hundreds of thousands to »cgit|faletl metropolitan ghetto* in the Noith 
and South. On the other hand, a sprinkling ot middle-class Negroes has moved to 
white suburbs, 01 t aeated a lew black suburbs ot their own. 



56 



The 1 Xispossessed Majority 



live peacefully cheek by jowl, each maintaining and strengthening 
its racial and cultural identity; each making its own contribution to 
the overall fabric of American life 

hike the promoters of the Melting Pot, the salesmen o( 'pluralism 
have misread history, which teaches that, pluralistic societies are 
decadent, caste-ridden and a standing invitation to disorder and 
disaster- Historically disoriented* tire voices of pluralism make con- 
tradictory noises. The proponents of the Mosaic concept are op- 
posed to racism in theory, but support minority racism in practice. 
They uphold group identity, but demand integration at the work- 
place, in the schoolroom, on the playing field, in the neighbor- 
hood, even in the private club, They approve of racial quoins hut 
are against racial discrimination. Negro leaders are divided on 
these issues. Some advocate more participation in white society; 
others demand partial or lull wii lidrawal. 

Meanwhile, the American social order totters along in the grip 
of rising racial tension, which is both a cause and an effect of plu- 
ralism. The Mosaic concept has lurned out to be as great a failure, 
as great a misfiring of the imagination, as the Melting Pot, Mosaics 
are hits and pieces of inorganic matter which once put in place stay 
in place Races are pulsating, organic continuities altering in size 
and stains, now dynamic, now static, as the age dictates and as they 
dictate to the age. The Darkening Immigrant is not evidence that 
America is entering an age of equaJitariari pluralism. lie is a har- 
binger of changing racial tire-ran hies.* 1 



6, The best hope foi the survival of die white race in America is (he prarrful 
fr.igiiiriiuiuoii of the itaiion iuio eUnioslaU-s, M-jui.tU- and independent states 
bast-d on gri»yiaphy and on rtw racial and cultural faonUNKtUift of die various 
population groups. The Melting Voi tailed because the ingredients refused lo dis- 
solve. A mosaic, defined in Wtbster's Third hitrntntio/uil Dictionary as "an artificial 
pau hwork," baa not succeeded because the individual pieces were seldom defined, 
geographically, and their political and cultural autonomy was undercut by the in- 
legratiunisi tendencies of big government, the pernicious in Hue nee of die na- 
tional media, p;uiitnlarly network letevision, and the rabid anliwhite racial lev- 
tlirvg prt-a ( -bed in the 1 tails ol Academe. For moie on diis subjei t, see Chapter 39 
and tlu- author's book, Tfa [ithmnfatr, J toward Allen F.ntcrprises, Inc., Cape Can- 
avt-i -;d, Florida ££980. 



CHAPTER 8 



A Racial Census of the 
United States 



RACIAL CKK.st is of the United States must begin with whatever 
applicable statistics are available fcotn the Census Bureau. 
'fable 1 contains a summary of ihe 1990 Census followed bv the an- 
thor's "Revised Census." The latter is designed to provide a more 
realistic overview of the nation's racial divisions. 

TABLE I 





1990 Census 


Revised Census 


Whit*- 


L99,680 ( O7G 


£33,136,853 


Negro 


29,985,060 


29*086,060 


Amerindian, Eskimo, Aleut 


1,959,234 


1,959,234 


Asjnn 8c Pacific Islanders 


7,375,662 


7,273,60*2 


Olfeer Race 


9,H01,.H47 


] ,000,000 


Hispanic 




'JO, S5 4,059 


Tota3 


248,709id7S 


2-lH,7ay,tf73 



The Federal 1990 Census, based on selHdenuiuaiion, classified 
Ilispanics as whites, unless they specifically wrote in such words as 
"Mexican race," "Cuban national," and similarly loost 1 definitions, 
whereupon they were assigned to the "Oilier Rare" category. Since 
only a small percentage of Ilispanics is white (most are Med- 
iterranean/Indian hybrids), the Census to be more accurate and 
meaningful must have an Hispanic category. The Census, having 
counted 22,^)4,01)9 Ilispanics in a separate, nonraciai entry, all bin 
2 million of this number have been subtracted from the Unite and 
Other Race categories. Since as explained above the Other Race 
category was composed overwhelmingly of ilispanics, only 1 million 

57 



• r )H The Dispossessed Majority 

have been It'll 10 account for persons who would not or could not 
give themselves a credible racial identity. As for the number of His- 
panics deducted from the White entry, it consists of the llispanics 
remaining after being subtracted from the Other Race category, To 
be more specific, the I Jispanic total (22,354,059) minus the number 
of llispanics removed from the Other Race category (8,804,847) 
equals 13,549,212. I'he latter figure should then he subtracted 
from tlie White entry. But what about the 5 to 10 percent of His- 
panics who are while? To accouni for them, the figure of 13,549,212 
has been reduced by 2 million to 1 1,549,212, which has then been 
subtracted from the White entry. The result of all this numerical 
juggling appears in the Revised Census on the previous page. 
Whatever can be said about this unofficial Census, it does give a 
more accurate picture of the racial composition of the United 
States than the official L99C Census that assigned Mispauics to Hie 
White and Oilier Race categories, 

A quick reading oi Fable I might indicate thai most of the work 
ot a racial census has alread\ been done. 1 I'he American popula- 
tion has been divided into one while and several nonwhite cat- 
egories. A second look, however, discloses thai only two of the cat- 
egories, White Mu\ Negro, would be considered acceptable racial 
designations by professional anthropologists, who would prefer 
that Asians, Pacific Islanders and Hispanics be grouped under more 
authentic racial designations, such as Mongoloid and Polynesian. 
Amateur anthropologists, with the backing of a few professionals, 
might also insist on a breakdown of the White classification, They 
would insist in vain. I he Census Bureau does not publish statistics 
on the various white races or subrares in the United States, though 
it has released a study allocating the population according to "an- 
cestral groups" (see Appendix R). 

In the search for ac< urate racial statisiiis among iJie white population, 
some help is lurnisbed by those minority groups which try to keen 



1. M©*1 demographers agree there was a definite undercount in th? 1990 Gen- 
ius, one commonly mentioned figure being 1.8%. If added to die total popula- 
tion, this undereount would disproportteflattly increase die ntimbei of non* 

whiles, who nmul die urban centers and ;u«- iiinic difficult I" locate. I'o 
distribute the nut oimk-.I Bftluiig die various iaee_v and population group* would 
only add tS ihe inncrm Vin huiil into most population survey* and projections. 
C-onsrqiirnilv, die uit 1 1< -i i oun i w i II tx- ignored in dm in id v. 



RACIAL COMPOSITION OK II IK U.S. 



r><> 



a fairly accurate count of their own numbers. Further assistance is 
provided by the I larvard Encyclopedia of America n EikmcGwupS, g&Tb 
erally conceded to be the (jest source oi' data for minorities and na- 
tionality demographics.'^ But the most satisfactory results are ob- 
tained by die method described in Appendix A. The total white 
population is multiplied by tin 1 percentage of whites contributed 
by foreign nations or homelands, as estimated by a Census study of 
immigrant origins. This figure is then further multiplied by the 
percentage of Alpines or Mediterraneans in these countries, as de- 
termined by the estimates of Carl Brigharn in A Study of American 
Intdligrnrp. hi cases where Brigham's racial percentages are not giv- 
en, they can be gleaned from other authoritative demographic 
sources mentioned in Appendix A. 

The number and racial affiliation of the rest of the while popula- 
tion can he obtained by subtracting 1 the Mediterranean unci Alpine 
totals from the revised White entry in Table I. This remainder rep- 
resenls a broadly approximate hoaclcoum ol Americans of North- 
ern European descent — ihe very lew pure and manv impure Nor- 
dics from preponderantly Nordic Hriiain ami Scandinavia, partially 
Nordic Ireland, Germany, Switzerland, Holland and Belgium, and 
fractionally Nordic France, Austria, and Eastern Europe, Those 
who wish to see a cah -illation of the Norihern European element 
by the national origins method may consult Appendix A, which 
also contains a Statistical interpretation oi America's whit* 1 racial 
history and tabulated racial allocations of all nationality groups. 

In line with the procedures, modifications and corrections pro- 
posed so far, the Revised Census (fable i) has now been further re- 
vised and appears as 'fable II on the next page, 

In fable II racial percentages have been introduced. Hispanic 
and Other Race categories have been placed in a Nonwhiie entry, 
together with Negroes, Indians, Kskimos, Aleuis, and Asians and 
Pacific Islanders (( Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Vietnamese, Fil- 
ipinos, Indonesians, Ilawaiians, Asian Indians, Pakistanis, etc.), 
The White category has been subdivided into Ripley's white racial 
divisions (see pages 26-27). Population And racial studies to support 



3L Haward Encycfopeditt oj Aiutri<a?t I-.lhuic (Wo\if>\, ed. Sttfphan Thri usiicnii, 1 lai- 
vard UnJVflnity Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1080. An alder texi is Ont Ammcn, c-ds. 
Francis). Rmwn and Joseph S. Roucek, Pieuiirc-I tall, Knglrwood din's, N.]., tW»2. 



60 



The Dispossessed Majority 



liie various racial listings will be found in Part IV (Chapters 13-17) an 
in Appendix A, 

TAME® 







% of Whit* 


% of Total 


Rut ■: 


Number 


Population 


Population 


White 








Nordic 


115,651,206 


til. 17 


4<>.50 


Alpine 


51) ,1 37,001 


31.43 


2378 


Mrtlitci 'I'anran 


l_:3 v 348,ei51 


7.10 


5.37 


Subtotal 


188,136,858 


100.00 


75.65 


Nonwhite 








Negro 


w^mpm 




1106 


Amerindian, 








Kskhito, Alrui 


1,959,234 




0.7'.) 


Asian K: Pacific 








Islanders 


7,273,602 




2.02 


I Hispanic 


20,354,059 




818 


Othcj Race 


1 ,000,000* 




0,10 


Subtotal 


60,573,015 




24 35 


Total 


248,709,873 




100.00 



(*) Though some portion of the Other Race members should be included 
hi t/te White category, a toeuM fo pure gtww&rh Co drtrwmne hou> many. 
Fffr tht: sake of simplicity and htcmtS* classifying on?- half or one-quaritr oj 
Other Race members as whites wouid not greatly change racial numben Of 
percentages, the Other Race wsli remain as a separate miry in ihe Nonwhite 
f of urn n. 



1'here is no point in denying that, mathematically speaking, 
Table II leaves much io be desired. White racial allocations have 
been arrived ai by a combination of educated guesswork, arbitrary 
anthropological definitions, and wide-ranging projections. In some 
casta, whole population groups have been assigned to a Nordic, 
Alpine or Mediterranean category on the basfe of their national or- 
igin, although no European country contains such an unadulterated 
population. 

Bui even if it should contain errors as great as 10-20 percent, Ta- 
ble II serves a purpose, lr attempts to quantify the Pigmentation 
Spectrum in Chapter 4 by attaching numbers to population groups 
o[ different skin color, the chief criterion of popular racial clas- 
sification. Table II also demonst rates, in a rough way, how many 
Americans are black, brown, red, yellow ami different shades of white. 



RACIAL COMPOSITION OFTHE U.S. 



Gl 



As a partial confirmation of the while allocations in Table II, ref- 
erence is again made to E.A. HootorTs racial classification of the 
white population of the United States (see pp. 27-28). Hoolon's ra- 
cial divisions, it will he recalled, were not based on national origins 
data or population group statistics, but on a Harvard-sponsored an- 
thropological study of 29,000 adult American males. In addition to 
dividing whites into nine separate races, I Iooton estimated the pro- 
portion oi each rate to the total white population. These per- 
centages, previously omitted, are now given in fable 111. In col- 
umns 3, 1, ami , r >, they are distributed, somewhat arbitrarily, among 
the racial categories of the Pigmentation Spectrum and the per- 
centage totals compared to 'Table II percentages. 



TAHISIU 



!■'.. A. 1 1C)U ION'S 
RACIAL DIVISIONS 

(I) 


HOOTON'S 
% OF TOTAL 

U.S. WHITE 
POI'UIATION 

(2) 


PIG MENTATION SPECTRUM 
CATEGORIES 


UGirr 
WHITE 

Nordic 

Noidi< -Alp. 
NoulioMrd. 
Keltic 
(3) 


vvmiT. 

Alpine 
Oiiuu ii: 
K. B;ilii<- 

(4) 


DARK 
WHITE 

Mniit. 

Annrnoid 

(5) 


N* nx lit - M i -t 1 ii e rr-.i n ea Q 


25 


25 






Xoulic-Alpiiu- 


23 


12 


11 




Predominantly Nordic 


17 


17 






Din. H ic 


l&A 




13.3 




Kd i \i 


HAH 


a. 48 






I'm e Mciliin r;uican 


4, SB 






4.38 


K.lsi Baltic 


3 




3 




Pure Alpine 


2,68 




2.6S 




Pure Nordic 


2,44 


2.44 






1 


> erc&tl£ge Total 

r II IVro-nt.i^vs 


f>4.92 


29.96 


4,se 


( 43 i responding Tib! 


til. 47 


31.13 


7.10 



<;<_> 



The Dispossessed Majority 



One discrepancy in the Tabic 111 percentages can be explained 
by the fact that, since Hoocon's time, the Mediterranean comribu- 
lion 10 the U.S. population has increased disproportionately owing 
10 higher hinhrates ami a higher rate of immigration. The dis- 
crepancy between the Alpine percentages, can be explaiticd by 
pointing out thai the Keltic component should probably be di- 
vided between the Lighl White and White columns. 

Otherwise, the close correlation of the racial percentages in Ta- 
bles II and III can hardly be described as a coincidence, But as al- 
ways in the case of racial allocations, accuracy has been sacrificed 
on the altar of generalization. Many of Hooton'a Last Baltics, in 
spite of their Alpine physique and circular crania, are blonder and 
fairer than many Nordic-Mediterraneans, who were assigned to the 
Lighi White loluimi principally because they represent a British ra- 
cial type (see page 27). 

Given greater authority and credibility by the Ilooton estimates, 
Table III will now undergo a further revision t<> taring it in closer 
agreement wiili the American racial picture as seen by the roving 
anthropological eye of the man in the street. Since the public gen- 
erally does not distinguish oj does not care to distinguish between 
Nordics and Alpines and various Nordic-Alpine shadings, these two 
white categories have been combined and designated Noulir- 
Alpine in Table IV below. Also in keeping with the dictates of pop- 
ular anthropology, that many if: not most Mediterraneans are only 
dubiously while, they have been subtracted from the White total of 
Table I and given a separate entrv of t heir own. 

TABLE IV 







% While 


% Total 


R:it c 


NuiuIh i 


Populaiiori 


Population 


Nordic/Alpine 


17*1,788.207 


92.VX) 


70.28 


MrdiiJ-i i .uir, in 


18,348,651 


7.10 


5.37 


Negro 


29,986,060 




1 2.06 


Amri 'incline), Kskiiuo, .VUui 


1 ,959,234 




0.79 


Asian & Pacific 








Islanders 


7,273,668 




Z92 


Hispanic 


20,354,059 




6. IS 


Other R;m- 


1,008,000 




0.40 


Total 


218,709,873 


100,00 


100.0(1 



RACIAL COMPOSITION OF 11 IK U.S. 



63 



However offensive it may be to the political sensibilities of the 
Census Bureau and to the professional sensibilities of physical an- 
thropologists, Table IV provides a more accurate racial survey of 
the American population than Table 1. It portrays the United 
Slates as a moderately heterogeneous nation, with slightly more 
than 24 percent of its population nonwhite and slightly more than 
5 percent of its whiles on die dark side of white. Looking at Table 



atomic physieisa might compare the country's racial cojn- 



IV, an 

position to a white nucleus surrounded by electrons whose orbital 

radius increases linearly with skin coloration. 

Bin Table IV, unfortunately, is still not the end of the search for 
racial statistics. As stated earlier in this study, race has its cultural 
ami psychological side. In the words of one controversial American 
ethnologist, there is a "blood-race" and a "thouglu-race* 3 — that is, 
a population group which acis as a race should he defined and 
treated as such, even If it does not qualify as a race in the accepted 
anthropological ? biological, and gene-tie meaning of the word. Just 
as too dark a skin excludes some whites from the White racial cat- 
egory in Table IV. certain cultural "colorations" exclude others. 

So one more table is necessary, one that takes into account the 
psychological stratum of race. To satisfy this requirement, Table V 
(sec rsexs page) is offered as a "culturally corrected" version of Tar 
hie IV. The physical basis of race has been retained by listing, 
where possible, the various categories and numerical totals in the 
previous Tables. The cultural basis has been introduced by clas- 
sit vim; population groups according to I heir degree of assimilation 
and non-assimilation. Mediterraneans and some nonwhiie groups 
have been designated Unasshnilable Minorities. All other whites 
have been defined as Assimilated or Assimilable except for |ews, 
who have been classified as an !_■ nassimilable Minority because of 



%, EjOthrop Stoddard, TheN^WQr$dof£skim w $*ct%hTi€r'&, t New York, 1921, p. 160, 
li is ilu' "[tHHi^hciut'c 1 * which madr it possible loi onetime Congressman Adam 
CI avion Powell, who genMedcally could hardly be distBftguishcd from a Med- 
ik i laiirim, lo < all himself B Negro. It is the same "thought-rare" which jMTiiiiLs Is- 
larli lVrinu-i Vu/liak Rabin, with his lair complexion, light eyes and other Ncn th- 
orn I'uiojuaii tiaiis. to designate himself a Jew. When Stoddaid wrote, "Foi his 
bl»»[»l laif he will not stir; foi hi.s though t-race he. will die," he apparently believed 
thai in a test of strength between the physi< a] and the psychological sides of race, 
[lie lallei would otlen pievail. 



frf 



The Dispossessed Majority 



their long history of non-assimilation in almost every country but 
Israel. 4 

The thinking that went into the construe lion of Table V will be 
explained more fully in Parr IV. Here it might be pointed out that 
assimilation, although it is generally taken to mean the merging of 
cultural rather than biological traits, has physical as well as psycho- 
logical overtones and is a decisive and ever present factor in Amer- 
ican race relations. 



TABLE V 

RACIAL COMPOS TION OF THE UNITED STATES (1090) 







% TotaJ 






Designation 


NunitK-i 


Population 


Source 


Ajshaifotid and Assimilable 




1" " 






American Majority 


H>9,"j8. r >,207 


r>s, i o 


* 




Un&ssttaitebU Whit/' Min&tiHts 






Chap. 


11 


Mediterraneans 


lt,7ft&,£&l 


5. IS 


m* 




Jew* 

Suhioud 


5,828,000 


2.34 
7.46 


Chap. 


] 5 


lS, r .M,l/>5! 


I •najAitttikibft NonwkiLr Minorities 










NfgTO 


£§,086*060 


I&06 


Ch»p. 


17 


Amerindian, Eskimo, Aleut 


1 ,959,2.'M 


0.79 


Chap. 


16 


Asian iv Pacilic Islanders 


7,273,662 


2.92 


Chap. 


lfl 


Hispanic 


SQ,$54,059 


X.\H 


Chap. 


If. 


Othei Race 

Subtotal 


LOO0.PO0 


0.-10 

MM 


Chap. 


I 


f>0 f ;i7;i,0]!i 


Assimilated and Assimilable 


168,704,048 


65.13 






UnaisimiLabLc 


HO.005,825 


5 Lai 






TOTAl 


248,700,873 


100.00 




* Noi (fir Alpim- uual minus &,2C 


3,000 fews 








** Meditrrranenn total minus 625 


,000 jew 









Psychologically defined, the Majority is the only fully assimilated 
population group. Until recently, every minority has gravitated to- 
wards it and around it. The cultural definition of the Majority is giv- 
en by its central position in American society, by its once dominant 



■1. Only Chiiui has ever succeeded in assimilating its Jewish population. Na- 
thaniel rVffei, The For Hast, University of Michigan Press, Aim AiImh, 1958, p. 4S- 
F©f some reason rVfl'er didn't, make an exception for ancient or modem Israel. 



RA( 1 AL COMPOSITION OK TI IE U.S. 



05 



part in the shaping of the American nation and by the historic role 
it played as the New World propagator of the at first Anglo-Saxon, 
then Northern European, B now Americanized version of Western 
civilization. 

fable V, it should l>e noted, tarries a 1990 dateline. The question 
is, in view of the significant shifts in the population in recent dec- 
ades, will the minorities continue to increase and the white pro- 
portion of the population continue to diminish? If the latest Cen- 
sus Bureau projections are ri^ht/' the American Majority will 
become just another minority by the year 2050. A population of 
SS3 million is projected for the halfway point of the next cen- 
tury. The nonwhite component will include 8L million Hispan- 
ics, 62 million Negroes, 41 million Asian/Pacific Islanders, and 5 
million American Indians — a total of 1S9 million. If the dark Med- 
iterraneans and Jews are subtracted from the white total, the Amer- 
ican Majority will be less than 50 percent of the population. 7 

Within the somewhat arbitrary confines of fable V, the de- 
mography of the United States is finally presented in a form which 
lx>th identifies and numbers the principal participants in the 
present-day racial confrontation- The American Majority, briefly 
mentioned in Chapter 4, now lakes its place as the protagonist of 
this study and of the American racial drama. A huge, unwieldy, un- 
gainly population mass, more than five times larger than the largest 
minority ami comprising nearly 68 pert cut ot all Americans, the 
Majority is physically defined by its Nordic and Alpine racial affilia- 
tions, the former strain being predominant, Whatever Mediterranean 
racial components are present must be well diluted. 

In summarizing this attempt to nail down some meaningful racial 
statistics for the U.S. population, it should be emphasized that the 



5. Northern Kuropean, although a JJfogi aphieal In in, i?. pci haps the hesl i arial 
description far the American Majority. It is brotfl ejsaLJgn la include ihe vnrious 
Nordic and Alpine crosses, yd narrow enough to exclude: the darker Southern Ku- 
ropeam and die- nonwhite population groups. 

t>. Census Huieau Projections, Wa.\!iington Post, Decrmher ■'!, 1902. 

7 Hhuks oulnuuibcr whiles in Atlanta, Baltimore-, 1K-Uuit, WflW Orleans, New- 
ark, and Washington II. C, and may soon oiitnuudwr diem in Cleveland, Mem- 
phis, and St. I.ouis. Hispanic* outnumber whiles in San Antonio and Id Paso. 
Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians, added together, outnumber whites in Chicago, 
Houston, Dallas, San Francisco, and L&9 Angeles, and may soon uulnumlwr them 
in New York CJry, 



56 



l'lic Dispossessed Majority 



power and durability of a race do not depend on numl>ers. A 
healthy morale, a healthy biology, and a consciousness of kind are 
more important factors than size* The multitude of its members, 
aggravated by their wide dispersal, religious diversity, and the steady 
addition of less compatible genetic elements, make (he American 
Majority extremely susceptible to various forms of dcracinadon, 
particularly that form known as proletarianization (see Chapter 26). 
To put it bluntly, American racial dynamics has now entered a 
phase where most of the spirit, most of the drive, most of the com- 
petitiveness, and most of the will to power are on the side of the 
smaller batialions, die dynamic minority battalions thai have seized 
the racial initiative. 



PART III 



The Majority at Bay 



CHAPTER 9 



Majority Origins 



An unmistakable. suiN of [a* elessness, a synonym for powerless* 
ness in a multiracial slate, is a generalized apathy towaids the 
subject of racial origins. As Maraulay put it, "A people whieh rakes 
no pride in the nohlc achievements of remote ancestors will never 
achieve anything worthy to be remembered l>y noble descend- 
ants." 1 Until quite recently the American Majority has been little in- 
clined to examine its racial history or prehistory. It has been even 
less inclined to compose, embroider and propagate the myths that 
are the taproots ami symbols of race consciousness. 

Majority members have usually satisfied their search for ethnic 
identity by tracing their ancestry to a Kuropean mother country. It 
was this emphasis on national origins which led to the assumption 
that the United Slates was an Anglo-Saxon nation, a term still used 
by many foreign and a few American journalists and historians 
when they refer, anachronistical!)', to America ft] an "Anglo-Saxon 
power." In the fust century of American independence, the Anglo- 
Saxon component'- 1 of the population was numerically and polit- 
ically predominant, so that the claim was well loumled. Hut today, 
although the language has come through without overmuch dam- 
age 1 and although other cultural vestiges are still recognizable, the 
British-American plurality, the root of the Anglo-Saxon connec- 
tion, no longer exists. 



1. Thomas Macaulay, History of Jin-gland from the Accrwion of James U, M;n millan, 
London, 1914, Vol.3, p. 15SB, 

2. Included m this component were m;my Amei leans oi Welsh, Scotch, and 
Scotc.h-hish descent who had the tight lo object to an Aiu^loSaxon p^titgree. 

GO 



70 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Taken in the broadest sense, the Anglo-Saxon element of the 
American white population (77 percent in 1790) is today consid- 
erably less. 9 Also denoted as British, it row comprises about 20 per- 
cent of the Majority and hits shrunk ro less than IK percent of the 
population as a whole. 1 It has also become racially unidentifiable. 
Other groups of Northern European origin arc now so undiffer- 
entiated, so thoroughly a part of the Majority racial colloid, that 
Americans of Scandinavian, German, Belgian, and Dutch descent, 
as well as assimilated and assimilable Irish, French, Italians, Central 
Europeans and Slavs, can scarcely be distinguished from WASPs, 
the acronym for White Anglo-Saxon Protestants, (Why while? Are 
noi all Anglo-Saxon Protestants white? ASP, as mentioned pre- 
viously in this study, would be less redundant and more apt*) Even 
the American aristocracy or what passes for it is hy no means an Angio- 
Saxon monopoly, Any American Almanack dc Gotka or DehretCs would 
have to include Du Poms, Vanderbilts, Astors, Rockefellers, and 
Rooseveks, as the Social Register currently does. The founders of 
these enterprising families could hardly be described as Anglo- 
Saxons, 5 although neither they not their descendants wasted any 
lime marrying into Anglo-Saxon families. 

To find more solid Ai\d more cohesive ancestral moorings, the 
Majority, including its British component, must delve deeper in 
lime and space. The dwarfed perspectives of British and other 
Northern European "national histories" will have to be expanded 
into an overall racial history. Granted that the genetic and cultural 
{ ontribution of the British to American * iviltzation was undeniably 
much more significant than that of any other single nation or 
group of nations, the British nevertheless are only one offshoot of a 
larger racial division to which tens of millions of other Majority 
members can claim kinship. Since Majority unity can never rest on 



5- In 1020 the British (Krrrrniage of the TVS. white population W3J estitmicd i<» 

be 41.!. 

4. 1 he author's extrapolation of a Onsm Bureau shah of "Aninv'ii's Anrrurv" 
Groups released in April 1983 puu the number of British-descendgd Americans at 
4S,666,4 1 5. See Append!* IV 

5. Rudymd Kipling onte heard The< kUhc Roosevelt, who would have hern a 
prince if (Jure had Iwen an American nohilily, "ihank God in a loud voice that he 
had noi one drop of British hlo<>d in him." Kipling, Swathing of ' \ly\rlf, Douhteday, 
harden City, Nr-w York, 10:17, p. 13J . 



TOE MAJORITY AT BAY 



71 



national origins, which are inherently divisive, it might he ap- 
propriate for historians to stop treating the Majority past as a 
chronological patchwork of petty Old World rivalries, interlarded 
with tendentious sociological dogmas, and start treating it as a dis- 
crete genetic and cultural continuum. 

One of the great difficulties of this approach is not the un- 
earthing ol the anthropological evidence. Enough of it is already at 
hand. The principal deterrent is the formidable opposition of the 
intellectuals who dictate the shape and content of contemporary 
historical interpretation. A single step in the direction of es- 
tablishing common Majority racial roots would he, in their eyes, a 
direct challenge to one or more of the currently accepted fashions 
in historicism — the materialistic fixations of Marx, t he religious ec- 
stasies ol Toynbeo, the morphological prophecies of Spenglei, the 
liberal plaiitudini/ing of the American Historical Association, and 
the anti history of Karl Popper, 

On the other hand, the curious double standards of the intel- 
lectual community actually encourage a certain amount of minor- 
ity dabbling in racial history. There is no outcry when Aiiutu an 
Jews, bypassing the European countries from which most of them 
came to America, claim descent from a Semitic race of I lebrews in 
ancient Palestine.' 1 1 his is a large concession since contemporary 
social sdence is dead Bet against the derivation of bloodlines from 
cultural and religious similarities. Nor are there loud objections 
from academicians when blacks write volumes about the ethnic ties 
of American Negroes, not only to the West African tribes from 
which they sprang, but to mgiitude and to the "African soul." The 
same historical license is freely granted in romantic Irish and 
Welsh Americans who dream of the departed glories of the Kelts 
(despite glaring evidence of their Nordidsm), 7 and to American 
Indians and Mexican Americans who speculate about noble fore- 
Dears in a pre-Columbian golden age. 

But all such flighls of racial fancy, all such imaginative attempts 
to establish racial identity, seem to be forbidden to the Majority. 
From a minority standpoint this ial>oo is quite understandable. The 



8. Ludwig I-ewisohn's This Propk (Harper, New York, 1933) is pc/hapj the CUK 
sic example of modem Jewish rat Lai mysticism. 
7. < toon, Thi Races of Eun>p*\ pp. 378, 557, 



72 



The Dispossessed Majority 



further bark Majority racial history is pursued, the more inevitable 
is its collision with ihe Aryan theory. 

Assuming for the sake of argument ilia! the Aryan theory de- 
serves some credibility, if then follows that an Indo-European or 
Nordic protorace was the primary source of many of the world's 
principal civilizations- — Aryan (India), Kassite, Hittite, Persian, My- 
cenaean, Greek, Roman, Keltic, Teutonic, Slavic, and the latter-day 
Western European. 8 Moreover, if a racial as well as a linguistic con- 
nection is admitted between the ancient Indo-European peoples 
and present-day Northern Europeans and their racial cousins over- 
seas, then Majority members can claim as their ancestors the au- 
thors of the Vedas, Homer, Darius, Plato, Alexander, and Caesar, as 
well as many of the greatest figures in medieval and modern his- 
tory. They can also claim an art as old as the Egyptian and Suiikt- 
ian (perhaps even older), and a literature that antedates that of the 
Hebrews by more than a millennium. y 

With somewhat more anthropological license the Aryan theory 
can be pushed back to the CroMagnons, the magnificent artists of 
the cave paintings in southern France and northern Spain, the best 
oi" which go hack to IK, 000 B.C. Cro-Magnon skeletons, a few as tall 
as six feet, live inches, have doliehorephalic crania (with an aver- 
age Volume of 1650 c.c, compared to the average of IS50 cc of the 
modern European). 10 Such skeletal dimensions offer some in- 
dication of a partial Cro-Magnon ancestry for present-day Nordics. 
It) addition there are the recent discoveries of beautifully wrought 
goldwork in Eastern Europe that predate the best gold jewelry of 
the Egyptians by 1,60© years. Moreover, revised radiocarbon dating 
demonstrates that the splendid megalithic chamber tombs of West- 
ern Europe are 6,000 years old — 1,300 years older than the Pyramids. 
Stonehenge, it appears, was operating as an astronomical labora- 
tory a thousand years or so before Homer had composer! a line of 



8. Some of she more? vigorous advoeau-s of the Aryan theory have already been 
mentioned in Chapter 3, along with the sin-prising similarity of certain Indo 
European root words. Hitler's espousal o^ the Aryan theory, it is unnecessary lo 
a<U1, did nothing to improve its aheady low standing in the eyes of the Western in- 
tellectual community. 

9. The Vedic. hyinns go back to 2000 B.C., the: oldest part* oi the bible to 8.'>0 
B.C. Seep. L5& 

10. Eney. Brit., 14 ih edition, 1968, Vol. 6, p. 792. 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



poetry. 11 To all this ruighi be appended legends of Vikings in pre- 
Columbian Central and South America, 12 and seafarers of a highly 
developed Nordic culture in Helgoland, whose navy purportedly 
overcame the fleet of Ramses III in an Egyptian sea battle in the 
twelfth century ivc;. 1:l 

Although it is not generally known, several highly respected his- 
torians and scholars have lent their support to the Aryan theory 
Cordon Childe, described by the En^clopwdui Hritannim as "easily 
the greaWJSH prehistorian in Britain of his generation, and probably 
in ihe world," 11 wrote that Aryans "appear everywhere as promot- 
ers ol'ti ue progress and in Kurope their expansion marked the mo- 
ment when i lie prehistory of our continent begins to diverge from 
that of Africa oi the Pacific* 1 * A prominent French academician, 
Gtfrtrgtt Diuuezil, went well beyond the Indo-European language 
relationship and posited a common mythology and even a com- 
mon slriuhire vmnUile sfi/'djique, which induced a distinct 
htdo Kiiropcaii world view. 11 ' Arnold Toynhee did the Aryan cause 



11. Colin Kenfiew, Befort Civilization, Knopf, New York., 197$, pp. 16, (3b, 123. 
Rciilrew, profcssm of .uelr.ieology -&\ the Univejsity of Southampton (England) 
and Marija ( iinihuias of the Univeisiiy of California at I*>s Angeles have been in 
Ihe toreimnr of |hc archaeological revisionists who have dealt eiippliug blows to 
the diffusion theoiv of civilization KftJWtK Previously the advances m Kuropean 
culture were credited to Egyptian ;m<l Neai hastem influences. All the lighl was 
supposed to liavr come from the f'.asi (ex orient? lux). Radiocarbon dating now 
proves tliat many lights weir 1 first shining independently in Western Kuiojie. A re- 
veise diihisionisi ttieoiy was put forward by (hrstav Kossinna long before carbon- 
] 1 was heard of. hi Ihe rfeut-whe VmgssehichU, sine heruorragend national? Wissmsthafi 
([\n\l), Kossinna declared Kiuopean civilization was started by waves of "Indo- 
Grnnaiis" who carried their inventions of writing* and metallurgy soullrwaid in 
the gre»l "folk movements" of the thiol milh-n nimu E.G. 

12. See various works of (he hue Jacques rite Mahien, a French anthropologist 
who lived in Argentina, particularly Drukktiri stir I' Amazon^ Copcrnic, Pari*, 1977. 
The remote ancestors of these Vikings may have gone as far afield as China. In 
l'.)H() the wctl-pieseivcd body of a tall, "extremely beautiful" woman with long 
l>lon<l hitif, big eye's, high nose, and "tiny, thin lips" was found in northwest < -hiiia. 
Radiocarbon dating estimated that she died 6,470 yeais ago. AtUinUi (Unistitutum, 
felt. IS, 1W1. 

[9. Jiirgen Npanuth, Atlantis, (habert, Tiibingen, 196f>. 
M. Ena. I!rit.,\\>\. r », p. 502. 

15. As quoted by Darlington, Tht EiHdulion uj Xliin in Society, p. l-l(i. 
1(>. Georges Dimic/il, 1 .'idcohgir trifxirtitf drs Irulo-Kuropt/rns, I .aUmius, Brus- 
sels, 1<)78. 



7-1 



The Dispossessed Majority 



no harm with some flattering remarks about the historical acumen 
of Gobineau, 17 one of the founding fathers of Aryanism, 

More recently, Oxford Professor C. D. Darlington stated of the 

Arvans: "All hough they an- stretched across two continents we at- 
tribute io them a common ancestry and a common origin, some- 
where between the Danube ami the Hon and at some time before 
the end Of the third millennium, B.C." 1H 

I'irmei evidence in support of the Aryan theory includes the ge- 
netic imprint of properly dated skulls with the proper cephalic in- 
dex in areas where Indo-European languages were spoken, and a 
wealth of literary and artistic allusions attributing fair coloration 
and blondneis io the gods and heroes of the early Indo-European 
cultures, l '* The sensitivity of the Aryan invaders of India to skin col* 
Of — the basis of their caste system — might have been a genetic 
rather than an acquit ed trait since it is still prevalent among North- 
ern Europeans and Majority Americans, 

Finally, to the dismay and extreme discomfort of orthodox racial 
CC|ll aliiar Mini, anthropologist Garleton Goon reawakened and gave 
new life to the lndo-fcluropean speech/race correlation by stating, 
"Indo-European languages were, at one Lime, associated with a sin- 
gle, if composite, racial type, and that that racial type was an an- 
cestral Nordic." 20 Coon, who went on to say that the patricians of 
the Roman Republic were mostly N T ordic in race, 21 brought the ge- 
netic connection up to dale bv describing North America as the 
world's "grcatcsi Nordic reservoir." 

From any scholarly Standpoint the Aryan theory is an oversim- 
plification. A lew oblong skulls, a few Nordic profiles on crumbling 
stainai v, a lew literary references to blondism do not prove the ex- 
istence ol a great culture-bearing Indo-European race. But neither 
(Ut t key disprove it. At aavcvcni, il the Majority intelligentsia is too 
cautious or too intimidated to subscribe to a remote and far-off 



1 7. A Study cf History, Vol, VI, pp. SIM 7. 

18, Dftrlijigion, pp. clt, p. HO. 

l'J. Coon, Ihf Rr.c,-\ of EutOpf, Chapters V and VI. Also see Chapter 12 of this 

siudv. 

20. c loon, op, < it., p. 221 . 

SI, Ibid-, pp. 554, 651. So peihftpl were some of the early emperors. StSCtoniUI 
speaks at Augustus*! hail as. "inelinm;.; io golden," of Nero's "litfhr blond liair," 
and Ga]ba*s "blue eves/ he Vita ('.ntsiuum, 2.7'!). 



HE MAJORITY AT BAY 



75 



ludo-Kuropean lineage, ii can hardly Ignore the Majority's more 

readily traceable descent horn the Indo-European-speaking Ger- 
manic peoples, who began to play a commanding role in world his- 
tory during and after the fall of the Western Roman F.mpire. 

In the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries A.D., Volkerimridmingm 
from the (iei man forests released a torrent of Northern European 
genes over much of the continent, some even spilling over to Af- 
rica. For Majority members til' British descent in particular, and for 
American history in general, the most eventful part of this migra- 
tion was the Tciuonization, Get manization or w Nordifu ation" of a 
large section of England by the Angles and Saxons, Additional ge- 
netic influences of this type were Introduced into the British Isles 
uvea the next four or five Centuries by the incursions of Danes and 

oi her Northmen* 

Kven as the wave ol (ieitnaruc expansion was contracting and 
the Osiiogoths, Visigoths, and Vandals 22 were losing t heir king- 
doms in lialv, Spain, and North Africa, a new Northern European 
migration was in the making. In the next 600 years the Scandina- 
vian Vikings and Noimans conquered Normandy, Sicily, Southern 
Jialv, England, and parts of Ireland, and settled in Iceland, the 
coast of Greenland and, briefly, Newfoundland. 2 * In the east, in ap- 
proximately the same time frame, bands of roving Swedish warriors 
and merchants known as Kits and Varangians became lords ol the 
Russian riverways. Apart from giving the country their name, they 
set up one of their own leaders, Rurik, as the first Russian Czax. In 
1042, Varangians sailing south through the Aegean atid Normans 
sailing east from Sicily marked the Scandinavian encirclement of 
Europe by engaging each other in a Mediterranean sea battle. • M 



22, Eighty thousand Vandals, according to Kin^ fienserir, disappeared after 
(In er general it ins, presumably by inili-icnmanate mating. Darlington, op. cil., p. 317. 
L':V The Northmen almost, bul not quite, captured JLoiidcWQ (&S5), Paris (88S- 

BSG) and Constantinople (860), fa A stuJyoj History (Vol II, pp. 438-43), Toynbcc 
lias inserted an tmtianeing piece- of histoi ical speculation in which he envisions 
what might, have happened it Lbe pagan Scandinavians bud captured these Eu- 
ropean capitals-, gunr on fiom Ireland to permanently wt.de America and, instead 
ol ( Di[\'i'L Liflg io 1 11 n 'istiauiiv, bad outlawed a , 

'.M. lor rent in ies the Varangians formed tbe j>ei sonal bodyguard of the Byzantine 
einprmrs. Alter tbe batlle of Hastings, they wex* replaced bv Kriglishmen ElcClBg 
the Noiman conquest ol Britain. I'rir < Kenstirrrna, The NaraerntTi, trans. Catherine 1 
I Inner, New Yo*fc Graphic Society Publishers, Greenwich, Conn., 1965, p. 2*7$. 



70 



Hie Dispossessed Majority 



Thr racial drive of the Northmen, before it was enervated in 
douce France and in warmer, lemon-scented lands farther south, cat- 
alyzed the Crusades, an ill-fated, Herculean effort to found a vast 
domain of leu ionic fiefs in the Near fc',ast. Although the ostensible 
purpose of the Crusaders, under such Norman leaders as Tanered, 
Bohemimd, and Richard I of England, was to make the Holy Land 
safe for Christianity, they were equally, if not more intensely, mo- 
tivated by an itch for glory and riches. 

In other crusading movements taking place in Europe in these 
years, the goals were more specifically racial. In the east and north- 
east the Teutonic Knights were pushing back the Baits and Slavs. In 
Spain the Visigothic aristocracy had reemeiged after centuries of 
hiding in the mountain fastnesses of Galicia and Asturias and was 
mounting a counterattack to drive the Arabs from the Iberian pe- 
ninsula — a military operation which culminated in the founding of 
the Spanish Empire and the colonization of the New World." 5 
Needless to say, none of these crusades was conducted according to 
the teachings of the New Testament. Whatever moral restraints audi 
humane acts were exhibited could as well be ascribed to chivalry as 
to Christianity.'^ 

Before the Middle Ages had ended, 27 the Holy Land was lost. 



25. The Visigoths and their identifiable progeny arc all but gonr from the racial 
map of Spain, But if they haw vanished into Spain's overwhelmingly Mediter- 
ranean ethnic solvent, some racial memories still stirred in one of the finest minds 
of modern Spain. Ortega y Gasset in Mediterion Prdiminar has written, '\a hiicn ha 
pnesto etl mi |>echo est.as reminisc.enc.ias sonoias, donde- — eomo en mi exracol \o9 
alientos oceanicos — perviven las voces intimus que da el viento en Ins senos de III 
selvasgennanicas?" Obras Completes, Madrid, 1963, Vol. I, p. 356. 

26. Chivalry is a refined mixture of stylized military courtesy, honor, and courtly 
love, which is still faintly recognizable in the unwritten rules of what in Kngland 
and among some American Majority members are known it fair play. Tacitus de 
tected one chivalric rite in pagan German society: "Turn in ipso concilio vel prin- 
cipum aliquis vel pater vel propinimus sculo fi ameaque juvemm ornant." De Ger- 
mama, 13. 5-6. Swan Sonnenschein, Izjndon, 1901. A less reverent and somewhat 
hilarious view of the same subject, is provided by Robert nril'fnuli's Thi Mathers. 
Macmillan, New York, 1927, Vol. 5, pp. 582-4SS, 

27. Historian Will Durum had some interesting apperceptions uIhjlu the ra- 
cial composition of Europe at the high point of the Middle Ages. "The Ger- 
mans, by a millennium of migrations and conquests, had made their type pre- 
vail in the upper classes of all Western Europe except central and southern 
Italy, and Spain. The blond type was so definitely admired in hair and eyes 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



77 



The Turks began their march io Constantinople, Budapest and the 
outskirts of Vienna. The popes, largely of Lombard (Germanic) or- 
igin,** placed themselves ai the head of the populations of South- 
err* F.uropr and humiliated die German emperors. Meanwhile, the 
Teutonic and Norman aristocracy, having developed national loy- 
alties, t>egan to marry into rich mercantile families. In the east, the 
Nordic Slavs were being "Alpmized* as the Nordic nobility and sol- 
diery died out in interminable wars against Asiatic invaders and as 
the more docile Nordic remnants mixed with neighboring peoples 
and the Mongoloid enemy.* 9 

The large-scale colonial undertakings of Spain and Portugal be- 
ginning in the 1 6th century could hardly be called manifestations 
of Northern European racial momentum, although more than a 
frw conquistador** displayed an unusual disproportion of non- 
Mediterranean traits, S0 The racial lineaments of the Reformation, 
however, were unmistakable. In the words of Thomas Macaulay; 



(hat St IW-iil.uiI Mnitftftrd through an entire sermon in r renin lie with tins pwtei 
ence the "I am Mat k but lK-auliJiil' til die Song ol Songs. The- rdeal knight was to 
W tail and blond .ind bearded; the ideal woman in epic ami lomanrr was slender 
and graceful* with blur evei :ii)cl lon^ til m\ m golden hair." Tfie Asa of FmtK Si- 
mon and St buster. New York, 11150. p, 852, 

2H IbidehramJ, who became Ciirpory VII and thr most temporal of all popes, 
was i Lombard imm Tuscany, ftflorf Oimans in (be papal office put their re- 
ligions preferences above dim tiuial lies, thcji pni-'l etUonic sentjmenLs often ap- 
proa*hcd those ol lliiU-i Sec particularly Bishop lauiptarulss tenth-century po 
Irtnit on thr "base new and cowardice and avarice and effeminacy ami mendacity" 
of dir Romans in Toyitbee'i A Study ttfHuiofy Vol. IV. pp. 522 23. 

'29 ■"Hie Slavs, like all the other fradoEurop^an-spraking peoples whom wr 
have bertl able lo trace, werr originally Nordic, and there is no IUggG9U0ft in their 
early remain I, in the regions studied, of the niiiiif-rieaUy predominant brachy- 
cephalic racial increments winch today arc considered typi< ullv Slavii ." ( loon, The 
/{aj'n o/Eufvpe, p. 220. 

,S0 Vasro da Gama's gfCal granclrnoibei WM a 1 (ere ford, a member of die high- 
est echelon of English nobility. Henry Halt, Sea Road k> lh& India, Macmillan, New 
York, 1^W N p 97 Columbus, a North Italian, was tall with long bend, blue eyes 
and auburn bfttr. Samuel Morison, Admiral a f the Ocean Sea, Little, Brown, Boston, 
1942, p 47. (lories traced his lineage back to the Ixxnoard kingl of Italy and Pe- 
dro de Alva r ado, his bravest lieutenant, was so blond that the A./ ires railed liim 
Tonattuh, the Sun. PrescotL. Gmquetf of Mexico, Modern Library, New York, pp. 
|$$, 256. PreiCOU described King Ferdinand as Queen Isa\K j lla's "icd-hairrd 
Goth." BaUwia, llie discoverer of die Pacific, was fair with reddish-golden hail and 
heard. Katideen Roinoli, Halboa ofDarim, Uouhleday, (>arden City, N.Y., L^5, ]». 51, 



78 



The. Dispossessed Majority 



The Reformation bad been a national as wel! as a moral revolt. It 
had been, not only an insurrection of the laity against the clergy, 
but also an insurrection of all the branches of the great German 
race against an alien domination.** 1 Macau lay might better have 
said Northern European race instead of German, because South- 
ern and Austrian Germans remained solidly Catholic. 

Protestantism, the religious emancipation of the North, helped 
inspire and accelerate the greatest Northern European expansion 
of all time In a succession of great, seafaring "Folkwanderings,* 1 
which lasted from the 17th to the end of the 19th century, British, 
< iermariSj Scandinavians, French, Dutch, and Irish shipped out by 
die millions to North America, South Africa, Australia, and New 
Zealand, and by the tens of thousands to the outposts of empire in 
black Africa, South America, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. 

At the start of the twentieth lentury, despite the French Revolu- 
lion winch had all lint demolished die old Teutonic ruling class in 
nius! of Latin Europe, Northern Furopean power and influence 
were never greater. The British and German Empires with their in- 
vincible laud and sea forces, their near monopoly of world com- 
merce, their technical efficiency, and the boundless energy of" their 
industrioua citizenry constituted a concentration of military and 
economic strength thai no other nation or group of nations could 
even approach. 

This immense power, it might f>e noted, rested on more than 
guns and btuu-r. It was the end product of a set of unique in- 
stitutions, among wh.h h was representative government, whose or- 
igins Montesquieu had detected in the behavior and practices of 
annem German irtbaj assemblies, M A fondness for personal free- 
ilimi. an independence of spirit, die unusually high status accord- 
ed women, and a deep affection for the land were considered tyr> 
ii nil char stef eristics of Teutonic-speaking peoples by Tacitus in his 
essav, Dr Ccrmaniti. Such attitudes and habits were probably the 
seeds ol the Magna Carta and ol the subsequent British emphasis 
on individual rights and liberties. Perhaps the greatest institutional 
achievement ol all was the legal; system — including that Scandina- 
vian or Teutonic invention known as trial by a jury of one's peers, 



31 . The History of England from tiifAcceuiatt of James II, Vol, I , p. T>8. 

32, Dt t'vsprii d& Z/m, 1 I, 6-8, Ireland had a parliament, the Althing, as early as 

thr lOih cf niniv. 



HIE MAJORITY AT BAY 



7<5 



a rudimentary form of which was transported to England by the 
Normans.* 8 

All these milestones of political and social evolution apparently 
have sprung from an almost instinctive recognition thai "the basis 
of . . . society was the {'rev man." :M The highest refinement and ex- 
pression of this political reflex was embodied in the activity and 
legislation of the British Parliament, which fostered a climate of 'po- 
ll deal and economic stability unparalleled in history, The compar- 
atively stable social environment produced by such institutions was 
the basic precondition for Northern European leadership in gov- 
ernment, art, science, industry, agriculture, and almost every other 
aspect of human endeavor. 

Jt was only natural thai these institutions were carried across the 
Atlantic and lurlher refined and developed by the English and by 
the other Northern Europeans who colonized North America, [fa 
ipcrml bi< (logical iuheritaiu e had accounted for the progress and 
prosperity of the Northern Kumpean stales in the Old World, it 
Would have been reasonable to expect that a New World country 
with an overabundance of the same genetic resources would be> 
i ome an esen gi eaiei nation, perhaps the greatest nation of all. 

ll tool; less than two centuries of national independence and two 
World Wars for this prophecy to come (rue. The irony was that by 
the lime the I nitetl Slates had become the dominant force in 
world affairs, the American Majority, the principal agent of Amer- 
ican greatness, was no longer the dominant force in America. 



33. .See Chajnei 2S, 

M.J, R. Green, A Skoti Hist&y oj thsRngtish Ptopk, Harper, New York, 1892, 

\v>l. i, ,,. :.:. 



CHAPTER 10 



The Decline of the Majority 



T I 1 FTC dkcijnk of the American Majority began with the political 
-*- and military struggle between th* Nerth and South 

In addition to nationalistic and cultural differences, Northern 
Europeans in Europe were divided by geography, principally by the 
Baltic and North Seas and the English Channel. In the United 
Slates, the great divider was weather. The mean July temperatures 
of Massachusetts and Pennsylvania are 73,5°F and 75J°F, respec- 
tively. The mean July temperatures of Virginia and Mississippi, 
7<)°F and M0°F. These few extra degrees of summer heat made it 
impossible for Southern plantation owners to recruit awhile labor 
lone. In hot climates die Northern European is worthless as a field 
hand. The Smith would never have obtained anything like its nour- 
ishing antebellum prosperity without a large supply of Negroes. 

f<> meet the requirements of their environment, Southerners 
created their own unique modus xnxwidi — a highly romanticized 
and heavily scented version of which still haunts American history. 
Northerners, prompted in part by what has been described as the 
Anglo Saxon's "sentimental flaw," 1 the altruistic desire to extend 
Civil liberties to the nomKnglish, first tried to alleviate slavery, then 
to end it. Southerners reacted to Northern meddling much as lx>th 
ihey and the Northern colonists had reacted to King George's 
meddling a century eat Her. They seceded. 

11 the North had been more patient and had been willing to 
"Wail out" slavery a little longer — it was already threatened by the 
mechanization of cotton harvesting, foreign competition, and other 



1. Madison (ham, The 1'huhi^ oj the Great Race, Scri&flCf'j, N.Y, 1016, pp. 14, 7' 

80 



l'HK MAJORITY AT BAY 



81 



causes— Uu: Civil War might never have been fought In that event, 
the American Majority today would be substantially more numer- 
ous. The death toll in the war was 610,000— -compared to 4,435 in 
the War of Independence — and almost all the dead were of North- 
ern European descent. In spit* 1 of the greater number of Northern 
Casualties, 2 the war's dysgenic effects fell much more heavily on the 
South. The North Jtad a population of 22 million, nearly all while, 
2£ against 12 million in the South, one-third of whom were slaves, s 
The Southern officer class, overbrimming with bellicosity and bra- 
vado, was decimated, while in the North the purchase of substitutes 
was a thriving business. Seventeen percent of the Confederate gen- 
erals were killed, compared to 2.5 percent of the Union generals.' 1 

After the carnage had ended, the Southern branch of Lhe Major- 
ity became an oppressed minority. Northern carpetbaggers and 
Southern scalawags, using confused and unknowing Negroes as 
tools, made a successful, though short-lived, bid for political and 
economic control. 1 listorians tailed it Reconstruction. The South, 
embittered by defeat, had to tauhue a vengeful military occupa- 
tion. I he passage of time and surges of national unity during 
World Wars 1 and II served to cool Southern resentment, until it 
was rekindled in the 1950s by the North's reopening of the Negro 
question. The use of paratroopers and federal marshals to enforce 
Supreme Court tailings on the South was hardly calculated to let 
sleeping animosities lie. 

Set ond only to the tragic polarization of North and South as a 
cause o[ Majority decline was t he tremendous development of the 
national economy. If too much money is the seedbed of corrup- 
tion, it is also the hotbed of racial amnesia. The great wealth gener- 
ated before the Civil War hy Vlajority plantation owners and ship- 
ping tycoons, and after the war hy industrial and financial mag- 
nates, tended to concentrate their minds and energies on such 



'2. Then- were 3GO»0D© dcSlhs on flic Noilhcin side; 250,000 on the Southern. 
1 In war coin Amounted to about |5 billion, with an additional $3 billion lor post- 
war irli;il>ilii;iiinn. Beard, Tte Rise tfAwtrif&n ChMfcxaiion, Vol. 2, pp. VfcH-W. 

M John Hope Franklin, From Slavery to Freedom, Knopf, New York, 1967, p. 386, 

-1 N:it hani<--l Weyl, The (]mith>e Elite in An/enm, Public Affairs Press, Washington, 

D.C.., 196(1, p. 57. 'Tin- cost in Mood in ilu Union," Wry! added, "was paid chiefly by 

[lie poorer classes and by ihose without much education and influence. 'Hie con- 

ledrracy, 1 >V conti ;isl, en;u U:d draft laws which burr on rich and poor equally. . . ." 



82 



"he Dispossessed Majority 



mundane matters as money-making, profit-taking and business 
organization. Majority plutocrats gave little thought to the effect 
their demands for an ever larger labor force would have on Amer- 
ica's racial makeup. 

"As the Nordic planter of the South," historian Charles Beard ex- 
plained, "in his passionate quest for wealth, was willing to sabotage 
hia own kind in a Hood of Negroes from the wilds of Africa, so the 
Nordic mill owner of New England, with his mind on dividends, 
took little thought about the nationality or color of those who 
stood patiently at his spindles and looms or huddled inio the tene- 
ments ol his ("iiics,"' 1 

The political consequences of" this indiscriminate call for man- 
power were not long in coming. Kven before the Civil War, the 
Irish presence began to make itself felt in a few of the biggest cit- 
ies, where- the Majority first tasted defeat at the polls. The defeat 
became national many decades later when white minorities in the 
North combined with Yankee-hating southerners to win presiden- 
tial election*. 

El was the Majority's obsessive materialism, its habit of putting 
the tangibles before the intangibles of civilization, which marie pos- 
sible- and perhaps made certain the Great Depression. Rugged in- 
dividualism, laissez-faire, the separation of powers, and many other 
cherished possessions in the Majority hope chest went up in the 
smoke of emergency legislation to save the national" economy. The 
New Deal, the first administration to inject a significant amount of 
non-Majority personnel and non-Majority ideology into the federal 
government, signified the coming of age of the liberal-minority co- 
alition. 

Minority participation in politics and all other aspects of Amer- 
ican life has now increased to where it can be said that rite Majority 
is no longer the racial establishmeni of the United States. 6 



5. Beard, tap. i ft., \u!. I . p. 640, 

('.. This decline has been ratals* terpreted by liberal wdoiogfeEs a* an exclusively 
"WASP phenomenon. "{There] is a White Anglo-Saxon Protestant establishment 
which has Wti gradually losing its power and authority in the course of [he 

twentieth century/ I\. Dig by BsltzeH, The Proksiattt Eslab&skrtuni, Random House, 
New York, t !Ki 1, p, ]%, Sonic minority writer* have not only lovingly described Km 
exulted over the Majority's Tall from power. See Peter Schrag, Thr Decline .of the 
Wasp, Simon and Schusiej, New York, WlT/. 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



83 



The Majority image — that of Western man as derived from 
Northern European (principally Anglo-Saxon) antecedents and as 
modified by the frontier and other peculiarities of the American 
environment — is being effaced by other racial and cultural im- 
prints. And as Majority power and influence continue to decline, 
American civilization, as it is daily becoming more apparent, is los- 
ing much of its cuhural glue. The old forms remain, but the con- 
tent is either going or gone. 

Because the forms remain, the American Majority is but vaguely 
aware of its dispossession, h siill votes, but no longer chooses. It is 
Mill free lev speak, but not to speak freely. It still patronizes the arts, 
but i he arts have become a minority wasteland. It still has some ec- 
onomic clout, bui it no longer directs the economy. Still a major in- 
fluence in determining local policy, it exercises only a minor in- 
fluence in determining vital areas of national and foreign policy. 
Many Majority members still lead private lives thai are the envy of 
the world. In public, however, they are cirruuispeci to the point of 
pusillanimity. 

Those inclined to deny the Majority's dispossession can be forgiv- 
en for adopting the following line of questioning. How, they may 
ask, can the Majority be dispossessed when the country is full of 
many rich Americans of impeccable Majority lineage . . . when 
there are so many Majority politicians, writers, artists, lawyers, doc- 
tors* scientists and FBI agents . . , when (lie president, most con- 
gressmen and most slate governors belong to the Majority . . . 
When Hie armed forces are still commanded by a largely Majority 
officer corps . . . when the Majority, still the largest population 
group, can easily swing the vote? 

The answers to these and similar questions will constitute much 
of the remaining subject matter oi this book. Here they will merely 
ix." summarized. 

One of die principal proofs of the Majority's dispossession is thai 
diere is no Majority political parly as such. For most of the 20th cen- 
tury the dynamic force iti American politics lias been the Demo- 
cratic party, largely financed by minorities, 7 the party of Franklin 1). 
Roosevelt, who "headed a government of minorities."* Reconstructed and 



7 Sec Chapter l. r ) 

ft. "Archbishop Spellm&n* hy Roberi 1 Gannon, /^»fc, Aug. IW>2, p. 103, 



84 



Tilt* Dispossessed Majority 



unreconstructed Southern Majority members (the so-called Yellow 
Dog Democrats) still support the Democratic party, though in di- 
minishing numbers. Because of the spiralling Negro crime rate, 
many of those who live below the Mason-Dixon line are reverting 
to the while supremacist notions of their forebears in slavery days. 
Ironically these latter-day while supremacists, some of whom prefer 
to be called white separatists, now include Northern whites, who 
until fairly recently had been known to look askance at Southern 
"rednecks. 1 * 

The Republican parry <*r at least Republican candidates an 1 cur- 
rently favored by northern Majority members, though many in the 
low-income and union ranks still vote the Democratic nicker. In 
general, eastern Majority liberals are in much closer intellectual 
harmony with minority liberals than they are with Majority con- 
servatives. The latter dilute their political effectiveness by splitting 
the conservative vote in the South and by a long history of com- 
promise wiili northern and eastern lil>eraldom. As for the loudly 
and perennially touted Silent Majority, il is more accurately de- 
fined by its soft-hearted, tiptoed approach to the political process 
than by any special voting habits or racial urges. White or colored, 
Christian, Jew, Muslim, or nonbeliever, anyone who keeps his voice 
down and, on the rare occasion lie votes, votes Republican, qual- 
ifies for membership. 

There are, however, some genuine racial implications in the Re- 
publican "Southern Strategy*— a move to gather into the Repub- 
lican fold white Southerners who dislike the pro-Negro stance of 
die "New South" politicians and the increasing clout of Negroes in 
Democratic politics nationwide. But the Southern Strategy, though 
it has done well in some presidential elections, has not yei pro- 
duced a majority of Republican congressmen in stales below the 
Mason-Dixon line. 

Even thai inner sanctum of Anglo-Saxon Protestant privilege, the 
presidency, has come under attack. Al Smith lost the 1928 presid- 
ential election, bin a more charismatic Irish Catholic, John F. 



9. Smith worked his way up the political ladder as a pure, unadulterated Irish 
Catholic, although his paternal grandfather was almost certainly an [lattan and his 
paternal grandmother quite posaiMy a German. Matthew and Hannah Josephson, 
Al Smith, Houghton Mifflin. Beaton, 1969, pp, 13-15, Smith, like so many %-city 
politicians, was "or. uV uk«." Thomas Ghadboume, a millionaire IVih.h rat, gave 



II IE MAJORITY AT BAY 85 

Kennedy, won the I960 election Barry I totdwaler, rractioi ally [i w 
ish, was the unsuccessful Republican standard-hearer in the 19(>4 
presidential contest. Lyndon Johnson, the winner, was a bona ddc 
Majority member who, as a senator From Texas, had fought tooth 
and claw against civil rights legislation, 10 When president, however, 
he completely reversed himself, once solemnly intoning the minor- 
ity rallying cry, "We shall overcome*" on a national television hookup, 

Richard Nixon, who succeeded Johnson in the While House, al- 
though regarded by some as a super-WASP, was Irish on both sides 
of his family tree. 11 His first vice-president, Spiro Agnew, had a fa- 
ther from Greece and a mother from Virginia. Ronald Reagan, the 
victor in 1080 and 1984, announced lie was "Irish" several times in 
both campaigns, since he had an Irish-Catholic father. I le spoke lit- 
tle r>r not at all of his British-descended mother American politics 
had reached the point where a presidential candidate considered ii 
impolitic to speak of his British origins 

George Bush slid into the Whit*- House on Reagan's roan ails. 
When the economy (altered and he was perceived to be more of a 
wimpish Eastern Republican liberal than a Reaganile, he lasted 
only one term, in spite of his easy win in the Gulf War. 

The presidencies of Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton could be as- 
cribed to the Democrats* "Southern Strategy,*" which consists of 
running a Southerner for president in order to lure some South- 
ern states hack into the no longer Solid South. Though Carter and 
Clinton are Majority members, both made a huge play not only for 
Southern white support but also for minority votes. Clinton went 
out of his way to stack his administration with blacks, I ELspanirs and 
Jews, not to mention Ruili Bader Ginsburg, the first Jewish lawyer 
on the Supreme ( lotiri since the somewhai inglorious *xii of John- 
son crony Abe Fortas in 1969, 



him $400 ,000' m rash and stuck options when he was govern ot of New York, New 
Km* Timts, May Tl, 1085 If Herbert Hoover had died in office, the United States 
Would have had a one-cpiartei Indian clui-f exe* utive in the person oi Charles Cur- 
tis,, i.l ie vice-president. Gfobe &Tid Moil (TiXimio) , [uly 13, 1954, 

]0. In ]9\H, Senator Johnson said: Trie civil rights program h a farce and a 
ihain — an effort to sci up a police state in die guise of liberty.* Clarke Newton, 
IJij, Ttu Man Fmm Johnson City, l>odd, Mead, New York, 1964, p. 1 1 2. 

I 1 . Hie Nixons, who were not Catholics, came from County (>>i k; ih«- M lIIiouh 
family hom County Kildurc. Phillips, op. cit. r pp. 17*1-75. 



The Dispossessed Majority 



When a man like Lyndon Johnson, with all the power of the 
presidency behind him, feels compelled to change his beliefs so 
radically and to proclaim his minority sympathies so publicly and 
shrilly, the lower-level Majority politician, in sharp contrast to the 
priorities of most minority politicians, can hardly be blamed Tor 
placing party above race. Obviously if he represents an overwhelm- 
ingly Majority district, the Majority congressman will support the 
aims and aspirations of those who voted for him in regard to local 
and some of the less controversial national issues. But the moment 
he is compelled to take a stand on the wider questions that may 
crucially affect the nation as a whole, he usually bends and sways to 
the will and whim of lavishly financed, minority-oriented organiza- 
tions and lobbies which seem dedicated to every interest but those 
of his constituents. 

Turning to foreign affairs, the emotional ties of some minorities 
to their old or sometimes new homelands overseas — kepi in the 
warming oven by the mechanics of racism — have produced a total- 
ly disproportionate minority influence. The recent history of Ame- 
rican foreign policy reveals example after example of diplomatic, 
economic, and military commitments which were the direct out- 
come ol White House and Congressional sensitivity to minority 
pressure, 

The unconditional surrender of Germany, which handed east- 
ern Europe over to Russia at the c\ui ofWorld War II and may have 
caused a million unnecessary casualties, is one such example. Amer- 
ican support of Israel, which cost the United States the friendship 
and goodwill of over 100 million Arabs and smoothed the way for 
Russia's entrance into Middle Eastern politics, is one such example. 
Another is Americas military and financial assistance to African 
nations, at the very moment the media and headline-seeking pol- 
iticians were stepping up economic sanctions against South Africa, 
the only stable political entity on the continent. Independent Rho- 
desia was forced to surrender to black Marxists partly as a result of 
the United Nations economic sanctions in which the United States 
was a willing participant 

Whether minority interests coincided with the national interest 
in these major foreign policy actions is a mailer for serious debate. 
What is not debatable was the racial motivations inherent in such 
decisions. 1'he Majority, having no longer any motherland but the 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



87 



United Stales, tends to view foreign affairs from a purely American 
standpoint. Other population groups often look at the internation- 
al scene from an entirely different perspective. This schizoid ap- 
proach to foreign policy was certainly a compelling reason for 
America's backing out of the war in Vietnam, where minority inter- 
ests were inconsequential, at the very moment the While House 
and Congress were busy emphasizing and reemphastting American 
commitments in the Middle East, where Jewish interests are con- 
sidered more important than the supply and availability of Arab 
oil. In Cuba, for which the more influential minorities have liitle 
concern bin where 1 the threat 10 America's defenses was real until 
the break-up of the Soviet Union, the stationing of Russian armed 
forces was considered a fait acc&mplihy ihe While I louse. 

The two principal achievements of Majority foreign policy — the 
Monroe Doctrine and non-entanglement in Old World power pol- 
itics — have now been scrapped and replaced by a foreign policy 
without a center of gravity, a jumble of diplomatic mm sequiturs 
which flies off on one tangent to> satisfy minority emotionalism, on 
another to placate the liberal's impassioned anti-totalitarianism, on 
another to soothe the conservative's phobia of socialism. 

For better or worse, Majority control of foreign affairs was the 
only means of developing and pursuing a coherent foreign policy 
Once American diplomacy, driven by minority racism became plu- 
ralistic, the succession of disasters which look place in the second 
half of this century was inevitable. Until the reign of Henry Kissin- 
ger there was no branch of government where the Majority had a 
greater per capita representation than in the State Department. Yet 
it was precisely in the area of foreign policy that the Majority inter- 
est was and is most studiously ignored. 

One great objection to the thesis of the Majority's dispossession 
is bound to arise from the undeniable fact that many of the na- 
tion's largest fortunes and many of the leading corporations are 
still in Majority hands. Hire it is sufficient to say, along with Har- 
vard professor and economist John K. GalbraUh, 1 * that wealth is no 



1% One oiihc n.tiioii"* leading liberal*, ProfeMui Gallfj aidi exposed himself to 

a charge of cask- disloyally when he iUlrmplrtl to dlfl up (Jir old cho&Lmi t tit a con- 
spiritoiKil Miijoiity tying up American politics and iht- Ameiiran rtonumy in Lis 
purs** siring. John K. Calbraiih, The Ajflumt Serirfy, Houghton Milllin. Boston, 
1958, pp. 8K- ( H). 



88 



The Dispossessed Majority 



longer equivalent to power, and that the average Majority member 
is considerably less opulent than the average member of a few mi- 
norities, particularly the Jewish minority, 1S which has now begun to 
challenge the Majority's hold on the big corporations . u That these 
same corporations, the principal sources of Majority wealth, were 
forbidden by law to contribute money to political parties, while la- 
bor unions, many under direct minority control, were able to fun- 
nel millions of dollars to their favorite candidates through political 
action committee (PACs), was merely one more indication of the 
downward curve of Majority influence. In the late 1970s, however, 
a Supreme Court decision made it possible for both labor and busi- 
ness to sponsor PAC& 

Ironically, many of the largest Majority fortunes have now passed 
into the possession of vast trusts and foundations, which expend 
much of their income and capital on minority causes. Also, some 
of the richest Majority members, when ii is a question of helping 
their own, have made a fetish of noni involvement and invisibility 
Of the three authentic Majority billionaires in the 1970s, one, J. 
Paul Getty, who occasionally wrote economic homilies for a sex 
magazine, died in splendid isolation in a baronial F.nglish mansion 
and had not been in his own country for decades. Another, avia- 
tion pioneer Howard Hughes, led a cloistered life iti foreign hotels 
after erecting the world's largest gambling empire in Las Vegas. 
I he third, tanker tycoon Daniel Ludwig, spent most ol his facer 
years building avast, unprofitable indusirial and agricultural cam- 
ples in Brazil. In [993, according to Forim magazine, the richest 
Majority member was Warren Buffet, who has a substantial in- 
vestment in the Washington Post Co., publisher of the liheraloid, 
minority-controlled Washington Post. It goes without saying that the 
minority super-rich are far less inclined to dissociate themselves 
from what they conceive to be their ethnic obligations. 



13. A suivcy ol Jewish wealth will he found in Chapter 15. Data on the economic 
status of the Armenian, Chinese-, Japanese, and Korean mhioiilies air not wadily 
available, but the indications are. that the average member of these minorities has 
a greater net worth than the average Majority member. The ilK&kuLttbte wealth o! 
the Mafia powibfy raises the per capita income and wealth of tin- Southern Italian 
minority above the national mean. 

14. It. is noteworthy that Federal Judge Harold Greene, a Orman-fewish ref- 
ugee, supervised the breakup of AT&T, once the world's laigest corporation. 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



m 



Not surprisingly, the dispossession of the Majority becomes most 
apparent in the field of public opinion. If Onega y Gassei is right 
in saying, "Never has anyone ruled on this earth by basing his rule 
essentially on any other thing than public opinion," 15 then minor- 
ity domination of (he present-day United States is incontestable. 
Minority members are found in the top echelons of the three ma- 
jor commercial television and radio networks, the public television 
and radio network, every large motion picture company (including 
the Disney studios), the nation's two mosi influential newspapers, 
one of (he largest newspaper chains, at least half of the important 
publishing houses, die three newsmagazines, and most leading 
journals of opinion (see Chapier 15 for specifics), 

Bui this remarkable concentration of power does nol sum here. 
Aggressively censorious minority organizations, principal among 
them the lVnai IVrith's Ami-Defamation League, monitor the prim- 
ed and the spoken word for the most subtle antt-niinorify allusions. 
h any are found, the owner, editor, or producer of the offending 
media are so advised and admonished. Such pressure cannot avoid 
frequently playing down, omitting, or twisting news and infor- 
mation vital to the public interest. 16 The Majority, to its great loss, 
has no similar watchdog organizations. 



15. I \n reMimt d* h\ itia\u\, F.spasa-Odpe, Mad] id, 19<iti, p. tlli. 

16, Neiu York Thna reporter Gay Talese has written, "1'he media manufactured 
diamatir events and colossal character* out otfmany small Incidents and minm 
men/ llir Kingdom and ih* P&wer t World, New York, 1969, p. 1 1 > i . (daring ex- 
amples ol media distortion in recent decades; the diabolTzalibn of Nrnatoi Joseph 
McCarthy; the apotheosis of the assassinated Kennedy brothers and Martin I.uther 
King, Jr.; the sniggering affection for posturing white and bjaelt revoludonaiic^ 
draft dodgers, riol leaders, and murder ftangs; the whitewash ill C.hupp:upiiddick. 
"Has one rvri heard a balanced discussion ol' ihe situation in South Africa? Or I 
leasonahlc presentation of the 'hawk' view on Vietnam? Or of tin- actions of a po- 
lice force confronted with uniidy ciowds?" ask 1 - Krncst van den Haag in Tfv Jnmsh 
tofyuitpit, Stein and Day, New York, I960, p. 142. The lendenuousneaa of die me- 
dia is most, envious in the technique of editorializing by headline. "Let nu control 
the headlines and I shall not ( are who controls the editorials/ said Fredes irk llir- 
chall, onetime \'ew York Tinus managing editor, Tahsr, op. eic, p. HvH. In the 
1950s, when any loud objection to communism evoked die Pavlovian response of 
"McCaohyisin," President Truman accused presidential candidate Eise-nhowet ot 
"being willing to accept the principles thai identify die so-called master r*if* Sew 
York Ihttss, ()( ■[. 18, 195L', p. 1. In the 1973 presidential race George McCiovern twice 
associated President Nixon will) Hitter. 



90 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Being a compound of whai people read, see, feel, and think, 
public opinion is only partly the creation of the minority-oriented 
channels of information. No reporter, commeruator, author, philos- 
opher, or prophet can make a normally intelligent adult accept as 
true what he knows to be false. But as public opinion moves from 
local to stale and national issues, it becomes less informed. A fool 
knows more at home than a wise man at his neighbor's, runs the 
Spanish proverb. Firsthand knowledge is supplanted by second- 
hand information and even third-hand gossip. Finally, in the realm 
of foreign affairs, public opinion rests largely on "organized" opin- 
ion, which represents the agenda of those who have a direct or in- 
direct interest in conditioning public attitudes towards the events 
being reported :md the policies under discussion. 

As for public opinion polls, they are often more effective in in- 
fluencing public opinion than measuring it, more revealing erf the 
pollster's state of mind than the public's. The newspapers that sub- 
scribe to the pulls have an important influence on what kinds of 
questions are asked, and the size and Composition of the sample. 
On the occasion of national and state elections, polls have fre- 
quently served the purpose of bandwagon electioneering, in which 
statistics favorable to the preferred candidate are played up, while 
unfavorable statistics are played down or buried. 1V 

In the event the control of the news media is regained by the Ma- 
jority, public- opinion will not undergo any overnight transfor- 
mation. News treatment shapes people's minds, but the ideology 
that defines and circumscribes the way news is handled Hows from 
the domain of culture, of which public: opinion is often but a ser- 
vile adjunct At the bottom strata of the American cultural do- 
main — comic strips, Hollywood films, and television shows — 
minority dominance is scarcely challenged. At the higher reaches — 
poetry, serious novels. literary criticism, off-Broadway theater, mod- 
ern music, painting, and sculpture— the minorities have also as* 
sumed a commanding position (see Chapter 18). 

It has often been remarked, maliciously rather than accurately, 



17. The Louia H arris Pol] pi edit ted Hubert Hunipluey would win [he 1568 pres- 
idential election. Without a Mngk exception, eveiy major Aineiican newspaper 
and periodical predicted a sweeping balmur viewy in the l'J/l) Uiitish general 
election, which swept the Conservative parly into office. The predictive abilities of 
the pullsleis in Reagan's lyJHO presidential victor)' were ludicrous. 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



91 



that America's only original contribution to an was a minority con- 
tribution — Negro jazz. Now, we are told, the minorities have taken 
over all American culture, and books have been written to docu- 
ment this i heme. According to Leslie Fiedler, the basic tone of the 
creative Intellectual life of the United Stales has become Jewish, 1S 
Nathaniel Weyl not only proclaims the supremacy of Jews in mod- 
ern American culture, but gives biological reasons for this suprem- 
acy. 19 Expanding on Weyl's genetic approach, Ernest van den Haag, 
professor of social philosophy al New York University, asserts lhat 
"American sensibility itself has become in part Jewish," 20 Van den 
Haag acknowledges the domination of the news media by "Jewish 
liberals," the cultural domination exercised by the "Jewish cultural 
establishment** and, in a paroxysm of ethnic flattery which con- 
vniiently bypasses both Creek and Roman civilization, the Ren- 
aissance, and die rnastervvorks of Western art and science, declares 
that lews "have given ihe essential meaning to the last two thou- 
sand years of Western history." 21 

As it blinded by then concentration on one cultural phe- 
nomenon, the intellectuals mentioned above seem to have down- 
graded the significance of artistic stirrings from another minority 
quarter. Jews may have Majority culture on the run, but Negroes 
have it cornered The recent surge of Negro drama and semi- 
biographical racist tracts in the form of novels and TV documen- 
taries is not merely remolding and redirecting Majority culture, but 
is coming close to wounding it mortally. The new Negro literary ce- 
lebrities have one-track minds and; constantly recurring themes 
(see Chapter IS). White women are fair game for rape. White 
males have serious sexual detects. '^ Looting, arson, mayhem, 



L8. 7tatf,Aug. ISI, 1866, p. ffi>. 

19, The Grwtivt Elite iti Awnim, Chaptej XYHI. 

20. Thtjmtdsh M)stt<fiic\ p. 38 
■Jl.Ibid., pp.. M, -11, I2&S3. 

£% This asservan seems espe< iallv ^appropriate considering that the physio- 
logical state known as "lemini/alion" is hi more prevalent among Negroes than 
Whiter Atiophy af ihe testicles and gyn&eeomasUa (enlargement ol the- male 
hi easts) are a iaiily n.niiiioii Negro affliction. J. C Carolhers, The African Miyid in 
llmllh ainlDtwisr, World Health Oi|.;ani/ation, (ieneva, \W\ p.M. 'Hie myth of 
white unniaiilim-ss has rratt been picked up by a lew white" publications, Hie fol- 
lowing was printed in Phtyfhiy, Oct., \ l H\7, p. 84. "Question— What do yon call it 
when a prostitute services a white dl«ll? Answer--- -The Nuked and the IWd." 



92 



The Dispossessed Majority 



murder, and even massacre are of ion worthy and understandable 
goals. The language employed relies heavily on racial slurs and re- 
petitive incantations of profanity. 

In spile of such artistic limitations, the Negro literary and drama- 
tic naissanee is actively promoted by leading publishers and pro- 
ducers, and often seen on educational television. S3 Majority writers 
cannot reply in kind since any public exhibition of Majority racism, 
cultural or otherwise, falls under an automatic, all-pervasive ban. 24 
No effective or meaningful counterattack or rebuttal being per- 
mitted, the cultural putsch is moving relentlessly towards establish- 
ing the thesis that **th* white race is the cancel of human history." 25 

With respect to religion, one of the most important manifesta- 
tions of culture, it is not so much that the Majority is losing its 
Church as that the church, some fundamentalist denominations ex- 
cepted, is losing the Majority. A great number of Majority Prot- 
estants cannoi feel too enthusiastic at the spectacle of their min- 
isters devoting much of their time and a lot of their congregations' 
money to the shelter and feeding of revolutionary street gangs at 
home and aniiwhiie guerrillas in Africa— and to spiriting in aliens 
from Central America, Haiti and the erstwhile Soviet Union. Major- 
ity Catholics have experienced the same disillusionment as they 
watched their left-leaning priests and nuns promote disaffection 
among American troops in Vietnam and foment anti-gringoism in 
Latin America. 

Predictably, the Catholic and Protestant clergy has furnished 
many of the more active minority Pied Pipers— the late Father 
Crnppu Adam Clayton Powell, Martin Luther King.jn— ail of whom 

23. Perhaps the most violently racist drama cvei 10 reach any stage was Slave 
Ship, preened m Brooklyn bn the fell of 1969. its utihta was Le&oi Jones (Imri 
Raraka), a Negro who iiuuried and ihm divorced a Jewish lady be< ause she was a 

living repmaeJi "u> ij, ( - tbin K s in myself I cared about* YiiUt K r Voice, Dec 17-25, 

P.WO. Antiwhite libels and "litenuy" ippeii* IO nu ial violence are I frttitttrrtl 
theme of black television talk shows. 

2-1. The selective ban on the use of racial expletives is not limited to literaiy en- 
deavors and what appears in the communications media. In Washington, O.C. r die 
police liave received formal orders te> avoid the following expressions: boy, wop 
kike, chink, dago, polack, bohunk, limey, hog, krant, nigger, burihe.d and spic.' 
San Fmncisto Chronicle ami Examiner, This WWU, May 5, lWi8, p. 12. 

S3. This statement by the Jewish lirenuus, Susan Sontag, Appeared in Partisan 
ItLtnno, Win tor, 1967. 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



93 



developed the habit of feeding their followers a heady mixture of 
social Christianity and minority racism. In contrast, no great de- 
fender of the Majority has arisen from any religious body, or is like- 
ly to as long as reverse-collar characters Like the iwiee-divorced Rev- 
erend William Sloane Coffin, Jr., who preached civil disohedienee 
at home and disengagement in the Far East, while keeping silent 
about the Mideast, hold forth in the Rockefeller-endowed River- 
side Church in New York City, and while Billy Graham and other 
evangelists, some of whom ended up in jail for sexual or financial 
offenses, bemuse their audiences with their own special brands of 
religious fossilisni, and while ihe Reverend Jerry Falwell preaches a 
"moral revival" thai is tightly linked to Israel fiber ALUs. 

An assault on a people's culture necessarily includes an assault 
on a people's history, which is both tin* storehouse and arsenal of 
culture, Minority nmckrakcrs'- ,,; began rewriting the Majority past 
many years ago* but only recently have school texts, ably assisted by 
television "Westerns" aud dot umetaries, deliberately made it a 
point tO discredit the Majority's starring role in the American 
chronicle. Majority children are still permitted to learn that their 
ancestors, more often than not with the help of minority groups, 



2fi. One ol the foremost was (hislavns Myers, who wenr In great lengths in his 
celebrated study, The History oj the tWral American Fortunes, to dciail the fabulous 
wealth ot the i iehesi Majority families, while practically ignoring minoiity million- 
aires like August Helmonl, who was the American lepiesrn (alive of the Roth- 
schilds and piobahlv had more hard money at his disposal than any ol his nalive- 
boi o eomprhiois. Noi did Myers balance hi* rosier of Majority financial roups by 
calling auenLion to Jesse Seligman, who helped persuade Americans and others to 
put $-100 million into an abortive French venture to build a canal across Panama. 
No one got a cent hack, but Seligmaa kept, his $300,000 advance and the addi- 
tional huge profits he made as an underwriter. Stephen Birmingham, Our Cto-umI, 
Hell, New York, 1967, pp. 273-75. Myen flailed to mention die possible minority 
anecstiy of his principal villain, |ay Could, who was descended from Nathan ( rGld 
of Fairfax, Connecticut, the "u" being ' addetl in lMOfi. Kit mingham, op. cit., p, 153, 
Matthew Josephson presents the same dirary catalog ot grand-scale Majority pec- 
ulations in his book, The Robber Barons, and almost totally omits the financial jug- 
gling ot the minority tycoons. Another work of this genie is Ferdinand I.und- 
berg's Thi Huh and the Supirliich. Pages, sometimes whole chapters, are devoted to 
Rockefellers, Mellons, Fords, I>u Ponts, Hunts, and Vandei bills, but. only a few 
words are allocated to the Rosemvalds, HlausteiitH, Zellerbachs, LoehS, SrUgrnans, 
and Warburgs. The index does not even mention ihe Guggenheim*, Xeniurray*, 
Hanichs, Schiffs, Sarnoffs, AnnenlK-rgs, Sulzberger*, and Hirshhocns. 



94 



'Hie Dispossessed Majority 



opened up the wilderness and sealed the land, but it is drilled 
into them that these same ancestors burned witches and commit- 
ted unspeakable atrocities against defenseless Indians. While char- 
acterizing them as lawless moneygrubbers and brutal exploiters of 

labor, ii is still admitted, albeit somewhat grudgingly, that Majority 
industrial giants built the railroads and steel mills, and unearthed 
the petroleum that gave mankind the combustion engine. 27 The 
South, it is taught, produced most of the world's cotton and a gra- 
cious civilization — at the price of mass lynching bees, night riders, 
slave gangs and genocide in the hoi sun. Little the Majority did 
was right; even less was decent. 

Conceding that the Majority has no effective political represen- 
tation, that m pan in the shaping of domestic and foreign policy 
is leas than decisive, that its economic influence is in eclipse, thai 
its religious leaders have abandoned or turned against it, thai its 
culture has been shredded, and its history demeaned — conceding 
all this, it may nevertheless be argued that the Majority cannon 
really be dispossessed until it loses command of the ultimate 
source of power, the armed forces. The rebuttal is that the United 
States is not nineteenth-century Prussia. Ft has mo military tradi- 
tion which encourages its officer corps to hold a Damoclean sword 
over politics. Owing largely to the endurance of Majority institutions, 
the American military is still firmly under die civilian thumb. 

If there are doubts about this, the verbal lashing accorded high- 
ranking officers by the news media in the last several decades 
should dispel them. President Truman's curl dismissal of General 
MacArthur, General Curtis Le May's "bad press" in the 1966 pres- 
idential contest, the tips and downs of General Edwin Walker, 28 
the posthumous attacks on General George Pattern, and the uproar 



27. Dr, Lucy Rjadtefeler Hamlin, daughter of Laurence Rockefeller, said.: "I clev- 
er studied American history because 1 didn't want to ill in a class aftd risk hearing 
my greatgrandfather described as a robber baron." San Frannseo Examiner arid 
Chronicle. Vfarch2, 1969* Sectfotf A, p. 21. 

28. Wfctker WM a popular figure, at least in the Norths when he commanded the 
troops which enforced the desegregation ofa little Rock high school in 1957. Lat- 
er when lie rttijjnrd from the army and began to criticize die taws he had pre- 
viously been tailed upon to execute, he was temporarily committed to an utMtnc 
asylum, shot ;ir by Lee Harvey Oswald and effortlessly transformed into a crackpot 
by dm opinion makers. Walker bounced back in the headlines in 1976 when he 
was arrested and charged with homosexual solicitation. 



11 IK MAJORITY AT BAY 



»5 



over General George Brown's criticism of the Israel lobby are proof 
that, as always in modern America, the pen is mightier and sharp- 
er than the sword. 

The armed Forces, moreover, are not as Majority-ridden as ihey 
might appear, The Garter ad mi nisi ration had a Jewish secretary of 
defense, Harold Brown, and a Negro secretary of the army, Clif- 
ford Alexander. President Reagan's top-ranking arms control ne- 
gotiators were Jewish. There were Jewish admirals in the navy, 29 
Negro generals in the air force, and Negro revolutionary cadres 
in the army; 30 In the not too distant future blacks and Hispanics 
may soon outnumber Majority members. The liberal-minority co- 
alition, not the Pentagon, presided over the Korean stalemate and 
the disaster in Vietnam, where an installment plan defeat had al- 
ready been set in motion, and where victory, thanks to the tele- 
vision coverage, had been ruled out in advance. 31 

General Norman Schwarzkopf got a good press for his almost 
effortless and casuahy-less win over the Iraqis, hut lost it when lie 
criticized his president for ("Union's attempt to make homosexuals 
a protected military minority. His superior, General Colin Powell, 



29, TTtc late Ilymaii Rkkover, die Tathei of the nucleai submarine," received 
f 6?,62B in illegal gifts from Genera] Dynamics. 

MO. "tint now tlifif is another war being (ought in Vietnam — between black and 
white American*. . . ,'Ju jn' and 'Man Mai/ groups have hcen organized, . - tanks 
fly black fla^s . . . elaborate training in guerrilla warfare has not hcen lost upon 
them, and many officers, black and white, believe thai Vietnam may prove a train- 
ing fnouiid foj the black urban commando of the future.* 7'iw, Sept. 19, lOfiO, 
p. 22. Some young radicals and old-line Marxists look upon this arm) within die 
army a* (he vanguard of revolution, 

Ti. The My Uii massacre trial, initialed hy the lurid reporting of minority news- 
paper correspondent Seymour 1 lotah, was staged in such a way as to allow the mil' 
tary to preside over its own hara-kiri. When minority military planner Daniel Ells- 
berg stole die lop-secret "Pentagon Papers" he was treated more like a hero than a 
criminal. Later all charges against him were dropped, and he was practically can- 
onized by the media, aftei it was learned that White House investigators h;ui bro- 
ken into his psychiatrist's office in search of damaging information The spy went 
free. Ihe counterspies were indicted. Ellsberg was last heard of as a leading ag- 
itator against nuclear power and as a member ofa I-os Angeles sm club. Previously 
he had served on a defense committee for Abbie Hoffman, who jumped bail in 
1973 alter his anest lis ;i cocaine peddler and whose triumphant surfacing in I'JHO 
was described by the media as a sort of Second Coming. Aiiana Htraltl. Aug. 30, 



90 



The Dispossessed Majority 



the first Negro chairman of the joint chiefs, was given a lot of 
credit for the victory, not because he deserved it — his contribu- 
tion was trivial — hut because of his skin color. 

In the early 1990s, as violence and crime reached astronomical 
levels far beyond the control of the police and the sporadic ap- 
pearances of the National Guard, dure was talk of turning the 
armed forces into a massive law enforcement agency, something 
on the order of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, another or- 
ganization with the hopeless mission of trying to forte a diseased 
society to function as an orderly society. Rather than serving as an 
instrumeni to stop the Majority's dispossession, the military, as 
meek, permissive and acquiescent as any other branch of govern- 
ment, is mainly interested in promotions and staying as far away 
as possible from any battlefield, foreign or domestic, The political 
generals, who head up ihe armed forces, are quite aware that the 
safest and surest way to gel their second or third star is to make 
absolutely no waves, give vent to absolutely do controversial opin- 
ions, atld smile sweetly at the draft dodger in the White House. 

Of all the proofs of Majority decline, none was more conclusive 
than the compendious anthology of media postmortems on the 
moon landing, Mere was the great Majority enterprise of the (ru- 
nny, perhaps the most memorable moment of mankind, yd after 
u was over, after the television coverage had ended, after the con- 
fetti parades, the event was often treated with veiled hostility and 
even described as a deliberate trick to divert attention from the 
plight and needs of the poor and underprivileged. 

The definitive liberal-minority line on the Apollo 11 mission 
was laid down in a rumbling, three-part dissertation in a mass- 
cijTulaiiou magazine by the Jewish writer, Norman Mailer. 32 The 
author's insinuation was that Neil Armstrong's epic voyage was a 
wacky, unjustifiable, wasteful, semi-Nazi adventure insulting to the 
aspirations of Negroes. The Nazi taint, presumably, was due to die 
participation of German-born scientists in the space program. 
The whole affair, in Mailer's jaundiced view, was a lugubrious fore- 
taste ol i he cold, computerized age to come, an age whose only sal- 
vation would be the drugs, drums, and dharrna of a different and 



32. Liff, Aug. 29, 19G9, Nov. 14, 1969, and Jan. % 1970. The miter's magazine 
articles were later expanded to to (>j a Fit* on the Moon, Little Brown, Boston, 1970, 



THK MAJORITY AT BAY 



97 



better breed of men than the astronauts. The choice of Mailer, 
whose clownish forays into politics bad earned him bigger head- 
lines than his literary affectations, to appraise an almost u\u\\y 
praisable Majority exploit was in itself one more sad indication of 
the Majority's disestablishment.* 3 

With the downgrading of the astronauts and the upgrading of 
repentant rapists like Eldridge Cleaver, puerile terrorists like Tom 
Hayden, and cultural throwback* like Abbie Hoffman and Jerry 
Rubin, the descending slope of Majority history became ever 
sleeper downward. The Northern European element of ihe Amer- 
ican population, dominant from earliest colonial times until after 
the (urn of the century, was now demoted to a secondary place in 
the American scheme of things, The Majority's institutions and lis 
loyalties lo these institutions, its work habits, and its physical pres- 
ence still hind tite country together, but with diminishing effect as 
each year passes. 

The overall process of the Majority's dispossession is not too dif- 
ficult to summarize. Fragmented by the Civil War, then softened 
into a humanitarian mood by a long; era of peace and plenty, and 
driven by an overpowering desire for cheap labor, the nation 
builders from Britain and oilier parts of Northern Hi j rope de- 
cided to share the benefits of their laboriously developed political 
institutions with newcomers of different races and cultures- Since 
these new Americans were almost totally tin practiced and un- 
skilled in ihe mysteries of self-government and in their own his- 
torical experience tjuiie unfamiliar with such ideas as self-relian< e 
and individual rights, they were all the more eager to gorge them- 
selves on the rich libertarian feast, although more for their own 
private and collective appetites than for ihe public good. 

Full social equality, however, was held back by residual feelings 
o( Majority racial superiority. To help do away with, this final im- 
pediment, minority anthropologists introduced and publicized 
"scientific evidence" to the effect that all races were inherently 
equal The theories developed from such evidence (or prc< eiliug 
it) were promoted widely and relentlessly by an alliance of liberal 



S3. Mallei Liui rolled WASPs "the most Faustiaji, barbaric, dracouian, progress- 
orient* -il .irnl rt*ot<lc*troytng people on eau th* — a rax Va\ slur thai tamed him high 
murk* with ihe uueHtgeftUia. 1 lis final word on Apollo J 1 was Urni WASP "nihilism 
found its [it-i feci expt t*v*inti in ihr (xlyssfy lo the moon. . . ." Timr, Feb. 8, 1971. 



98 



The Dispossessed Majority 



and minority intellectuals, and public opinion merchants, I< was 
not long before racial equalitarianism became established dogma 
that was taken up with a vengeance by nonwhites, whose historical 
experience was even more alien to Majority social organization than 
thai of New Immigration whites. 

In its zeal for racial leveling, die equalitarian school Lost sight of 
the fact that the very dynamism which spurs a race to obtain equal- 
ity forces it to go beyond equality. After ctecades of struggle, the 
vested interests in racial climbing become too great to l>e shut off 
arbitrarily by resolutions of the American Civil Liberties Union or 
the Americans lor Democratic Action. Inevitably, equality edges to- 
wards super equal ity, and superequality laps over into superiority. 

Today, under the rubric of Affirmative Action, minority racism 
lias been given the stamp of approval by the three brandies of gov- 
ernment and institutionalized in America. Black or brown skin, a 
Hispanic background, an epicanthic fold now provide its fortunate 
possessor special privileges in jobs, education, even in the courts of 
usure. 

Meanwhile, theories proposing the racial superiority of certain 
minorities are being published by leading tx>ok firms, featured in 
the news media and discussed seriously in the highest circles of the 
liberal-minority cognoscenti.* 4 It should come as no surprise to 
those who understand the real motivations of the racial irttegra- 
tionists that the very same anthropologists who have been preach- 
ing equalitarianism most vigorously seem the least disturbed by this 
trend. Montague Francis Ashley Montagu (born Israel Ehrenberg), 
for many years the leading advocate of the equalitarian school of 
anthropology, has publicly praised and endorsed a literary tour d# 
[orre\\n\[ describes Jews as a master race innately equipped with an 
intellectual apparatus that makes diem superior to all other pop- 
ulation groups on the planet. 



34. Three cases for Jewish racial superiority* as well as oik- [*oi Jewish inferiority, 
wilt be examined in Chapter 15. Marsha]] McLuhan's allegation l of Negro racial 
superiority will lie briefly discussed in Chapter 17. An ankle in Srpin m.ijfazinr 
(May 1980) was entitled "Black Genetic Superiority." Dr Asa Milliard III, the black 
ilean of the School of Education at San Francisco State, a uutveisitv wirti mine 
standing in academic attempted to shore up this claim m superiority by asserting 
thai ftffazan, Maydn, and Beethoven were "Afro- Europeans." Address ai the US. 
Air Force Acadcn>v, March 1980 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



99 



And so it has transpired that the once dominant Majority has 
been given the status — and stigma — of inferiority, not only by the 
radical rearrangement of ihe American social order, not only by 
minority racial dynamism, bin by die ex cathedra pronouncements 
of the most influential social scientists. There is hardly a greater 
form of dispossession than becoming a servant in one's own house* 



C H APT E R ] I 



The Split in the Ranks 



Is XT NOT incredible thai the largcsi American population group, 
the group with the deepest roots, the rnost orderly and most 
technically proficient tfroup, the nuclear population group of 
American culmre and of the American gene pool, should have lost 
its preeminence to weaker, less established, less numerous, cultural- 
ly heterogeneous, and often mutually hostile minorities? 

Wiih all due allowance for minority dynamism and for the va- 
riety of causes reviewed in earlier chapters, this mira* ulous shin of 
power could never have taken place without a Majority "split in the 
ranks* 1 — without the active assistance and participation of Majority 
members themselves. El has already been pointed om that rate con- 
sciousness is one of mankind's greatest binding forces. From this it 
follows iliai when the racial gravitational pull slat kens people tend 
to -spin ofl from the group nucleus, Some drift aimlessly through 
life as human Isolates. Others look for a substitute nut lens In an in- 
tensified religious or political life, or in an expanded class .mi- 
stionsiu vs. Still others, out of idealism, romanticism, inertia, or 
perversity, attach themselves to another race in an at tempi to find 
the solidarity they miss in their own. 

Strictly speaking, as has already been suggested, no one can 
change or trade his race. This is precluded 1» race's all-important 
physical stratum, Bin one can Jose or give up his race-mi ndedness, 
his racial pride, his racism. One can acquire the cultural trappings] 
ili* 1 language, and the religion of another race. One can marry a 
person of a diflereni rare and have hybrid children, 1U taking one 
or more oi these steps, the Majority member withdraws for all 
pra* tical purposes from his own group and becomes, if nm a bona 
hde, at least an ad hoc member of a minority 

100 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



101 



Majority members split their ranks for a multitude of reasons, 
the chief one probably being ignorance — ignorance of the modern 
world about them and the ancient world behind them, ignorance 
derived from an unwillingness or inability to recognize the osmotic 
influence of race on matters that touch their day-to-day existence. 
Paradoxically, this ignorance is widespread among the more edu- 
cated elements of the Majority, for the literate man who reads noth- 
ing bill nonsense is more ignorant that the illiterate who reads 
nothing. Prosperity, which increases social mobility while diluting 
race consciousness, is also an important factor in dividing the Ma- 
joriiy from within. Ovcrconcern for the material comforts and con- 
veniences of modern technology serves to dull Ixrth ihe reason and 
instincts. But no matter what the circumstances, those who leave 
the racial fold weaken the racial fold. It is not so much that there is 
strength in numbers, as there is weakness in defection. Who exacdy 
are the Majority Splitters of the Ranks? Generally speaking, iluy 
can he broken down into five categories. 



1. T. RAC.cn ILL-S fhe name is derived from the Gracchi, two broth- 
ers who, although belonging to one of the great patrician families 
of Rome, could not feed (heir soaring ambition sufficiently by re- 
maining in the orbit of their own aristocratic caste. Hbertus and 
Gains Gracchus found that in limes of stress in a relatively tolerant 
republic a desceni of one or two steps in the social ladder was 
ecjuivaieui to an ascent ol several steps in the political ladder. Ac- 
cordingly, ihey became the standard bearers of revolution and agrar- 
ian revolt and were adulated by the plebeians. The Gracchi's polit- 
ical strategy was by no means limited to stirring up class agaiusi 
class, peasant against landlord, 1 exploited against exploiter. Ihe 
patricians, the descendants of the Italic invaders, differed racially 
from die plebs, ihe offspring of earlier and later immigrants. 
The Gracchi's appeal, consequently, was dire* led m oppressed rac- 
es .is well as xo oppressed classes, 



i rhcrc were more than a few truce* of populism in tli*- Gracchi's revulnuonar) 
program.. Driven hv us own pcrnUai racial dynamic*, populism tan be unilvin^ as 
well a* divisive There is a distinct difference between the reformci appealing i*> 
the farmers and yeomanry of ha own race, and the political extremist whose pro- 
posal* foi fui<l u-toiHi are onlv one iii'iii in a large packet- ol rrvnlniinnarv 
change and tat ial and i law agitation. 



uv* 



The Dispossessed Majority 



In a multiracial slate the weIUx>rn, ambitious member of a dom- 
inant race is constantly tempted w take the Gracchite path to pow- 
er. It its harder for the patrician to win die respect of the patrician 
than to win the respect of the plebeian. It is also much easier to 
give money away than to earn ii; to relax discipline than to enforce 
h; to be a hero to one's valet than to one's mirror. 

History Is full of Gracchi tes. The list includes famous popes, 
monarchs and princes. Philippe d'Orleans, who voted for the 
death of Louis XVI. his own cousin, to curry favor with ihe revolu- 
tionary mob, is perhaps the most notorious case. Teutonic aristo- 
crats like Leo IX, who as pope stirred up the Italian masses against 
the Holy Roman Emperor, certainly fit the description. So do those 
kings and reigning dukes who in late feudal times established ab- 
solute rule by crushing their fellow noblemen with the help of the 
bourgeoisie and the urban rabble. A noted 2Gth-century Gracchite 
was Prince Valerian Obotensky, who switched his allegiance horn 
the czar to the Bolsheviks and served as a high Soviet official until 
he was purged by Stalin. 2 

Gracchiies have been particularly numerous in the United Stales 
since the 1930s. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Avereil tlarriman, and Ad- 
lai Stevenson are three who come immediately to mind. All were 
born millionaires. All were the scions of well-entrenched Majority 
Families. None was particularly successful in any realm of private 
endeavor. 3 I ft their public careers they specialized in catering to 
minorities, surrounding themselves with minority advisers, < miMth- 
arits and ghostwriters. * Their natural stamping ground was the 
Democratic parry, previously described as the party <>! die minor- 
ities. But there are also Republicans who come very close to being 
Gracchiies* Nelson Rockefeller could match his Dcmucraih coun- 
terparts iti birth, wealth and all die other accoutermeuts of what 



2. KuryiLffmiia of Rusvia ami thr SovUi I f nion t p. -tft.S. 

3. Flic long, ludicrous tiring of FDR's financial speculations in the early 1920s 
in N< u York included a 126,000 loss with txmis Howe in n scheme to fatten lob- 
steps! Alfred B, Rollins, Jr. IfaiwtvJi and Hmne, KnopfcN V. 1962, pp 10M7 

■1. A Gracchite siill in the wings is John D Rf>rkrlcllrr IV, who m [\wt\ sprru 
SI million, 01 about $25.80 a vote, gelling himself reelected governor <■! West Vir- 
ginia, Jay, as lie is called, may have rhosen the: Demorraiir party aftri watching 
Uncle Nelson's consistent Failure to win the Republican presidential nomination 
A Gracchite whose star has vl is John Lindsay, who ran under i lie- Republican 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



I OH 



passes in America for aristocracy, having based his career on a rep- 
utation tor liberali.sin, tolerance, friendship for labor and a highly 
publicized concern for the downtrodden. Bui since the voter ba.se 
of the Republican party consists of Majority rather than minority 
members, the comparison with Democratic Gracchi tes is only valid 
when restricted to the Republican Gracchiies 1 slate or ciey fiefs. In 
New York, for example, Governor Rockefeller operated almost ex- 
acily as President Roosevelt did on ihe national level, that is, he was 
dutifully responsive to the will of the liberal-minority coalition. 5 In 
the field of foreign relations, however, Republican Gracchites are 
likely to give slightly more consideration to Majority interests, 

The Gracchite makes considerable use of the family fortune to 
attack or undermine the system in which his family prospered, lie 
capitalizes on his aristocratic mien, cultivated voice, and fine man- 
ners to chant] and win over the proles, much as the polished Eng- 
lish actor, who is jusi another actor in Loudon, "lays diem oui in 
the aisles" in the Iowa hustings. Cringing adulation from the lower 
depths is heady wine to (lie Gracchite, All this is not to say thai 
Gracchite politics is necessarily or always bad. There may come a 
tinne in the life span of every nation when certain issues berome si* 
critical they must be resolved even ai the risk of revolution or racial 
conflagration, [f no genuine lender ran be found in a momem of 
crisis, as is often the rase in a demoralized and decadem society, 
the Graccbke is sometimes a happier solution than the psychotic 
nihilist or head-rolling revolutionary. There usually remains ai hast 
a spark ol feeling in the Gracchite heart for the people on whom 
he has mi tied his hack. 



bannei liniii rr|nuli<neii hy hi*, party in ihe M>ii*J New York CMv mayoral race, 
which he won as an independent In 1970, Lindsay told a gathering of University 
oi Pennsylvania suulcnts, "Ilu- ones I have unending admiration for are ihe giiys 
who say, 'J simply will not serve in ihe Army of the U.S. in Vietnam and I am will- 
ing to take ihe con-sequences tor it." These are the guvs who are hetoes.' Human 
£vent\ May 1 u, 1970, p. 374. His faihei a British-bom hanker, his mother a men> 
bes oi one ut Lhc nation's oldest families, Lindsay gave his daughter in marriage 
u> a Jewish graduate undent. New York Time*, June 7. 11170, p. HO. In spire of nit ex- 
pensive television < ampaign advertising his Nordic physical trait*, Lindsay finished 
out of the running in the 1972 Democratic presidential primary. 

ft, Nelson Rockefeller became a middle-of-the-road inainslrcamer in ihe \\fi{) 
New York gubernatorial contest in order to capitalize on a con scis/a live nifumd 
swell in the i anki < >i Lhe Irish and Italians. 



[04 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Graechites, of course, are to be found in areas other than pol- 
itics. Marshall Field III, the grandson of the Chicago merchant 
prince and subsidizer of PM, the defunct minority-oriented New 
York City daily, was a dyed-in-the-wool Gracchitc, So is Michael 
Straight, son of a Morgan partner, onetime editor and publisher of 
the New Republic mid boon companion of Soviet spies. So is the son 
of another Morgan partner, Corliss Larnont, the well-heeled apol- 
ogise and philosopher of Marxism. So is Hamilton Fish III, the one- 
lime publisher of the tdtraleft The Nation There are Gracchile law- 
yers, doctors, and philanthropists. There are siage and screen Grac- 
chiLes. There is a surprisingly large agglomeration of Gracchite dip- 
lomats. There are numerous female Gracchit.es, the most notable 
heinjr the talc Eleanor Roosevelt. There are also matrimonial Grac- 
chites — men and women of established Majority families who marrv 
minority members for 111011*7, for a racial lark, or for the flattery 
and attention that social climbers extend to those with taller and 
leafier family trees. 

The Gracchkc usually pays a high price for his measure of glory. 
1 he adulation and fawning of the mob never quite compensate for 
the implacable hatred every group reserves for the defector. 6 In 
war the desertion of a general causes a much greater stir than the 
desertion of a private, In times of racial troubles the desertion of 
an aristocrat, the guardian of the rare, raises emotions to a much 
higher pitch than the desertion of a commoner Not only were 
both liberius and Gains Gracchus assassinated, so were two later 
Roman aristocrats in the Gracchite mold, Catiline and Clodius. 7 



(1. It was this brand of haired which prevented Nelson Rockefeller, potentially 
the strongest candidate, from securing the Republican nomination in 1964. It also 
g»Ve rise to the Stentorian booing of ftarkefellei at uV Republican convention in 
San Francisco by conservative activists, who for years had fell oun aged by' his East- 
ern habit of working harder for minority than for Majority votes. The memory of 
these boos probably induced Rockefeller to present a somewhat "dcliberati/ed* 
image to the American people in 1974, when he was appointed vice-president of 
the United Stales in the Ford administration. 

7. h is not quite accurate to call Clodius and Catiline Grarcbites since they 
were both rut down in ihe middle of their conspiracies and rebellions, with die re- 
sult thai historians have had great difficulty plumbing the* real intentions- They 
might have been imitating Julius Caesar, who practiced a far more sophisticated 
form of politics". Caesarian is the- use of the mob to obtain the power to destroy 
thr mob. 



11 IE MAJORITY AT BAY 



105 



Ihe Gracchite, oven more than most liberals, has the peculiar 
habit of fomenting wars, but seldom fighting in them. 8 He loudly 
denounces the wealth of others, but keeps his own. Me sneers ai 
the upper classes, but cannot escape identification with them, lie is 
publicly in favor of integrated schools, bi.11 sends his own children 
to segregated schools. It is probably asking too much of any man, 
particularly a Gracchite, to practice what he preaches, Giovanni 
Francesco Beraardone, who became St. Francis after a brief, play- 
boytsfa stint as ihe richest young man in Assisi, and Gautama Sid- 
dhartha, who evolved from princeling into Buddha, were the rarest 
of mortals, and certainly no Gracchites. They were humanitarians 
in the .fullest and best sense of the word. The Gracchite's hu- 
manitarianism, however, always seems to be accompanied by an ac- 
cumulation of power and by a torrential outpouring of hatred 
upon all and sundry who dare to challenge this power. 

Wh.u precisely are the Gracchi le's true motives? Is he merely a 
man whose ambition outweighs his character — one who, in spite of 
the Immense advantages of his birthright, fails to make the first 
team, and consequently decides to abandon his teammates, go 
over to the opposite side, change the rules of the game, and try to 
win anyway? Gould ii be that fear of competition with his peers is 

8„ In World W;ir 1, fiunklm Roosevelt, then in good health and of military age, 
was assistant sec 1 clary oi the navy. Ifarriman and Stevenson sat out World War II 
as Washington bureaucrat*, though both were extremely active intervenm mists. 
Thmii.is Jefferson, who lived at a time when Gracchites were few and far between, 
nevertheless bad some noticeable Gracchite tendencies. I lis fa the i was a self-made 
man of unreruin lineage, but hit mother was a Randolph, a member of one of 
Virginia's leading families. No one was moie lesponsihl. loi the War of In- 
dependence than Jefferson, yet he never once heard a gun go off in anger, His 
single military exploit waa an ignoble and hasty retreat into the Virginia moun- 
tains when die British made l l sudden descent on MonlicHlo. "Where is Jeffer- 
son? 8 wrote Washington bitterly while at Valley Forge. It was this same Jefferson, 
so heedful of his own life, who was inspired by Shay's Rebellion to write: "God for- 
bid! we should ever be 20 years without such a rebellion. . . . What country can 
preserve its liberties if Uheil rulers air not warned from tunc- to time that their 
people preserve die spirit of iesisiauce? I-et them take arms! . . . What signify a few 
lives lost in a century or two? The tree of liberty must lx- lefreshed from time to 
time with die blood of patriots and tvi ;mt.s. ll Is its natural manure. . . ." See Jeffer- 
son's letter to Smith, Nov. IS, 1787. Also see Nathan Schachncr, Thomas Jefferson, 
Thomas Yoseloff, New York, 1957, p. 216, and Albert Beveridge, Thr life of John 
Monhall, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1916, Vol. I. pp. 126, 30$, 



106 



The Dispossessed Majority 



always his greatest concern? Is he nor, in the long run, taking out 
his own failings on his own kind? 

2. TRUCKLERS These arc the Majority members who are not 
born rich like the Gracchiies and do not exude any of the aristo- 
cratic aroma that delights I lie olfactory organs of hoi poilot They 
come from the middle and lower layers of the Majority. If they are 
men of wealth— and many are — they made their 11101x7 them- 
selves, either in business, the professions or, in the not unusual 
case of Lyndon Johnson, in politics. 

Trucklers play an active role in public life and in the formation 
of public opinion, while ai the same time almost Formally abjuring 
their own racial niche in society. The onty racism they will abide is 
minority racism, which they help to cultivate by their zealous inter- 
est and meddling in minority matters. Bui their reasons for playing 
the minority game are more opportunistic than idealistic. They 
know from long experience thai minority coddling will boost their 
prestige and respectability give them a more favorable image in 
the press and, if they are politicians, bring diem more financial 
support and more voles. Thev are also well aware of what would 
happen if they ever associated themselves in the slightest way with 
Majority racism, 

A typical Truckler is the young, naive Majority journalist who, af- 
ter writing his first important newspaper report or magazine story 
about some international or domestic event from a purely Majority 
viewpoint, is one day called into the front office and handed a 
sheaf of indignant and even threatening letters with fancy letter- 
heads nnd illustrious signatures. At ihai moment he can; (1) refuse 
to lw pressured and Ik* discharged on the spot; (2) resign before 
he is discharged; (3) promise to l>e more "objective" in the future 
and keep his job Having spent a great deal of time and money on 
becoming a journalist and not wishing to abandon his chosen ca- 
reer before it has hardly begun, he inevitably chooses course (3). 
He then acquires more "objectivity" lay tailoring his writing in such 
a way as to eliminate furthei letters and further reprimands, An- 
other Truckler is born* 9 



9. The nt plus ultra Truckler in the news field was Turner Cailcdgr, a i\.iu\r 
Mississippian and long-time managing eiliiur of the Afinw York Times. As another 



II IE MAJORITY AT BAY 



107 



A second species of Truckler is the young Majority politician or 
bureaucrat who, during his first stay in Washington or in a state 
capital, inadvertently makes an off-the-cuff remark critical of some 
outlandish exhibition of minority racism. Vilified within the hour, 
he finds himself in danger of becoming a social outcast. He apol- 
ogizes and never makes the same mistake again. Now he under- 
stands the score. Now he will engage the services of a minority ad- 
viser to keep him on his toes on minority issues, along with a 
minority ghostwriter 10 prepare his speeches. I le will thereby avoid 
the possibility of letting slip any further embarrassing remarks, 
while aJ the same time improving his oratory. The dynamic lan- 
guage oj minority racism shows up very well in audience reaction, 
in contrast to the listless, canned phrases of Majority speechwrit- 



One of the more curious aspects of political truckling is its de- 
pendence on geography Harry Truman, a chipper haberdasher 
who fell tut hard times and flirted with the Ku Klux Klan, 11 made 
his debut in politics as a gofer for Kansas City's corrupt Pendergast 
political machine. By die time he moved into the While House he 



TtinrMiKin wmlr, Clad edge's "hume state had been denial at ed le^ulai ly in the 
press for a decade . . * Cay Talesr, The Kingdom and ittf Power, p 1 IS. The 
Tim**, of foursf, had been the principal denigraior. Oihrr noted journalism 
Trucklers air Benjamin Hradlee, longtime editor of ihc Washington Post, and Qs- 
boi ne KUioii, longtime editor of jVpw.vuwA. Television anchormen faU into this cat- 
egory, though usually they simply read what is handed 10 them, 

10. Judge Sam Rosenman, laLer chairman of the board of Twentieth Gentury 
Fox, wiote iii;uiv of the Roosevelt and Tniman speeches. Many famous Kennedy 
and Johnson addresses were ghosted by minority writers, Theodore Chaikin Sor- 
ensen and Richard NaradolT Goodwin. Use chief sprech writer Tor Cartel in his 
unsuccessful l!*H0 reelection campaign was Hendrik Herfzberg, who welcomed 
the Communist victory in Vietnam. "Hie dul! and un^ul Kisenhowri speeches 
were generally written by Majoiity professorial types. As for phiase making, FDR's 
"Happy Warrior* epithei for Al Smith was dreamed tip fay Justice Joseph Pros- 
kauci, and Kennedy's "New Fnmliei" was the simultaneous brainchild t«t Wall 
Rot tow and Max Freedman. Ernes! K. Lindley, FearAUnD. Ktmrvrii, Bobn^-Merrillj 
New Yoik, 1931, p. 223, and San Francis™ ChronicU, This Worth Aup. 17, I'm. 1 "). Ken 
Kharlugan was the man in charge of preparing President Reagan's speeches, 

11. [ininan paid $10 Un his Initiation fee into die Missouri Ku Kins Klan in 
1922. lie K ()1 his 110 bark when he opposed die Klan'i .inli-t .atholi< policUa — 

certainly the loyal thing to do in view <>( Boss Pendergast"* religion, Alfred Mem- 
berg, The Man from Missouri, Putnam, New York, 1962, p. 64. 



urn 



The Dispossessed Majority 



was a champion of civil rights. Finally, having retired from Wash- 
ington and safely back in the Majority-dominated Kansas City sub- 
urbs, he heaped vitriolic remarks on the civil rights movement and 
its leader, the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. 12 While attorney 
general of California, Earl Warren found legal justification for his 
1942 roundup and transportation to "relocation** camps of more 
than 110,000 West Coast Japanese, 64 percent of them American 
citizens. It was perhaps the greatest mass violation of the Bill of 
Rights in American history, 13 in Washington, Chief Justice Warren 
transformed himself into the guardian angel of die Uill of Rights, 

Trucklers are not only found in the executive, judiciary and leg- 
islative branches of the government. They abound in every bright 
and dark corner of American life. There are the novelists who are 
careful to make their iminorit) characters "inoffensive"; the play- 
wrights and scenarists who methodically give their villains Majority 
pedigrees and physical traits; the businessmen who lend their com- 
panies' names to any number of minority lobbies; the clergymen 
who preach ihe righteousness of minority causes and are noi 
averse to making their points by leading violent street demonstra- 
tions and sit-ins. 

Aware of the immense rewards passed out to the faithful, many 
Trucklers become full-lime minority enthusiasts, for which tiiey not 
only receive numerous academic kudos and a prefabricated marker 
for their books and articles, but also ready cash. The organizers of 
minority hind-raisers pay thousands of dollars to prominent Major- 
ity speakers. Vice-President Hubert Humphrey, Senators Henry 
Jackson and Robert Packwood, Secretary of Defense Les Aspin and 
a host of lesser Majority notables made sizable grubstakes as the 
star attractions of Bonds for Israel and B'nai B'rith dinners. 

Inn klers frequently render greater service to minority projects 
than minority leaders themselves. Many legislative Trucklers have 
been so well trained in racial matters they are often more sensitive 
to minority concerns than to those of their own constituents. In re- 
gard to voter appeal, a handsome, imposing Majority member is 
sometimes more of a political and social asset to minorities, pro- 
viding he is properly "sensitized," than a minority candidate. The 

12. For Truman's poll- preside ft til] aitacks <»ri civil rights, ww New York Times, 
April 13, 1965, p. 24. 

IS, Hanxird Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Croups, p. 566. 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



109 



latter may lack the clean-cut appearance so handy in attracting 
widespread support for minority-slanted legislation. 

No Majority member is born a Truckler. Truckling is the result 
of an educational process— sometimes years in die making, some 
dines an overnight conversion— in which the aspiring young pol- 
itician or professional has drilled into him the contemporary Amer- 
ican catechism of success. He learns that he must be tactful rather 
than truthful, that he may question the non-controversial but not 
the controversial, that he must sail before the winds of "public 
opinion" but not head into them. He is taught to fear all the cur- 
rent no-nos as thoroughly as primeval man was taught to fear the 
taboos of his day. 

One can admire a person who, by changing his ideas and princi- 
ples, risks death, disgrace, or severe financial loss. One reserves the 
right to adopt a certain skepticism towards those whose ideological 
skin-shedding, often conveniently and Ix-ainiiully timed, makes 
them rich, powerful, and famous. Perhaps Truckler is too strong a 
word for those political and moral trimmers who, at least super- 
ficially, are performing the age-old trick of sacrificing integrity to 
ambition, But the li inkier, as lure defined, oversteps this com- 
mon vice. lie goes further than making a fetish ol sell-interest. lit 1 
transcends all the normal bounds of human behavior by putting 
ihe interests of other ethnic groups above the interests of his own. 



5. PtJSSYFOOTERS. These are the Majority members who take no 
positive action against their own group but seldom, if ever, defend 
it. They comprise the second and third echelons of Majority lead- 
ership — lawyers, doctors, scientists, small-town newspaper editors, 
professors, teachers, preachers, big and small businessmen, and lo- 
cal, state, and federal officials. 

hi contrast to Gracehites and Trucklers, who IxHray and violate 
Majority interests, Pussyfooters soft-pedal and subordinate them. 
Immersed in their own day-to-day problems, obsessed with the ma- 
terial aspects of existence, often isolated in areas where the Major- 
ity is overwhelmingly predominant, Pussyfooters have less direct 
contact with minority dynamism and are consequently less con- 
cerned about it. When and where they come lace to face with mi- 
nority racists, in social gatherings or in community affairs, instead of 
standing up for the Majority viewpoint, they simply keep quiet. 



no 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Pussyfooters know that something is wrong, but they don't know 
what, and they do not have the lime, the inclination, the courage 
or the intellectual initiative to find out, Some Pussyfooters tread 
softly because they dislike argument; others are fearful for their 
livelihood. Some arc jus r temperamentally tmsuited for the verbal 
buffeting and hysterical logic-chopping in which their lilieral and 
minority neighbors seek to engage them. As long as ihey do well 
economically, as long as their siornachs are full, Pussyfooters may 
be expected to go on pussyfooting. Only a solar plexus variety of ra- 
cism is ever likely to rouse [hem from their rarelessness. 

Bui every day countless little social clashes and countless little 
unattractive slices of American life eat away at the Pussyfooter s 
noninvolvement. Every day the Majority assistant manager at the 
expensive resort hotel welcomes a greater and greater influx of 
noisy minority millionaires. Every day the Majority artist, poet t play- 
wright, and novelist must rope with an ever growing minority dom- 
inance of art, literature, and drama. Everyday Majority job seekers 
and Majority jobholders see their employment opportunities, pro- 
motions, or seniority endangered by larger racial quotas for blacks, 
Hispanies, and Asians and by the extra points spotted to no n whites 
in job qualification tests. Willi crime, riots, reverse discrimination, 
and illegal immigration on the rise at home, with billions of dollars 
still being poured into the Middle East each year, minority racism 
is becoming so shrill even the deaf are beginning to hear 

Hearing, however, is a long way from understanding. Unlike mem- 
bers of the dynamic minorities who seethe and quiver as a single 
organism at the faintest hint of reducing welfare programs or re- 
storing an America First foreign policy, Pussyfooters continue to 
drift supinely on the edge of the great social vortex, whirling clock- 
wise or counterclockwise as public opinion dictates. 

4. ( )i.n BELIEVERS. The American political tradition is a rare and 
delicate blend of English whiggery s French egalitarianism, classic 
Stoicism and social Christianity. This complex doctrinal amalgam 
was once the exclusive ideology of the American Majority. Today, 
considerably altered in substance and accorded the name of * liber- 
alism, it has been eagerly adopted, if not taken over, by the minor- 
ities. Nevertheless, a great many Majority members still call them- 
selves liberals. Those who honestly subscribe to liberalism, not in 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



ni 



its perverted modern form, but in its original Lockean, Jefferson- 
tan atid Lincoln! an version, are here designated as Old Believers. 
Gracchi tes and Trucklers are hypocritical, opportunistic, fearful or 
pseudo-liberals, Pussyfooters are reluctant or fitful liberals. Old Be- 
lievers belong to the disappearing breed of honest Liberals. 

Old Believers seldom become particularly prominent or success- 
ful in present-day America, for the plain truth is that the liberal es- 
tablishment cannot stand liberalism in its pure, unadulterated 
form. Old Believers not only pretend to believe in, but do believe 
in, the freedom of the printed and spoken word, an intolerable su- 
perstition to the mediacrats who have laid down certain critical 
boundaries Cor American thought. Liberalism is equally intolerable 
to the politicians and opinion molclers whose careers are built on a 
one-dimensional, one-sided, simplistic view oC modern society. 

increasingly out of fashion, Old Believers are currently to be 
(bund in small universities, in libertarian circles, or among the 
non-fundamentalist, nonviolent, non-per missive clergy. The most 
vocal are often the descendants oC families with roots in the New 
England town meeting or Populist tradition. In general, they are 
trying to transplant a faded, withered ideology, which functioned 
adequately under a special set <>l historical and genetic conditions, 
to a different age and to an often hostile and alien environment — 
a transplant that is being continuously rejected by the American 
body politic. All modern teaching to the contrary, liberalism is not 
independent ol time and race. 

Two of the most prominent Old Believers in recent times were 
Dorothy Thompson, the columnist, and Charles Beard, the histo- 
rian, The former won nationwide acclaim when she was condemn- 
ing Nazi persecution of the Jews with Old Testament vehemence. 
But when, alter World War II, she used the same impassioned argu- 
ments to denounce the dispossession of the Palestinian Arabs p she 
lost her most important newspaper outlets and died in Portugal in 
relative obscurity. Charles Beard, in early New Deal clays con- 
sidered America's greatest living historian and an exemplar of lil> 
eralism, was cast out of the American intellectual community after 
he had accused President Rooseveli of unconstitutional acts in the 
handling of American diplomacy and foreign policy prior to Pearl 
Harbor, The same treatment was extended to the distinguished his- 
torian, Harry Klmer Barnes, who coin mined the unforgivable crime 



1 1 



The Dispossessed Majority 



of questioning the HolocaiiM antl a< ( using Roosevelt of having en- 
gineered Pearl Harbor 14 

Old Believers also come in groups, one of the more influential 
Ix'ing ihe Society of Friends, or Quakers, Practicing almosl total re- 
ligious, political, and social tolerance, and driven by a compulsion 
for "good works," die Friends pour their efforts and money (of 
which they have considerable) into projects which actively pro- 
mole minority racism, notwithstanding that Quaker doctrine bris- 
tles at the very concept of race. The Quakers 1 uncritical acceptance 
of old-line Anglo-Saxon liberalism, a.s applied to a modern, rarially 
heterogeneous society, has given bin ft iu some strange ideological 
hybrids within the Quaker community. Drew Pearson, the most vi- 
tuperative of columnists; Alger Miss, the most subtle of Communist 
conspiriuors; Klaus Fuohs, die most chip Heltons of atomic spies, as 
well as a few of the more notorious Majority members of Marxist 
terror gangs, had Quaker backgrounds. l5 As huge newspaper head- 
lines have frequently reminded us, the distance between the Old 
Believer and the True Believer is often but a short step. 

Quakers and other Old Relievers art- to l>e commended for their 
unshakable faith in human nature. At the same time they hum be 
sharply criticized for their meddlesome, misdirected charity, and 
warped compassion that have earned them the name of Bleeding 
Hearts. In some respects the Old Believer may be compared to the 
captain of a ship in distress, who, in another century and with an- 
other crew, might have counted on Ins stubborn rourage to have 
piloted his vessel safely into port. Today the prisoner of his own 
outdated seamanship, he steers blindlv from reef to reef. 



5. PRGDITORS. Ifi The rifth and final category of those who have 
brought about the split in the Majority ranks is unique in that its 
members are tainted with outright disloyalty — ttot only to the Ma- 
jority, their population group, but to America, their nation, The 



14. Charles Beard, Praidrnl iimnnvli and the Coming &J the War, 1941 , Yalr Uni- 
versity Press, New Haven, 1948, See Barnes"* ffrpuumtsmu A Key U* Peace and Other 
Essays, Cato Institute, San Francisco, Calif., 1980. 

15. Pearson's mother! however, was the daughtci of a |ewish dentist 
Id. T\u- word, which means a pai ucularly nasty Form oJ traitor, is used here in 
the Shakespearean sense: "thou most usurping proditor, and noi protector, of ihe 
king oi realm." fffemy VI, an 1 , scene 3 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



113 



Gracchite or Truckler, while often going against the best interests 
of the American people, will not knowingly stray into the igno- 
minious realm of high treason. Franklin D. Roosevelt would com- 
promise with Communists, promote them to high office, give them 
far more than he received ai Teheran and Yalta, but he was never 
one of them. Lesser politicians and public Figures pampered them 
for years but finally denounced them. 17 The Proditor, on the other 
hand, lakes a savage delight in severing all his roots, deliberately 
seeking out and joining his country's enemies, foreign and domes- 
tic, and in the process enthusiastically upending and destroying 
everyone and everything once closest to his heart and mind, 

The Proditor, in short, takes up permanent residence in that far 
country the Gracchiie and Truckler dart 1 not and will not pen- 
etrate. Though he may fancy himself a Robin Hood, though he 
may manufacture the mosl plausible and idealistic excuses for his 
great and small treacheries, the Proditor — why be euphemistic? — is 
a common or, more precisely, an uncommon criminal. 

The circumstances which produce the Proditor do not defy anal- 
ysis. As with the Gracchiie, (here is often the preliminary personal 
failure. The subsequent drift into exotic political philosophies is 
more of an indicator than a cause of the treason to come, 

Thomas Paine deserted his wife, then filed for bankruptcy. Next 
he deserted his country, England, went to America, and after a few 
years returned to Europe, where he helped 1 to stir up die revolu- 
tionary terror in France. In 1796 Paine accused Washington oi 
treachery, 18 a libel which has not shaken Paine from his lofty ped- 
estal in the lilxTal pantheon, though more recent charges of trea- 
son by non-liberals were not received so warmly. 19 



17, Giving some of ihe bcsl yean til one's life to supporting die Soviet Union 
was a Form of disloyalty fot any Majority member, whether il lx* outright spying, or 
wholesale lying in tiook*, magazines, and speeches defending rapacious Com- 
munist regimes. Foi thin reason, such Parly members or fallow travelers as Max 
Eastman, Granville Hick*, [obn Chamberlain, Wiffiam Henry Chamberlin and 
[antes Rurnham came awfully close to qualifying for the Proditor category, even 
though all oi litem evcnUially saw the erroi of then ways and ended up preaching 
sguwt instead of lot the U S.S.R., then onetime spiritual Fatherland, and Marx, 
F-ngels and Lenin, thru onetime Holy Trinity. 

18. Ln retaliation, Theodore Roosevelt called Paine "adirty Uttic atheist." 
10. Namely. Senator Joseph McCarthy's charges again si Central Marshall and 
Robert Welch's against Eisenhower 



Ill 



The Dispossessed Majority 



John Brown also went through bankruptcy before he found his 
true vocation: striving to ignite the Civil War. He firs* lasted blood 
<luring the Kansas land settlement disputes, when he and his four 
sons attacked five sleeping men in their tents and harked them to 
death with swords. 20 At Harpers Ferry he seemed as eager to incite 
die slaves to revolution and mayhem as he was to free ihem. 

El is inherent in the renegade profession that betrayal is easier 
the second time around. With scarcely a qualm the defector be- 
comes the redefector; the agent the double agent. Almost ritualis- 
tically the Prod ri or makes a new career out of confessing his pre- 
vious sins and informing against his previous associates. 

Whiuaker Chambers was perhaps the prime example of the re- 
defector, A sad piece of flotsam as a young man, yei gifted with a 
certain tasteless intellectuality, he became, in succession^ drifter, 
Marxist, Communist party courier, senior editor of Time, star wit- 
ness against Alger Hiss, and, in the autumn of his years, author of 
an agonizing, best-selling confessional. 11 the theme ni Witness had 
not been so banal, Chambers, a late-blooming Quaker, might have 
reached the autobiographical heights of a St. Augustine- With tor- 
tured introspection and in soap opera detail, he recounted 
how he first betrayed himself, then his people, then his country, 
then his adopted country {the U.S.S.R.), and finally his friends. 

Oregon-born John Reed, another noteworthy Proditor, actually 
became a member of (he Communist parly Executive Committee 
in Moscow He died, aged thirty-three, ai the peak of the Kofshcvik 
ferment and lies in a grave by the Kremlin wall — 8,000 miles from 
home, but only a stone's throw from the bones of Statin. 

More recent Prodhors are: Jane Fonda and Ramsey Clark, both 
of whom openly trafficked with the enemy during the war in Viet- 
nam; the Majority men and women who belonged to the mixed- 
race Symbionese Liberation Army thai engaged in murder, may, 
hem, and kidnapping; the Majority students who belonged to the 
Studerm for a Democratic Society, another organization dedicated 
primarily, not to class war, but to a minority racial ascendancy. 

Alger Hiss, who almost deserves a special category of his own, 
dwarfs all other Majority traitors, past and present, not only in the 

20. Altogether there were right member* of Brown's homicrdfl team. One ul 

iJlc'ih, Ilirodore Weiner, was a Jew. 



THK MAJORITY AT BAY 



ur> 



nature but in the extern of his treason. Benedict Arnold, whose 
forebears, were English, who married a Loyalist, and who betrayed a 
country thai was only a few years old, could not be accused of the 
higher treason of betraying his racial and cultural antecedents, Aa- 
ron Burr's treason was not loial, since it might possibly have re- 
sulted in the establishment of an American empire in Mexico. 

Alger Hiss, on the other hand, directly served a foreign totalitar- 
ian colossus whose political, social, and economic philosophy and 
military strategy were unalterably ami-American, Although he 
moved in the highest circles and had received many of the im- 
portant rewards and honors, his country was able to bestow, he put 
his wide-ranging lalents and valuable connections at the disposal of 
an international comploi, whose aim was the destruction or muta- 
tion of everything that had made his own success possible, Hiss is 
the supreme case of die brilliant mind, cut loose from all racial 
moorings, turning againsl itself. In his Diwne Cuviedy, Dante re- 
served the greatest torments for Judas, Cassius, and Brutus, the be- 
trayers of their benefactors,. lie might have been hard put to con- 
ceive of a circle of hell adequate for the likes of Alger Hiss.'-' 1 



All Splitters of the Ranks — Gracchites, Trucklers* Fussyfooters, 
Old Believers, and Product's — wound and mortify the Majority less 
by their activity or passivity, their secret complicity or open col- 
laboration with their adversaries than by the confusion with which 
they surround the Majority-minority confrontation. The mere pres- 
ence of a Majority member in minority gatherings or street dem- 
onstrations, the mere appearance of a Majority name- un the letter- 
head of minority lobbies or fund-raising organizations helps to dis- 
guise the essentially racial character of these groups. Also, by ap- 
pealing to carefully chosen principles of liberal thoughi and civility 

21 . The treason of atomic »pies Julius and Ethel Rosenba=ig, Harry t; tJ ld, Morton 
Scbeffi, and David GccengUffib -even though it may have % deadli.i imparl on the 
American hituir (see Chapter 3S), lacked the racial and cultural depravity and the. 
vti-abasrim ill ot i.he Majority traitors. The Rosenbergs el al. writ mrmbers of an 
riiassiimlabV Minority. Sim e they started otu will) fewer real and sentimental at- 
rat -hnirnts to their country of residence, die (iordian knoi ihcv bad to cut was tied 
moir loosely and made of weaker rope. Jonathan Pollard, (.he American Jew con- 
victed in IW7 of spying for Israel, openly admitted his loyalty t<< Zionism. He said 
1 lis crimes were his "racial obligation. 



i\(\ 



The Dispossessed Majority 



awl to carefully selecied tenets of religion and ethics, Majority 
Splitters of the Ranks are able ro pose as the legitimate heirs to the 
great Western humanitarian tradition. In this guise they can more 
easily lend the gloss of mora) respectability and a sense of Christian 
urgency to minority Rmlfrolitik. 

The number and influence of Splitters of the Ranks will not sub- 
stantially decrease until the Majority member who encourages, de- 
fends, or excuses minority-oriented liberalism and minority racism 
can no longer make a successful career out of depreciating the Ma- 
jority stake in American civilization. Until such time, the lower 
ranks of the Majority will havi ro tarry the main burden of the Ma- 
jority's defense, relying chiefly on their instincts, on their un brain- 
washed ami fcxnbrainwashable common sense, and on their inex- 
pungible consciousness of kind — in other words, on their genetic 
resources. 



CHAPTER 12 



The Aesthetic Prop 



Onk SUCH genetic resource might be defined as the Aesthetic 
Prop. 
Even the most committed racial equaliiarian can hardly deny 
tluit the physical trails of ihe idealized Nordic stereotype are deem- 
ed desirable by most whites and many nonwhites. 1 The current so- 
ciological Sine, partly derived From Marxism, is that these trails are 
not favored because of an inborn or universal aesthetic preference, 
but because they ai e typical of the dominant population group and 
ipso facto bestow higher social slams upon their possessors. 

It is not difficult to find holes in the materialistic theory of aes- 
thetics. The first documented evidence of blondisrn is an Egyptian 
wall painting of a daughter of Cheops, Queen Hetcp-Heres II. 2 If 
tone of the earliest and greatest Egyptian pharaohs had a blond 
daughter, both he and his wife must have had some blond genes,* 
BJondness, consequently, must have been attractive or prestigious 
as far back as 3075 B.C. in a highly civilized land of brunet Mediter- 
raneans and never ruled, as far as anyone knows, by a blond race. 

In classical times there were constant references to the blonriism 
of Roman gods ami demigods,* The conventions of the Greek the- 
ater called for a black-wigged and black-haired tyrant, red hair 



1. Thr stereotype has been described <W p Sfi. 

2, Coon, Thr Races of Europe, p. Q&. 

B. BlondUm is a recessive trail which mnM be pirx-ni in both patents. It nuy be 
indicated by li^ht blown as well u by IjUmuI hair, whic h even in the piuest Nordic 

is likely to darken with advancing age. 

■1. Flavrt is, thr Uuin worri for yellow, golden or unburn, was "the cok>i uni- 
versally ascrilx-ii n> ihe haii ol heroic persons by the ancients." J. B Creeiumgh, 
Vtrjni ami tht Othet Latin Poet* (nun & Co., Boston, 19S0, p. 133, note 590. 

M7 



The Dispossessed Majority 



for [ho dishonest slave, and fair curls for the youthful hero, s Ovid 
and Martial declared that light hair was preferred by Roman ma- 
trons for wigs 3 a preference which spread to America 1,000 years 
later. 6 Pope Gregory the Great railed some Anglo-Saxon captives 
lie happened to see in Rome not Angles but "angels" because they 
were "biighfc-beautied" and of "gracious outward sheen." 7 

The Rigsthula, a cultural poem of the Vikings, describes early 
Scandinavian society as tripartite: a black-haired, wrinkled skinned 
lower class, a yeoman class with sturdy bodies and ruddy laces, and 
a nobility with blond hair and skin whiter than driven snow.* Of the 
medieval Caliphate of Cordova it has l>eon written, "Most of the Ca- 
liphs were fair or ginger-haired with blue eyes,"- 1 a coloration per- 
haps due to intermarriage with the earlier Visigothk nobility. The 
most noble families in Christian Spain, who claimed direct descent 
from the Visigoths, had skin so white that the blue network of theii 
veins was highly visible. For this reason sangre ami (blue blood) Ik- 
carne a synonym for members of the aristocracy. The veins wj men - 
lowly horn Spaniards were obscured by their darker Mediterranean 
skin. lu 

More tenuous evidence of the aesthetic appeal of light colora- 
tion is offered by the legend of Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec god of die 
air, who allegedly instructed the copper-skinned Mexicans in the 
use ol metals and in the arts of government, lie was said to have 
white skin and a beard, the latter being practically unknown to the 
almost beardless natives. When he had incurred the wrath of ant- 
other divinity, he left Mexico and sailed east across the Great 
Ocean, saying he would return. In Peru asomewhal similar myth 



5. A. E. Haigh, AutcTheam, Cforcmhm Pm*. Oxford, 1907, pp 221,239 

6. "We're paying lift a pound for Oriental hair and as much as J.'^C) a pound 
loi tin.* hesi blond Furojwan hair," said Adolphjacobv, an executive* of a New York 
wig firm. Wail Street Journal Oct. 17, lOftf, p. I. 

7 Will Derail, TTtsAgnfFmtht p. 522. 

8. Coon, The liaees of Europe, p 321 

9. Enrique Sordo, Moorish Spain, Crown, New York, l*Jfi2, p 1M. Also see Cities of 
I)f\tin\, rii Arnold Tnvubec. McGratr-Httt, New York, fc967 Although it is not 
widely known, Arabs have always drawn a very distinct i olor line. In present-day 
Iraq a citizen can obtain a legal judgment against a person falsely accusing him of 
Ncrro ancestry Carteton Coon, Coiuwin, Henry Holt, New York, 195], p, 161, 

10. lion Quixote says of the fictitious, Biol Lhe real, Dnlcinea, *sus cabelto* son 
ore. . .mi blancura. mere," Cervantes, [ktn Quijote* E. Casulla, Madnd, l*KW"i, p. l JS. 



mii MAJORITY AT BAY 



111) 



has white, bearded men conquering the pre-Incan inhabitants and 
imparting to them the secrets of civilization. 11 Today the Aesthetic 
Prop still persists in Latin America, especially in those areas where 
Negroes and Indians predominate. As remote a town as ha on the 
upper Amazon has a simple rule of thumb Tor status: the lighter 
the skin, the higher the class. A light complexion is acknowledged 
by all and sundry as the hallmark of tx:auiy. 12 Even in Japan pale 
complexions are favored. The Japanese expression for well-born is 
"deep window," which refers to the lighter pigmentation of people 
shielded from the sun by thick-walled houses- 15 

The purely aesthetic appeal of Nordicism is undeniable through- 
out the contemporary United Slates. Light-haired, narrow-faced, 
long-headed males still dominate men's fashion ads, while in the 
so-called counterculture, supposedly a complete rejection of con- 
temporary tastes and styles, the jnVl wilh blond hair, whether long, 
straight or c ruled, frizzled or tornrowed, still remains the symbol 
of desirable femininity. Each year millions of American women 
spend tens of millions oi dollars on hair bleaches. "Blondes have 
more fun" has practically Ih-cuiiic a proverb, as has "Gentlemen 
prefer blondes." 1 " 1 

The avalanche oi artificial blondes unloosed by such publicity, 
accompanied by the incongruous and ugly contrast of platinum 
hair with dark eyes, dark eyebrows, and olive skin, should have been 



] 1. William H. Prevent, The History of the Chnquest of Mexico and the History of l lie 
Gmquesi nf Peru, Modern Library, New York, pp. 39, 736. Other investigators of 
Mexico's piehisioiy lUtjiv thai Qm-t/ali iVul had white* physical traits. Cesar A. 
Sam/, Qtittzalefolk Institute Naci<mal de \nimpologia e Historic, Mexico, 1962. 
For a series of lively asides on die Mexican god, sec D. H. Lawrence, The Plumed 
SerfmU. These inclined to wring history froin myrh can baidly ocape feeling that 
Quet/.alcoad was a shipwrecked, houiesit k Viking. 

12. ('hades WagW, Amazon Town, Mucuiillan, New York, 1953, pp. 12-40. 

IS. L(/>,Scpt. 5, 1969, p, it 

14, Gentlemen jhrfrr BLt titles was die tide of a novel by a brunette Hollywood film 
writer, Anita Loos, whose father was of French descent. Misa LtXW later explained 
why she had wiitteu ihe lunik: "The satisfaction of getting even wilh Mae Davis for 
seducing tbe man I lnvd [H. L. Mencken] more than paid for the pains [of writ- 
ing it J. "She continued her vendetta against blondes in anodier novel, But Cenile 

men Marry Bnmttfu. In spite of the author's best intentions, however, tlie "dumb," 
gpld^digging IxsrHei has entered American folklore as die knowing young blonde 
who gets her wav. Anita Loos, A GML&U I Viking Tress, Nrw York, 1966, p. 274. 



120 



The Dispossessed Majority 



enough 10 destroy lite blond ideal forever. Thai it did not verified 
an enduring, deeply ingrained acsiheiic preferenre on the part of 
most Americans.* 5 Many other ways of tampering with nature: nose 
Straightening and nose bobbing, electrolysis to raise the hair line 
and heighten the brow and forehead* elevator shoes to increase 
stature have been adopted by minority members striving to ^ive 
themselves a "Majority look.* 16 

The power of the Aesthetic Prop is also apparent in current 
American mating and dating habits. Although the Majority is in the 
descendant, the mosi up-and-coming minority males seem driven 
to man v or seek out the company of Majority females. For proof 
one has only to look at the couples who throng the most expensive 
nightclubs, restaurants, and resort hotels. Moreover the Nordic 
physical ideal has not only heen the marriage ideal of the minority 
"New Rich" in America, but of European social climbers for at ieast 
.t thousand years. 

The relatively small number ol Nordics in the world — an estimat- 
ed 300 million in 1080 and fast declining — has doubtlessly en- 
hanced their aesthetic appeal. Rarity per se exercises a special at- 
traction, and what is beautiful generally contains an element of die 
uncommon. Just as the pure Nordic is quite a rarity among the 
part-Nordics who comprise most of the American Majority, so the 
American Majority represents a rare and esoteric type of the world 
population as a whole. To whites and nonwhites alike, Nordics are 
the personification of the white race because they are the "whitest" 
whites. Perhaps the best description ol the physical attractiveness 
of the Majority has been given by Wyndham Lewis: 

It is a common experience in talking to A mem ana to hear 
some magnificent human S|>ecimen {who is obviously tine issue of 



15. ftlonditm i* BlOst appealing when at * "cimpaiiieii by Otfaei Nordic physical 
c-haracLcrisiics. If ii were not for the color sensitivity ol mosi Americans, Nordic 
pigmentation and skin shade might hr less important ihan other Nordic trails as 
criteria oi male hamlsmtirnesa and female beauty. Certainly "uill. dark and hand- 
*mie" Norrik Mcdilrnaiirarts Air nunc atUaiuvc physical s|K-riinrn* thu 'inn- 
er, squatter, though MonoVr, type-*. 

Id. Simian mania doe* not contradict the logic uf the Aesthetic Piop. Hie ultra- 
violet pays of the sun may tbiken die skin, but they also lighten Lhc hail and pro- 
vide a pleasing centra s t to light eves and other manifestations of light coloration 
Basically, a suntan ts a sign of health and weald) — both a temporary camouflage 
and an exotic i[iav|uriadr. 



THE MAJORITY AT BAY 



121 



say a first-class Swede and a magnificent Swisses, with a hale- 
Irish and a touch of Basque) refer to himself as a "mongrel*" 
It is inconceivable yet indeed that is how a "mixed" product 
is apt to look upon this superb marriage of Scandinavian, 
Coin, and Celt — all stocks as closely related in blood. . .as the 
Brahmamc caste in India. . . . 

All you have Jo do is look al this sterling type, of "mixed" 
American to admire the purity of line and fine adjustment 
achieved by the conjunction of these sister slocks. Far from 
lx*iug a "mongrel," of course, he is a soil of super-European; 
die t>csi of several closely allied stocks have met in him, in ex- 
actly the same way as was constantly happening in the noble 
European families — where the issue of marriage between no- 
bles, whether from England and Italy, or Spain and Russia, 
did not constitute a "hall-breed, '" bui rather a more exalted 
feudal product. . . . ' ' 

The possibility thai the Aesthetic Prop goes beneath the skim 
thai there is a relationship between what Herbert Spencer called 
"beauty of character and U-auiy of aspen," raises problems which 
are beyond the scope of this siudy. ,H However, without becoming 
too entangled in psyrhobiological complexities, one musl agree 
with Spencer's suggestion thai beauty is "idealization away from the 
ape." Three principal sources of ugliness, according to Spencer, 
are recession of the forehead, the protulx-rancc of the jaw, and 
large cheekbones* Consequently only those human beings are 
handsome whose jaws and cheekbones have been pulled back and 
nasal depressions filled in. Other qualifications are the absence of 
any forward opening of the nostrils and a small mouth. 79 Since 
the idealized Nordic meets these requirements more closely 
than other racial stereotypes, it follows that Nordics are tin- 
least "apelike" «>t mortals and hence most deserving of first prize in 



17. Wymlhain 1 /-wis, PaUF&te, Chaito ami Wimhis, London, 1929, p. 278. 

18. Herbert Spencer, Esssys* Appletcm, New York, I0U), Vol. H, p, 567- Scho- 
pcnhauei was ami the* philosopher who believed in a connection between out- 
ward appearance and irtnei being. The mouth, he said, expreasei the thought <>! 
num. while the Face expresses the thought of nature and die specie*. "Wlu.ehi iaa 
jedes Mriisrhrn^rsuht erne Mit-n^lvphr." is how Srhoprnhauri summed up his 
opinion of the matter, Ptfrwgfl und PorsUpomrtia, F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1877, 
pp. 670-71, 

1<). Ibid., pp. 390-92. 



122 



The Dispossessed Majority 



the ethnic beauty contest. 2Q 

The Aesthetic Prop, moreover, has often been carried over into 
the realm of ethics and even polities, Plato was neither the first hof 
(he last to equate beauty with the good. All else being equal, the 
handsome (i.e., Nardil -looking) politician or statesman has usual!) 
been able to evoke more deference than his less handsome (i.e., 
less Nordic-looking) rival, whose unprepossessing appearance mav 
be a severe handicap in winning and keeping a following. Realizing 
the force these aesthetic standards still exert in the West, a percep- 
tive intellectual like Marxist philosopher George Lukacs, who stands 
well outside the Northern European genetic and cultural locus, 
has reacted !>\ having a "liberal fear of beauty, with [an] obsessive 
suspicion thai beauty and, by inference, a good deal of art is a 
mask preventing a clear view of human evil and suffering.*^ 1 

Ii was the Aesthetic Prop which prolonged the survival of the de- 
cadent Teutonic aristocracy in Central and Southern Europe cen- 
turies after it had been stripped of its preeminence. It is the same 
Aesthetic Prop which helps the American Majority to hold on 10 
the trappings, but not the substance, of its former power. ** Only in 
the sector of aesthetics, through the pervasiveness of the idealized 
Nordic biological type and its continued acceptance as the nation- 
al template of physical charm and attractiveness, has the Majority 
been ahle to mount a small bur successful holding acdon in die 
present-dav racial melee. 



20. In ;t work ih:a {'..lis diaresaingly short of Moby Ihck and Btlly Budd t Melville 
earned mi* physical ai^umem into the spiritual plane when he attempted lu 
cquaie blondism With goodness. In Pierre, Melville has Isabel complain; "Oh, God! 
ih;it 1 had been bom with blue eyes, and fair hair! These make the livery of heav- 
en! Heard ye ever yet of a good angel with dark eyes, Pierre?— no, no, no— ail 
blur, blue, blue— heaven's own blue. . , ." Pierre, Hendrick's House, New Ymk. 
11)57, p. 370. In contrast, Melville's novella, Benito Cerrno, matched only by Con- 
lad's Heart of&wktl&& iu plumbing the dark side Of Negro mentality, seemed to 
propose- a correlation between bfeeltnew and evil, Montesquieu and Mozart were 
also charier BMmlwrs of die "Black is not Beautiful" club. In the hater's opera, Die 
■/MnbrrjKtr, his black villain, MotmMaLos, sing*, "Wc*s ist. schon, weil ein Sehwarar 
hasslich ist." 

21. Times Literary SuftplemetiU June 18, H»7(), p. tiriO. 

2l>. Alter Crying to persuade Negro ftirls lo go hack to natural, woolly hairdo 
and give up bleaching creams and Western dress styles, black militants search out 
while girls, preferring, when they vacation abroad, Scandinavia to Africa. FWhn 
Knebe.1, 'The Black Woman's Ikmleu," Look, Sept. 2.S, I960, pp. 77-79. 



PART IV 



The Minorities: 

Assimilated and Unassimilable 



CHAPTER 13 



The Assimilated Minorities 



It has been shown thai 55,506,205 Americans — almost SO per- 
cent of the nation's population — belong fo what have been de- 
scribed as Assimilated Minorities. 1 In the terminology of physical 
anthropology! these minorities are predominantly Alpine, a des- 
ignation which in this study also encompasses the Diuarie and Fast 
Baltic races. Geographically speaking, their countries of origin 
have been Ireland, France, the Slavic lands, and various Central I'.u 
ropean and Balkan states. Mostly descended from those who ar- 
rived in the rnid-lOth century and in later immigrant waves, As 
similated Minority members, owing to their unremote racial and 
cultural affinities to the Northern European or Nordic elements of 
the population, have largely been absorbed into the Majority demo- 
graphic matrix. 

In the following sections, which list and briefly examine the As 
similaied Minorities, no Northern European population group, ex- 
cept the Irish and the Finns, will be found. This may seem strange, 
since many of the Germans, Dutch, and Belgians, and more than a 
few of the Scandinavians and British who came to America were Al- 
pines and part of the New Immigration, But Alpinism by itsc-li is no 
serious impediment to the assimilation process. Neither is lau- at ■ 
lival. What does retard or hinder assimilation is a combination oi 
or, more precisely, a manifold of Alpinism, late arrival, religious 
and linguistic differences, a tradition of political absolutism and 
peonage and, in the case oF the Slavic groups, an Kasurn Eu- 
ropean rather than a Western cultural heritage. 



I.SeeTafete II, p. 60 



26 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Because Alpines of Northern European descent have not bad 
this multiplicity of obstacles blocking their assimilation, most have 
been given automatic Majority slams and considered assimilated. 
The same dispensation has been extended to Alpines of Swiss, Aus- 
trian, and Northern French origin, But this is not to say thai all 
Americans of Northern European descent, Nordic or Alpine, are 
Majority members in good standing. Some Irish and other Amer- 
icans of equally authentic Northern European lineage still retain a 
smattering of ciannishness, vote en bloc 2 and cling halfheartedly 
to their Old World folkways, The Pennsylvania Dutch are another 
example of persistent ciannishness. Some Eastern Europeans, es- 
pecially those who have been minorities in their own homelands, 
brought with them a minority consciousness that has only been 
partly eradicated. Many French in Louisiana and New England still 
speak the patois of their European forebears. Certain religious 
sects teach their members the necessity of moral or physical seces- 
sion from society at Large. All these population groups, however, 
have lost part or most of their Old World affiliations and, if not yet 
completely assimilated, may well be so in a few more decades. Be- 
cause oi their declining numbers and their accelerating rate of 
Americanization, ii is probably more accurate to classify them as 
tribes, clans or cults than as bona tide minorities. Increasing pres- 
sure and challenges from Unassimilahle Minorities sometimes in- 
duce Assimilated Minority members to dust oil some of their faded 
Old World Lies, but in general they are closing ranks as whites, not 
as Poles, French or whatever. 

An American of Northern European descent who cannot be de- 
scribed as fully assimilated is the first-generation and, less often, 
the second-generation American from Britain, Germany, Holland, 
Scandinavia, or Canada. No matter how closely he or she approx- 
imates the Majority racial and cultural norm, the newcomer, as op- 
posed to the latecomer, almost always retains some traces of 



2. A nationwide but indecisive Get man vote was noted .tv [»te aa World War II. 
when some German Americans turned againsi Prcaideni ftoo*evelt because of His 
interventionist policies, BoUh German Protestants and German Catholics voted in 
large numbers for Eisenhower, but many oi thr hutei sw'm lied hark u> the Dem- 
ocratir party when Catholic John Kennedy ran toi tlw presidency. Kevin Phillip*, 
The Emerging Kefwhbran Majority, Arlington Mouse, Nw Rochelle, New York, 1969 
pp. 296,314,3tti. 



THE MINORITIES; ASSIMI1AIKD AND UNASS1MIIATED 127 

minority consciousness — a consciousness which lie often manages 
to pass on to his children and sometimes, depending on its inten- 
sity* to bis grandchildren. The foreign birth of such contemporary 
left-leaning public figures as Cyrus Eaton, John Galbraiih, and 
James Reston has probably had more influence than they would ad- 
mit on their political and social attitudes. If Earl Warren's father 
had been born in America instead of Norway and if he had not 
been such an intransigent socialist, it is possible that his son, when 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Canirt, would have been more con- 
cerned whh Majority than minority Interests. * 

Since il is only a question of lime until the progeny of the few 
Northern European holdouts will be part and panel of the Major- 
ity, attention will now he focused on the Assimilated Minorities. 
These are the population groups who at one time or another in 
the past were reticent about assimilation — a process they regarded 
as a cultural leap into the unknown, if not a form ol ethnic sur- 
render. 

Irish:' 1 One of the major ironies of American history is thai the 
population group that has wielded so much political power in the 
United Slates in the first half of the twentieth century had until its 

arrival in the New World a very limited experience with the dem- 
ocratic process. 5 Although this inexperience was not necessarily 
due to a personal failing or to an innate antipathy to democracy— 
their British masters handed out freedom sparingly — the Irish were 
never able to establish a permanent representative government in 
Ireland until comparatively recently. Only in 1948, when the great 
Irish overseas migrations to America had long since ended, did Ire- 
land, after a few decades of commonwealth status, achieve com- 
plete independence. 

Ireland or Eire may be a republic now, but the ancestors of 



3. Rcsion was horn in Scotland. Eaton and Galbraiih in Canatw, I.ikr Warren, 
Senator Henry Jackson and 1080 presidential candidate John AndeflMl hud Scan- 
dinavian immigrant fathers, 

1. For the dinincuon between the Cachetic hish ;md tin- ProieUant Stou h h ish 
from Ulster, sec footnote 9, p. \$. 

5, The importance ol immigrant groups In the history of Amerirfta poiiucacan 
hardly be overestimated. In this histoiv the hish h.ive play* d the piincipal ro&e. 
DlM Am&ia, Fnmcn J. Brown, ed.,PreuuVe-Hatl, Kn^lt-wuod Cliffs, N. ] ., p. M. 



128 



The Dispossessed Majority 



present-day Irish Americans had for the most parr never passed 
through the long, exasperating, but richly instructive cycle of polit- 
ical apprenticeship which evolved from feudal aristocracy through 
absolute monarchy to representative democracy. 

In the detailed racial study of 10,000 Irish males in Ireland by F.A. 
llooton, 28.9 percent were classified as Nordic-Mediterranean, 
25.3 as Keltic, 18.6 Dinarir, 118,4 Nordic-Alpine, 6,8 predominantly 
Nordic, 1.1 Fast Baltic, 0,6 Pure Nordic, 0.3 Pure Mediterranean. 6 
C.arleton Coon, whose racial terminology often differed from Dr. 
Ilooton's, found a relatively large Upper Palaeolithic streak in the 
Irish racial makeup. 7 Irish physical types consequently range from 
a Nordic-seasoned racial mix, scarcely distinguishable from thai of 
most other Northern Europeans, 8 to the heavy-boned, heavy-set, 
broad-faced, large-framed Upper Palaeolithic type, presumably the 
genetic remains of an older European race which fled to the out- 
ermost regions of Western Europe to escape (he Kelts and other in- 
vaders. Another distinctive breed is the "Black Irish," the inhabit- 
ants of the Emerald Isle with the most pronounced Mediterranean 
cast, the reputed descendants of prehistoric Atlamir-Mediierra- 
neana who cruised up the Atlantic coast from Gibraltar and Portu- 
gal. According to legends that have circulated for centuries about 
the On Id Sod, the Black Irish are the distant offspring of ship- 
wrecked sailors from the Spanish Armada. 

The racial balance of Ireland has been reproduced fairly closely 
by i lie rank and file of Irish Americans, though possibly with less 
accent <m the Nordic element. The Irish exodus was composed 
chiefly of the poorer segments of the population— the tenant farm- 
era and the bo#-dwelling western Irish, who were iimsi removed in 
time ami place from the more Nordic Irish in the east, where V'i- 
kings. Normans, and English had been settled for centuries, One 
set of physical traits— pug nose, freckles, red hair, and the "world's 
Muesi eyes" — though not exclusively Irish, has come to be viewed, 



!'. K. A. Ilootoit and G. W. Dnperiuis, Tht Physical Anthrof*>hg) .>/ heUiud, i\ t p*M ■- 
of iht- IViilxxIy Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University Vol 
XXX, Nos. 1-2, p. 143. 

7. Coon, The Ratt.% of Eui-ape* pp. a7(V-Rl. 

8 Wyndham Lewis, describing a mixed Anglo-lush demunMjaUan m London, 
wiDte, "I was never able to discover which were Irish and which were English . . . 
ihry lookrd in me exacdy the same* Pat* Fare, pp. 384-85. 



THE MINORITIES; ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMILVTED 129 

ai least in America, as the basic ingredient of a common Irish stereo- 
type* 6 

If F. A. I looioiTs racial studies are on the mark, Nordic Alpines, 
Predominantly Nordics and Pure Nordics account for 25.8 percent 
of the Irish of Ireland. This might lie reduced to 20 percent for the 
Irish immigration, to allow for die smaller proportion of Nordic 
elements. In all, nearly 22 million Americans of Irish descent are in 
the United States. 10 

The voting record of the Irish is a telling demousuration of their 
march from assimilable lo assimilated. In the 1952 presidential race, 
it was estimated that about 38 percent of the Catholic vote went to 
Eisenhower, An even higher ratio of Catholics voted Republican in 
the 1956 election. 11 In I960, however, a Gallup Poll stated that 
three out of live Catholics who voted for Eisenhower switched to 
Kennedy. n Applying these percentages to the Irish segment of the 
Catholic population and m the Irish-American population as a 
whole, as well as to lush voters, 6-8 million Irish £38 percent) were 
in the Republican ranks in 1952, perhaps as many as 7 million in 
1956. Then in I960* 50 percent of these temporary Republicans ie- 
uirned to the Democratic Fold. This left 2.9 million Irish to vote for 
Nixon, the non-Caiholic loser. A much larger number of Irish vot- 
ed for Ronald Reagan, who had an Irish father, in his two success- 
ful runs for the presidency, which had the side effect of sweeping 
some big-city Irish political machines out of office. In l u0 2 the 
Irish recaptured Chicago's mayoralty, bul in 1998, ending a hK-year 
reign, lost Boston's to an Italian. I'he Irish still vote as Irish in some 
large Northern cities, but they can no longer he described as a sol- 
id, nationwide voting bloc. ,3 



9„ Coon, Op, til., pp. 371, SSI, S8S- Knsliy eyebrows, lai^c hr-.uls, pmminenl 
* bin*, long and convex up]H-r lips, and grrai maiai birudth aie othei faiily com- 
mon Irish u .iits. 

10. S<:e Table 2, Appendix ft. 

11. William Shannon, Tht Amrit,<in frtih Mannillan. N. V,, 1965, pp. 110-1 I. 
I?. Ibid. 

13. During the l'.H'.O prcsidc-nbal HrcLioii Nixon seldom talked about his Irish 
ancestors, who wcic m»i Catholics, while Kennedy wirh his unmistakable Keltic 
looks played his ethnic and irligkHII bai k^ionnd to the hill in Northern urban ar- 
eas. In the 1970 ( «.ii;.',u-ssional election campaign, however, Nixon, who was plan- 
ning a second go at ihe presidency, took a nip to Ireland, where ninch wa 
of his hish forebeifi. 



as uiaoe 



I'M) 



The Dispossessed Majority 



This does not mean that the Irish because they have changed 
their voting habits have changed their character, which Cart Wittke 
described as a 

mixture of flaming ego, hot Lemper, stubbornness, great per- 
sonal charm and warmth and a wti that shines through ad- 
versity. An irrepressible buoyancy, a vivacious spirit, a kind- 
liness and tolerance oK tin com mo n frailties ol men . * . quick 
lo anger and quirk to forgive, frequently duped . . . gener- 
ous, hospitable and loyal. 

Wittke also asserted that the Irish, although demonstrating a tal- 
ent tor art and literature, have never been particularly outstanding 
in the fields of science and invention. 14 

Ii was the great potato famine of the 1840s that first brought the 
Irish to America in large numbers. They carried with them hitter 
memories of starvation, humiliation and suppression under the 
heel of the English. Once they had finished their pick-and-shovel 
apprenticeship on the Erie Canal and on the railroads, they gath- 
ered together in large cities and often renewed their feud with the 
British Umpire by extending it to Americans of English extraction.. 

As Irish Americans began to control the Democratic political ma- 
chines in the northern cities, they often used them as weapons of 
defense and revenge against the Republican party, which jiv many 
Irish-American eyes represented the interests of the English- 
descended establishment. Chicago Mayor *Big Hill" Thompson's well- 
publicized promise in 11)27 to "make the King of England keep his 
snoot out of America" was a typical appeal to Gaelic Anglo- 
phobia. 15 A later flare-up of this century-old hostility took place in 
tin 1966 New York City subway strike, in which Michael Quill, head 
of the Transport Workers Union, attempted to nun the walkout 
into a personal vendetta against Mayor John Lindsay, who in spite 
ol his Graechtte ultraliberalism was viewed as being, if not as had as 
an Orangeman, at least as bad as a WASP. 16 

\4 Carl Wittke, The lri\h in Amenta, Louisiana Suur University Press, Baton 
Routfe, I956 t p. 235, 

15, Literary Digest, Nov. 5, 1927, p. J. 

16. New York Timet, Jati. 2, 1966, p. 1, and Jan 1, 1966, pp. 11, 17 The whoUe ai- 

iri<»|)h<-rr suiroiind'mg the strike talk*, according lo one Times reporter, was 
"Down the EjfiglUh IVotestanl! Up the Irish!" 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMI1ATED AND UNASSIMHATED 131 



\\ is almost impossible lo write about the Irish in America with- 
out bringing in the Roman Catholic Church. Irish Catholicism, 
where men as well as women attend services, is vastly different from 
Catholicism in Spain, France and Italy, where the congregations 
consist almost entirely of women and where ami-clericalism is a tra- 
ditional male prerogative. The cherished place in their hearts Lhat 
Irish everywhere reserve for the Church is largely due to the tat- 
ter's participation in the long struggle for Irish independence. 
Irish priests often had as high a price on their heads as lay patriots^ 
as the Church used all its resources to keep Irish morale from sag- 
ging in the darkest days of the Protestant occupation. Consequent- 
ly, a secular as well as a religious link exists between the Catholic 
Church And most Irish Americans. In Latin countries where, dur- 
ing long spells of medieval and modern history, Catholic prelates 
allied themselves with aristocrats, monarchs and plutocrats, the sec 
ufar connection is much weaker. 

Having helped keep li eland alive lor so many centuries, the 
Catholic Church has fought a dogged, rearguard, but losing action 
io insulate its Irish-American Hock against the enticement! and 
pressures of assimilation The Church feared that marrying into, 
even socializing, with members of the predominantly non-Irish, 
non-Catholic majority might be ihe first step in abandoning the 
fajrh — the faith that fills pews and collection boxes to overflowing. 
Although the Irish account lor less than half of all American Cath- 
olics, they remain the dominant Catholic congregation, furnishing 
most of the money and most of the hierarchy. Apart from the cul 
lurat and financial implications, a decline in Irish eihnocemrism 
and an accompanying decline in Irish religious fervor might ex- 
pose the American branch of the Church to a takeover by Italians, 
Poles, or 1 lispanics. 

To preclude such a development the Church has endeavored to 
keep the (ires of Irish ethnicity burning by a network of paroi hial 
schools, well-organi/ed campaigns against birth control, testrit- 
lions against out-marriage, and the subsidizing and promotion OJ a 
multitude of Irish activities. For these reasons Catholicism must 
bear a large share of the responsibility for the lingering, hyphen- 
ated status of a dwindling number of Irish Americans. Despite 
priestly qualms, however, most Irish, when they entered the ranks 
of the Majority, managed to take their religion along with tluin. 



132 



The Dispossessed Majority 



For obvious reasons the Catholic Church is officially opposed to 
Marxism and communism. Atheism is not the hierarchy's favorite 
ism. Bui it does not follow thai all Irish Americans are raging cap- 
italists. Inspired as much by time-worn national and racial an- 
tagonisms as by class antipathies, Irish leaders have been in and out 
of" the American socialist and Communist movements almost from 
the first day they arrived on these shores. William Z. Foster, whose 
father was an "English-hating Irish immigrant," was for many years 
the Grand Old Man of American communism and Fti/abedi Gur- 
ley Ffynn, the Grand Old Lady. 17 Jim Larkin, a prominent Com- 
munist rabble-rouser in the 1920s, served a term in Sing Sing lx l - 
fore lie was pardoned by Al Smith, the Catholic governor of New 
York. Vhurnt Sheean, who later became a devotee of Mahacma 
Gandhi, wrote a book, Personal History, which probably attracted 
more Americans to the Hammer and Sickle banner than any opus 
or unci l)y Engels, Marx, Lenin, frotsky, or Stalin. ia 

As might Ik- expected of an extremely verba), two-listed, hard 
working immigrant group, the Irish have been deeply involved in 
American unionism, ranging from the most radical labor organiza- 
tions 19 to the most conservative. John Mitchell was a founder of the 
United Mine Workers, and P. J. McGuire helped organize the 
American Federation of Labor. Other noted Irish-American labor 
leaders: Joseph Curran of the National Maritime Union, R II. Mor- 
rissey of (he Brotherhood of Railway Firemen, Teddy Gleason ol 
the International Longshoremen's Association, James O'CumulI 
of the International Association of Machinists, Michael Quill of the 
Transport Workers Union and, neither last nor least, George Mea- 
ny, who headed the AFL-CIO for a quarter of a century. 



17. Elizabeth Flyrm once htoic: The awareness of being Irish cam* us ua a* 
small children, through plaintive song and heroic story . . . We (hew m a burning 
hatred of British rule with our mother's milk.' Shannon, The Amencan lush, pp. 
!fiG-G7. A more modem IriahAaieriean lady radical and ;i "philosopher* of the 
Women's I .ibri aiion Movement is Katr Millett, mauied (o a Japanese. S'm> Yttrk 
Times, Aug. 27, 'WO, p. 30, 

IS. Sheean jumped off the Soviet express after the signing of the Russian- 

Gerrnac Nor*aggrc»tea pact I le once admitted to Granville 1 licks thai he had de- 

lih<TnU ly withheld I acts damaging to the U.S.S.R. when writing of ihe glories of 
Stalinism. Cirasivilk- Hidu r Part fifth* Truth, Hairouit, Hi at e, N.V., ['Ma, p. 1.H7. 
15. For (he most ra&Cal of all, the Mollv Manures, see footnote i, Chaptei Xt\. 



II IE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMILATED (33 



Irish brawn helped htiild industrial America and Irish blood 
helped defend it. There have, been great Americans of Irish de- 
scent in every era of America history and every sector of American 
activity Although llie size and extent of the Irish contribution is 

impossible to determine, historian Samuel Eliot Morison says that 
it has been less than the German. 2Q In any case if has been both 
considerable and significant. Without it present-day America would 
be markedly different. 

While Irish-American political passions have run high, Irish po- 
litical standards have frequently been low. The scandals of such 
mayors as Jimmy Walker and William Q'Dwyer of New York* James 
Curley ot Boston, and John Houlihan of Oakland, California, attest 
lo ihe success of the Irish in securing public office and their occa- 
sion^ failure to dignify it. For many years Boston, New York, Chi- 
cago, San Francisco, and several other large American cities were 
little more than Irish political fiefs, where the party bosses turned 
oui huge pluralities for the candidates of their choice, regardless 
of the issues. Recently, however, the Irish have been forced to share 
their urban bailiwicks with other minorities. In many cities their 
once undisputed political control has come to an end. 

Irish Catholics, as previously noted, lelt the Democratic party in 
large numbers in 1952, when they helped swing the election to 
Dwight Eisenhower. The Democratic allegiance of the party bosses 
remained unshaken, bui the Ivory-towered liberalism ot president- 
ial candidate Adlai Stevenson, veering more and more towards ap- 
peasement of the Soviet Union, waa too much for many oi the 
faithful, who had achieved a degree of middle-class respectability 
and affluence in the postwar economic boom. It is this same re- 
spectability and affluence, when spread among other Assimilated 
Minorities', which so often gives birth to Republican voting habits. 

As previously pointed out, most Irish closed ranks again in the 
1950 presidential election when they had a chance lo vole for one 
of their own, who was a war hero to boot. John F. Kennedy, with the 
aid ol'his lather's great wealth and his proliferating relatives, gave a 
shot in the ballot box to Irish-American politics. The emergence of 
the Kennedy dynasty, despite the assassination of its two cellar 



$0. Suniuel Kliol Muiisoii, Tfw Oxford I littery of tte Amrticav PfttpU, Ox to id Uni- 
versity Press, New York, l'.)(). r ), pp- <flWl. 



134 



The Dispossessed Majority 



members within a six-year period, did not seem to dampen Irish 
and non-Irish affection for the lesser dynasts. 

The nomination of George McGovem as the 1972 Democratic 
standard bearer, however, provoked another mass defection to the 
Republican ticket. More pragmatic than ideological, the typical 
Irish machine politician wants the people's votes, not the people's 
minds. Although liberalism is the accepted theology of the Demo 
cratk party, Irish bosses treated it largely as a vote-getting device; it 
being understood that in the privacy of their homes their own po- 
etical beliefs are likely to have a markedly anti-liberal tone. When 
foreign policy is involved, these beliefs are often brought into the 
open. All in all, Irish Americans have exercised a steadying and 
conservative influence over American international relations in 
most of this century, first by helping to preserve American neutral- 
ity during the Spanish Civil War, 21 second by supporting Catholic 
anti-Communist, parties in Western Europe after World War II. 
Without this support a mut h larger area of the European continent 
might have been Sovieti/ed. 

Al home, fear and haired of communism inspired some- Irish- 
American mavericks to cross party lines and attack Marxism and 
Marxist apologists with the demagogic innuendo thai had hitherto 
been die monopoly of Communists and vitriolic liberals. Two such 
individuals were Father Charles Coughlin, the radio priest of the 
New Deal era, and Senator Joseph McCarthy, not to t>e confused 
vviili Eugene McCarthy, the erudite Irish-Scandinavian senator 
from Minnesota A loftier intellectual tone was provided by William 
F. Buckley, jr. — like President Kennedy the son of an Irish multi- 
millionaire — whose acerbic wit and recondite posing recalled such 
French conservatives as Leon Daudet ami Charles Matirras of the 
Action Prancaise, 23 True to the equalUarian preachments of their 
church, Buckley and many other leading Irish-American conservatives 



SL Joseph Kennedy, while ambassador tu Biilain, look die lead in defending 
the embargo, which banned che shipment of war croteriel to both the Nationalist 
and Republican force* hi a tiunc most American officials were ready to lift it, 1 tugfe 
Thomas, The Spanish Cixnl War Harper*! Row, N.Y., 1961, pp. 536, 614. 

2*2. fames Bucklev, William's brother, who served a term as senator from New 
York, is a prominent member of an Irish conservative clique wirhin the Repub- 
lican p;n tv thai seeks to counterbalance the power at ihe so-t.illr.ri Irish Mafia or 
Kennedv faeuon in die Democratic party. 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UN ASSIMILATED 135 



have staunchly supported racial integration. In speaking of the 
Irish component of conservatism, it must not be forgotten that 
President Nixon, of non-Catholic Irish provenance, Vas elected to 
the presidency in a campaign substantially planned by New York 
Irish conservatives. w23 Nor should it be forgotten (haft Reagan 
had an Irish Catholic father and (hat President Clinton par- 
tially qualifies as having links to the Ould Sod on the basis 
thai bis mother's maiden name was Kelley. 

Because of their Northern European racial and cultural affin- 
ities, because they have become in so many ways so typically and so 
generically American, it is difficult to claim Irish Americans still be- 
long to a minority. On and below the surface, the American of 
Irish descent is a made-co-order Majority prototype. He is patriotic 
lie is willing to live and lei live. He is not as obtrusive or acquisitive 
as members of other population groups. He does not crowd the 
professions. His net worth is not aln>ve average. It is only when nun 
ters of faith, pride, machine politics, and Ireland come into play — 
matters alxnit which the Irish are still quite sensitive — thai a dimin- 
ishing number of Irish Americans defiantly display what nughl be 
described as minority colors. 

Almost all of the once compelling reasons for Irish-American 
separateuess have now evaporated. Time, distance, and the decline 
and fall of the British Empire have mellowed die ancient grudge 
against England. Only lister remains a running sore and an all too 
frequent reminder of the ancient feud. The American Majority, in 
which the Irish used to find so many distasteful English character- 
istics and customs, is no longer uniquely Anglo-Saxon and has ac- 
quired a more evenly distributed Northern European population 
base. As lor religious differences, much of ihe hard hue 1'ioies- 
lainism of the frontier, resonant with anti-Catholii and anti-papal 
overtones of the Reformation, is dissolving into a live-and-lei-live 
deism whose main concerns are tolerance and so* ial justice. Liber- 
alizing directives from Rome, questions about papal infallibility, de- 
mands to end priesthood celibacy, the increasing number ol 



23, Phillips, op. cat., pp. 174-75. Nixon'i campaign manage* in 19oH was John N. 
Miu-hell, later attorney general, ultimately a chief villain of Watergate. A Piev 
byterian widi an Irish mother, MiirlieU had a deputy by the name of Peter Man us 
FlantgalL Many fonnei Nixon irtea men, notably Patrick Buchanan, an- also of 
Ij ish descent. 



136 



the Dispossessed Majority 



radical priests, the de-Latinized mass, the bitter controversy over 
birth control and abortion — all these bits and pieces of ihe ecu- 
menical movement are undermining the age-old monolithic struc- 
ture of Catholicism, 24 and in rhe process lowering the Church's 
prestige in the eyes and ears of those who prefer to take their n li- 
gion with a large helping of dogma, dramaturgy, and ritual. 

Before the Romans came to Britain, the Kelts (early Nordics) of 
Ireland ami Britain were similar in culture, civilization and race. 
After the departure of the Romans and upon the arrival of the 
Christian missionaries, Ireland and Britain shared the same reli- 
gion for more than a thousand years, although for at least half of 
thai time Irish Catholicism was more Keltic than Roman. If the two 
peoples continue to have difficulties capitalizing on their similar- 
ities in the Old World, their descendants in the New have shown 
that the old hatreds and divisions no longer make much sense. 
What floes it profit an Irish American lo tie his well-being to the 
eoattails of irresponsible ethnic dynasts, whose only rem amine 
function is to serve as political stalking-horses for liberalism ,wl 
minority racism? 

It is in the deepest Interest of the Irish, who are now bona fide 
members of the American Majority, to see that the Majority pro- 
tects and guards its racial and cultural mold. If the mold is broken, 
Irish Americans stand to lose as much as every other American of 
Northern European descent. 

Finnish and Baltic Minorities: Some Finns were associated 

with the original Swedish immigration which took place when Amer- 
icans were still British colonials. But appreciable numbers did not 
arrive in the United States until 1884. Many went to Michigan to 
become miners; others started farms in Minnesota Russian polit- 
ical repression in the late nineteenth century drove more Finns to 



24, The link Wiworn the Irish people and Roman Catholicism is not congenital 

oi unbreakable. Many ot the greatest Irishmen, perhaps the very greatest, weir 
Protestants or non-lH-lievrrs. The tin includes Charles Par noil, the dedicated J 9 Lb- 
century Irish freedom tighter, Dough.! Hyde, Ireland's first president, Swift, Gold- 
smith, Sheridan, Wilde, Shaw, Yeats, Joyce, Synge, and O'Casey. Paul Clanoll, a 
modern Irish playwright, echoes in his White Stent the feelings of many of his coun- 
trymen when his heroine inveighs against the priests and the "littJe mem" for de- 
priving Irishmen of their primeval pride and viriliiv. 



THE MINORITIKS: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMILATED 137 

America. A Census Bureau study estimates there are 615,872 Amer- 
icans of Finnish or partly Finnish descent. 25 

In spile of their difficult, agglutinative language and their sup- 
posed Eurasian origin, most Finnish Americans are hardly to he dis- 
tinguished from their Old World neighbors, the Swedes. They are 
nearly as Nordic and equally as Protestant (Lutheran). Alter World 
War I, Finnish Americans were accorded a sort of honorary mem- 
bership in the Majority when Finland was saluted as the only Eu- 
ropean nation to pay its war debt in full. The Protestant F.thie may 
have died in Host on, hut it lived on in Helsinki. 

Finland's popularity in the U.S. gained some additional points 
when i he Finns put up a gallant if somewhat hopeless resistance 
against the Russian invaders in 1989-40, one of the brutal after- 
maths of the Hitler-Stalin pact. However, when Germany attacked 
the Soviet Union in 1941 and the Finns became willy uiliy a Ger- 
man ally, American support of Finland quickly dried up. The sul>- 
sequeni surrender to Stalin of strategic Finnish territory at the end 
of World War 11 roused little feelings of sympathy among Amer- 
icans. Today, Finland adheres to a strictly neutral Foreign policy in 
order to avoid giving Russians an excuse to put any more pressure 
on tin- country, particularly now thai some high-strung Muscovite 
nationalists are talking about "reincorporating" what was once the 
czars* Grand Duchy of Finland into a reborn Russian Empire-. 

Less rhetorical and more specific are current Russian demands 
on the three Baltic states, which declared their independem i- fol- 
lowing the breakup of the Soviet Union. Unlike Lithuania, which is 
Catholic and has cultural ties to Poland, Ksionia and Latvia are 
Protestant and more culturally attuned to Scandinavia. All three 
Baltic countries, each having a large Russian minority, had a brief 
spell of independence between World Wars I and II. Whether their 
new aitempt at nationhood succeeds will probably depend less on 
what the Latvians, Estonians and Lithuanians do than on the for- 
eign policy of Moscow, which has already threatened LO end oil 
shipments to the Baltic states if the Russian minorities are target* of 
discrimination. 

The estimated 25.994 Estonians, 92*141 Latvians and 742*776 



2:>. Unless otherwise noted, all population figures in Lhis rhapU'i are uken 
from the h*K0 Census Bureau study of ancestry groups. See Appendix B. 



138 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Lithuanians in the U.S. are cheering for their newly liberated 
homelands, Not a lew have returned to their ancestral countries ro 
lend a hand at bringing them up to Western levels. Since the Baits 
are Nordic or Alpine or mixtures thereof, they are racially qualified 
for assimilated status. Blonds and light eyes abound in Estonians, 
Latvians and their descendants overseas, albeit Lithuanians in ihe 
main are somewhat darker. Over the centuries heavy-handed Rus- 
sian and Soviet imperialism has kindled and rekindled Baltic ir* 
redentism. Bin here in the last decade of this century, it is safe to 
say thai the Baltic immigrants who remained in the U.S., in spite of 
their relatively [ate arrival, have passed From the assimilable to the 
assimilated stage. 



SlAVTC MINORITIES: The Russians were the only whites to mi- 
grate to America by an eastward route, arriving first in Alaska and 
then proceeding down the Washington, Oregon and California 
coastline. By the time of Seward's Folly in 1867, however, the ezarisL 
expansion into North America had lost almost all its momentum 
and was recoiling to Siberia. Large-scale Russian migration, this 
lime by the conventional Atlantic passage, did not begin until the 
highwaier mark of the New Immigration. After World Wars I and 
II, tens of thousands of Russian anti-Communists sought entry into 
(lie United Slates, many of them unsuccessfully. 

Because very many non-Slavic immigrants, especially Jews, listed 
Russia as their homeland, it is rather difficult in arrive at an ac- 
curaie figure for Americans of authentic Russian descent. One fair- 
ly reliable estimate puts the number at ^ r >().u()0> ,,; Mosi Russian 
Americans are farmers and industrial workers, though there were a 
few highly proficient ai lists ;ind scientists among die escapees from 
the 1917 revolution. 

Ukrainian nationalism, intensified by a thousand years of Rus- 
sian and other foreign domination, is often as ardent in America as 
it is — or was — in the Soviet Union before the Communist state 
foundered and Ukraine finally obtained its Jong-soughi independ- 
ence. Even so, wluU has been said about the Russian minority in 



-**• The Census Bureau figure of 2,781,432 is CQiisidnrd io be gmssly inflated. 
Il mml include Jews ;uid non-Russians from many ouVr pmb of the former Soviet 
I 'iiiim. 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASS1MIIATKD 139 



America applies generally to the Ukrainian, except thai the latter 
wiih some 730,056 members is more numerous. Ukrainian Amer- 
icans exult in their homeland's newly acquired independence, but 
their hands and hearts are firmly planted, at least for the time be- 
ing, on this side of the Atlantic. 

The Poles came earlier and took a more active part in American 
history than other Slavic minorities. Some 10,000 Polish dissenters 
arrived in the U,S, from colonial times up to the Civil War. Two 
Polish officers, Thaddeus Kosciusko and Count Casimir Pulaski, 
fought bravely under Washington. The great Polish migration to 
America, however, did not take place until the Erst thirteen years 
of this century, when 1.5 million Poles passed through Ellis Island. 
Today the nation has an estimated 5.1 million people of Polish de- 
scent, a figure which does not include Polish Jews. This makes the 
Polish contingent the largest and most influential Slavic minority- 
Like Ukrainians, Poles are anti-Russian by habit and instinct, as 
demonstrated by the Solidarity Movement's attempt to break away 
from the Soviet orbit when the other Soviet satellites were still 
knuckling under in the 1980s. Unlike Ukrainians 27 and Russians, 
they are Roman Catholics. As it does in Poland, the Catholic 
Church in the U.S. strives to keep Polish ethnic feelings alive and 
officially encourages the preservation of ihe Polish language, "the 
tongue of the soul/' Although a small percentage of Polish Amer- 
icans are farmers, most reside in large titles arid are spread rather 
evenly through industry, commerce, and the professions. Fifty 
years ago Polish Americans voted the straight Democratic ticket. 
But in recent decades many Poles, some cottoning to the Repub- 
licans' anti-Soviet stance in the Cold War, others by Negro rioting, 
turned towards the G.O.P., though Gerald ford's incredible re- 
mark in the 1976 presidential race that Poland was an independent 
nation did not win him many votes from America's Eastern Eu- 
ropean population groups. 

Some Czechs, notably members of the Moravian Broilu rhood, 
landed in America in colonial days. But the great rush oi Czech 
and Slovak immigration did not get underway until the carry 
PJOOs, when nationalist ferment in the Austin-Hungarian Empire 



57. Western Ukiainiiins in (he U.S.S.K., mostly Uniats (Greek Catholics linked 
to Rome), writ- forcibly converted io the Kaxtrrn Onhodos Church in 194546. 



140 



The Dispossessed Majority 



was at its strongest. Now numbering about 1.75 million, the Czech 
and Slovak minorities, which mix as little in the New World as they 
did in the now fissioned Czechoslovakia, are heavily concentrated 
in the big cities of the Midwest On average, Czechs and Slovaks, 
most of whom are Roman Catholics, have darker complexions than 
Poles and Russians. 

The Southern Slavs consist mainly of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, 
once but no longer collectively known as Yugoslavs. At present the 
U.S. is home to some 500,000 Croats, 300,000 Slovenes and 
200,000 Serbs, most of whose forebears arrived at the end of the 
[Qth century and the beginning of the 20th. Mm Croats and the 
Slovenes are Roman Catholic. The Serbs are Eastern Orthodox. 
Most of the breadwinners worked — and many slill. work — in heavy 
industry, mines, and quarries. 

Some Slavs exhibit Northern Furopean physical trails, partic- 
ularly those with ancestral origins in northwest Russia and north- 
ern Poland. A fair proportion of Russian Americans have the blue 1 
eyes, blond hair, and long heads of the Swedish Varangians who 
founded Russia a millennium ago. But in general Slavic faces are 
usually broad, Slavic cheekbones high, Slavic heads round, and 
Slavic noses snub. Though some Mongolian traits, physical and 
mental, are occasionally present, Slavic population groups in Amer- 
ica have met no insurmountable racial or cultural obstacles in the 
path of their assimilation. Even Polish Americans who a few dec- 
ades ago had hundreds of literary, dramatic, singing, social, reli- 
gious, and athletic societies in the U.S, are becoming slowly but 
thoroughly "Majoritv-i/ed." 



HUNGARIANS: Americans of Hungarian origin cover a wide racial 
spectrum. Originating long ago on the Asian steppes, the proto- 
Hungarians are now though! to have been members of the white 
rather than the yellow race. Todav. with no further questions about 
their whiteness, they are designated Alpines. As to the number of 
Hungarian Americans, the racial potpourri of the old Austro- 
Hungarian Empire made it extremely difficult td obtain a reliable 
count of arrivals from Central Europe. Including the 35,000 who 
fled across the Atlantic alter Hungary's abortive 1956 uprising, it is 
estimated there are now 3 10, 000 Americans of Hungarian ot igin. 



HE MINCRHIF.S.ASSlMlIArEDANDUNASSlMlIAIED 141 



I'RFNGH CANADIANS AND THE LOUISIANA FRENCH; The French are 
one of the most difficult of all American minorities to categorize. 
On the Majority side Of the ledger are the Huguenots, Protestants 
of Calvinist persuasion who began their migration to the U.S. when 
Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685. Paul Revere and 
John Jay are the two most celebrated Huguenots of revolutionary 

times. Although they composed a mere 0.5 percent of the original 
white colonial stock, then 1 are now perhaps 2 million Americans of 
Huguenot descent, plus another 1.2 million descendants of Cath- 
olic French. The French in America tend to have fairer complex- 
ions than the French in France, so it is fitting to give them a small 
Nordic component. Musi French, however should be assigned to 
the Alpine race with a sprinkling of Mediterranean genes. The 
mosi notable of the early PJth<entury arrivals was Pierre Samuel 
du Pont de Nemours, founder of the Du Pont industrial empire. 

As for French Canadians, some L5 million are now in the U.S., 
most concentrated in the rural and industrial areas of New Eng- 
land, Not an economically aggressive people, not noted for at- 
tempting to dominate the thoughts or politics of others, French 
Canadians cling tenaciously to their French cultural heritage ami 
their French dialer t. Their proximity to their long-established 
homeland in French Canada acts as a brake on assimilation, but 
few would dispute their strong political, economic and social links 
io the U.S. Like the Mexicans, they present Americans with a mi- 
nority problem on the European model: a frontier population 
group with emotional and historical links to the far side as well as 
lo the iieai side of the national border. 

In 1886, in Rutland, Vermont, delegates attempted to organize a 
French-Canadian ■'nationality" with its own flag and national an- 
them, which was to serve as an umbrella organization For all 
French-speaking people, both in Canada and the United States. 28 
The project never materialized, but it is symptomatic of "why an 
American diploma! was quoted as saying that French Canadians 
are the "most difficult of all innnigiant races to assimilate. ' v ° But 
those wools were spoken more than half a century ago. Although 
perhaps a shade or two darker than the American population norm, 



S&. WiUn-d Bovey, Cana&at,]. M. Onn, Toronto, j.994. p. 190. 
2& Ihitl,. [). IS7. 



142 



Thi* Dispossessed Majority 



all hut a diehard handful of French Canadians can be safely as- 
signed to ihe assimilated category. This is noi to say, however, that 
if racial disorder in the U.S. continues to increase, that consider- 
able numbers will not return to their original jumping off point in 
Quebec, which by ihen may have become an independent country. 

Of the 800,000 I .omsianians or French descent, some 300,000 
still speak a French patois inherited from their ancestors, the Aca- 
dian exiles from Nova Scotia memorialized by LongfeHow, M Some 
of these "Cajims" have countenances that exhibit a Mediterranean 
coloration, 3(! (nit not so dark as to define the owners of these 
faces as uriassiirulable. Working small farms and fishing in 
remote bayous, they led until recently an isolated existence 
that offered little possibility of assimilation. Hut (he rapid 
economic changes now taking place in Louisiana are prying 
them out of their isolation ami. severely modifying their en- 
dogamie marriage habits and provincial customs. Many if 
noi must have already qualified for assimilated status, and 
tin- remainder will probably tag along before the century 
wi n ds d o w 1 1 . 

It is improper to end a discussion of the Assimilated Mi- 
norities without saying that in some ways they are more dy- 
namically American than the Majority taken as a whole, Mom As- 
similated Minority members still believe in America with an old- 
fashioned intensiiy that has all but faded in the hearts of many With 
deeper roots in the American past Many Assimilated Minority 
members, moreover, manage to hold on to this belief, even though 
as blue- and white-collar workers, they five -and work in the tumult 
of the big cities, where they have learned much faster than rural 
and suburban Americans whai is happening to their country. 

Because the Assimilated Minorities have suffered much more 
from *i hool desegregation, ci ime and neighborhood deterioration 
than other Majority elements it is quite possible that the leadership 
ol a Majority resurgence will come from the ranks of the .Assimilated 



i*). Governor Edwin Edwards of Louisiana claims his mother had Cajun genes. 

W. Alexin Carrel, the laic French biologist and Nobel Uuireatc, sutcd that the 
Mediterranean elements of France's population are inferior io the Northern ele- 
ment. He ascrilwd this to the faci that the acclimatization of whites to heat is ac- 
complished at the expense of the development ol die net voiis system and the in- 
tellect, l.'honmu, cet fHco/uiu, p. 300. 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIM HAITI) 143 

Minorities, from the population groups whose lives and livelihoods 
have been more openly threatened than those of suburban and rural 
Americans. Face-to-face exposure to problems often creates a greater 
interest in solutions. 

Bui it is also possible, il the present torpidity of most Majority 
members continues and the Assimilated Minorities are abandoned 
and left to their own devices, that in order to survive in the ftteg- 
apolitan jungle they may revive their old ethnic loyalties. Such a 
reaction could easily tip the scales in determining the ir- 
reversihiliiy of the Majority's dispossession. 



SI. In llu- spiin^ ol 1972, Michael Novak, in Tkt Itiw of Ow VnmrUabU Ethnics 
( Mannilhm, New Yoi k), urged a political alliance of" blacks and Assimilable Miuor- 

nirv He laid (p. 20) ihe latter group comprised 70,000,000 Ajmcricans of Wish, 
Italian, Slavic, Spanish, Greek, and Armenian descen l. Jerome Rosow, a former as-- 
sistani set tclaiY of lain)! . was quoted as ihe source for this figure. Rosow, however, 
had merely said lhal 70, 000, (KH) Americans were members ol "lower-niiddle- 
intOTOe" 1 families. I.atci, perhaps as a reward for ihe scholarly feat ol changing an 
income tfmnp into an agglomerate ol ethnic groups, Professor Novak surfaced as 
a Speech writef foi Sargent Slnivri in ihe 1972 presidential campaign. Actually, 
there are al least *2.lWH),(H)0 Negroes in die "lower-mil Idle- in conic" bracket as well 
as: lens ol' millions of Majority uiemlK-rs. See Jerome ROSOW, (hwcomtng MiddU 
Chsi Hats, vVt-stniiiistei PreWj Philadelphia, 1 1)7 1 , p. H7. AJlei woiking for ihe 
Rockefeller Foundation, Novak became the ediloi of ait ethnic newsletter and a 
nationally syndicated i olumnisl whose writings and opinions have been rxhihiiing 
an increasingly omwrvative stu-.ik. 



CHAPTER ] 4 



Unassimilable White Minorities 



Is contrast to die Assimilated Minorities, whose racial and cul- 
tural differences were not great enough to preclude assimila- 
tion, the Unassimilable Minorities are permanently excluded from 
Majority status. Yhv color line, in ihe rase of nonwhitcs, is In itself 
an insurmountable obstacle. With respect to the Unassimilable 
White Minorities, the causes that prevent assimilation may be 
either cultural or biological, or both, 

Miis docs fioi mean thai ihe InassimilaUe Minorities are bound 
together by similar racial or < ukural backgrounds or by a common 
economic or social Mams. On the contrary, some Unassimilable Mi- 
norities, white and uouwhiie, are likely ta differ more from one an* 
other than they differ from some Assimilated Minorities. Among 
the Unassimilabk Minorities are found ihe most affluent and the 
most impoverished American population groups, the most verbal 
and the most taciturn, the most religious a\u\ the most irreligious. 
In Jan, the divisions that bedevil the t'nassimilahle Minorities are 
great enough to give rise to internecine racial confrontations. One 
such case was the IMS Crown I [eights murder of an Hasidicjew by 
a black mob in retaliation for a rabbi losing t onlro! of his ear and 
running down and killing a young Negro. Earlier causes of the ra- 
cial rift were New York City's I96S teachers' strike, largely sup- 
ported by blacks, for more pay, and the dismissal of Andrew Young, 
ambassador to the United Nations, for talking to a representative 
of the Palestine Liberation Organization. 

Despite their marked divergences, however, the l/nassimdable 
Minorities have pieced together a political, economic, and cultural 
alliance Which, with the active assistance of Majority Splitters of the 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMILATED 145 

Ranks, has steered the march of American events Tor the greater 

part of the century. In addition to combining their votes for care- 
full}' selected political candidates, the more dynamic of these mi- 
norities have overcome their polar differences to forge the ideo- 
logical from that is overthrowing one by one the mosi sacrosanct 
American institutions. 

What then is the unifying force strong enough to prevail against 
all this diversity, the centripetal force mighty enough to turn off 
the racial centrifuge in which these minorities should logically t>e 
spinning apart.-' To paraphrase Nietzsche, it probably has to do with 
both the will to power and the will to powerlessness — the desire for 
power by those- Unassimilable Minorities who have little, the desire 
for more powei b\ those who have much, and the desire to give 
away power by deracinated Majority members. Feeding these de- 
sires are su( h old psychological imponderables and intangibles as 
envy, insecurity, fear, bate, and even self-hate. These desires have 
also received considerable economic nourishment. In recent years 
in the gheiios of die big cities, although <>ne minority has been 
tooting, robbing, and burning t lie assets of another, the latter con- 
tinues to put a significant ainouui of its brainpowei and money at 
die disposal of the h>i mer. 

The only safe assumption to make about the force thai unifies 
and galvanizes the Unassimilable Minorities is that it is most appar- 
ent and most forceful when directed against the Majority. Accord- 
ingly, it may be said that the chief source of minority unity and co- 
ordination is that great, sir k, floundering demographic whale, 
tfhkh can be attacked, slashed, bitten, and nipped ai with impu- 
ni is . Above all else, it is opposition to the Majority which has built 
the effective but uru asy alliance between the Unassimilable Minor- 
ities and Majority Gracchites, Trucklers, Pussyiooters, Old Believ- 
ers, and lVoditors — an alliance that still enjoys the partial but not 
always enthusiastic support of considerable segments of the As- 
similable Minorities. 1 



1, Tins .i11i.uk c, in its purely minority aspects, has been denned hv a prominent 
political analysl ai consisting ot "laige, cohesive ethnic- communities still half* 
rooted in Cork, Csilabrii ami Cracow," Kevin Phillips, The Emerging RepuhUain Ma- 
jprity [>■ 448. Phillips was exaggerating a bit in regard to Cork and was close to < or- 
feci in regard bo Calabria, the home hast- of Southern Italians, hut was vvioug it he 
was referring u> Poles when he mentioned Cracow, righi il referring to Jews. 



4ti 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Before presenting the Unassirm liable Minority order of battle, it 
might be wise to caution that there are always countless exceptions 
lo all generalizations about masses of anything, partis, ularly masses 
of human beings. Obviously, there are unassimilable members of 
every Assimilated Minority and assimilable members of every Un- 
assimilable White Minority. Bin in what follows the emphasis is on 
frequencies not individuals, on statistical averages not one-point 
curves. 



SOUTHERN Italians: By and large, Italy is a Wracial nation. Al- 
pines predominate in the north and center, while Mediterraneans 
are concentrated in (the lower boot (Campania and Calabria) and 
Sicily. It was these regions which gave birth to HO percent of the Ital- 
ian immigration. 8 There being an estimated 8,704, 000 Italian 
Americans, 3 simple mathematics and the rules for assimilation de- 
Sned previously in this study would indicate that at least half are 
too dark To qualify for assimilation. 

Of all the New Immigrants, Italians were the most numerous. Al- 
though most were peasants hi rhe old country, when they arrived in 
Aim ri( a ilney clustered in urban "Little Italics," where Italian 
speech, Italian conking, Italian song, Italian custom* and Italian ex- 
uberance still! project an Italian flavor strongly resistant to iK-ing 
dissolved In any melting pot. The Catholic Church does its parr in 
preserving this flavor, but Southern Italians are not Catholic in the 
Irish-American or French-Canadian sense. One author explains, 
"Perhaps the average kalian [is] too close to Rome ... to he awed 
by it."" Many Italian Americans look askance at the Church because 
of its long association with Italy's rich, landed interests, 

New York City Iras [.3 million Italian Americans, 5 many of them 
in the needle trades, h is the third largesi Italian city on earth, sur- 
passed only by Rome and Milan. Unlike Southern Italians, most of 
whom preferred to remain in the urban east, the more adventur- 
ous types from Northern and Central Italy went west, quite a few to 
California, where they became farmers and vintners, and where 



2. L. F. Pisani, The Italian in Amenta, Exposition Press, New Ybrk, 1957, p. H3 
:l Bureau of the Census report, 1973. Also sec Tables A and (*.. Appendix A, 
Some w\\d, politically inspired estimates go as high as 31 million 
t. Pisani, op. cit., p. 54. 
5. New York Times Magazine, Aug. 10, UKi ( J, p. 56, 



TI IE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMILATED 147 



one of them, A. V. Giannini of Genoese descent, founded what was 
once the world's largest and most dynamited bank.' 3 Their disper- 
sal around the country, their indusiriousness, and iheir Alpine in- 
stead of Mediterranean racial traits have made most Northern and 
Central Italians easy candidates lbs assimilation. 

The Southern Italian minority contains within its ranks a crim- 
inal organization, in which ethnicity is the prime requirement for 
membership. 7 The run-ot-ihe-nriU Italian American, however, has 
no connection with the 5,000 Southern Italians, mostly Sicilians, 
who dominate organized crime. To get this message across to the 
public, Italian lobbyists have tried, not always successfully, to per- 
suade television and film producers to "lighten up" their gangster 
characters and give them non-Italian names- 8 In the process, Sact o 
and Van/.eui, the radical villains of the 1920*. have been partially 
rehabilitated. 

Historically, Italian Americans have voted the straight Democrat' 
ic ticket,' 1 although when a crypto-Commimlst like "VUo Marcantonio 



6. Olhei rich Italian Amei icans, in addition to the late Ciannini, mostly belong 
to die assimilated category: the DiGorfia family (California li u it dynasty}, Angeto 
Petri and the Cullo family (wine), John C.uneo (owner of one of the world's larg- 
esl pi in tiny firms), Pio Crespi (Texas eotton king), Antonio (iiaccione (paper), 
I/niis Patmotli (coal), ]oseph Mailino (lead.), SaSvalore Giordano (air condi- 
tioning), Vincent Riggi" (former president of die American Tobacco Co.), I-ee Ia- 
cocca (Chrysler Corp.), the Pope, family (newspapers), lk-rnard Casuo (tur- 
nitme), ]cno Paolncci (food processor). Set Michael Musmanno, The Story of the 
Italians m Amcvun, Oouhleday, New York, 1365, pp. 247-49. 

7. '['lie record ot the Mafia or Cos a Nostra will he reviewed in Ghaplri SO. 

■s. Italian ethnic sensitivities have also, been aroused by the discovery of a "Vi- 
king* map which showed "Vinland" as a part of Noj ih Ameiica. Professional Ital- 
ian Americans described die map a* a fraud and a slur on the tfood name of t>>- 
lumbus. Encf. lint. Book of the Year, 1967, p. 102. ITie map may oi may not l>e 
bogu*, but Vikings did land in the New Woild long before Columbus's three VC* 
sols drop&cd anclioi off San Salvador 

9, Notable Italian-American politicians, in or ettl ot office-, include Governor 
Mario Cuomo of New York, Senator Peter Domenici of New Mexico, John Volpe, 
former secretary of transportation, Aathony CefebreKte, ex-secretary of HEW, Jack 
Valcnti, president of the Motion Picture Association of America, Congressman 
George Miller of California, Mayors I lugh Addcmma of Newark and Joseph Aliolo 
of San Francisco. Frank Carlucci was secretary of defense in the closing days oi ih< 
Reagan presidency. Italian Americans in the arts and show business include: com- 
poser Gian Carlo Menoui, poet John Ciardi, film directors Frank Capra and Fran- 
cis F (A.pjH.la, popular singers Dean Martin. Frank Sinaiia and Tony Bennett 



48 



The Dispossessed Majority 



or a erypto-Republican like Rorello La Guardia appeared on the 

ballot, racial loyalties took precedence over politics. 10 Lately, rearr- 
ing to the radiealizadon of other, more power-hungry Unassim- 
ilable Minorities, Italian Americans have been leaving the Dem- 
ocratic party in ever greater numbers. In 1970, the Italian vote 
helped bring about the surprising upset that made James Buckley; 
the Conservative party's nominee, the junior senator from New 
York. An equally surprising victory was tin* election of Republican 
Alphonse D'Amato in 1080 to the senate seat long held by Jacob 
Javits, a Jewish fixture in state politics. Former (luvernor Mario 
Cuomo *>i New York has often been considered presidential timber. 
Democrat Geraldine Fefrarq was the first woman vice-presidential 
nominee of a major party. 

In general, kalian Americans exert relatively little political and 
social influence, except in a few big cities and in areas where the 
Mafia is concentrated. They are content to live in a kind of sett 
imposed ethnic quarantine and have no great desire to impose 
their way of life on others. The women have more children than 
most othet while minority mothers, assimilated or unassirnifaied. 
Like other Southern Europeans, they display a warm attachment to 
family and to the Roman £ latholk Church, 

Garlcton Coon proposed dun Southern Italians In the United 
Stairs are composed of two readily identifiable subraces: "coarse* 
Mediterranean and Arnteiioid. ' l The average Majority member, 
unaware of these racial subtleties, only knows that Somber n Italian 
pigmentation is darker than his own, thai most Americans from 
Southern Italy and Sicily are "foreign-looking," and therefore pre- 
destined to an enduring racial and cultural separateness. I2 



10. VI to Man anion i« was win to Congress by the American Laboi party and his 
vetting record revealed the often close alliance between communism and the racial 
an tip all lies ol LTnauitmtable Minorities, lie provided the sole opposition when ihr 
House of Rrpresrmativrs voted 350 to 1 for the l'JII Wai IV|i:u niicjn Appropria- 
tions Act to ImiM up Anient an defenses in a work! heading I'm tnul war. 

I I . Coon, Thi Races o/Europf, p r>!>8. 

12. Jiitlj^t- MirhaH Musmantio writes touching]? — and accurately — of the pre* 
Mieiutirhi f.uct] by almost all Southern Italians in regard lo asuimilaium As u boy, 
he proposed marriage i«> a voting ^irl recently arrived from Falkland. 1 [e was only 
twelve lu the time, but she did not turn him down on account of liis age. She said 
she could never marry a "foreigner." Mosmanno had been born in America, The 
EngHshgirl had only been in iheU.5. seven months Musmamio, op rn , p 7. 



II IF MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNA5SIM1LATED 149 

White-: Spanish speaking Minorities: The Spanish arrived in Flor- 
ida, Louisiana, the Southwest, and California long before the Pil- 
grims landed in Massachusetts, Bttt Spanish colonization was so 
thin thai probably not more than a 100, 000 GUI World Spaniards 
or Mexicans ol preponderantly Spanish origin ever settled perma- 
nently within the limits of the present-day United States. Time and 
interbreeding have assimilated their descendants, except for those 
who, like ihe Hispanos of New Mexico, married local Indians. Most 
ol them too dark to iu the Majority or Assimilated Minority mold, 
the 100.000 io 125,000 Spaniards who came over in the New Im- 
migration have remained largely unassiinilated. 

The (aiban mhinriiv in the United States has multiplied expo- 
nent hi 1 1\ since the establishment of the Western 1 lemisphere's first 
— and perhaps last — Communist slate by Fidel Castro in 1959, Al- 
though the Pearl of the Antilles lias a sizable Negro population, the 
firs! wave of refugees from Castro's totalitarian Island was largely 
white (Mediterranean) and belonged to the more affluent seg- 
ments of Cuban society. Later waves of Cuban immigrants were no- 
ticeably darker and contained a large criminal and homosexual 
component. Today there are an estimated 800,000 Cubans in the 
United States, most of them concentrated in South Florida, which 
they are turning into a little Latin America. Alxmt one-third of 
them are Negroes or mttlattocs. 

Another minority with roots in Spain, but one thai boasts a more 
ancient language than Spanish, is composed of 10,000 Basques, 
who ate concentrated largely in Nevada, where they have become 
the American shecphcrdhig caste, hi I960 they helped elect a fel- 
low Basque* Paul Laxali, governor. Laxall later went to the Senate 
and, despite charges of links to organised crime, played an im- 
portant part "m the 1980 and 1984 election victories of President 
Reagan. Basques are on the borderline between Dark White and 
White. Although there are always exceptions like Paul Laxalt, they 
have been designated tinassimilated if only because they were nev- 
er successfully assimilated by \Uc Spanish. It is doubtful if America 
will have better U" k. 



MLSCl.LIAMiit s MEDITERRANEAN AND BALKAN MINORITIES: The 
estimated 435,000 Americans of Portuguese background— mosi of 
them fishermen, farmers, cattle ranchers, and textile workers — are 



150 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Typically Mediterranean in appearance and consequently too far on 
the brunet side of the Pigmentation Spenrum for assimilatioHr 1 * 
Mediterranean racial influence is also evident among the 70,000 Al- 
banians, 14 90,000 Romanians, 70,000 Bulgars, nearly 100,000 Turks, 
and 1.4 million Greeks, 1 * the last-named being particularly active in 
the tobacco, candy, sponge, and shipping industries. Olive skin, 
black haii-, and dark brown eyes offer little chance of assimilation 
to the L5 million Arabs, 75,000 Iranians, 2,500 Afghans, and un- 
determined numbers of other Middle Eastern and North African 
population groups. Ifi The 400,000 Armenian Americans, who have 
their own Armenian Apostolic Church, derive from one of the 
world's oldest peoples. For cultural as well as racial and pigment- 
ation reasons less than half ran 1m* considered assimilable. 1 ' 



IS. Hie tilaiul or red-haired A/. ore an* of Gloucester, Mass., are an exception GO 
this rule. They are descended from Flemish colonisu who »ei,i]<-«l in ihe I'oi 
Luguesf-tAVh.t'd A/ore* many centuries ago. 

It. There were oner 100,000 Albanian a in the United Stales, but alwmr unr- 
third of [hem returned home. 

15. Spiro Ague* is ball Greek, his mother having been a Virginian. Had he 
been a dark, small Mediterranean like Aiistotle Onassis, he might have wed Jac- 
queline Kennedy, bin h*- never would have been the 89th vice-nresident of the 
United States. A^new's minority side came out in his warm friendship with Frank 
Sinatra and his association widi the minority influence peddlers who turned 
against him and destroyed him politically. Pctei Peierson, former secretary of 
t -ommerce is also a Creek American, as is Michael Thevis, the pornography mag- 
nate who has a $1,200,000 spread in Atlanta and ha* spent, some time in jail. Gov- 
ernor Michael Dukakis of Massac hnscus, a Creek American married to a Jewish 
American, was the Democratic party's candidate tor president in 1988. 

16. Danny Thomas, the television showman, Ralph Nader, the cons um ens t gad- 
fly of ihe large corporations, and Judge Robert. Merhige, who issued tlie order in- 
tegrating urban and suburban schools in Richmond, Virginia, are among die 
more prominent Lebanese Americans. Sirhan Sirhan, who assassinated Robert 
Kennedy, is the moat publicized Palestinian American. 

17. Charles Garry, die Armenian-descended lawyer of die Black Panthers and 
Rev Jim Jones's Peoples Temple, s:tiri he never Forgot he was called a "god- 
damned Armenian - in school. 77m*. Jan. 12, 1970, p, SO. Richest Armenian Amer- 
ican is probably Kirk Kerkorian, a movie magnate, who admitted paying $21,300 
to the Gosa Noslra. JV*W York TiW^Jan. 17, 11170, p. I George Denkmcjian, for- 
mer governor of California, was probably die most powerful Armenian politician 
of his lime. The number of Armenians entering die United States in increasing be^ 
cause die citizens of (he newly independent scare of Armenia are being granted 
more exit visas, and America is accepting many of (hem as refugees. 



11 IE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMIIATF.D 151 



While Assimilable Minorities generally have culture working 
against them but race working for ihem in the assimilation process, 
the Mediterranean minorities have both culture and race working 
against them. In Europe, Latin populations usually solved their dif- 
ferences with their Northern conquerors by intermarriage, by swat- 
lowing them up genetically. In the United States, where Northern 
Europeans greatly outnumber Mediterraneans, this process is not 
so easy. Neither is its opposite: the absorption of Mediterraneans by 
Northern Europeans. The color sensitivity of the latter, sharpened 
by the presence of Negroes, Indians, Mexicans, and other non- 
whites, is much greater than that of Northern Europeans in Eu- 
rope and more like that of Northern Europeans in South Africa. 

It would take only a few generations of intermarriage with Ma- 
jority members for most Mediterraneans to obtain the proper phys- 
ical credentials for assimilation. But Southern Italians, Spaniards, 
Portuguese, Greeks, and other dark-skinned whites are shut oil 
from the American genetic drift by their own choosing as well as by 
Majority taboos. Under such conditions, it will be quite some time 
before any appreciable number of Majority members— the Nordics 
among them being HbleacheaVout* Mediterraneans according to 
Carleton Goon 18 — recombiue with the smaller, darker, but other- 
wise somewhat similar race from which their ancestors supposedly 
split off a hundred centuries ago. 



is. "Pie Nordic race in the strict sense is merely a pigment phase oi ibe M« <l- 
tenaneaii * Tht Raws afEumpe, p. S3 



CHAPTER 15 



Thejexvs 



"O v rights iiff Jewish minority should have been included in du- 
-*** previous chapter. It is white and unassimilahle Bill il is also the 
most influential, most organized, and most dynamic minority. As 
such, ir deserves a chapter of its own. 

Everywhere in the public eye, solid!) ensconced ,u the apex of" 
the American pyramid, Jews represem an astonishing!) minute 2.34 
perceni ol the total population — 5,828,000 uui of 248,709,873J 
These figures point up a rather extraordinary disproportion be- 
tween the size of American Jewry and its iiilluciitr, a disparity not 
new to history, not restricted! to (the United States, and not welt un- 
derstood by non-Jews. Indeed many Americans, awed by the ubiq- 
uity of the Jewish presence, are convinced that Jews are consid- 
erably more numerous than cl toy really are. A lVnai BVith survey of 
2,000 high-school students in twenty-one (iues, excluding New 
York, revealed thai 82 percent overestimated the Jewish popula- 
tion — some students by as much as 70 million J* To account tor this 
widespread popular delusion and for many other strange sodolog- 
ieal phenomena associated with Jews, it js both helpful and nec- 
essary to make a brief excursion into Jewish history. 



1. \ S. population from 1990 Census. Jewish population hom \\fV2 American Jm- 
ish Yearbook, Like all suuUties rmnpiled hf private groups whose methods of emula- 
tion are not open to puhlic s< rutinv, these numbers rnuaL be accepted with some 
reservations, all the nuue so because organ iz.nl Jewry has successfully opposed 
Census BiLitMii efforts to count Jew*. New York Times, Dec 13, 1^57, p. 30. 

2. Xno York Past, March 20, 1962, p. tZ 



152 



II JK MINORITIES: ASSIMII Al'KI) AND L'NASSIMILATED 153 

|ews were a tribe of Semitic shepherds who coalesced into some- 
thing like a nation in the second millennium R.C. Once they had 
settled in Canaan, many went as desert raiders, settlers, captives, or 
refugees to Egypt- There, as written in Exodus 1:7, "the children of 
Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied! and 
waxed exceeding mighty: and the land was filled with them." h was 
in Kgypt that jews acquired Moses, who gave them their law and in- 
structed diem in monotheism. By no means a Jewish or a Mosaic in- 
vention, the belief in one god had !>een briefly forced on KtfYpt as 
early as the Fourteenth century H.C. by Pharaoh Iklmaiom 

It is barely possible that Moses (an Egyptian name) was one of 
Ikluiat on's high priests and a member ol" the royal family. After the 
pharaoh's death and the reestablishmeru of polytheism, Moses may 
have become a prophei without honor among his own country- 
men. In the scan h for a new following, he may have preached lkh- 
naton's "losi cause" to the Jew*, whose status as bond servants could 
have made diem quite susceptible to a new and revolutionary form 
of spiritual .solace. This theory, proposed by ihe celebrated modern 
Jew, Sigrmmd Fiend, is supported by Moses's mysterious birth, his 
royal upbringing and his us* 1 of Aaron as an interpreter.'' 

It was during their sojourn in Egypt, we are told, that Jews sur- 
vived the firsl of their countless persecutions, though in this case 
the Egyptians were paid bat k in kind. Before the Exodus began, Je- 
hovah did away with the firstborn of every Egyptian family. Today, 
more than three millennia after the first Passover; 1 Jews in their 



S. Si^inuiul Freud, .Vfftfjs and Menathmsm, trans. Katheriire Jones, Hogarth Press, 
London, 1951, *'.<>n<. ming his Egyp titration of Moses, Freud wrote (p. 1 1), "To 
deny 3 people the mvm whom it praises as the greatest of its sons is not a deed lo 
be undertaken light-heartedly — especially l>y one belonging u> thai people." Freud 
did not dwell on Moses's imndei ol :ui Egyptian, his marriage to a Midianite wom- 
an, and jus £oi-v iusU LKlions lo his Jewish followers on what to do wilh the Mid- 
iauites (Nuiiilx-i^: SI ,1 7-ltt): "Now then Ion kill every male among the lit lie ones, 
and kill < veiv woman lhat halh known man hy lyim; wilh him. 1ml all llie women 
rhiliuc-n. thai have not known man hy lying with him, keep ulive loi yourselves." 

4. Jehovah spaied ihe |ews hv "passing over" then hoUSCS, which they had 
marked widi lamb's blood. As toi the Fgyptians, "there was not a house where 
these was not one dead" Paswwr ft CCletetted each yeai :is a high Jewish holy 
day. though in is difficult to lind much religious Content in an art oflttMS filicide 
Exodus r>S:> also tells how the ]ews, before leaving, "horrowed of the Egyptians 
jewels oi silver, and jewels ol gold, and raiment." 



3 54 



The Dispossessed Majority 



reincarnation as Israelis have again been chastising the Egyptians 
(in the 1967 and 1973 wars) — this time not wiih lice, boils, swarms 
of locusts, and other assorted plagues and afflictions, but with 
American Phantom jets. 

Some centuries after they had reached and organized the Prom- 
ised [.and, Jews decided they were the Chosen People and history's 
most enduring ethnocentrism was in lull flower Although the Bible 
is filled witli stirring battles, priestly fortitude, Solomonic glory, 
and Assyrian and Babylonian captivities, the Jewish imprint on the 
world's conscience and consciousness did nut develop overnight. 
1 lerodotus, the Greek historian, who marie an extended tour of the 
Middle Fast in the fifth century B.C. and described in detail almost 
all the nations and peoples in the area, made no mention of the 
Jews, whom he either could not locate or thought too insignificant 
to write aboUL 

The Jewish stale was overrun by the Persians under Cyrus in the 
sixth century B.C. and by Greeks and Macedonians under Alex- 
ander the Grea! two centuries later. Alexander's successor generals 
and their dynastic heirs maintained their occupation of Jewish ter- 
ritory, in spite of sporadic Jewish revolts, until the Romans arrived 
under Pompey. Fierce rebellious against Roman rule flared up from 
time to time, culminating in the conquest of Jerusalem bv Titus in 
A,l>. 70, and the dispersal and expulsion by Hadrian sixty-five years 
later* of those Jews who had not already fled. 

By the first century B.C. Jews had given up Hebrew and were 
speaking Aramaic, the language of Jesus. The earliest extant ver- 
sion of" the Old Testament, the Septuagint, is not in Hebrew, Ara- 
maic or any Semitic tongue, bur in Greek. Its translation was ac- 
complished in Alexandria during ilie rule of the Ptolemies, tradi- 
tionally by seventy rabbits, who Were isolated in separate huts, but 
nonetheless came up with seventy identical versions, exactly alike 
even in punctuation. The religious writings of the Jews were their 
only lasting contribution to ancient civilization, unless one insists 
on adding the chauvinistic philosophy of" Philo and the allegorical 



r j. It was [he Jews' intransigence towards Rome, and dieii rejection of the Pax 
Roiikuki thai, le-il Gibbon to blame them for "their iriecoiif liable hatred of man- 
kind" and U» i nil them a "race of lauaLk s." Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Lip- 
pituoit, Philadelphia, I H78, Vol. t, p., 1 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMII ATFD AND UNASSIMI1.ATKI) 155 



histories of ' Joseptuis. Almost no Jewish painting or sculpture, 
against which [here were Biblical injunctions, and only the barest 
traces of Jewish music, architecture, and science have 1 survived 
from classical u" tries. ' 

In the mailer of the Old Testament, the first live books, the Pen- 
tateuch, are a collection of slories and legends, many of them long 
established in Middle Eastern folklore. The Mosaic Law, the flood, 
the wouiaivfrom-t he-rib, the Garden of Eden, the story of David, all 
derive from specifically non Jewish sources. 9 The remaining thirty- 
four ln>oks consist of genealogies and laws, racial history, the ful- 
mi nations and transcendental wisdom of the prophets, miraculous 
occurrences, gross libels, and soulful poetry. When its leading char- 
acter, Jehovah, is putting all his enemies to the sword, the Old Tes- 
tament is literature and religion at their crudest. At other times, 
notably in Isaiah, Kcciesiastes, Job, and the Psalms, it resonates with 
1 1 it- highest expressions of human genius. The Old Testament has a 
special appeal to the English-speaking world due to the resplen- 
dent and evocative language of the King James version. 

The oldest lx>oks of the Old Testament go back no further than 
the ninth century B.C and some were written less than 200 years be- 
fore the birth of Christ — well after Greek literary influence had be- 
come predominant it! the Eastern Mediterranean.' 1 Kcclesiastes was 
the object of much rabbinical animosity because of its Greek style 
and thought. 

{>. PhUo tried unsuccessfully to prove mat Creek philosophers had plagiarized 
Jewish prophets, Although Josephua si<Je*3 with Tims against his compatriots, he 
la tor tried to make up for his betrayal by Writing phllo-Semitk histories.. 

7. In the Ent^i. Brit. (1 4lh edition) there air scpaiale ai tides on Creek Au hitr» - 
mre. Art, Literature and Music. There ;uc also separate articles on Roman An hi- 
lecture, Roman An and harm literature. The artistic activities ol the Jews have 
been limited to one ankle, Hebrew Literature. 

S. P, K. Qeaior, lost Language Mentor Books, New York, '1<M>2, pp. U)'.», IT.!. 

9. "| 1. 1 itlle in the Old Testament is more than a century 01 two earlier than die 
Homeric BOcms. . . . Herodotus was contemporary with Malachi md Ohadiah. . . . 
Theocritus was singing in Sicily while the Song of Songs was being compiled in 
Palestine." X Eric Peel, A Comparative Slu<ly of the Literature oj f Egypt, Pahstint and 
Mr.sojtotamia. Oxford University Pi ess, 19:11, pp, l-'J. Peel states that when the first 
fragments of the Old Testament took their present form ahout 850 B.C, "the lie 
eratuies of Egypt anci Babylonia were . . . already hundreds, one might almost say 
thousands, of veais old." 



150 



The Dispossessed Majority 



In classical limes, as today, anti-Semitism stalked Semilism re- 
lentlessly. Long before the beginning of their official diaspora, (he 
[ews had migrated throughout the Mediterranean and ihe Near 
Fast. Wherever they went, as the Rook of Esther makes clear, the 
anti-Semite was soon a familiar fijrure. Ihe firsl historically doc- 
umented pogroms and anti-Jewish bagarres took place in Alex- 
andria, die capital of Ptolemaic Egypt, where there were many 
more ]ews than in Jerusalem. 10 In AD, 10, perhaps fjecause of their 
abidin^ unfriendliness towards al! things Roman, Tiberius expelled 
them from his capital 11 Bui the ban was only temporary Less than 
a century later, Trajan was said to he surrounded by "unholy Jews." 32 
In the second century A.D., Jews carried (heir traditional arilt- 
Hellenisni lo the point of genocide. **ln Gyrene," wrote Gibbon, 
"they massacred 220,000 Creeks; in Cyprus 240,000; in Egypt a very 
gfea* multitude." 1 * 

A chief source of anti-Semitism in the classical world was the 
high degree of Jewish participation in the field of banking and 
moneylending, hi Egypt, in the words of E. M* Forster, They spec* 
ulated in theology' and grain. . . _" M Describing the economic con- 
ditions of Italy in the time of Julius Caesar, Theodor Momuiseii, a 
specialist in this period of Roman history, wrote, "Alongside the es- 
tate husbandry unnaturally prospering over the ruin of the small 
farmers, private banking also assumed enormous proportions as 
the Italian merchants vying with the Jews spread over all the prov- 
inces and protectorates of ihe empire," 15 

Bui it was the Jews* religious practices and endemw < lannishness, 
rather than their financial acumen, which brought forth acidic 
comments from such "Old Romans" as Cicero, |uvenal> Lackus, 



10. Ami-Semitic tracts abounded in Greek and Roman Limes and *;tit* work (no 
longer extant) by die Greek, Apion, was so well known and tnEueniia] thaijose- 
phus devoted a whole book to in rebuttal. 

J I. "I'lfhev alone of all nation* avoided dealings with any other people and 
looked upon all men as their enemies." Diodonts ofSinH, uann. V. R Walton, Loeh 
Classical Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge. 1967, Vol. XII, p. 53 

12. Qxjrkwthus Papyri, X, J 242, 42, 

1 3. Gibbon, op. cii., Vol. 2. p. 4, including footnotes. 

14. F.. M. Former, Pharos atui Phnritlt+n, Knopf, New York, 1961, p. 17 

15. Theodor Mommsen, Ihe Httton of /fame, edited bv S;mndriJ and dillim, 
Meridian, New York, 1901,0. 5,H9. 



H IK MINORITIES: ASSIMILATE) AND UNASSIMILATED 157 

and Seneca. 16 The same: criticism was leveled against Jews much lat- 
er in the nascent Arabic civilization, where Mohammed borrowed 
SO much from their religion, but harried them so mercilessly. In 
the larger SUSS and trading centers of Arabia, however, where "Jews 
controlled many of the local banks," 17 the financial grounds lor 
anti-Semitism probably outweighed all others. 

The advent of Christianity was a mixed blessing for Jews. It gave 
Lhem a special importance as the "People of the Book" as the phys- 
ical and spiritual forefathers of Jesus. But it also made them ac- 
cessories lo the crucifixion. It was Caiaphas, the chief priests and 
the elders who stirred up the multitude to press for Christ's death 
and the release of Barabbas. Today, Jewish participation in the ex- 
ecution of Jesus has been de-emphasized to the point when 1 a pa- 
pal encyclical has absolved the Jews from dcieide. Bui the most sol- 
emn absolutions of the most solemn Holy Fathers are not likely to 
have much effect as long as Matthew (27: 24-25) quotes Pilate as 
declaring, "I am innocent o! ihe blood of this just person," and 
jews as replying, "his blood be on us, and on our children/ 

There was a possibility at the very beginning that Christianity 
and Judaism might merge, but the moment the early Jewish Chris- 
tians admitted Gentiles to Christian services Jewish ethnocentrism 
forced a permanent cleavage of the two religions. At the lime of 
Christ, Jews were longing for a Messiah to punish rheii enemies, 
not for a tolerant Son of Man to Forgive everyone his sins and wad- 
come everyone, Jew and nonjew alike, into a universal church. 
Within a tenuirv, the gulf between the two faiths was so wide that a 
few anti-Semitic allusions were incorporated into the Gospels. l,\ en 
Jesus himself is made to say of Nathanael (John 1:47), "Behold an 
Israelite indeed, in whom is no guild 4 

All in all, Christianity provided nonjews with new reasons for re- 
specting Jews and new reasons for persecuting them. Perhaps in 
the final balance, Jews framed more than they lost. Christianity was 
their passport to Western civilization, in which they periodic all)' 
plummeted to the lowest depths of degradation and ascended to 



16. Senect'i feelings about the great influents ofjudaisni on his fellow Romans 

were vented in hi* epigram, Vtcii \rtc(9ribus kgrs dtderunt Seneca, Opem* Teubner, 
Leipzig, ]H7K,V,,I. HI, p. -127. 

17, R. V. C. Bodky, The Messenger, DoubU-d.iv, New York, l'.Hb, p. 156, 



158 



The Dispossessed Majority 



empyrean heights of preeminence. Moreover it was by appealing ro 
the social and moral teachings of jesus, principally to ihe dem- 
ocratic and liberal offshoots of the shattering message in I he Ser- 
mon on the Mount, that jews managed to break out of their Eu- 
ropean ghettos in the years beiween the French and the Russian 
revolutions. 

Jews survived the fall of Rome as adeptly as they survived the fall 
of |orusalem. In the Dark Ages they were alternately tolerated and 
persecuted by the invading Teutons. In Spain ihey obtained the 
highest public offices in the Moorish kingdom of Granada in the 
eleventh century, and dominated commerce and owned one-third 
of ihe real estate in Christian Barcelona in the twelfth century 18 In 
England, Aaron of Lincoln, a medieval precursor of the Roth- 
schilds, amassed enough wealth to finance the construction of nine 
Cistercian monasteries and the Abl>ey of St. Albans. 19 Bui Jewish 
fortunes declined when Furopc was seized by the fervor — often 
more Gothic than Christian — that built the great cathedrals and 
triggered ihe Crusades, From the German Rhineland, where over* 
zealous Crusaders organized a series of pogroms, a violent anti- 
Jewish reaction spread irresistibly over medieval and renaissance 
Europe. 20 England expelled its Jews in E290, France in 1306, Aus- 
tria in 1420, Spain in 1492, Florence in 1405, Portugal in 1496-97, 
Naples in 1541, and Milan in 1597.* 1 

Taking with them a rudimentary Teutonic dialect which huer 
evolved into Yiddish, most German and Central European Jews 
moved east to Poland, the great medieval haven of Jewry. Those 
pushing farther east may have met and mixed with Jewish contin- 
gents who for centuries had l^eti working their way north from the 



18. Durmt, ThtAgr of Faith, pr*. 371 75. 

19. llmV.pp. 377-78. 

20. ( rfncrally in ihe Middle Agrs, ]rw* supported monarchies l*rauv it wa* eas- 
ier ro dcaj with One king lhan icorel of nobles. They were al*»> partial to the pa- 
pacy, which alternately protected and humiliated them. In 1215, Innocent III or- 
dered all jews, men and women, lo wear a yellow badge Dji tin^turi, Tin- faxduiion 
of Man and Society, p. 459. The tension between Jews and the English aristocracy 
was revealed bv the Magna Carta, which contained Specific restriction* concerning 
the payment of debts and interest, to Jews, 

21. DaliF* of expulsion are taken from articles on the applicable countries and 
cities in the {finish En<y<lopedia t Rlav Publishing, New Yoik, 1004. 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIM1LATED 159 

Caucasus, on the way intermarrying with non-Jews, whoni ihey later 
converted to Judaism. 

Jews or Eastern Europe, the Ashkenazim, are lo be distinguished 
irom the Sephardim, the purer-blooded Mediterranean Jews ex- 
pelled from Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella in ihe same year Co- 
lumbus discovered America. The Sephardim found sanctuary in 
Holland, Leghorn (Italy), and Turkey; a. few even getting as far as 
Brazil, from which they were later deported by the Portuguese. 
Twenty-four of these deportees, captured by the French on their 
way back to Holland, were deposited in Nieuw Amsterdam (New 
York) in IG54. M 

The racial composition of ihe Ashkcna/.im and Sephardim has al- 
ready been discussed, as have the many important generic changes 
wrought by 2, . r >00 years of intermittent miscegenation with non- 
jewish peoples. 23 Nevertheless modern jews of Sepharcfck or Asli- 
kena/ic origin— Jews of French, American, Russian, Iranian, Ye- 
menite, or any other nationality— like to think they are all directly 
descended Irom the ancient Hebrews of Palestine, li is worth re- 
peating that this belief in a common ancestry, reinforced by re- 
ligious traditions handed down for thirty centuries, ran overcome 
all manner ot inherited biological differences in welding a strong 
race consciousness. 

In the late Middle Ages most European Jews lived completely 
apart in walled ghettos. Association with Christians was limited 
mainly to economic mailers. In many European countries and free 
cities there was a total ban against Jews for centuries. As a result, 
hardly an identifiable or professing jew was to be found in Chau- 
cer's and Shakespeare's England, Michelangelo's Florence, and 
Cervantes* and Velazquez.' Spain. 

jews were not permitted to return to England until Crorrrweirs 
time. It was not until 1791 thai the French -Assembly granted 
French Jews lull citizenship. From then on Jewish destiny bright- 
ened. Starting with the Napoleonic wars, Joseph Wechsberg writes, 



Tt. iVt< i NuiyvrSLiill, the governor, cU4 not Wiinl Ui \r\ them iriiMin, but Jewish 
tliircimsof the Dutch Wrsi Inuia Company cuiisod him to chungc his mind 1 Ic> 
ward M. Sachar, Th& Courv 4>J Modern Jewish Hhtmy, World Publishing, Qeveland, 
L95fi, p. ltd. Also sec Stephen Birrainghare, The Grandtts, Harpei & Row, New 
York, l&71,Chap. 1. 

23. See pp* 30*31 



KiO 



The Dispossessed Majority 



The supremacy of the Rothschilds in international finance lasted 
one hundred years, "^ In 1858, Lionel Rothschild was the first Brit- 
ish [ew to he elected to Parliament. In [86$, Disraeli became Brit- 
ain's prime minister. As the lilwrali/atio]] ami commercialization af 
the West continued through the latter part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury and into ihc twentieth, Jewish emancipation kepi pace. 

By the 1920s it could be fairly said that Jews were setting the tone 
for much of Western culture. One has only to mention Marx, Freud, 
Einstein, the philosophers Bergson and Wittgenstein, and the an- 
thropologisi Boas. After 500 years of eclipse and a recovery that 
had required little more than a century, Jews had achieved more 
power and influence than ever before in their history. 

Then came Hitler. Although World War [I was another desperate 
attempt by Germany to set up a continental empire in Europe, it 
was also a hitter war between Germans and Jews. The number of 
European Jews actually killed by the Germans and their allies has 
never been correctly established. The accepted and widely quoted 
figure of h million is apparently based on hearsay evidence pro- 
vided by an SS officer, Wllhelm Hoitl, who declared Adolf Eich- 
mann had informed him 4 million Jews had died in extermination 
camps and 2 million elsewhere. 25 The Entyciopaeditt Rritannka 
(I9f)3) is more conservative and uses the phrase "more than r > mil- 
lion."-- One Jewish historian has put the figure somewhere Ih 1 * 
tween 4,200,000 and 4J>nO ( O nn > one-third of whom died of disease 



24. The Mercfutni tUt7jhej\ Little, Brown, Beaton, 1966, p 343. One aspect n| 
Rothschild powei was amply demonstrated during Wellington"* campaign against 
the French in Spain. The frruiih general was badly in need oi gold, which ilie Brit* 
]\}\ Roihst -holds had tliil'it iijiv m transmitting because ul ihe French land and *ea 
blockade. The Frcn< h Roths* hilds solved the problem loi dteii tliuish relations by 
li 1 1 anging for die transsJupmem o! Wellington's ^old through France Never- 
theless, Wechsberg praises the Rothschilds im then loyally to the niters of the 
courm ies in which they hapjvnrd u> reside, Ibid., pp V.&, 542. 

25. Trial af tht Major War Criminals befort ttit tniemati&nal Military Tribunal, Nu- 
remberg, Germany, Vol. XXI h Doc. 2738-PS, p. WS Anoihei SS officer, tltetei von 
Wisltccny, said Ekhmann had informed him thai \ miltiou |ews fcud been killed 
At other Limes, according to Wislicctty, F.iciimann increased the total to 5 million, 
liottl, who was expelled from the SS in KM'J, worked lm American cmmier- 
inielligenre afler the war. In 1953 he was arrested in Vienna and charged with 
espionage, 

26. Vol. 13, p. 64 



THK MINORITIES; ASSIM HATED AND UNASSIM11 AI'Kl) Lfil 

an<l hunger. 27 On the other hand, Paid Rassinier, a French socialist 
and onetime inmate of Ruchenwald, wrote a series of books to the 
effect that there were only a million or so Jewish victims of Nazism. 
lie specifically denied the existence of gas chambers and charged 
they were a deliberate hoax devi&ed by Zionists to secure repara- 
tions from Germans, and obtain moral and military support for the 
State of Israel. 

Robert Faurisson, a French professor of literature at the Univer- 
sity of Lyon 2, Arthur R1117, an American professor of electrical en- 
gineering at Northwestern University, WUhelm Staglich, a retired 
Wesi German judge, British historian David Irving and Fred Leuch- 
ter, an American expert in execution procedures (lethal injections, 
more efficient electric chairs, advanced gas chamber design) have 
defended die Rassinier thesis in books, articles, and lectures. ^ 
Their work has not been well received. Butz's car was fire-bombed, 
and his publisher's offices and warehouse buiued to the ground. 
Faurisson, driven out of his teaching post the victim of a bloody 
physical assault, was given a suspended 00-day prison sentence and 
fined. Staglich had his pension reduced, was stripped of his doc- 
toral degree, and ail unsold copies of his book were seized by the 
German police David Irving was handcuffed and expelled from 
Canada, refused admittance to Australia, and ordered out of Ger- 
many and Austria. In early 1TO4, Leuchter spent nearly a month in 
prison in Germany for inciting racial hatred. I le was arrested a lew 
moments before he was to appear on a television interview pro- 
gram. Ernst Zundel, a German living in Canada, was given a 15- 
month prison term lor his publications questioning the existence 
of gas chambers in Auschwitz. (The sentence was later reversed on 
appeal.) James Keegstra, a Canadian teacher, lost his job for denying 



27. Sachur, op. tic, p. -157. 

*28. See Paul Ras&tnier, Debunking thr Genocide Myth, trans. Adam Bobbins, Noon- 
tide Press, Torrance, Calif-, 1938; Arthui Bute, The Hoax of the Twentieth Oman. 
Noontide Press, 1977; Wilhelno Suglicfa, Drr AturhwU Mythos, Graben Verlag, 
Tubii^fii, !'J7U. A summary of Robert Faurisson's arguments is given m Serge 
Hiion's Vhiti historique ou veriti poUtiquel, La VieUle Taupe, Paris, I960. 1'he ln- 
ititutc for Historical Review, based in Torrance, Calif., publishes a journal that 
over the years has kept tabs fin ihc travails of the more prominent \ I<>I<m ausi ak**|>- 
lit ». h is probably the hcs( wnurt o| /.iindels ami taring's experiences with law en- 
ion emeiii officers in three coniinenis. 



162 The Dispossessed Majority 

the Holocaust in front of his students. 

Since there has been no extensive public debate on what oc- 
curred in Nazi concentration camps in World War II, ii may be 
some time before the facts are finally established. World War I 
propaganda of Huns mutilating nurses, cutting; off the hands of 
Belgian babies, giving poison candy to children, desecrating altars, 
crucifying Canadian soldiers — all these atrocity tales, some accom- 
panied by fake photographs, were debunked only a few years alter 
the war, and laid to rest for all time in 1928 by the publication of 
Arthur Ponsonby's Falsehood in Wartime World War II propaganda, 
conversely and perversely, is still going strong after nearly fifty 
years, although all too much of it is based on forced confessions, 
forged evidence, and rehearsed witnesses. 

World War II was disastrous for Jews in Germany and throughout 
most of Europe. But by strengthening Jewish unity outside areas of 
Axis control, Nazi anti-Semitism helped to seal Germany's defeat 
The massive and wholehearted support of world Jewry, particularly 
of American Jewry, in the war against Hitler was an all-important 
factor in the ultimate Allied victory.* 9 

In the 1 postwar period, Jews reached new levels of prosperity in 
the non-Communist world. In Spain, for the first lime .since 149'2, 
Jews were permitted to open synagogues. I'.ven in (ie? many, where 
:i0,000 Jews still lived, Jewish communities sprang up again in many 
of the larger cities. The greatest triumph of modern Jewry, how- 
ever, was the establishment of Israel, which provided Jews with a 
psychological lift ihey had not had since tfae days of Jtulali Mac- 
cabee and Bar Cocheba. so To the amazement of nonjews and Jews 
alike, the historic Jewish stereotype shifted almost overnight from 
the cringing, sly moneychanger to the fearless deseri Fighter.* 3 But 



29. The prominent rule played by American jews in the development of the 
atom bomb, in the demand For Germany's unconditional stirrcndci in World War 
II, astd in the staging of the Nuremberg trials will br treated later 

30. Israel's in flue nee un American foreign policy will be covered in Chapter 35, 
judah Marcabee and Rar Cocheba were Jewish heroes who led armed rebellions 
against Greek and Roman occupying forces. 

31. The Zionist pioneers of Palestine were mostly Ashkeni/iin, a select group, as 
pioneers generally are, which helps account for thrir surprising display of martial 
valor. The "un-Jewish" temperament and character of many of these Zionists were 
illustrmed bv their "im-jVwish" appearance. 



THE MINORITIES; ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIM1LATKD 165 

the settlement and conquest of Palestine brought with it a new rash 
of anti-Semitism in a region, the Middle East, which had been rel- 
atively free of it for ages. 

Although Israel may be the spiritual home of Jewry, the United 
States remains the Jewish center of gravity. Jusi as no one can fully 
LinoYrsiand present-flay world affairs without taking jews into ac- 
count, so no member of the American Majority can even begin to 
comprehend the pattern of American events in the 20th century 
without a rudimentary knowledge of the aims, habits, and politi- 
cal, economic and social status oi American Jews. 

Ii was during the Civil War that Jews first came to the attention oi 
the American public at large. The first American Jew to attract in- 
ternational notice was Judah Benjamin, the confederate secretary 
o( slate, who fled to England after Appomattox.^* On the Northern 
side, while the Lincoln administration was leaning heavily on the 
Rothschilds for financial support/* General Grani generated aa 
anti-Semitic furor by ordering his subordinate- commanders to ex- 
pel Jewish peddlers and commission merchants from behind the 
Union lines. M Yet it was <»rant, when president, who tiad seriously 



S2. Honda's David I x-vy Yulce, elected in L&45, was the liisl Jewish senator. 

M'C August Belmont, the Rothschilds' American agent, 'Svas ahle, thanks to the 
hugeness of the Rothschild reservoir of capital, to start out in America operating 
his own Federal Reserve System." IVlrnunt was one oF the first jews to rrack the in- 
ner sanctum of American high society when he married the daughter of naval 
hcioConunodove Perry. Rirnrmtgham, OwOtnwf, pp. 27, 79-80, 101. 

$4. Ibid., p. 98. Up to the present, the story of American anti-Semitism lias Ix-en 
unimpressive and inflated. There were a few notorious social incidents, such as the 
rehisal oi the (hand I 'in ion Hotel in Saratoga to accommodate: Joseph Seligniau 
(JH77); a few Dreyfus-accented trials in which American courts were accused of 
wrongly convicting jews., such as the Leo Frank rape case, which led to his lynch- 
ing in All an la (191-1-15)), and the Rosenberg atom spy case after World War II; a 
few anti-Jewisfo flafcre*»ps s such a% the resurrected Ku Klnx KJan and Henry Ford's 
Dearborn Indfpfruirnt in die 1020s, and Fathri Goughlin's ratlin orator)' and Social 
Jtuticf magazine in the late HKW)s; a few an(i-waf movements, such as the Christian 
Front and die (German-American Rund. Muey Long was the only American polit- 
ical leader of sufhcienl shrewdness eg have carried anti-Semitism el'leclivelv into 
national politics-, but he was assassinated hy Or. Carl Weiss in l". l l.Y The. late Gerald 
L. K.. Smith, one oi Long's principal aides, published a wide range of anti-Semitic 
literature for several decades. In a nationwide radio address in I'M 1 , ( ihai les I jnd- 
bergh accused jews of warmongering and repeated the charge in his war memoirs 
published 29 years later A few scattered organization* — some Klan groups, some 



b4 



The Dispossessed Majority 



considered appointing his close friend, Joseph Seligman, secretary 
oi the treasury. When President Garfield was shot in 1881, he was 
taken to Elberon, New Jersey, wherejesse Soligman, Joseph's hroi ti- 
er, opened his house to the dying man's family. At a Seligman Sat- 
urday get-together in Elberon, "it was never a surprise to find a 
former U.S. President, a Supreme Court Justice, several Senators 
and a Congressman or two." 35 

The relatively few Sephardic Jews and the much greater number 
of German Jews viewed with mixed feelings die mass influx of Jews 
which began in the 1890s and which originated in large part from 
the extensive realm of the anti-Semitic Russian czars. But though 
they did not open (heir hearts to the newcomers or accept them so- 
cially, ]t wish Old Immigrants did open their purses. This seed mon- 
ey, swiftly compounded by the New Immigrants* financial Hair, al- 
lowed most of them to escape their Lower East Side tenements 
within a generation, Today, while Jews of Western and Central Eu- 
ropean descent still retain much of their wealth, the Eastern Eu- 
ropean Jews, in addition to being affluent in their own right, have 
assumed the leadership not only of American Jewry, bill of world 
Jewry as well 

The administration of Franklin Roosevelt was the lirs* to intro- 
duce scores of Jews into the decision-making echelons of govern- 
ment.^ 6 It is true that Theodore Roosevelt made Oscar Straus 
secretary of commerce and labor, just as it is true thai there were 



American Nazi units — huckstered arukSemiu.sm in the post-World Wan II period. 
Ltbeiiy Luhby, ii eunsei vative organisation based in Washington , D-C , and the tab- 
loid Spotlight mounted strong ami-Zionist campaigns in the- laltei pan of \\\r cen- 
tury. David Duke, once associated with some Klaii gTOuplets, after winning a seat 
in die Louisiana legislature, ran for senator anil later foi governor. In each case 
he made a fairlv respectable showing although the political and media establish- 
ment attacked him unmercifully. In his bid lor governor lie won nunc white votes 
than die winner, former Governor Edwin Edwards . 

H.V Birmingham, op. cit., pp. 126, S0H-1). 

l M\. [ews were especially conspicuous in the Securities and Exchange Commis- 
sion, National Labor Relations Board, Social Security Board, and the Departments 
of Labor and justice. Ibftiirr't Digest, Sept., t$46, pp. 2-5. Three Jewish governors 
during the Roosevelt era were Henry Horner of Illinois. Julius Me* iei ol Oregon, 
and Herbert [ehman of New York. When Rooievdi died, one rabbi compared 
him to Moses. Rarnct LitvinoflT, A Ptculiar totpk. Weybrighi and Talley, New Vork, 
i*)uy t p. 4t 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMII ATKD AND UNASS1MII ATK1) 165 

scattered appointments of Jews in the Wilson and Hoover eras, in- 
cluding sin h notable figures as Paul Warburg, Louis Rrandeis, Ben- 
jamin Cardozo and Felix Frankfurter.* 7 But the roster of New Deal- 
ers contained many more, if less distinguished, Jewish names: 
Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Benjamin Cohen, Sol Bloom, Emanuel 
Oiler, Herbert Lehman, David Niles, Samuel Rosenman, Isador 
l.ubin, Monleeai L/.ekiel, Anna Rosenberg, Morris Ernst, Nathan 
Strays, Donald Richberg, Lawrence Steinhardt, and Robert Na- 
than. Bernard Barueh, in whose New York apartment Winston 
Churchill was an overnight guest when making stale visits to Amer- 
ica in World War tl, seemed to overlap all adininistiaiions, having 
been an adviser to five American presidents. sa Like Banich, bank- 
ers Alexander Sachs and Sidney Weinberg attended important pol- 
icy sessions of both Republican and Democratic administrations. 

After World War II, David Lilienthal and Lewis Strauss served as 
chairmen of ihe Atomic Energy Commission and helped ^uide the 
United States into the nuclear age,, In the 1950s, Senator Joseph 
McCarthy brought tin- public spoiliglu to hear on his two young 
Jewish assistants, David Schine and Roy Cohn, no 

President Truman kept many of Roosevelt's Jewish appointees on 
the federal payroll. Bui President Eisenhower, who only obtained a 
sin. ill fraction of the Jewish vole, let mosi of thern go, Eisenhower, 
however, did appoint Douglas Dillon to a high Stale Department 
post. Meanwhile, Republican Senators Barry Goldwaier and Jacob 
Javits, the former the party's unsuccessful l!)f>1 presidential can- 
didate, achieved national and international prominence."^ 



37. Warburg was pardj responsible for devising the Federal Reserve System and 
was made the Federal Reserve Board's vice<hainnaTi. 

3& Banich made must o! his millions speculating in topper stoikv When Amri- 
ica entered World Wai I, Wilson named him head of die Wai Industries Board- 

'Mh Foi Cohn's miici career, see Chapter 30. 

-K). Is ii really ac< urate to say that men like Dillon and Goldwster arc Jews? HoUi 
had Polish jews ;** paternal grandfathers — Samuel Lapow&ki (Dillon's) came to 
Texas as a clothier antl Michael Goldwassei (Goldwater'i) arrived in the South- 
wesi ;ih ;i peddler, H«nli Dillon ant! Goidwater, js their fathers before them, mai- 
ded non-Jews. Both led the life of well-to-do members of the Majority — DiRcm, the 
banker, being more well-to-do than Coldwater, lint the residue of Jewish race con* 
■u iousness runs deep, h h extremely difficult in a milieu of intense racial divisw his, 
■as in present-day America, to determine cxactl) when ajew ceases m be a Jew. 
Even ii an inclividu.i! no longer wishes to consider himself a few, the world may 



m 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Jews returned to Washington in force when John F. Kennedy as- 
sumed the presidency in L96] . Arthur Goldberg was appointed sec- 
retary of labor, and Senator Abraham Ribicoff, secretary of health, 
education, and welfare. When Goldberg moved up lo the Supreme 
Court, Willard Win/ succeeded him. Other Kennedy appointees in- 
cluded Newton Minow, head of the Federal Communications Com- 
mission; Mortimer Caplin, thief of the Internal Revenue Service, 
and Pierre Salinger, presidential press secretary. Dillon stayed on as 
Kennedy's secretary of the treasury. Arthur Schlesinger, |r., Theo- 
dore Chaikin Sorensen, and Richard Goodwin were among thos** 
who whispered most loudly in Kennedy's ear. 41 

When Lyndon Johnson became president upon Kennedy's as- 
sassination, he shifted Goldberg from the Supreme Court to the 
United Nations. Other [ohnsou appointments; Walt Rostow, chief 
presidential adviser on foreign affairs; Wilbur Cohen* secretary of 
health, education, and welfare; Abe Fort as, associate justice of the 
Supreme Court.' 1 '' F.dwin Weisl, chairman of the executive com- 
mittee of Paramount Pictures, served as Johnson's personal finan- 
cial consultant. 

Richard Nixon, in spite of his ambivalent attitude towards Jew, 
continued the practice of surrounding the presidency with Jewish 



force him lo be one. Goklwsuer's racial background, for instance, might help ac- 
count for his mystifying friendships with Jewish gurij^lerx. For Dillon's and Gold- 
water's antecedents, see T\mt, August \H, 19M, p. .13 .ind July <M, l^ti-1, p. 22. For 
(JoldwaUr's gangster ii iends, see Chapter 30. 

41. In his capacity as Kennedy'? 1 advise,! on Caribbean affairs in the l.'H : *H piiinaiy 
race for the Democratic presidential nomination, Goodwill, Who had iniieh 'o do 
with the Bay of Pigs fiasco, was torn between Eugene McCarthy and Robert Ken- 
nedy. 'The LrouhU' is, baby," he explained, H I dorTi know which one of die in to 
make president." He told Seymour Hcrsch, McCarthy'* press secretary, "Just you 
and me and two typewriters, Sy, and we'll bring down Uic- -o\ < i mucin/ San Fran- 
risro Sitjuhy Kxamirirr C? CJtmnicU. Sunday Jhinchjjuh 14, H>68, p. 2. 

42, Both before and after Johnson took office, Abe For Us was "on die tele- 
phone [with Johnson] at least once a day and often as rnariv as three or four 
times." £squirf,]unc, 1965, p. B6, The phone continued ringing after Fortas joined 
the Supreme Court. This close, somewhat tin constitutional relationship between 
the executive and die judiciary was one of the main reasons the Senate refused Uj 
confirm Johnson's nomination of Farias as Chief Justice. Whether Johnson was 
privy to FortaVa monetary dealing* with die convicted stock embezzler, Ixjuis Wolf* 
son, which later led to Korias's resignation, is not known. See Chaoier 30. 



M1K MINORITIES: ASSIMIIATED AND UNASSIMII ATED I(>7 



cabinet members and high-level advisers. Henry Kissinger was sec- 
retary *>l" state and practically assistant presidertl at the high tide of 
Watergate; James Schlesinger, a convert to Lutheranism, was CIA 
chief and later secretary of defense; Arthur F. Burns, 4 * chairman of 
the Federal Reserve Board; Herbert Stein, chief economic adviser; 
Laurence 1 SHberman, deputy attorney general; Leonard Garment, 
in charge 1 of ihe While I louse civil rights department. 4 " 1 

As the first appointed president, Gerald Ford kepi Kissinger, dis- 
missed Schlesinger, brought in Kciward Levi, an old Stalinist fellow 
traveler, as attorney general, and replaced Stein with Alan Greenspan. 

In regard to the losers in the 19f>8 and 1972 presidential races, 
Hubert Humphrey had as his closest adviser, E. R Berinan, and his 
eleven largest campaign contributors were Jewish." 1 * George McGov- 
ern's i\)T2. presidential bid was also heavily financed by Jews, His 
chief aide was Frank Manfciewicz, 

The Garter administration, though not all ai the same time, had 
Harold hniwn as secretary of defense, James Schlesinger as sec- 
retary of energy (like Dillon he served both parties), Michael ftlu- 
inenthal, secretary of the treasury, Neil Goldschmidt, secretary of 
transpot lation, Philip Klut/nick, secretary of commerce, Stuart La- 
zenstai, chief adviser on domestic affairs, Robert Strauss, who ran 
the 1980 Democratic presidential campaign, Robert Lipshutz, pres- 
idential counsel, and Gerald Rafshoon, media consultant. So) Lino 
witz, driving force ol the Panama Canal negotiations, was later put 
in charge o( implementing the Camp David accords. At one time 
or another dining the Carter presidency, |cws headed the Internal 
Revenue Service, Securities and Exchange Commission, Federal 
Trade Commission, Bureau of the Census, General Services Ad- 
ministration, Congressional Budget Office and the Library of Con- 
gress, jews also filled the number two or number three positions in 
die Departments of State, Treasury, Agriculture, Interior, Labor, Coin- 
incrce, Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Health, 
Education and Welfare. Several federal agencies and government 

43. 'The chairman of the Federal Resrivr Board has greaici intlnriur over the 
daily lives of "nil t'.S. t iti/ens lli.m ,ihuo>t Sfivmir Fxcepl (he I'l't'sidnit . . ." Ttmf, 
Ocl 24, 1969, p. 89. 

44. Ntu.'JtsHk, Nov. 1H, 19f>8, p. It. ('.oni-*-<|uenl!v, all communii fttjoni eon- 
Cfflrnlfig minority problems bad Lo ( leai through (iarmenva office. 

45. San Francisco Chronic k, Nov. 25, 1968, p- 9. 



ltiH 



riu' Dispossessed Majority 



advisory groups wore also in Jewish hands. The National Security 
Council was especially renowned for the number of lews on its 

Staff, 

The results of the 1080 presidential election augured a sharp re- 
duction in the proportion of minorities in the executive branch, al- 
though many Jews were attracted to Che Republican platform which 
often outprornised the Democrats in respect lo Israel. Only one 
person of Jewish background, Caspar Weinberger, an Episcopalian 
with a Jewish grandfather, was given a post (secretary of defense) in 
Reagan's cabinet; Murray Weidenbaimi was appointed chief ec- 
onomic adviser; Henry Kissinger was now America's elder states- 
man. Reagan ended his second Term with Kenneih Dubersieiu as 
his man Friday and chief of the White House staff. 

The Bush admit list ration also had relatively few Jews, Alan 
Greenspan staved on as Federal Reserve Chairman, and Robert 
jYlosbacher, a high-profile Republican fundraiser, 46 was appointed 
secretary of commerce* 

The Jewish component of the American government leapt sky- 
ward with the advent of the Clinton administration Robert Reich, 
an intensely liberal Harvard professor, became secretary of labor; 
Madeleine Albright, UN ambassador; Bernard Nusshamu (forced 
to resign later for trying to conceal the papers of Vincent Foster, 
Clinton "« close friend, who committed suicide); Aimer Mikva, Nnss- 
baum's successor; Mickey (Cantor, trade representative; Ruth Gins- 
burg, the first Jewish Supreme Court Justice since Fnrtas resigned 
in IU7(); Stephen Breyer, Clinton's second Jewish appointment to 
the High Bench; Robed Rubin, secretary of the treasury: John 
Deuu h, head of the CIA. Clinton said he wanted to make his gov- 
ernment "look more like America." What he did, as far as his ap- 
pointments were concerned, was to make it "look more like Israel, * 

Sime Jews claim to be only 2.3 percent of the population (1992 
American Jewish Yearbook}, their number in Congress (33 in She 
House, 11 in the Senate in 1094) is dearly out of proportion. But 
where Jewish oven (-presentation is overwhelming is in the opinion- 
forming sanctuaries of the American social order, Theoretically the 



If). "[Jew-si give more than half die money rrillected liy die Democratic party 
and lap lo ■ tjii.u(t:i oi Republican funds," according to a 1985 study sponsored by 
the American Jewish Congress. Washington Pau, March 6, 11985, p. A5. 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UMASSIMILATED 169 

politician is the servant of the public* In practice he is all coo fre- 
quently the servant of the media. 

Large newspaper chains and mass circulation tabloids bear some 
of the- responsibility for shaping the public mind. But only a very 
few select newspapers, the so-called "high-impact" press, shape [he- 
minds of those who govern the public. By far the most important 
are the Mae York limes and the Washington I'ust. What they print and 
how they present it determines to a large extent what the lead- 
ership oi America says, thinks and does. The controlling interest in 
both these publications is held by Jews. The New York Turns, which 
prides itself" on being the national newspaper of record, 47 has been 
the cherished possession of the Ochcscs and the Sulzberger* 4 * for 
several generations, as has the Chattanooga Times.' 10 Most of the vot- 
ing stock of the Washington Post Co. is owned by Katharine Gra- 
ham, the daughter of Eugene Meyer, a Jewish banker. Mrs, Graham, 
described as very tmu h "the boss lady of the publishing monolith," 
also controls Newsweek and a strategically situated Washington, 
!).(.!., television station/'" I he capital's other daily newspaper, the 
Washington ihncs, although consistently conservative and at times 
(Ten patriotic, is financed by the Korean evangelist and tax evader, 
Sun Myung Moon. 

Less important newspapers, in the sense that their Influence is 
more regional than national, include: the Si. Louis Post-1 "Hspatck, 
dominated by a grandson of Joseph Pulitzer, the Hungarian Jewish 
publisher who is credited with inventing yellow journalism; 1 * 1 the 
San Francisco Chronicle California's second most influential news- 



■17. Fifty copies of the Timt\w* to the Whiir House each day. I' is distributed in 
1 1,464 American cities. Tatese, 77m Kingdom and the Power, pp. 72, S-Mi. 

48. George, the brolher of Adolph Orhs, the founder of the dynasty, partly an- 
glicized his name to Oc hs-Oakcs. John Oakes, his idn, oner supervised die* Times' 
editorial page. When oUiel editorial writers have 'Vita's | which] eortftrJ t with liis, 
Lhey are not published." T;,ilrw p op. cit., pp. Tl, ?9, 81. 

■10. In 1970 the Chattanooga TiW-s was die defendant in an antitrust suit to! "un- 
lawful attempts* to monopolize the newspaper business in the Tennessee city. jVi7/' 
fcffcTTwws, May 8, 1970, p. 9. 

50, The information <onceinini; Mrs. (uaham, like much other data on the 
news and communications media in these pages, was taken from the ailicle, 
"America's Media Kaiomes," in Atlantic, July, 1969. 

51. heard, op. cit,, Vol. 2, p. lo) . Hairy Truman defined Joseph I'uHi/ei as "the 
meanest thai acler assassin in the whole liisloi y ot liai i. 



170 



The Dispossessed Majority 



paper, owned and operated by the Thieriot family, descendants of 
Charles and Michael de Jung, the papers Jewish founders; and 
Pittsburgh's Post-Gazette and Press, and Toledo's Blade and Times, 
owned by the Block family. The tweniy-six daily newspapers of the 
two Newhouse brothers comprise a journalistic empire that is third 
in national circulation and first in profits. The New York Daily 
News, once the nation's leading tabloid and a beacon of iso- 
lationism, was bought in 1992 by Mortimer Zuckerman and 
now beats the drums for Israel. Exercising an influence thai 
stretches far beyond die business community, die Wall Street Journal 
(Peter Kann, publisher) is owtied by Dow Jones & Co., whose chair- 
man, Warren Phillips, born a Jew, is now a Christian. 

Many smaller newspapers are owned, managed or edited by Jews, 
not To mention newspapers in Yiddish or English directed at specific 
|ewisli communities. Also some of the biggest newspapers or news- 
paper chains not owned or controlled by Jews have Jewish execu- 
tives, managers, editors, reporters or columnists. The International 
I lerald'Trihu ne, published in Paris and read daily by many top-level 
officials of European governments, is owned by a consortium in which 
the Neiv York Times and Washington Post have a significant investment. 

The list of magazines controlled or edited by Jews is voluminous. 
It includes: Vogiie, Glamour, Mademoiselle, House and Garden, New Y(rrk- 
er t Vanity Fan (all part of the Newhouse chain), American flame. Con- 
sumer Reports, Family Circle, I suites' Home journal, Mc.CaU's, Redback, 
Seventeen, Woman's Day, American Heritage, Atlantic, Commentary, Daed- 
alus, Dissent, Esquire, Human Events, High limes, Ms,, Nation, National 
Journal, New Republic, Nerv York Review of Books, Newsweek, Partisan Re- 
view, The Public Interest, I tolling Stone, Village Voice, Nerv York Observer 
and VS. News & World Report. IV Guide, with America's largest cir- 
culation (20,000,000) Mid largest yearly advertising revenue (nearly 
$200,000,000) was for years, until he sold it for an enormous sum 
to Rupert Murdoch, the property of Walter Annenberg. 

In 1991, Time, Inc. (Time, Fortune, Sports Illustrated, Money, People, 
13 TV stations, Home Box Office, Little, Brown book publishers, 
and large holdings in Metro-Ookhvyn-Mayer) merged with Warner 
Commu-nications, controlled by the late Jewish takeover artist, Ste- 
ven Ross, to Ix'come Time Warner, current Iv the world's second 
largest media and entertainment empire. CEO is (krald Levin; 



THE MINORITIES; ASSIMILATED ANTE) UNASSIMILATED 1711 

editor-in-chief is Norman Pcarlstine. In 1969, as managing editor of 
Time, Henry Grunwald, born in Germany of Jewish parents, was, per- 
haps the "single most influential linear journalist in the world/ 52 

Whether or not controlled by Jews, practically all leading publica- 
tions compete for the services of Jewish pundits. At die literate or 
semiliierate level are or were such names as: Waller Lippman, Da- 
vid Lawrence, Max Lerncr, Arthur Krock, David Broder, Richard 
Cohen, Anthony and Flora Lewis* Joseph Kraft, Midge Decter, Paul 
Goodman, Irving Howe, Barbara Khrenreich, Irving and William 
Kristol, Victor Navasky, William Phillips, Norman and John Pod- 
horeu, Philip Rahv, Susan Son tag, William Safire, Frank Rich, and 
Art Suchwaid; at the peephole level, Walter Wimhell, Drew Pear- 
son, Leonard Lyons, Irv Kupeiuei, and Herb Caen;** at the lonely 
hearts level, Ann lenders and Abigail van Buren; at the sexology 
level, Dr. Ruih Wcsthcimer, a former member of Haganah. One of 
the nation's most influential — and most savage newspaper cartoon- 
ists — is llerblock (Herbert Block) of the Washington Post, One of 
the most popular comic strips: Al Capp's UitAbner*** 

In book publishing, the Newhouse empire owns Random House, 
The Modern Library, Knopf, Pantheon, and BallatKine Books. Co- 
lumbia Broadcasting System owns Popular Library; Fawcctt Publica- 
tions, and Moll, Rinehart and Winston. Music Corporation of 
America owns G. P. Putnam's Sons. Gulf and Western owns Simon 
and Schuster. Other Jewish publishing houses are Grosset and Dun- 
Bap, Lyle Stuart, Viking Press, Stein and Day, Grove Press, Crown, 
Sc.hockeu Books, and Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Nearly all leading 
publishers, Jewish and non-Jewish, promote works of Jewish authors 
and employ Jews in executive or editorial positions. 

Henry Garfinkle's Aucorp National Services has a near monopoly 



5M. Atlantic, \\\\y, 1969, p, 43. 

53. When a WestCoast newspaper earned the headline, "Killei Hui lic.aue Near- 
Lng Texas," Caen wt an all-time low for his profession by ( oinuuniing, "Promises, 
promises.." San Francisco Chroniclf, Sepl. 20, p. 24- 

54. Ry Ear the most amusing comic slrip> I. 'it Aimer, was nevertheless a grinding, 
seiiali/ed a Hark on Majority folkways — -an upside-clown version of Aesop in which 
the city mouse ti iurnphs over his country cousin. In the character of Daisy Mae, 
however, Capp is careful Lo render due obeisance to the Aesthetic Prop. In IS72 
th« cartoonist entered a plea of guilty u> a charge of attempted rape ;md was fined 
$500 bv a Wisconsin judge. Facts onftU, 1972, p. .W>. 



17: 



The Dispossessed Majority 



on tin- distribution of newspapers, magazines and paperback books 
in New York City, and receives what the W<dl Street journal has de- 
scribed as "bribes" of $30,000 and $26,000 a year from the New York 
Times and Daily Nexus, respectively. A close associate of Mafia figures, 
Garfinkle has been known to Ixmsi about having "publishers in my 
up pocket. *■ 

A powerful force in the book distribution field is the Book-of-th^- 
Month Club, pioneered by the late Harry LScherman, l>orn of An- 
glo-Welsh-Jewish parents in Montreal. Now a part of the Time War- 
ner conglomerate, (he BOMG mailed out more than 250 million 
books in the- first 40 years of its existence. Equally influential are 
the wholesale book firms, two of the most important being Hook- 
a/ine and Diamondsiein, both Jewish-owned. Literary critics also 
play a powerful role in I lie book business. M As might be expected, 
the New York 'iimes Hook Rmrim&tid the Nnv York Rffttiew of Hooks, the 
two leading publications of this genre, operate under the argis of 
Jewish editors. Indeed Jewish literary criticism is a staph' of nearly 
all the so-called intellectual magazines. 

Perhaps the most conclusive evidence of their hold over the me- 
dia is furnished by the Jews' commanding position in the television > 
radio and motion picture industries. Laurence lis* h ran the Co- 
lumbia Broadcasring System with an iron hand until he sold it to 
Westinghouse Electric in 109f>. Capital Cities Communications hit-., 
a Majority company,, owned the American Broadcasting Co, until if 
was sold to the Jewish-controlled Disney entertainment colossus. 
General Electric, a Majority corporation, is the parent of the Na- 
tional Broadcasting Company, which often seems to be up for 
grabs. The Public Broadcasting System for the most pari is federally 
funded, but that doesn't remove it from significant Jewish in- 
fluence over its entertainment and educational programs. Nor does 
the fact that the Fox Network belongs to the Australian-American, 
Rupert Murdoch, free it from an overwhelming amount of Jewish 
input. It hardly need be added that the producers and directors of 
all network and local entertainment, news, documentary and talk 
programs are disproportionately Jewish. Moreover it's fair to say that 



55. Wall Street ' Journaf,Ju}y 3, 19)19, p. -i.'i. 

5n. To simplify their accounting pioceduies, many of die larger bookstores will 
only order from hook wholesalers. 



THE MINOR] TIES: ASSIMIIAI'KD AND UNASSIMILATED 173 

Jews are primarily responsible for mosl "IV "specials," documen- 
taries, docudramas, and sitcoms, a preponderance of which depict mi- 
nority members sympathetically and Majority members as villains, 
ignorant rednecks, or right-wing fanatics, 57 Don Hewitt is the pro 
duccr of the high-rated 60 Minutes whose standbys are Mike 
Walt-ace, Morley Safer and Leslie Staid. Michael Kinsley, Robert 
Novak, Maury Povich, Geraldo Rivera, and Larry King hold 
forth on some of the more popular talk shows. Barbara Walters 
is the queen nf the female interviewers. Daniel Schorr and 
Boh Simon are two of I he busiest TV reporters. 

Hollywood from its inception has been indisputably Jewish. One 
has only to mention such companies as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 20th 
Century Fox, Paramount Pictures, Warner Brothers, Universal, Co- 
lumbia Pictures, United Artists, and such mythic personalities as 
Samuel Goldiwyn, William Fox, Carl Laemmle, Joe Schcnck, Jesse 
La&ky, Adolph Zukor, Irving Thalberg, Harry C.olm, Louis Mayer, 
David Sel/nick and the three Warner brothers. &s 

These movie moguls, of course, belong to an older Hollywood 
generation. But the newer breed is also largely Jewish: Ted Ashley, 
Cordon Smlberg, Dan Melnick, Jennings Lang, Robert Kvans and 
David Begclman. Among the leading producer-directors are Peter 
Bogdanovich, Sidney Lumet, Woody Allen, John Frankenheimer, 
Arthur Pcnu, Stanley Kubrick, Stanley Kramer, Oliver Stone, Mike 
Nichols, arid Steven Spielberg. 

Hollywood's link to Broadway has always been close and here 



57. Bern Stein, a Jewish essayist who matte un exhaustive study at television, 
poinu out dial entertainment 'TV is in the hands of I Few hundred bourgeois Jews, 
aided and abetted by a small number of Irish and Indians, all of whom .ire over 
Lhiity-fivr and practically all of whom come from New York and live on the west 
side of Los Angeles. Their salaries often average 1 10,000 a week, yet they lean 
heavily toward* socialism, love die p*K>r, and hale small towns, die military, busi- 
nessmen, and policemen. In iheii sitcoms and adveulme stories few minoiity 
members live on welfare and fewer commit dimes. Tin- bad guy is almost always 
the while, Lh<- blonder and more WASIMikr me belier. These IV pnxlin cr-writer* 
actually "believe that die world is mn by a consortium of former Nazis and ex- 
ecutives of multinational corporations." Ben Stein, The View frwn Sunset Btnikvard, 
Bask Books, New York, 1.379. 

58. The few important non-Jewish decision makers of Hollywood also had mi- 
nority background!, e.g., Darryl Zanuek, of Hungarian descent, and Spyros Skou- 
ras, oF Creek origin. However, one of the great film pioneers, D- W (uiHlth, was 



174 



The Dispossessed Major iiy 



again there has been an almost fantastic overrepresentatiotl of 
Jews. 59 A brief idea of the Jewish domination of American show 
business, past and present, is furnished by the roster of such en- 
tertainment "giants" as producers David Beiasco, Daniel Frohman, 
Florenz Ziegfeldjed Harris, Billy Rose, Mike Todd, Hal Prince, Da- 
vid Merrick, and Joseph Papp; 60 such songsmiths as Irving Berlin, 
Richard Rodger* and Lorenz Hart, Oscar Hammersfiein II, Ira 
Gershwin, Harold Arlen, Burton Lane, Burt Bacharach, K. V Har- 
burg, Jerry Bock, Sheldon Marnick, Stephen Sonrlheim, and Lern- 
er and Loewe; 61 such rasping show business personalities as Al Jol- 
scm, Fanny Bricc, Eddie Cantor, Sophie Tucker, Ethel Merman, 
Sammy Davis, Jr. (a convert), and Barbra Streisand; such celebrated 
comedians, most of the "siandup" variety, as Jack Benny t Bert Lahr, 
George Jessel, Shelley Herman, Joey Bishop, Morey Anisierdam, 
Myron Cohen, Henny Youugman, Buddy Hackett, Victor Borge, 
Marx Brothers, Ed Wynn, George Burns, Don Riekles, Mort Safil, 
Alan King, Jerry Lewis, Red Buttons, Lenny Bruce, Milton Berle, 
Joan Rivers, Sid Caesar, Rodney Dangerfield, and Howard Stern. 
Thanks to ihe comedians listed above, Jewish jokes have become 
the touchstones of contemporary American humor. 62 



noi Jewish. Nor were the two other jjreau to emerge from I Eollywood — Greta Gar- 
bo and Charlie Chaplin. The claim that Chaplin is part Jewish is a freewheeling Fic- 
tion of the more garrulous pro- and anti^SeimtCf. His mother was tteflte-qtkanera 
Irish and onr-tfuarier Gypsy. His father was a descendant of French Huguenot* 
who had been in England foi centuries. Claries Chaplin, My Autobiography, Simon 
and Schuieen New York, 1964, pp. 16-19. S7, 45, 109. Chaplin admitted he once 
pre- tended to be Jewish ta advance himself in the Sim business. [, L dt VUalertgue, 
(hldGothe, Taiis, 1072. 

59. Serious playwrights, Jewish and otherwise, will be discussed in Chapiei 18. 
Writers of message plays and dramatized political and mk tologkal tracts are not 
listed fit all, bin a quick reference to newspaper files will show thai their producers 
and aulhois ;ne almost all minoiity members, chieily Jews. A3 foi pornographic 
drama, ir is suMieieni lo say that the dirtiest plays of recent decades — Cht\ G«s», 
and Oh, Oikxitta! — were all written, directed or produced by Jews, as were many of 
the pornographic and black exploitation ("hate whiiey") films. 

fiff- "American show business . . . owes most of its wit, animation .md emotional 
frankness to the ebullience of Jewish talent," wrote the hue Kenneth Tynan, lhit- 
ain's highest paid drama critic and himself par I -Jewish, in Hobday magazine (June 
l n ol). Tynan was the producer of Oh, C&Uutlu! 

61 . Tin Pan Allev is almost 100 pereem Jewish, Ri$ Fi&Mty [nlv I'i77, pp. 27-29. 

62. Jews comprise M0% of the nation's professional comics. Tim*, C>< t. 2, 1978. 



II IK MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMUATKU 175 

The publishing and entertainment industries feed on ideas as 
well as events, and in the realm of ideas American Jews are just as 
firmly embedded as elsewhere. What follows is a sampling of Jews 
who in the latter half oi the century have figured prominently in 
the various social sciences and other academic disciplines. Some of 
these learned men concentrated their activities in foreign coun- 
tries, mostly in Britain and pre- and post- Hitler Germany. 



Pim.OSOPUKRS: Mortimer Adlei , Hannah Arendl, Morris Cohen, 
Irwin Kdmun, Sidney Hook, Abraham Kaplan, Herbert Marcuse, 
Robert Noziek. Murray Rotbbard, Paid Weiss, Walter Kaufman, Karl 
Popper, Leo Straus^ Nathaniel Brandon, Horace Kullen, Rohm No- 
ziek, Martin Huber, Jacob Bionowski, Finest Cassirn . 
HISTORIANS: Daniel Hooistin, Herbert Feis, lVier Cay, Fair tiold- 
mait, t )s( ar I landlin, Ciei'lrude I Ihumellarb, Richard Hoist tidier, 
Bernard Lewis, Richai d Morris, Arthur SthletttogCf, Jr., Hai bara 
Purhnian, 1 .onis I lacker, Rh hard Pipes, tleiuam Wolfe, Walrer Fa- 
queur, Arno Mayer, ( leorge Mosse, Allen Weinsteiil, 1 .ewis Nairuer. 
POLITICAL SCIKNTISTS: Stanley Hoffman, Hans Rolm, Hans Mor- 
gcnlhau, Saul Padovei , Adam I 'lam, Paid Green, Michael Wal/.ci , 
Morton Kaplan, Richard Nenstadl, Isaiah Berlin, Max Reloif. 
SOCIOLOGISTS: Daniel Bell, Prtei Drnckcr, Ainilai Kl/.ioni, Nathan 
Glazer, Philip Hanser, Paul Lazarsfcld, Seymour Lips.-t, Robert Mer- 
lon, David Riesinan, Lewis S. Feuei , Arnold Ross, I heudor Adorno, 
Melville Tumin. 
KCON< >MlS'i'S: Kenneth Arrow, Abraham Becker, Mordecai F/rkiel, 
Alfred Kalui. Ludwig von Mises, ArUiur Okim, Paul Sainuclson, Mil- 
Ion Friedmtan, Alan C hernspan, Morton FeldsUm, Otto Fcksitin, 
Arthur Bum*, Robeit Lekaciuuun, Simon Ru/iuts, l.eon Kryserling, 
Wassily Leonief, Murray Wcidcubauui, Robert 1 -Ieilhroner, Law- 
rence Klein, Robert Solomon, Peter ftemstrin, Solomon Pabricanl. 
Allan Meiwer, Herbert Stein. 
PSYCHOLOGISTS OR PSYCHIATRISTS: Franz Alexander, Bruno 
BrHelheim, Krie Berne, I'.rik Kiikson, Virtue Frankl, SigtUUnd and 
Anna Freud, Erich Fromm, Haim Cinon, Robert jay LifisSi, Abra- 
ham Maslow, Thomas Siasz, Melanie Klein, Lawreiue Kub'u-, Wil- 
hehu Reich, Gregory Zilboorg Marvin Opfer, Otto Rank, TTieodor 

Reik. 
ANTHROPOLOC-ISTS: Fran/ Boas, Melville Iterskovits, < >s, at l.<wi^, 
Ashley Motnagu, Fdw-nd Sapir, Sol Tax, liuneS Tiger, Saul Rie- 
•enbeiK] Geaa Roheim. Melford Spiru, Morion Freed, Roben I.owie, 
Morris Opler, David Mandelbauui, Paul Kadiji, I.m ien 1 evy Ih uhl, 
Claude I .evt-Siiiuiss, Philli]> Tobias. 



176 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Jews are also heavily represented in the professions and physical 
sciences, as their long string of Nobel Prizes auests. M They are in- 
credibly overrepresenied in higher education, serving as 
presidents of Hie three most prestigious Ivy League colleges: 
Neil Rudenslinc(Harvard), Richard C. Levin (Yale), Harold X Sha- 
piro (Princeton). 

Before probing other areas of Jewish influence and power, it 
might be well to mention one of the many side effects of the Jewish 
ascendancy. This is the favorable tide of publicity which overflows 
on Jews, partly because of their strategic position in the media, 
partly because unfavorable publicity is often condemned as anti- 
Semitism. J lie inevitable result of such protectionism and image- 
polishing is thai when a Jew and a non-Jew have established a 
record of similar accomplishments in the same line of work, the 
former is likely to receive more attention and recognition than the 
latter. 

A ease in point is Max Planck and Albert Ebtttein. the two men 
who gave modem physics its two seminal hypotheses, the Quantum 
Theory and Relativity. Planck, a non-Jew, was scarcely known m 
America except in scientific circles, while Einstein, even when an 
uncritical supporter of Joseph Stalin, was the object of The Amer- 
ican public's warmest esteem.* Another example or misplaced ad- 
ulation is Stgmund Freud, considered a semi^harlatan in many 
parts o( Europe, bm until quite recently hailed so vigorously in the 
United States that public opinion deemed him a universal genius. 
Carl Jung, on the other hand, the most eminent nonjewish psychi- 
atrist, has received only a fraction of Freud's publicity, some of it 
extremely hostile. The wide acclaim given a Jewish anthropologist 
like Ashley Montagu and the narrow recognition granted a vastly 
greater non-Jewish anthropologist, like Carleion Coon, is additional 
proof of the Semitic till in public information channels/ 5 

65, In the period 1901*2. 16 percent of the 225 scientist* win, won Nobel priwi 
were Jews. Weyl and Possony, Geography ofhiteikct, p. 143. 

64. For Einstein'* pan in rhr promotion and building of the atom bomb *er 
Chapter 38. For some unsung criticism of Eiufeinjan physics, see Chapter 21. 

65, The Semitic "till" of presem-4ay public relation* is further illustrated by the 
on. pouring ot magaz.ne article* and book* stressing the fewish enrichment of 
American culture but omitting mch names as Arnold Rothstein, the Mimky broth- 
ers, Mickey Cohen, Meyer Landty. Ahe Fortas, Louis Wolfocm, Fred Silverman 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UN ASSIMILATED 177 

This same bias has been carried over into the field ot inter- 
national relations — most noticeably in the "good press" accorded 
Israel, which was only mildly tempered by llie repeated invasions of 
Lebanon, the bombings of Beirut, the devastating attack on the:' 
U.S.S* Liberty, the massacre of Palestinians in the Sabra and Shatilah 
(amps by the PhatangisLs, allies of Israel and, perhaps most grue- 
some of all, the murder of 30 Muslims at prayer in the Hebron 
mosque by a Jewish settler from America. 

Jewish ownership or control of many of the chief pipelines of 
modern thought may have superseded Judaism itself as the most 
important secondary cause of Jewish survival, unity and power. The 
primary cause remains, as always, Jewish wealth. Ever since the dias- 
pora and even before, the Jewish financier, money-maker and money* 
lender have been identified by non-Jews as quasi-biological types. 
For 2,000 years of Jewish history, survival of the fittest lias often 
meant survival of the richest. bh 

Jewish wealth is an extremely touchy issue. Not since Fmiurm 
somewhat half-hearted I) 1 examined the problem in February L936 
has there been a serious, objective, full-scale study of the subject in 
the United States. Even in 1936, Fortune Urn \ni American jews firm- 
ly established in certain economic areas. Now more than five dec- 
ades later, i( is lime to lake another look. 



Serge Rubinstein, Julius and Kihol Rosenberg, BugsySiegel, Bernard Goldfme, Mi- 
chart Milken, (van Boesky,Jack Ruby, and the cohort of Jewish corporate raiders. 
Sometimes this one-sided approach dissolves into purr literary sycophancy, as in 
the fast- of a "biography" of Albert Lasker. One of the Grst advertising magnates, 
and certainly the richest,, Lasker was ihr hero of a book-length encomium by mi 
internationally known reporter, although the high points of Laaker's carcci wc: re- 
organizing Lhe first soap operas and introducing millions of women io the smok- 
ing habit ("Reach foj a Lucky instead of a sweet"). John Guniher, Taken at tfie 
Fhwd, The Story afAlbfrtD* Lasker, Harper, New York, 1960, pp. 4-5. 

66, In Ghaptei 10 of this book, ]. K. Galbraith was quoted as saying wealth ^ no 
longer equivalent to power, insofar as lie was referring to Majority wealth, he -was 
correct As stated previously, most of the great Majority fortune* have been scat- 
tered* wasted tu handed down to Foundations which support projects that often 
work against Majority intt'u'st.s, Most Jewish wealth, on the othei hand, is pooled 
and concentrated on specific, ethnic goals — Isiaei, anii-anti Semitism, minority 
causes and politjcal, economic and social campaigns to remove the last vestiges of 
Majority privilege. Professoi Galbraith to the contrary, great wealth directed to- 
wards gr*w/> advantage isnoi only erjuivalenl to power, but to great power. 



178 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Some idea of Jewish wealth in America was furnished by a na- 
tional poll which attempted to correlate income with religious de- 
nomination. It found that 18.9 perc«m of all Americana enjoying 
an annual income over $10,000 were Jews. Episcopalians accounted 

for 14.1 percent, individuals with no religious affiliation 11.6 per- 
cent, Presbyterians 8.7, Catholics 4.6, and Baptists 2A. fjl Translated 
into racial terms, the poll indicated that Jews were the most afflu- 
ent Americans, Majority members next, Assimilated and Unassimi- 
lable White Minority members next, and Negroes, traditionally 
Baptists, the poorest. 

Similar findings were obtained by a Special 1950 Federal Census 
report which revealed that of thirty-nine different U.S. population 
groups "foreign-born Russians" had the highest median income 
The median income of Americans of native white parentage was 40 
percent less. The Census report explained the economic success of 
the foreign-born Russians by saying, "the Russian group contains 
large refugee and Jewish components. *** 

Since Jews are 3L3 percent of the American population, an iin 
wary statistician might be foolish enough to predict that 2.3 per 
cent of American millionaires would be Jewish and that Jews would 
own 2.3 percent of the country's wealth. In 1953, l^oh magazine 
published a list of the 400 richest Americans (worth $100 million 
or more). Approximately 25 percent of the individuals who made 
the list bore idenlifiably Jewish names. 

Perhaps the best proof of the constant expansion of Jewish fi- 
nancial power in the ITS is furnished by the activities of the great 
Jewish investment banking houses. Year by year, Goldman Sachs, 
Shear* on Lehman, Lazarrf Freres, Salomon Bros., Warburg Parrbas 
Becker, Wertheirn 8c Co., Oppenheimer & Co., and others arc ex- 
tending their financial reach over larger segments of the economy. 
No one can determine the extent of this control, but some indica- 
tion is obtained by examining the roster of directors of America's 
leading corporations. Whenever a partner or officer of these invest- 
ment firms appears as a director of a large corporation, it is a sign 
he is representing a significant, though not necessarily controlling, 



67. D. J. Bogue, Tht Population of the V, 5„ The Fret* Press of Glencoc, Illinois: 
11)59, p. 706. 

68. Ibid., pp. 367-59, S71 . 



THE MINOR! T1KS: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMIIATED 179 



financial interest. 69 It might be added that although these "mer- 
chart I bankers, " as the British call them, may have several non- 
Jewish partuers»Jewish partners generally have the final say. 70 



6$, Henry Font, a hard-shell Protestant, was averse to Wall Street, liberals, for- 
signers, Jews, and non-Protestants in general. One could wf*ll imagine his rcaetion 
ifhe returned to earth and found: (1) Joseph Cullman, a Jewish tobacco tycoon, a 
Erector of Ford Motor Co.; {2) die Ford Foundation, the world's riches! sponsor 
of liberal and minority causes; (3) his grandson, Henry Ford II ( a Catholic convert, 
married for the second lime to an Italian jet setter, who later divorced him; (-1) his 
two great-granddaughters, Anne and Charlotte, wed at one lime to foreigners, the 
former to a Greek shipping magnate, the latter to \\ Florentine Jew who is a Wall 
Street stock jobber; (5) great-gran it son Alfred, a Hare Krishna devotee, married to 
a young lady from Bombay 

70, Skiiutfjrti ami Poor's Register ef Corporatiarts, Directors and fixrtu times (1980) lists 
Goldman, Sachs partners an directors of the following corporations: Associated 
Dry Goods, Capital Holding Corp., Kraft, Knight-Rjtlder Newspapers, Witco Chem- 
ical, TWA, Franklin Mint, Corning, PUlsbury, mown Group, Eagle-Picher, B. F. 
CcKjdiieh, Cluett iVabody, Cowles Communications, J' '' Stevens. 

Lehman Brothers and Knhn, I.oeb merged in 1977 and were taken owei by 
Ainti i. ;m F.x|>rcM in 1983. Sanford Weil was put in charge of what came to be 
called Shearson Lehman t which presumably inherited the old lebnuui Brothers 
and Knhn, l/>eb directorships in the following corporations: Goebej Brothera, 
Twentieth Century-Fox, United Fruit, Gommcrcaal Solvents, Chesebrough Pond's, 
Paramount Pictures, Itocknian Instrument, Singer Shewing Machine, Hi istoI-Myers, 
General Cubic. RCA, Federated Department Stores, Hulova Watch, Western Un- 
ion. Shell Oil, General Analinc and Film, Standard Oil of California, Greyhound, 
FMC, Jones ft- [jiughlin Steel, Anchor-Hocking, Timra-Miiror, liniud California 
Bank, 1 : nion Oil, Wells Fargo Bank, Hertz, Litton Industries, General Motors, Al- 
lied Chemical, Continental Can, Untied States Lines, Caterpillai Tractor, HIM, 
Somhei ii Pacific, Chase Manhattan Rank, Pacific Gas and Electric, Air Reduction, 
Northern Pacific, Bendix, Smith-Corona Marrham, Flintkote, Speny-Rand, Allied 
Stores. 

In the 1960s, Knhn, Ijoeb partners were directors of: Weitinghotisc Electric, 
Sears Industries, U.S. Rubber, Anglo-Israel Bank, Kevlon, Benrus Watch, Tishman 
Realty, American Export Lines, Polaroid, C.I.T. Financial, Brush-Beryllium, Ceuy 
Oil, A & P, Kennecott Corp., Marine Midland Trust, Metromedia, Buckeye Pipe, 
General American Transportation. 

The l')fV1 and 1968 Pour's, which carried ninth more inb nutation about Laatard 
h( it i than rniu til edition*. showi d die firm's pur inert to be dir& tors of: [ones 
& Laughlin Steel, National Fire Insurance, OMyetli-Underwood, Oven>I1Hnois B 
Manufacturers Lift* Insurance! Chemical Bank- New York Trust, Harcoun Hrace, 
Harper and Row, Ubby-Owetis-Ford Glass, Warner Lambert Pharmaceutical, Son 
Insurance, RCA, Engelhard Minerals &.■ Chemicals Corp., ITT. 



80 



The Dispossessed Majority 



It should now be evident that Jews have more* than a foothold in 
automobile manufacturing, Steel, public utilities, railroads, air- 
lines, insurance, oil and chemicals — i" many of the very same blue- 
chip corporations thai had supposedly been most successful in re- 
sisting Jewish infiltration*" In some eases jews have actually be- 
come chief executive officers of the- oldest or most innovative cor- 
porations — e.g., Irving Shapiro, for many years chief executive 
officer of Du Pont, and Michael Blumenthal, who first headed llen- 
dix then Burroughs then Unisys. In some important corporate ar- 
eas Jews exercise both managerial and financial control, The two 
largest distillers (Seagram and Schenley) belong to this category, as 
do some of the largest, textile companies, shoe firms, producers of 
computers and computer software, two leading tobacco companies 
(H Lorillard and Philip Morris), and one of the biggest breweries 
(Miller). The largest shareholder of Pabst brewing is or was cor- 
porate raider Irwin Jacob. The clothing industry at the man- 
ufacturing, wholesale, and retail level is predominantly Jewish, jews 
control or own many of the nation's largest department stores, and 
have become a powerful force in advertising (Saalchi and Saatchi). 
Jewelry and precious stones are practically a Jewish monopoly, as 
are cosmetics and pel supplies. 

The anonymity surrounding the operations of the investment 
banking bouses and stockbroker linns is occasionally broken by ef- 
fusive references to the wealth of their principal partners. Robert 
Lehman of Lehman Brothers, it was revealed before his death, had 
an art collection wort.li more than $150 million. 72 Gustave Levy, a 
Goldman, Sachs partner, was once described as the "biggest money 
man on Wall Street* 71 The late Andre Meyer of La/ard Freres, 
founded more than otie hundred years ago by a Frenc h-jewish gold 
trader from New Orleans, did not even take up residence in the 
United States until 1940, yet was "the most important investment 
banker in the world.* 7 " 1 



71. In \9H0 Wall Street minors \\m\ it that the European Rothschilds held sub- 
stantial inn-rests in Kaiser Aluminum, Atlas Steel, Bethlehem Steel, Anaconda, 
US. Ronix, Anna Life, I.itton Indnstt its, Standard Oil of California, and Rind 

( ^OFpCMUtioiI. 

7y. Joseph YVechsbrrg, The Mnrhini HstriJtsrs, little, Brown, Boston, 1966, p. SS5« 
7S. Martin Mayor, Wall Street, Harper, New York, 1055, p. 193. 
l>\.L>ortun* l Aug. 1%8, j). 101. 



THE MINORITIES: ASS1M11 ATKD AM) UNAS.SIM1I.ATED 181 



Meyer was a director of KVA and Allied Chemical in the United 
Slates, and of Fiat and Montecatini Edison in Italy, President Ken- 
nedy appointed him to important government posts and his close 
friends included Robert McNamara, Henry Fowler, onetime secre- 
tary of the treasury, Eugene Black, former head of the World Bank, 
and Jacqueline Kennedy. Lyndon Johnson consulted Meyer regu- 
larly. David Rockefeller joined him in several real estate ventures. 
Lazard Freres" New York branch has participated in vast financial 
transactions involving American Metal Climax, Minnesota Mining, 
and Lockheed Aircraft. In 1966 Lazard arranged the McDonnell- 
Douglas merger for a fee of $1 million. I.a/.ard has or had a $40 
million interest in International Telephone and Telegraph, one of 
the nation's largest conglomerates. La/ardVs New York, London 
and Paris branches have supervised investments totaling $3 bil- 
lion. 7 - > 

Although they do not have the power wielded by moneymen like 
Meyer, mutual funds, pension funds, and brokerage firms, which 
hold huge blocks of shares in the largest corporations, also, exert a 
great deal of influence on the higher levels of American business. 
The Jewish position in this area of the financial community is very 
strong. There are huge Jewish-controlled money pools like the 
Dreyfus Fund, and big Jewish brokerage firms like Salomon broth- 
ers, whose two top Jewish executives were removed for misman- 
agement in 1091 and temporarily replaced by Warren Buffet, a 
n on- jew. jews are directors or officers of a few of the largest com- 
mercial banks, though here it must be admitted their influence is 
relatively weak. Jews have been presidents or chairmen of the New 
York Stock Exchange and of the smaller exchanges, jews sil on the 
Senate and House committees thai write legislation regulating cor- 
porate finance. Equally important, Jews often dominate the Secur 
ities and Kxchange Commission, which has the power io make or 
break any corporation it deems has violated SEC rules and regu- 
lations. Without a doubt the most important job in the U.S. bank 
ing .system belongs to Alan C.rcenspan, longtime chairman of the 
Federal Reserve Bank. The television program "Wall Street Week," 



7"). In the article quoted in the previous footnote luntuw sinu-d, "The hard ti- 
na.nc.ial core of capitalism in (he free world i>* composed of not more than 60 
linns, partnerships and corporations owned oi controlled bv some 1,000 men. 



182 



The Dispossessed Majority 



presided over by Louis Rtikeyser, is viewed by tens, possibly hun- 
dreds, of thousands of investors or potential investors. 

In the 1993 Forbes list of the 400 richest Americans, at least 26 
percent were Jews. Those who made the billionaire bracket in- 
cluded; 



John W« Kluge ($7.05 billion), German-born Convert to Ca- 
tholicism. Donated $110 million to Columbia University for 
minority scholarships. What he was before bis conversion is 
not known, but bis business and political connections, his so- 
cial life, and his marriages indicate at least one or two Jewish 
branches in his family tree. Made his money from films, ra- 
dio, cellular phones. 

Sumner M, Redstone {$5>.G billion). Movie lhe:U*:rs, cable tele- 
vison. His Viacom company was winner of bruising contest 
for Paramount Communications (movie studios, Simon & 
Shuster) in February 1994. 

Ted Arison ($3.05 billion). Onetime Israeli lieutenant colonel. 
Cruise ships, Miami 1 leat basketball (tarn. 

Ronald Perelinan ($H.O billion). Revlon cosmetics, Marvel en- 
tertainment, outdoor equipment, S&L, health products. 

Newhouw brothers, Donald and Samuel Jr. ($^.. r > billion 
each)- Twenty-one daily newspapers, five magazines, six tele- 
vision stations, four radio stations, twenty cable TV systems. 
Random House, Conde Nast. 

Edgar Bronfman ($2.3 billion). Liquor baron* son of Ca- 
nadian bootlegger. Largest stockholder ©f The Seagram Co., 
Ltd., which owned 24.3% of Du Pont and has 5.7% of Tune 
Warner. Son Edgar Jr., heir apparent, Hollywood mogul, mar- 
ried and divorced a Negro, who bore him three children, 

Pritzker brothers, Jay Arthur and Robert AJan ($2.2 billion 
each). Hyatt Motels, manufacturing and service companies, 
S39F of Royal Caribbean Cruises. 

Lester Crown ($22 billion). General Dynamics, Material Ser- 
vice* Corp., stakes in ski resorts, N.Y. Yankees, Chicago Bulls. 

Walter Aiinenberg ($2.2 billion). Nixon's ambassador to Brit- 
ain, Triangle Publications, CM stock, sold TV Guide to Rupert 
Murdoch, paid $57 million for a Van Gogh. Father Moses 
once jailed for fraud. 

Marvin II. Davis ($1.7 billion). Davis Oil Co., oil leases, real 
estate. 



T! IK MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UN ASSIMILATED IS3 

Lawrenee J. Ellison (Sib' billion). College dropout, son ol 
Russian immigrants, computer software. 

Leslie II. Wexner ($1.0 billion). Women's wear, Victoria's Se- 
cret, Lane Bryant* home builder, heavy supporter of Jewish 
causes. 

William B, Ziff, Jr. ($1.5 billion). Trade and consumer mag 
azines. 

Peter E, Haas* Sr. ($L4 billion). Levi Strauss & Co,, world's 
largest apparel firm. 

Tiaeh brothers, Laurence Alan and Preston Robert ($1.3 bil- 
lion each). CBS* Loews Corp,, Bulova Watch, slakes in Mary's 
Dept, Store, Lorillard tobacco, 50% of New York Giants. 

Donald L. Bren ($1.3 billion). Real estate developer, pari own- 
er of Irvine Ranch. 

Samuel J* LeFrak ($1.3 billion). Real estate and mall deveSop- 
er, largest private U.S. apartment landlord. 

Milton Petrie ($1.1 billion). Son of Russian immigrants, 1,729 
apparel Stores in 50 states. 

George Soroa ($1.1 billion). Money manager, currency spec- 
ulator, built Quantum Fund now worth $4.2 billion. Almost 
single-handedly succeeded in devaluating tlie British pound. 

Lauder family, Estee, Leonard Alan and Ronald Steven ($1 
billion each). Cosmetics. 

Michel Fribourg (Si billion). Grain trader. 



Altogether exactly 100 billionaires were named in the Forbes 
list. As indicated previously, 26 percent were Jewish. The same per- 
centage, give or take a few points, applies lo the remainder of the 
Forbes 400 richest Americans, jews have also been in the top ranks 
of these collecting the biggest salaries and annual bonuses. The 
most highly compensated American in 1943 was Louis Mayer of 
MC.M ($049,703): in 1979 Frank Roserrfeli ofMGM ($5.1 minion): 
in 1981 Steven Ross of Warner Communications [$22.5 million). 

Always to be found in the top echelons of American affluence 
are such old established Jewish families (some members of which 
have become Christians) as the SeUgmans, Warburgs, and Kahns, 
and the more vwtvmux Strauses,, Gambels, Kaufmaims and Mag- 
nins. The elite Jewish families of San Francisco — llellmans (Wells 
Fargo Hank), Fleishhackers, Sutros, and Schwabachers — also de- 
serve mention in any comprehensive census of inherited wealth. 



84 



The Dispossessed Majority 



As America's giant industrial concerns grow unwieldy and oper- 
ating costs go out of sight, as accounting, financing, labor ami gov- 
ernment relations, and affirmative action take precedence over in* 
vemion, production and quality control, Jews have thronged, to the 
lucrative pastures of arbitrage, 76 land speculation, subdivisions, 
shopping mails, discount chains, credit cards, and various tech- 
nological enterprises like computer chips and gene splicing. 
Among such are Armand Hammer of Occidental Petroleum, the 
Levitts of Levitt own, Louis Aronson of Ronson lighters, Alfred 
ftloomingdale of the Diners Club, Eugene Ferkauf of E. J, Korveue 
Department Stores, Stanley Marcus of Nientan-Marcus, Herbert Sic- 
gel of ChrisCraft Industries, and Irving Feist, the Newark realtor 
who has served several terms as president of the Roy Scouts of 
America. One of the mosr meteoric of these wheeler-dealers is 
Meshulam Ricklis, born in Istanbul, raised in Israel, naturalized an 
American, who in one week made $2 million in the stock market. 77 
Jewish multimillionaires with political ambitions include Re- 
publican Lew Lehrmari of Rite-Aid Drugs, Democratic Senator 
Frank Lautenherg of New Jersey whose wealth comes from 
the Automatic Data Processing company, and Democratic 
Senator Herbert Koch of Wisconsin, a onetime insurance 
magnate. A politically inclined Jew who prefers to work be- 
hind the scenes is Felix Rohatyn. the Vienna-horn Lazard 
Freres partner, who helped untangle the tangled finances of 
technically bankrupt New York City. 7 * 

Another important source of Jewish wealth is the seemingly con- 
genital preference of Jews for the most highly paid occupations. 
Some 35 to 40 percent of working Jewish adults are in commerce, 
as against IS. 8 percent of n on -Jews; 10 to 12 percent in the pro- 
fessions compared to G.8 percent of non-Jews; 73 percent in **white 
collar"jobs versus 43 percent of Protestants and 33 percent of Cath- 
olics; 4H pen tut self-employed as against 19 percent of Protestants 
and 10 percent of Catholics. 



76. Most Wail Si i reins found guilty of inside Matting and other financial crimes, 
from Mit hacl Milken and Ivan Koeskv cm down, are Jewish. 

77. Schcnley Industrie*, the giant distiller, is a subsidiary of Kuklis's Rapid 
American Corp. 

78. Nad Ian Ruck in Economic Trends iit t\te Anifiicnn jm; ed. (Hear Jannvsky, Harp' 
ei, New York, \9V2. pp. 1 1>2, Ho. 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIM1MTKI) lH. r > 

Foreseeing a Jewish stranglehold on the professions, many Amer- 
ican medical and law schools established a quota system at the turn 
of the century. Under the battering of libera! and minority pres- 
sure, the Humerus damns for Jews has now been largely aban- 
doned. 79 At present, medical colleges receive about 14,000 entry 
applications a year, 5,000 lo 7,000 from Jews. fl0 In New York City 
half of the 15 t 000 doctors are Jewish. The spiraling tuitions of 
medical and law schools have given Jews an additional advantage in 
the race for professional degrees. Belonging to the richest. Amer- 
ican population group, Jews can more easily afford the high costs 
of postgraduate education. 

To siun up the phenomenon of Jewish affluence, what is happen- 
ing in the United Slates today is what has been happening through- 
out much of Western history. Jews, finding themselves unrestricted 
and uncurbed in a Land rich in resources and labor, are rapidly ac- 
quiring a wholly disproportionate share of its wealth. It is almost 
certainly the same historic process that took place in Visigoihic, Ar- 
abic and Catholic Spain, in medieval England, France and Ccr- 
rnany — and more recently in twentieth-century Germany. Vet hard- 
ly anyone cares — or dares* — to notice it. F'hose who are so con- 
cerned about oil cartels, proliferating conglomerates, the influence 
of the Roman Catholic Church, the military-industrial complex, 
AIDS, and racial and gender discrimination are strangely silent and 
utterly unconcerned about the activities of an ever mure powerful, 
ever more dominant supranational cthnot entrism with unlimited 
financial resources at its command. 

But the silence is not so strange when one reflects on what the 
late British political analyst R. H. S. Grossman described as "the anti 
anti-Semitic veto which has successfully suppressed any candid and 
effective writing about the Jewish problem. . ." M Any critical discus- 
sion of Jewish wealth— or for that matter any objective criticism of 
any aspect of Jewish power — immediately exposes the speaker- to 



79. Willi the rise til' affirmative action, howevn, complication* arose. Quftiai 
oace imposed againw lewa were inufitformad into govt-minrnt-sponsoKd "goals' 

for noiiwhiies to the disadvantage of whites, a category which includes Jews. Jew- 
ish ambivalence towards this government racial preference program will be ex- 
plored later in this book. 

80. Simpson and Yinger, op. cit., pp. 677-/9. 

81. R. II. S. Grossman, Partisan Ret'itrw, Fill, 19tVi, p. f»<>5. 



186 



The Dispossessed Majority 



charges of anti-Semitism. Since anti-Semitism is the great heresy of 
modern times, a person so accused is immediately subjected to 
such doses of social ostracism and economic attrition that a success- 
ful public career is forever closed to him. It is consequently small 
wonder that almost the entire Western intellectual establishment 
has shied away from such a thankless and unprofitable task. In the 
present-day West one can only l>e truly objective about Jews when 
one is a Jew. A very few anti-Zionist jews, who believe Zionism 
harms Jewry by exposing bipolar Jewish loyalties, declaim against Is- 
rael. & very few Jewish thinkers and scientists, and a very lew Jewish 
novelists who lei their characters run away from them, occasionally 
sh<»\v symptoms of the ancient Jewish neurosis of SeWsthass and vent 
their feelings in a manner inconsistent with the all-out Jewish effort 
to keep anti-Semitism under impenetrable wraps. 82 

The removal of all things Jewish from the arena of rational dis- 
cussion automatically relegates unfriendly opinions of Jews to the 
hushed whispers of office, living room, and country club, to under- 
ground "hale sheets," and to the verbal musings of crackpots 
haunted bv visions of bearded elders plotting world conquest. All 
this lends an aura of mysticism and romantic obscurantism to anti- 
Semitism, which it does not deserve and which endows it with a 
kind of kinetic ami subterranean diabolism. The day ami-Vuiitism 
breaks out into the light again — as suppressed ideologies have the 
babii of doing — it cannot avoid becoming the stock-in-trade of the 
apocalyptic avenger who knows that emotion and dogma move 
moire mountains than reason. The sudden release of tensions and 
hatreds pent up during decades of censorship and indoctrination 
may obviate any less explosive outcome. 

Instead of submitting anti-Semitism to the free play of ideas, in- 
stead of making it a topic for public debate in winch all can join, 
Jews and their liberal supporters have managed to organize an in- 
quisition in which all acts, writings, and even thoughts critical of 



82. One such thinker was Simonc Weil, the French-Jewish poetess-philosopher 

who equaled the s pi i it o( Judaism with the spiiii of Nazism ami complained thai 
the worship of die "earthy, cruel and exclusive Jfhovah had turned Jews into a na- 
tion of fugitive slaves.* One such scientist was Nobel laureate Dr. Karl Litiidsieiner, 
who imsiu ressfully sought an injunction against \Vho\ Who in American Jewry for 
catling him ajew. Sarhai, The Cnurs? oj 'Modem Jewish Hisi&ry, p, 404 One such nov- 
elist is Philip Roih, author of P&rtncys Complaint 



TI IF MINORITIES: ASSIM HATED AND UNASSIMILATED 187 



Jewry arc- treated as a threat to the moral order of mankind. The 
pro-Semite has consequently made himself a mirror image of the 
ami-Semite. The Tarlulfe of the contemporary era turns out to be 
the Jewish intellectual who believes passionately in the rights of 
free speech and peaceful assembly for ail, but rejoices when per- 
mits are refused for anti-Semitic meetings and rocks crack against 
the skulls of anti-Semitic speakers. 

Admitting the almost incredible disparity between Jewish num- 
bers and Jewish influence in the United Slates — and it is growing 
more difficult for anyone not to admit it — how does modern schol- 
arship explain it? The immediate answer is that most modern 
scholars do not try to explain it at all or, if they do, simply deny that 
there is little more to the Jewish problem than a series of historical 
coincidences. Those with a more inquisitive mind or with a special 
ax to grind have proposed a few interesting theories on the sub- 
ject — theories, however, which are basically apologies since they are 
circumscribed by the current caveat that any discussion of Jews 
must never put them in an unfavorable light. 

One well-circulated theory, advanced by Jewish scholar Ludwig 
Lewisohn, is that Jews wen* primarily an agricultural people who 
were driven into banking and commerce by papal edicts forbidding 
all Christians to engage in usury. 83 The implication is that jews, 
against their natural inclinations, were forced to become rich by 
being compelled to set up an hereditary plutocratic caste. This 
proposition, however, is untenable for the obvious reason that Jews 
were very active* in money-lending long before Christianity — no! to 
mention the papacy — had entered (he arena of history 

The Sate A. L. Kroefoer, respected head of the University of Cal- 
ifornia^ anthropology department, took an unruffled approach to 
thejewssh question. Pointing to the "exceedingly spotty Jewish par- 
ticipation in the great civilizations," Kroeber defined the present 
Jewish ascendancy as a "transitional phenomenon." li was, he said, 
the "released mobility" of the Jews that had die effect of propelling 



83. Sachar, op. tit., p. 533, Lewisohn, who taught at stvnal Anieiu :SU1 univer- 
sities before becoming professor of comparative litei aluii- at Ki andcii, was a Jew- 
ish mpremadst who inveighed against (Jcnnans, Slavs, NegTOei, and An^lo-Saxon 

"barbarism." One might speculate on the media's re;u turn to a Majority profrssoi 
who inveighed against. Jewish "barbarism." 



188 



The Dispossessed Majority 



them forward "more quickly than Gentiles in fields which they enter 
newly, and temporarily with brilliant success." 84 As the years go bv, 
however, and the Jewish upward curve shows few signs of leveling 
off, Kroeber's thesis is losing much of iis cogency. 

A more plausible thesis has a Darwinian base. It was the richest 
Jew who had the best chance of surviving the pogroms and lesser 
persecutions which have dogged Jewish footsteps over the centu- 
ries. In most cases he could buy his way out. But the richest Jew was 
generally the most adroit Jew, the one tx i st suited and best adapted 
in the peculiar conditions and requirements of urban and ghetto 
life. The affluent, citified Jew of today is the end product of 2,000 
years of a special form of natural selection, the fortunate possessor 
ol an inbred cosmopolitanism which is a great competitive ad- 
vantage in decadent, urbanized .societies incapable of guarding 
theif citt/ens against the racial dynamism of intruders. 

Richard Swart/haugh, assistant professor of anthropology at East- 
ern Illinois University, believes that a fragmented, divided, class- 
ridden multiracial society cannot survive without massive infusions 
of mediation. Since Jews have always been adept as mediators, since 
their status as outsiders highly qualifies them as professional go- 
betweens, especially in the areas of labor relations, law and politics, 
they have- almost automatically been elevated to the top of a social 
order that must resolve its multiplying inner conflicts by arbitration 
atld "deals" or dissolve into war and anarchy. 85 

Perhaps the most original theory that attempts to account for the 
current Jewish ascendancy in the social sciences has Ix-eu advanced 
by John Murray (aulilihy, an assistant professor of sociology and a 
scion of a prominent Irish-American family. In Cnddihy's view, the 
writings of Freud, Marx, Claude Levi-Strauss, and the other prom- 
inent Diaspora Jews who have done so much to bruise Western cul- 
ture were not motivated by a love of truth or a desire to improve 
mankind, but by their fear and loathing of Western civility, the re- 
pressed and controlled Iwhavioi that is incomprehensible to an ir- 
repressible people. Since they obviously could not get away with a 



84. A.L. Kr<H'ber, Configurations of Cultural Cnnvth, University of California, 
Rerkeley, l'.Hi'J, p. 740. 

85. Richard Swartzbaugh, Tht MrdiaUn; Howard AUfffi. Cape Canaveral Ho rid a 

1973. 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMUATKJ) i§9 

direct attack on Gentile conduct, they consciously or unconscious- 
ly worked out highly ramified interpretations of history, economics, 
politics, psychology, and anthropology to undermine it. Commu- 
nism was an ideal weapon to divide and destroy the Western polit- 
ical and economic order. Freudianism attacked Western morality 
by its neurotic emphasis on sex and by lending respectability to the 
promptings of the baser instincts. LevKStrauss's anthropology com- 
pared savage and civilized societies to the disadvantage of the latter. 
CuddJhy even hints that Einstein's physics was inspired in part by a 
desire to shock, and shatter rather than refine and advance Western 
science, 8 * 

It is only a short step from acknowledging that peoples or races 
have special aptitudes for high achievement in certain occupations 
to the development of theories of racial inferiority or superiority. 
An ardent contemporary advocate of Jewish supremacy, Nathaniel 
Weyl, alleges that Jews are inherently more intelligent than other 
peoples because they have been breeding for intelligence since the 
beginning of the Diaspora. Gentile churchmen, the cream of the 
non Jewish medieval intelligentsia, according to Weyl, were usually 
celibate and died without issue, while the less sexually inhibited 
rabbis and Talmudtc scholars were eagerly sought after by the 
daughters of prominent Jewish merchants. 87 Weyl's. point concern- 
ing the synergistic combination and recombination rather than the 
ascehc stultification of clever Jewish genes would have more validity 
if tu* did not confuse intelligence with verbalism and intellectual 
sheen, 88 Wert 1 not most of the kings, artists, writers, architects, and 



86. John M. Cuddihy, Th* Ordeal of Civility Dell Publishing New York, 1976, 

87. The Creativt Elite- in Amenta. Chap-. XVTH. Boccaccio and Rabelaif would h»vc 
smiled at Wevl*s assertions rcgaiding the celibacy and tatellqgencc ol ' tihe clergy 
Phil o(" Weyl's rhenif was taken from Sir Francis Gabon, who was equally binei 
about the riysgenic* of religious bachelorhood. But in his own imclli^rner ratings 
Gallon excluded Jews and gave first plate to t.hr Athenians, whom lit- placed two 
grades above the 19ih-ceniury British and four grades above Negroes. Francis Cat 
tnn, Hereditary Cenius, Macinillan, London, 1809, especially pp. 42, 257, 342, 357. 

88. "All intellectuality is in die long run shallowness; never does It allow of prob- 
ing u> the veiv roots of a matter, never of reaching clown to the depth* of the soul, 
or of the universe 1 . Ihuue intellectuality makes it easy to go Ijoiu one extreme to 
die other. 1 liar, is whv you find among Jews fanatical orthodoxy and unen- 
lightened doubt side by side; they l>oth spring from one source." Weinei Sombait, 
The ]rws and Mo/Iern (Aptttilism, trans. M. Kpstein, Dutlon, N.V., 191-4, p. B&9. 



The Dispossessed Majority 



warriors of the Middle Ages, as well as more than a few popes, as 
lusty and prolific as his rabbis and ghetto tycoons? 

In TV Geography of Intellect, which lie wrote with Stefan T. Pos- 
sony, Weyl supported his claims for Jewish intelligence l>y referring 
to seventeen studies: "Eleven found the Jews superior in mental teal 
scores, four found them equal, and two found them inferior,** 9 
The authors only gave details on one study, a series of tests cov- 
ering almost 2,000 Jewish and non-Jewish children in three London 
schools; one upper class, one poor, and the third very poor. The 
Jewish scores were significantly higher. 9 * 

Weyl failed to mention it, hut he must have been aware that tests 
seeking to compare Jewish intelligence with the intelligence of 
such broad, spectrum groups as whites, Gentiles, or Christians are 
necessarily loaded in favor of Jews. Since the Jewish population is 
concentrated almost entirely in or around the largest cities, tests in- 
volving large numbers of Jews have to be conducted iti areas where 
the white population is extremely heterogeneous, with a heavy em- 
phasis on groups of other than Northern European origin. Many of 
these "whites" may in fact be nonwhites. When forced to classify 
Americans as cither white or nonwhite, the Census Bureau often 
puis many Puerto Ricans and almost all Mexicans in tin- Caucasian 
category. 

To obtain an accurate measurement of Jewish intelligence, it 
would seem reasonable to compare Jews, a select group within the 
while population, with other select white population groups, not 
with the white population as a whole, An intelligence test restricted 
to Jews and Americans of Northern Knropean descent might pro 
duce results thai differ significantly from the tests cited by Weyl. 
Also, since some I.Q. tests reveal as much information about verbal 
agility, quick recall, and educational levels as they do about in- 
telligence itself, consideration should be given to the fact that Jews. 



8<». One study thai found Jews to be mentally inferior was Car] [Ingham's 
analysis of the Army's World Waj I intelligence tests. Foj more on Brigham, see 
Appendix A. 

<M). Nathaniel Weyl and Stefan T. Posaotiy, The Geography afInktUrt t Henry Reg- 
tury, Clue-ago, I96S, pp. 162-63 Thr authors also failed to mention a dri.uU-d 
study hv Dr. Audrey Shucy, which showed that Protesuni college Mudems scored 
tx-iurr rhrm rheii Jewish counlcrpai is in intelligence u-xis See The Journal af Social 
Pswhvfom 1942, Vol. l r >. pp. 221-43. 



Tl IE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASS1M1IATED 1 C JI 

being the wealthiest and most cosmopolitan population group, 
have readier access than other Americans 10 education and to such 
educational byproducts as memory draining and vocabulary build- 
ing. Although il may sound heretical in this day and age, a college 
degree, a subscription to the New York Junes, and a fondness for fo- 
rensics are not conclusive proof of higher intelligence. 

It was educated city Jews, not hillbillies, who fueled the fires of 
world communism, a misbegotten creed that while promising 
equality and freedom set new records in inequality and oppression, 
transforming every country that espoused il into an economic bas- 
ket case* 

It was educated city Jews, not hillbillies who were largely re- 
sponsible for foisting on the American population affirmative ac- 
tion, forced busing, integration of the work and learning place. 

It was educated Jews, not hillbillies who composed, financed, and 
distributed the tasteless and soulless television sitcoms, and ran the 
business affairs and divided the rich take of the stoned Stone Age 
Negro rappers 

It was educated city Jews, not hillbillies, who persuaded the U.S. 
to contribute ai least $50 billion io the Zionist conquest and oc- 
cupation of Palestine, thereby making Americans, whether they 
like it or not, into arch enemies of a great part of the Arab and 
Muslim world and an automatic participant in past and future Mid- 
dle East wars, wars thai may one day go nuclear when the billion 
adherents of Islam launch their reconqtiista. 

Despite these not exactly brilliant feats of statesmanship, the case 
for Jewish intellectual superiority continues to gather momentum, 
Ernest van den Haag devoted the opening chapter of his bestseller, 
Thejewish Mystique, to wide-ranging generalizations about the more 
finely tuned cerebral apparatus of jews. 91 Although in only one in* 
stance did he supply any documentation for his allegations 92 and 



91. Van den Haag's remarks about Jewish cultural domination hawc been quot- 
ed on p. 91 

*)2. The Jewish Mystirpte, p. l M. The* airdioi relied on an old smdv tw [**wih To- 
man, who in tests of California school children found there were twice as many 
jrift>d Jewish students as their proportion of the population warranted. Here 
again, the tests were conducted in the largest cities — San Francisco, Oakland and 
Ins. AngeW — where California jews, were concentrated and when* the Majority 
was undeneprr-vcnirtl bo*h in quamiiy and quality. Other population groups pro- 



192 



The Dispossessed Majority 



ah hough he n^ver once referred 10 Wcyl by name, Professor van 
den Haag was obviously expanding on Weyl's M l)ret*<liiig for in- 
telligence" hypothesis and his writing breathed the spirit of the tat- 
ter's arguments. 

Nevertheless the case for the genetically based superiority of Jew- 
ish intelligence did not receive national prominence until a 1%9 
press interview witli the British scienrist-turned-novelist, C. P. Snow. 
Quoting from a speech he was preparing to deliver to the Hebrew 
Union College, Snow stated that Jews were definitely brainier than 
other living peoples and attributed this superiority to inbreeding. 95 

Ironically, theories of Aryan, Nordic, or Teutonic racial suprem- 
acy, which assigned Jews to the lower rungs of the white racial lad- 
der, have now been completely reversed. Within fifty years of Adolf 
Hitler's death and following the execution, imprisonment or social 
ostracism of all Northern European racial supremacists, in and out 
of Germany, an internationally known writer, like C P, Snow, was 
given a handsome stipend and treated most generously by the 
American press after publicly proclaiming a theory of racial super 
iority. Bui all tilings considered. Snow, van den Haag, and Weyl's 
reasoning does not prove Jewish intellectual preeminence as much 
83 it proves the reshuffling of the West's racial power structure. 

When it is a matter of appraising racial intelligence, the histori- 
cal record, the accumulated evidence of the entire human experi- 
ence would seem to be more reliable than a few scattered, often 
self-serving academic obiter dicta and I.Q. scores. If Jews are truly su- 
perior to the rest of mankind, it might be asked why, with one or 
two exceptions, the greatest cultural achievements of Western man 



due tiI extremely high scores, but Van den Haag did not mention them, The Scou 
did even belter than the Jews on a percentage basis. The most important lesson 
provided by the Tci man snuly was the woefully p«x>i performance of Ne^ro and 
Mexican children. I^ewis Tennan, Cautie Studies of fenmc, Stanford University 
Press, 1925, Vol. 1 , pp. 55-56. 

95, Pittsburgh Pi>u-Gazrttf f April I, \\n\9, p. vfv In the same interview Snow re- 
fused Lo lie drawn into a discussion ot Nt'ifio inn-lli^ence. Hv Mdr-Meppin^ the Ne- 
gro issue, Snow proved himself less courageous man Weyl, who sifter quiuEmr the 
Communist party wrote profusely on the subject of Negro intellectual inferiority, 
Professor van den Haag, who also has definite ideas about black capabilities, tr* 
titled for Southern wliite eliildre u in legal proceedings instituted in I9fi3 to over- 
turn (nnsiu-tes.sfully, onr might add) the Supreme Court*! E954 School de.vjjr- 
re^ation ruling Putnam, Rutp ami Rftthty, pp. 87-88. 



THE MINORITIES; ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMIIATED 193 



took place in exactly those areas where Jews were unknown, seg- 
regated, banned, or actively persecuted? 94 ]f superiority is to be 
measured in political and economic rather than cultural terms, 
how is ii that ihe greatest and most enduring empires, republics, 
and city states of Western civilization were founded without Jewish 
assistance and reached their zenith before the appearance of in- 
fluential Jewish establishments within their borders? 9 * No Jews 
signed the Magna Carta or the Declaration of Independence. No 
Jews wen 1 active in the Long Parliament, the Constitutional Con- 
vention in Philadelphia or in most of the other great deliberations 
Which gave form and substance to man's mosi successful experi- 
ments with representative government. 

The lew instances, at least in recent history, where bodies of Jews 
have assumed outright political control — ihe Kurt Eisner regime in 
Bavaria (in late 191°), the short-lived Spartacus uprising in Berlin 
(December 1918-January 1919), Bcla Kun's sadistic orgy in Buda- 
pest (March-August 1919) — could hardly be classified as golden 
ages of statesmanship. Neither could the Russian Revolution, in 
which Jews look a commanding role until the Stalin purges. The 
Jewish autonomous region of Birobidzhan in the late Soviet Un- 
ion's Far Fast fizzled out almost before it Started- 96 Israel has been 
in a state of war since its creation in 1948. 

As for the economic advantages Jews are supposed to confer 
Upon their host countries, there is no question that tliey bring with 



9-1. Ihe list of rounuiies and cilies forbidden to Jews in different eias was given 
earlier in this chapter. Here the list may be long the nod by adding that ilu-te wnv 
no Jews of any influence in PrriclcVs Athens and minor identifiable Jewish par- 
ticipation in the cultural life of the Roman Republic and Empire (in their gtCal 
dav*0. In One the* s Her many and Doatoyevsky's Russia, Jews were just be^innin^ to 
stir out of then ghetto cocoon. The single example of a great and uniquely He- 
brew culture^ though somewhat rcsilxicled in that Judaism spnr ifically forbade 
painting and sculpt me, evolved in anc ienl Palestine, whei c 1 JefarCWH wne a major ■ 
t ty iu their own land. 

95. '/inilJi is not mca.ni to signify die na of giealrst teiiiioiial expansion or 
greatest wcallh, but the lnoinent ot ihe e resting of national inoiali , pin pose, and 
uniiv. In this vmse* the gseateM days ot Kngland occurred in the sixteenth rather 
lhan the nineteenth century. America is cither well past iu zenith 01 a long way 
from it. 

'.Hi, For the Birobidzhan debacle, see EnryrhpedtS of Mussin ond tfo SmAft Vniou, 
McGiaw-Hill, New York, HKil, p. ESS. 



The Dispossessed Majority 



them a great deal of money and financial expertise. But an increas- 
ing flow of money is often accompanied by inflation, financial 
crime, and a flood of speculation. If Jews are as intrinsic to the 
good economic life as some economists claim, it seems odi! thai 
the Weimar Republic with its plethora of Jewish financiers was an 
economic miasma, while the economic miracle of West Germany 
took place in the one large Western nation almost free of Jewish fi- 
nancial domination and ai the very time (1952-1902) it was paying 
$900 million to Israel in reparations and billions more to individual 
Jews throughout the world. A country with an equally dynamic 
economy in the post-World War II era, Japan, has no Jews at all. 97 

Another way of measuring the Jewish contribution (<> civilization 
is to examine the political, economic, and social conditions of ar- 
eas where Jews are heavily concentrated, The two main centers of 
Jewish power and population in the modem world are New York 
City and Israel. The former, financially as well as morally bankrupt, 
can only be described as one of the great municipal catastrophes of 
die day, a scabrous pile of ugliness, taste[essness T and lawlessness, 
certainly not the brilliant world capital of a people with superior 
civilizing gifts. Although they have failed to make New York bloom, 
jews have nevertheless accomplished technological wonders in the 
Palestinian wilderness. But the true measure of a people's genius is 
not determined by its ability to cultivate die land, build cities, and 
wage a series of successful wars. A nation's ultimate place in history 
is determined by its statecraft, by its ability u> create a special fer- 
tilizing environment in whi< h the citizenry can develop its distinc- 
tive cultural resources to the highest possible pitch. 

Modem Jews may be gifted above all other peoples. Or they may 
be, a_s Toynbce asserts, the remnants of a fossilized civilization." Or 
they may even be, as anti-Semites assert, a parasitic social organism 
that survives by feeding off other social organisms. Which of these 
descriptions is most realistic it is too early to tell. Modern Jewry has 
been emancipated tor less than two centuries ami not enough data 



97. Japan's vastly pi «fi table: trad** with the West, howevei, involves many Jewish 
import, linns. In an aLLempi ui explain why Jews have such enormous influence in 
the U.S., several anti-Semitic books were published in Japan in the mid-1980s. 

l Jft. For stating this idea, Toynbce was accused liv Jewish historian .Maurice Sam- 
uel uf perpetuating "demonological anti-Semitism." Tnynbee, A Study of History 
Vol. V, p. 76, ami .Samuel, The Pwfti.\trr and Ou Fosal Knopf, N.V., 1 ( 'M>. p I'M. 



Tl IE MINOKITIKS: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMILATED 195 

have been collected. But if il should turn out that Jews are superior 
tjcings, ;ls many of them led and as their more enthusiastic schol- 
ars and well-wishers are always attempting to prove, it is time for a 
more conclusive demonstration of their abilities. 

It is one thing to reshape the thinking habits and living patterns 
of a decadent U.S. It is quite another to give the world a greater 
writer than Shakespeare, a greater composer than Mozart, a great- 
er artist than Michelangelo, h is no easy task for Israel to exist as a 
minuscule military oasis in the midsl of a hostile human and nat- 
ural environment, But it is a much more difficult task to undertake 
a civilizing mission in the Middle L\ast comparable to Spain's in Lat- 
in America, Britain's in North America, and France's in North Af- 
rica, As final proof of Jewish superiority; Einstein's theories must 
become Einstein's laws, and the net effect on the evolutionary pro- 
cess of Marx, Freud, and other modern Jewish prophets and sages 
must be positive not negative, constructive not destructive. 

L'niii all the evidence is in, the inosi logical explanation for the 
fewish hegemony in the United States is the simple truth thai am 
organized minority with a given amount of intelligence can obtain 
supremacy over a disorganized majority of equal intelligence. A 
nil (Monscious population group is faj more effective and suc< ess 
fnl in most forms of endeavor than a race-unconscious population 
group. Racial spirit, like team spirit, stimulates victory in all types of 
competition, athletic or political, intellectual or social. lithe Major- 
ity were as race-conscious as the Jewish minority and had half" as 
many organizations working for it, Jewish predominance in Amer- 
ica would disappear overnight 

Where Jews diverge most sharply from the Majority, aside from 
important personality differences," is in their higher degree of eth- 
norentrisni, noi higher degree of intelligence. To pui it in a differ- 
ent perspective, Jewish power may derive as much or more from 



90. According in jamca YafTr, jews have more interest in sex than non-Jews, less 
Kiieresl in athletics, less faith in :m afterlife, a lower birthrate, lake many more ex- 
pensive vacations, live longer, spend mure time in psychoanalysis, and are much 
more likely to he hippies. In Hollywood, Jews get more divorces, commit mote 
adultery, ami drink less than their non-Jewish neighbors. Jews use Jewish doctors 
05 peiceut ol the Lime, Jewish lawyers -87 percent of the (nut:. Although they iwmc- 
tnn< I try to force themselves into non-Jewish country clubs, ihey are very exclusive 
uhoiit their own. One, ihr Milkiest in Los Angeles, has the highest initiation fee 



196 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Majority weakness and disorganization as from Jewish strength. 

Since the anti-Semitic taboo has made it impossible to submit the 
Jewish question to free discussion and open inquiry, 100 Jews have 
only themselves to thank for having set themselves above and out- 
side the rules of conventional democratic conduct. Considering 
their history and their memories, it is on!)' human for Jews to have 
done so. Rut it is also only human on the part of Majority members 
to oppose the kind of organized group behavior for which their in- 
stitutions were never designed. When the occasion arises, Jews may 
appeal to fair play and tolerance for themselves, but when the de- 
bate centers on Jewry they seldom extend these traditional dem- 
ocratic prerogatives to others. Should Majority members who think 
differently take even the first faltering step towards a racial pro- 
tective group like the B*nai B'rith's Anti-Defamation League, 101 
they would be hounded out of public life overnight by the media, 



($22,000) of any golf club in the* U.S. and bans non-Jews except for a few show 
business figures who are admitted as "honoraiy Jews." Jews, continues Yaffle, are 
noted for their "tear, obsequiousness, isolationism and beDiigereiiCe" — 8 paycfio- 
logical chasm between Jew and non-Jew thai may never be bridged, Traditionally 
dogmatic themselves, they demand rationalism in others. For the Jew "ihe intellect 
can't be just a tool ... it has to be a weapon too. He doesn't use it simply to dis- 
cover what the world is like or to create something beautiful, or to coniniunicatie. 
his ideas. lie must use it to beat down his competitors, to prove his superiority. 
For him controversy is inseparable from intellectual activity. Watch him at a pi (v. 
note the vicious delight with which he hacks lesser intellects Into a corner. He's 
implacable; neither social decorum nor human compassion can soften his attack. 
11 you want to observe this trait at a safer distance, read what he writes to the let- 
ters-to-t}ie-editor pages. In all Jewish publications, from Commentary down to uhe 
most obscure Yiddish weekly, these pag**s bathe the reader in vitriol, lake bus fa- 
ther, the garment lnamifaetmei , the Jewish inicllcMual iJimmi'i nade easy." The 
American Jna l pp. SS, §5. 68, £34-35, 268m6§, 292-03. 

100, These conspiracies of silence also extend, to schools of thought and 
avenues of research which might strengthen Majority unify and thereby ultimately 
work lo the Jews' disadvantage — i.e., racial interpretation of American history, ge- 
netic arguments for segregated education, statistical studies of financial crime, 
and so on. 

101. On its 50th anniversary in 1963, the Anti-Defamation league i ould point 
widi pride to a New York headquarters, regional offices in thirty cities, a staff of 
156 full-time lawyers, social scientists, educators and public relations specialists, lis 
budget for 1960 was (3,940,000. 'Ihomas R. Morgan, 'The Kight Against Piej- 
udice.," Look, June 4, 1965. Although tax-exempt, the AHI, plays a highly political 
role and occasionally usurps the power of ihe police. The New Orleans regional 



II IE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMII ATKI) 107 

"private" investigators, law enforcement agencies and, if need be, 
congressional committees — all prodded into action by a nation- 
wide avalanche of Jewislh protests. 

In tlte long run, the Jewish place in American life cannot rest on 
the sanctity of institutions, dated dogmas, argumetita ad misericor- 
diam, or the divine right of minorities. It must rest on the cause 
and effect relationship between the rise of the Jewish establish- 
ment and the Majority's disestablishment. If Jews are chiefly re- 
sponsible for the present grinding assault on the nation's racial 
backbone, then the Jewish minority must come under public scru- 
tiny. America could survive forever without Jews. It could not last a 
day without the Majority. 

Meanwhile the cyclic ret -toning which has marked the rhythm of 
Jewish survival in the past closes in on American Jewry. Although 
the accumulation and preservation of Jewish wealth is only feasible 
in an orderly society where private property is a right, not a crime, 
Jews seem bent on destroying the very political, economic, and so- 
cial climate (hat has made their success possible. 10 '- As if in tlte grip 
of a lemming-like frenzy, they have Ix'en in the forefront of every 



director of the ADL put Up most of the money for the informers which the FIVI 
used to entrap an alleged bomber of synagogues in Mississippi. A young female 
School teacher was shot to death during die arrest, but the ADL escaped the usual 
hive suction given any individual oi group involved in homicide. Los Angtles Tinws, 
Kfb. IS, 1970. As lor die B'nai B'rilh itself, which was founded in 18-13 and headed 
by a Grand Saar, it has 205,000 male member* in 1,350 lodges in fouy-ihree coun- 
tries iuid 130*000 female meinl>ers in MX) chapters. Edward Clrusd, H'nai B'rilh, 
AppU-ion-<.".e!fUury, New York, 1966, pp. 2H3 t 286. The B'nai B'rilh is the only pii- 
vatr agency to have been given official "consultation status* hy (he United Nations, 
where it acts as a strong lobby foi Israel and oihei Je-wish interests, though it has 
never registered as the agent of a foreign government. AWc Yo>rh Times, May 28, 
1970, p. 21. In 1993 die ADL branch in San Francisco, barely escaping criminal 
prosecution, hat! Lo pay what amounted to a $">0,0(K) fine lor receiving con- 
fidential polk* files from one olits paid agents. 

102. The final effect of a state-owned and statjc-dire^tecl economy on Jewry has 
Ix-en largely misunderstood, not only by most Jews hut hy most anti-Semites. After 
ihe Communist legiine in Russia had confiscated Jewish fortunes ami outlawed fi- 
nance capitalism, Russian jews had none of the usual Jewish defenses to fall back 
on when Stalin decided to turn against them — no Jewish-owned press, no Jewish- 
oriented public opinion, no lavishly financed network of Jewish lobbies. After the 
collapse of the Soviet Union, a Marxist state largely created by Jewish agit-prop, 
bttge numbcisof jews fled to Israel and the United States. 



198 



The Dispossessed Majority 



divisive force of the modern era, From class agitation to minority ra- 
cism, from the worst capitalistic exploitation to the most brutal col- 
lectivism, from blind religious orthodoxy to atheism and psycho- 
analysis, from raging intolerance to total permissiveness 

Moreover, as Jewish domination has become more pronounced, 
so has Jewish separatism — a dangerous trend for a minority which 
prospers best by concealing its divergence from the racial norm. 
Such recent historical stimuli as Nazi anti-Semitism, die Israeli ex- 
perience, Soviet ami-Zionism, and the siepped-up tempi* of social 
disintegration have filled the Jewish stockpile of race consciousness 
to overflowing. The appearance of ever more Jews in the top strata 
of public life inevitably produces a greater amount of Jewish self- 
identiiication, as well as a far greater awareness of Jews on die part 
of non-Jews, Intensified publicity, while revealing the extreme cul- 
tivation of a few Jews, also focuses attention on such unattractive 
Jewish traits as mtrusiveness, contentiousness, haggling, and on the 
eye-stinging garishness which permeates the Cats kills, Miami 
Beach, Las Vegas, and other centers of Jewish resort life. 

1 he same racial dynamics which has sporadically elevated Jews to 
the top of die social heap has also cast them down into the abyss. 
The pendtiltiming, rags-to-riches swing of Jewish history has led 
both to the fairyland castles of the Rothschilds and the barbed wire 
of Buchenwald and Auschwitz. When viewed from Olympus, the 
story of Jewish wanderings through lime and space is both fascin- 
ating and repulsive, ennobling and degrading — in pan comic, in 
great part tragic. 

The only last word that can be said about Jews is that there is no 
last word, Jews are such a mass of contradictions and encompass 
such extremes of human behavior that they are simply beyond the 
reach of pat formulas, casual generalizations, or prophetic cliches. 
They are both the "People of the Book* and the exploiters of strip- 
tease, 105 They were and are champions of both plutocracy and so- 
cialism. They originated and live by the concept of the Chosen Peo- 
ple, yet pretend to be the most vociferous of antiracisis. They arc the 
most God-fearing and most God-hating, most straitiaccd and most 
hedonistic, most lavish givers and biggest stampers, most cosmo- 
politan and most narrow-minded, most cultivated and most vulgar 



108. Nm> Ymit 7Yro«,Feb. 25, HB7, ft 10 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMILATED 199 

of peoples. Jewish sabras in Israel fought {until the 1973 war) like 
10,000 Lawrences of Arabia, hi Europe, with a few exceptions, such 
as the Warsaw uprising, their brethren were herded like sheep into 
the pens of the concentration camps. 101 As a final paradox, it 
should be pointed out that many of the greatest jews, perhaps the 
very greatest, have been Jewish renegades, half Jews or pseudo 
Jews. 105 

Through all this mountain of inconsistency there glimmers a 
thin, hardly visible vein of Logic* The Jewish nervous system bears 
die load of many obsessions, a principal obsession being an im- 
placable, almost innate hostility to the peoples who at different 
times have sheltered or persecuted them, enriched or impover- 
ished them, deified or satanlzed them. The Jewish fascination for 
political, economic, and social experiments may not, as often sup- 
posed, be proof of a noble, unselfish desire to save mankind by a 
coterie of professional Messiahs, but evidence of a deeply rooted, 
semi-conscious, semi-coordinated vendetta — Francis Bacon called U 
a "secret inbred rancour" 106 — against all things non-|ewish and, in 
the final countdown, possibly all things Jewish as well. 

If the past is any indication, if what Lord Acton said about in- 
dividuals is applicable to groups, a sharp reduction of the Jewish racial 
Vector is in the oiling, This could Ik* achieved most easily and most 



KM. Jewish docility m Hitler's concentration camps has aroused the ire of mil- 
itant jews, particularly Israelis. "Hut. why," asks an article in Qrmmentary (ApriJ 
1962, p. 354), "was then* no resistance? ... At Auschwiu die ratio of prisoners to 
guards varied fioin 20 m 1 to 35 to 1. [\fet] Llw J<"ws meekly aeirpied every suc- 
cessive order which rendered them mvpou-m, ihey queued up for the deportation 
Uains. . . ." 

105. Kciu-^.uSi -, in that they embraced Christianity (hVrenson, l)i>iaeli, Heine, 
I hissed, Mahler, Mendelssohn, Sis. Peter and Paul) or turned atheist (Marx, TYoi- 
skv, and oilier leading dialectical materialists). The possibility that Moses was an 
Egyptian and ihe fact that Josepbus was a turncoat have been previously men- 
tioned. Spinoza, the greatest Jewish philosopher, was expelled From the Jewish 
community in Amsterdam in 1656 by rabbinical! order Many Orthodox Jews and 
anti-Semites agree — or hope — dial [rsus was m;i Jewish because he came front 
"Galilee of the (it-iiUles.** A prevailing Talmud'u Tradition has n ih.n jesus was the 
illegitimate offspi ing of Joseph Panihera, a Roman c.entuiion, and Miriam, die 
wife o( a c&rpvnici. ]iidi.\i'?if l'jtxykli>f>t'iilir' t J\'u\\s(\it-i Verlag, Beilhi, 19. HO, Hand IY/I, 
pp. 772-73. 

iOtS. that Atlantis, Great Books, Chicago, lUSfc, Vol. SO, p. SOS. 



200 



The Dispossessed Majority 



painlessly by assimilation. But there are no convincing signs of ihis 
on the horizon, despite the falling birthrate and the higher in- 
cidence of Jews h outmarriages. The 3,000-year record of Jewish 
uonassiimlanon has only been broken once. 107 The alternative to 
assimilation is repression, of which history provides many models — 
Egyptian bondage, Assyrian and Babylonian captivities, mass de- 
portations, forced baptism, quarantined ghettos, Russian pogroms, 
and German concentration camps. 

When and if a resuscitated American Majority has the strength 
and the will to put a stop to the Jewish envelopment of America, 
history should not be repeated. The operation ought to be accom- 
plished with a finesse thai is a credit to both parties. The guiding 
purpose should Ix- moral as well as cultural and political — to trans- 
cend, for the first time, the ancient racial infighting by lacing the is- 
sue with the head and the heari, not the Huh and the knout. 

Solutions to problems arising from massive racial confrontations 
within the borders of one- country require everv drop of reason 
and imagination that exists in the overbrimming well of die human 
spirit. Separation is obviously part of the solution. Bui how ran this 
most dangerous of all social operations [>e performed successfully? 
How can it be brought off without unliearahle dislocations in the 
lands of exodus and intolerable sacrifices in the land of the ingath- 
ering? 

Theoretically the answer is Israel. But Israel is the sputtering filK 
of a Mideast holocaust. 11>M 



107. See footnote 4, p. M. 

108. The fuse sputtered a little* moic than usual on tin- occasion of the Israel air 
attack on the Iraqi unclear ecfcCVW in June I ML, Mid the massacre of W Moslrms 
al prayer by an obsessed Jewish fundamentalist in d»- Hebron mosque in early 
L994 



CHAPTER 16 



Nonwhite Minorities 



Hispanic is A RATHKR loose term that the media and the Census 
.Bureau have attached to minorities of any race or combina- 
tion of races whose members are largely Spanish- or Portuguese- 
speaking and adhere to some form of Spanish culture.. Almost all 
so-called Hispanics, except for a small contingent of whites who ar- 
rived directly from Spain, had their point of origin in Centra) and 
South America and the Caribbean, by far the greater number ar- 
riving after World War II The Census Bureau states that as of 1990 
22,354,059 Hispanics were to be found in the United Slates. The 
following pages will auempt to examine the Hispanics from u racial 
as well as a geographical perspective. The remainder of the chapter 
will be devoted to Asian minorities, followed by a separate chapter 
on the largest nonwhite minority of all — die Negroes. 

MEXICANS: The typical, run-oi theinill Mexican is neither Span- 
ish nor Asian, neither white nor yellow. 1 Although Spanish- 
speaking and the heir of a laminate of Spanish culture, he dreams 
not of Spain and the glories of the Spanish past. He is not con- 
scious of any ties to northeast Asia, the jumping off point of his 
Mongoloid ancestors. Primarily a mestizo,, a Spanish-Indian cross 
or hybrid, the Mexican considers himself a unique racial specimen. 

Apart from the genetic distinction, where Mexicans tliiler most 
from Majority members is in the art of living. With iis fiestas and 
flowers, its ancient and modern art forms, its rich and varied 



1. /'oats, a publication of the National Geographic Society, states the population 
of Mexico is 5. r > percent mestizo, #) percent Indian, 15 pen em Kuiopcan ami mi- 
rier 1 percent Negro and Mulatlo. To the casual visitor the Kmopean rsthn.iie :\\r 
pears high. 

201 



202 



The Dispossessed Majority 



mineral and petroleum resources, its rugged msse&asaviA barrancas, 
and its flamboyant tropic beaches — ihe real Mexico, not the hor- 
rendous swarms of people that make human anthills out of the big 
cities, not the industrial pollution that makes the urban air un- 
brealheable and gray, but the real Mexico thai adds grace and 
beauty to an increasingly drab world. After the revolutions and 
counterrevolutions of the early twentieth century, an intense wave 
of naiivism swepr over the country, bringing with it such cultural 
splendors as the mural paintings of Orozco, certainly the most 
magnificent and the most dazzling pictorial art to come out of the 
New World. The sworn enemy of this art is the Madison Avenue 
and Hollywood kitsch exported to Mexico from the United States, 
a spurious culture which vulgarizes and degrades exporters and im- 
porters alike 

The 1990 Census counted 1^495,938 people of Mexican ances- 
try in ihe U.S. The number represents 60 percent of" all Hispanic* 
scattered among the 50 states. Most of them live in California, Tex- 
as, Colorado, and the Southwest, though large concentrations arc 
taking root in many northern cities. a The pochos or native-born cit- 
izens and the rholos or legal immigrants comprised a sizable part oi 
the census count. No one knows how many illegals or "undoc- 
umented workers" were included. Members of the second largest 
nonwhite minority, Mexican Americans are often as poorly educa- 
ted and economically disadvantaged as Negroes, Their school drop- 
out raie is high; their per capita income low. 3 Even so, the living 
standard of most Mexican Americans is far superior to that of Mex- 
icans in Mexico. 

Forever unassimilable because of their coloration and their Mon- 
goloid or Indian trails, Mexican Americans accentuate their minor- 
ity status by holding fas! to their language (vasi stretches of the 
American Southwest are now bilingual), by voting t 1 1* - Democratic 
ticket, 1 by their amortizing and by their class and racialist agitation. 



2. Having ,oli|i ' tmni Mexico several centuries ago, some 250 ..000 "H-ispaiFtOS* in 
New Mexico, who look upon lmrr arrivals as interlopers, art perpetuating ;i Span- 
ish-speaking, assimiIaiion-prcK>t subculture of iln-ir own. 

fc New York Times t April 20, 1969, p. 54, 

■1. A solid bloc of Mexican-American votes, some from voters long dead, won 
Lyndon Johnson the hotly disputed 19-18 senatorial prim:nv in Texas ai a crucial 
moment in bis political career. See pp. 428-29, 



TI t£ MINORITIES: ASSIMIl AlKD AND UNASSIMILATED 203 

Emulating Negroes, Mexican Americans have taken to playing hard- 
ball ethnic politics. The California valleys and Texas plains, ihe Los 
Angeles and Denver barrios have already been the scene of a few 
serious confrontations with Anglos, although "The Chicano [Mex- 
ican-American] revolt against the Anglo establishment is still in the 
planning stage.* 5 Mexican-American eihnocentrism is also nour- 
ished by constant reminders of American aggression against (heir 
homeland and by a demagoguery which holds thai Mexican Amer- 
icans are now second-class citizens in a region of North America 
thai once belonged to their forefathers. 

There is a distinct possibility (hat, if the constant legal and illegal 
influx of Mexican genes across the Rio Grande continues and if i he 
Mexican-American and Mexican birthrates continue at their 
present high levels, Mexican Americans will regain their lost ter- 
ritories of Aha California and Texas — already denominated by fa- 
natic irredentists as Aztlan — not by means of violence or minority 
politicking, bui simply by exercising squatters* rights. 



CUBANS; In spile of its large Negro component and its enduring 
dictatorship, Cuba in its sloppy and dowdy fashion retains more of 
the old Spanish colonial ambience than any other country in Latin 
America. As for ihe island's relations with the U.S., they have blown 
hot and cold, After the battleship Alatft*was sunk in Havana harbor 
m 1898;, American troops actively helped Cuba win its inde- 
pendence from Spain. With the arrival on the scene of Fidel Cas- 
tro, however, the country turned its back or was forced to turn its 
back on its giant neighbor to the north and moved to me red side 
of the political and economic spectrum. The disastrous failure of a 
motley band of anii-C.nmmunists and ragtag Castro enemies ai the 
Bay of Pigs did nothing to improve Cuban-American relations. The 
unexpected appearance of Soviet atom bombs in the Pearl of the 
Antilles came as close as any other event up to that time to pro- 
voking a nuclear war, a war that was avoided when Khrushchev 
blinked and shipped his bombs home. 

For several decades now Cuba and the United States, though 
only 90 miles apart, have been acting as il they were in two different 
worlds, their principal contact being the outflow n{ anti-Castroites 

5 N&) Y&rk Tim*s 7 April 20, I ')(><), p, 1 . 



204 



The Dispossessed Majority 



to the U.S., mainly to south Florida, where most of true 1,04:5,932 
Cubans remain and where they have established a thriving Cuban 
enclave. Since many Cubans belonged to the middle and even 
upper class and possessed various business skills, they have pros- 
pered in their new country. Unlike other Hispanic immigrants, 
most signed up with the Republican Party and have played politics 
so diligently they now are the leading political force in the Miami 
area. A Cuban American has been elected mayor, Congressman 
and police chief. It is difficult for any white or Negro politician to 
l>e elected to local or even statewide Florida office without Cuban 
support. Unlike most other I lispanic immigrants, a large portion of 
the Cuban immigration, particularly in its early stage, was white, 
which helped diminish the distrust accorded dark-skinned aliens. 
Only in its later stages was the immigrant flow composed largely of 
blacks and mulattos. The mestizos (Spanish-Indian crosses) and 
pure Indians, who comprise such a large part of the Mexicans in 
the U.S., were almost invisible in the Cuban immigration. 

I he first batch of Cubans fleeing from ('astro were given a warm 
welcome in south Florida. They were considered refugees and thus 
outside the immigration quotas. Later arrivals included the refuse 
from Cuban prisons, which put a severe strain on law enforcement 
agencies. After long Stints of negotiation, Castro agreed it, lake 
some of them hack, 

What wili the Cubans iu the U.S. do when Castro goes- Surely a 
jot of them will return home. But many more will stay, especially 
those who have been away for 30 years or more. The richer (whit- 
er) elements will probably leave if the political and economic situa- 
tion stabilizes. The poorer (blacker) elements, which now repre- 
sent nearly half of die Cubans in the U.S., will probably stay. The 
remaining whiles who are white enough may slowly slip into the 
ranks of the Majority. On the whole, however, Cuban families, no 
matter what their skin color, are so close-knit mat their assimilation 
potential will probahly remain low for some time to come. 



PUI'.RTO RrcJVNS: The original Puerto Ricans, 20,000 to 50,000 
Arawak Indians, died oft" in the sixteenth rentury after a Few ulttue- 
( -i-ssfiil revolts against the Spaniards, who had overworked ihcm in 
The void in the labor supply was Idled by Negro 



he goto mines 



Tl IK MINORITIES; ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMUATK1) 2W 



>t\r t 



slaves from Africa. Since most Puerto Ricans in the U.S. came large- 
ly from the poorer elements of the population — in direct contrast 
to the ftrst waves of the Cuban immigration — the high frequency of 
their Negroid trails not only renders them un assimilable, but makes 
it difficult not to confuse them with blacks. 

As American citizens, Puerto Ricans come under no immigration 
quota. With few legal complications impeding their entry and wiih 
an extremely high birthrate, Americans of Puerto Rican birth or de- 
scent, according to the I TOO Census, total 2,727 ,7">4. More than 
half of them are concentrated in New York City and environs, hike 
the Mexicans, Puerto Ricans brought with them a skin-deep Span- 
ish culture. Also like the Mexicans, Puerto Ricans have placed their 
political fortunes in the hands of the Democratic party. To lose no 
time in garnering these votes, New York politicians have changed 
the literacy test for voters by permitting it to be taken in Spanish. 
As a result, Puerto Ricans can arrive in New York City without 
knowing a word of English arid almost immediately gea on welfare. 

Coming from one of the world's most beautiful islands and 
friendliest climates, Puerto Ricans somehow manage to adapt to 
onr of line world's ugliest slum areas and crudest weather zones. 
Their economic status approaches that of the Negro* on whom 
they look down in spile of their own part-African ancestry. Those 
who break the language barrier, however, soon surpass native 
blacks in most levels of achievement. 

Puerto Ricans In Puerto Rico, now a Commonwealth of the Unit- 
ed States, have so far proved lo be loo proud for statehood, but not 
proud enough for independence or selfoufficiency (half the island 
is on food stamps). The streak of fervent nationalism that runs 
through some segments of the population motivated one band of 
"patriots" to attempt to assassinate President Tinman in 19')0, an- 
other to shoot live congressmen in 1954, and still another to 
launch terroristic bomb attacks in various U.S. cities in the 1970s. 
Whether the separatist feelings of Puerto Ricans will subside and 
result in the birth of the lifty-lirst slate or whether Puerto Ricans 
like the 1'ilipinos, will opt for independence rannot be forecast at 
this time. What can be predicted is that most of them stand no 
more chance of being assimilated than the inhabitants of other 
Caribbean Islands. 



206 



The Dispossessed Majority 



other Unassmilable Latin American Minorities: The smaller 
Caribbean islands are peopled for the most pari by Negroes and 
mulattos will) a thin froth of whiles at the top. The exception is 
\ [aiii, the western half of the large island of I lispaniola. I laiti is not 
only overwhelmingly black, but adheres to a distant French co- 
Ionia! heritage and a degraded French patois for a language. Many 
Haitians have set sail for Florida in overcrowded, leaking, home- 
made hulks, some of them drowning before they reached the 
beaches of the Promised Land. Altogether the Caribbean immigra- 
tion, including Cuba and Puerto Rico, numbers well over 5 million. 
It has put such a tremendous burden on the Florida economy thai 
Governor Lawton Chiles estimates the newcomers are costing his 
State SI billion a year, an amount for which he is suing the federal 
government, on the grounds that the Immigration and Natural- 
ization Service has failed to enforce immigration laws. 

Central America has also furnished a large number of Immi- 
grants, both legal and illegal, most of ihem mestizos. In general the 
undiluted Indian population has stayed at home, The only country 
in Central America that has a preponderantly white population is 
Costa Rica, most of whose citizens are of the Mediterranean race, 
which means that most are too dark to qualify for Majority status. 
Revolutionary uprisings and guerrilla wars in some of these small 
nations have accelerated northward emigration, and there is noth- 
ing on the political horizon in those parts to indicate any long- 
range stability. Strategically and ideally, the Caribbean should lie a 
well-policed American lake. The U.S. has a base al Guantanamo 
Ray on the eastern lip of Cuba, The Panama Canal will remain in 
U.S. hands until 1999. Nevertheless, the Caribbean has become a 
busy waterway for mestizos, mulattos and Mediterranean whites 
fleeing north. It would not be hard to interdict such traffic with the 
use of modern naval technology; but so far attempts to do so have 
been at best halfhearted. The picture is complicated by the fact 
that many Central American immigrants take the hind route 
through Mexico. The more affluent pay "mm directors" to bus 
them to the U.S. border. 

The 1990 U.S. Census, leaving out Mexicans, Cubans and Puerto 
Ricans, lists 5,086,435 Hispanies of Central and South American or- 
igin. The nonwhites from the northern tier <>l South American 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIM11ATEO 207 

slates are mostly mestizos; those from Portuguese-speaki ng Brazil 
mainly mulattos, Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile have approximate- 
ly the same racial make-up as the populations of Italy and Spain. 
Consequently a large proportion of immigrants from these coun- 
tries would have to be allocated to the largely unassimiiablc Med- 
iterranean racial category. 

To .sum up, Latin America, thai is, the entire New World from 
die Rio Grande south, has relatively high birthrates that are putting 
severe demographic pressures for change in the L),S. racial com- 
posite. b The I lispanics, who have already "taken over 7 * large stretch- 
es of southern Florida, southern Texas, and southern California, 
are also becoming a political force in some of the bigger northern 
cities. When in these areas blacks and Hispanies combine their po- 
litical and social muscle, whites can do little but rely on old con- 
stitutional safeguards for protection. 

Every day the 1 lispanics already here are outbreeding Majority 
whites. Every day countless mestizos and mulattos, coming by boat 
or by foot, are illegally entering the U.S., where many will soon set- 
tle down and raise their own crops of babies, who automatically In- 
come American citizens. No wonder that demographers are pre 
dieting that within another half century or so, the American while 
population, which already includes Urge numbers of unassirntlables, 
will become a minority in what was once its own land. 

CHINESE: The first large contingent of Chinese immigrants 
(13,100) arrived in California in 1854. ? Of an utterly alien civiliza- 
tion and totally unfamiliar with the American environment, the 
Chinese started out under the most severe cultural and economic 
handicaps. Members of a true I9th-ceuuiry servile class, they laid 
down railroad tracks throughout the West, painstakingly worked 
placer mines, and provided much of the white settlers' household 
help. The pigtailed Chinaman in the back room was an institution 
thai endured in San Francisco for more than half a century. 

Once the gold boom had subsided and the railroads were up and 
running, Congress responded to pressure from Westerners fearful 



6. One indirect way of comparing birthnifiea is to my rli.u nhr-ihiul at uj sabiea 
born in lHc L'.S. in K>93 were born courtesy of Medicaid. 

7. Davie, Wovf/i Immigration, p. 'M)H 



The Dispossessed Majority 



of the competition of coolie labor and of the rising tide of color 
(123,201 Chinese arrived in California in the 1870s) bypassing the 
Exclusion Ac! of 1882, It was Congress's first try ai immigration leg- 
islation, preceding the establishment of overall quotas by almost 
forty years. 8 I he 1923 Act provided for an annual quota of 124. 

The 1970 Census listed 435,062 Americans of Chinese extrac- 
tion, of whom 52,039 resided in the r lawaiian Islands. The 1990 
Census raised the figure to 1,645,472, whkh demonstrated that the 
Chinese population, concentrated largely in California, New York 
and Hawaii, almost tripled in size in three decades. II relations with 
mainland China stabilize, Chinese Americans may again begin 
their vintage-year, hoinrbound voyages across ihe Pacific, a west- 
ward migration winch once managed to keep their rate of growth 
below that of most other minorities. 

Chinese Americans are the prime example of the self-soffit tent, 
static minority. Although once the victims of almost intolerable per- 
secution and discrimination, ' thev have now buried much of their 
resentment and eschewed resorting to racial agitation and minority 
lobbying, i0 Rather proud of their hyphenated status, they keep 
their family names, keep many of their Far Eastern ways, and keep 
to themselves. Their lives are characterized by a subdued middle- 
class morality and respectability. When most other nonwhife minor- 
ities move into an urban area, it usuallv deteriorates into a slum. 
Chinese enclaves, on the other hand, often become centers of at- 
traction. San Francisco's Chinatown, the largest in the New World, 
is one of the cleanest and best-maintained sections of the city. Once 
tlu- battleground of rival tongs, it toasted a low incidence of violent 
crime and juvenile delinquency in the post-World War fl years until 
the great increase in Asian immigration. In the 1970s gangs from 
Taiwan and Hong Kong began to terrorize law-abiding Chinese in 



8. Ibid., p. 51 S. For iihjic al.K.>ut quotas sec Chapters 5 and 6. 

\K ITu* en lire Chinese population of 1 ,000 was ruthlessly driven out of Tr ue kri\ 
California, in 1878 The previous year in San Fiancisco theie was almost open war- 
fare Ix^tvreeii the Irish and ihe Chinese. Ihivie, op, ciL, pp. 318-22. 

10. In Hawaii, where nonwhites arc in the majority, ihe Chinese are more polit- 
ically active, as demon su "a ted by ihe presence in die Senate ( L959-77) of million- 
aire Republic ;in I lirain Point In die continental U.S., the Chinese minority stand* 
apart from the liberal-minority coalition by often voting Foi couwrvative can- 
didates and taking an aggressive stand against ihe husirif* of school children. 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIM HATED 2$ 

California and New York. In 1983 mass murder erupted in a Chi- 
nese gambling den in Seattle. 

The Chinese minority, at least on the mainland, is by any stan- 
dard a reclusive minority, h preserves and develops its own culture 
without seeking to impose it on others, though like other Asian 
groups it is a "protected minority." In the crystal ball of the Chi- 
nese-American future one dark spot of gloom can he delected. If 
revolutionary or racial fervor should induce China to war once 
again againsi the United States — it fought an undeclared one in 
Korea in 1950-51 — the position of the Chinese minority might be- 
come as tenuous ;ts that of the Japanese in World War II. Meanwhile 
population pressures in China and the existence o( highly pro- 
fessional smuggling rings see to it that the number of Chinese in 
the U.S. is steadily on the increase. 



|AK\NRM : Much ol what has been written about Chinese Amer- 
icans applies to Japanese Americans, or at least to those Japanese 
Americans who do not reside in the Hawaiian Islands. The Jap- 
anese came to America later than the Chinese, but encountered 
the same degree of hostility. Although Japan itself had banned all 
foreigners, except for a few Dutch, for 230 years (1638-1868) and 
had forbidden its citizens to go abroad on pain of death, the 1 Jap- 
anese government objected strongly to Congress's plans to include 
Japanese in the ban on Chinese immigration. 11 To soothe Japanese 
pride President Theodore Roosevelt negotiated a "Gentleman's 
Agreement* in 1007, by which Japan agreed to halt the Japanese 
exodus, provided Congress passed no restrictive immigration leg- 
islation thai mentioned the Japanese by name-. By 1.940 some 
1-10,000 Japanese were living on the U.S. mainland, 86 percent of 
them in the Far West, where many had become prosperous truck 
farmers, by 1990 the number of Japanese Americans had jumped 
to 847,562, most of them in California (Si 2,959), Hawaii (247,486), 
New York (85.281) and Washington (34,366), « 

Shortly alter Pearl Harbor, which displayed the dangers of ]a[>- 
anese military bravado, more than 110,000 West Coast Japanese, 



II. Davis, op. <it., p. Ml. 

1LJ. Ibid., p. SIM, Population figure* from the 1990 Census. The population in- 
CfttaSe is largely attributed to ihe family unification program. 



210 



The Dispossessed Majority 



the majority of them U.S. citizens, were removed from their homes, 
fin ms and busim s.si s, and transported to we&tern "relocation 
camps," at an average loss of $10,000 per family. 13 The Japanese in 
Hawaii, where they were more concentrated and their potential 
threat to national security much greater, were left in comparative 
peace. In 1944 the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, composed 
largely of Nisei, second-generation Japanese Americans from 
Oahu, fought valiantly against crack German troops in the Italian 
campaign and proceeded to rack, up one of the fine SI records in 
American military annals. 

Quiet and unobtrusive on the mainland, where some vote Re- 
publican, Japanese play racial politics with a vengeance in Hawaii. 
The most numerous population group in the islands, the Japanese 
voie Democratic. Hawaii's two senators are Japanese, as is one of its 
two representatives and its governor Such bloc-voting belies the 
claim of the absence of racial tensions in Hawaii. 

To I he despair of the older and more insular Japanese families, 
considerable numbers of their offspring, male and female, are in- 
termarrying with whites. Orientals of all sizes and shapes are great- 
ly attracted to blondes, an attraction thai also motivates Japanese 
agents and pimps from i he- old country to recruil blonde showgirls 
for appearances in Japan, where some are later coaxed or forced 
into prostitution. 

Japan is a terribly overcrowded nation, the first Asian country to 
recover from World War II, thanks in pan to the industry of its peo- 
ple and constructive assistance from the U.S. military occupation. 
Its prosperity, however, is threatened by other Asian nations, par- 
ticularly Korea and China, which also want to participate in the ec- 
onomic expansion. With a minuscule defense budget and pro- 
tected by the LIS. nuclear umbrella and friendly Western tariffs, 
Japan was able io build up an unparalleled trade surplus after copy- 
ing and improving such products of Western ingenuity as cameras, 
automobiles, computer equipment, copiers and all sorts of home 
and office products. As Japanese quality went up, American quality 



fell. 



But die end of the Japanese economic miracle is already in sight. 



1 1 Simpson and Yinger, op cit, pp. IS&SS. After the war, claims were* settled at 
an average tale often cents on the dollar. Washington Post, Oct 5, 1965, ri I . 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIM HATED AND UN ASSIMILATED 21 1 

Asian competition and sharp reductions in Japanese imports 
forced by huge trade imbalances, along with concomitant labor un- 
rest, will eventually bring about domestic turmoil and increase em- 
igration to other countries, especially to the United States. 

The visit of Commodore Perry and his American flotilla in 1853 
joked feudal Japan into a frenzy of modernization. After winning 
the Russo-Japanese War, the first time a white nation was defeated 
by an Oriental nation in a full fledged conflict, Japan joined the 
winning (Allied) side in World War I. Some years later it began to 
run wild over much of Fast Asia — South Korea, China, Indonesia, 
even to the frontiers of India — until ii was finally brought to heel in 
World War 11 by two American fission bombs. The Rising; Sun rose 
and the Rising Sun sank. Hut not lor long. In only a few years the 
onetime Japanese military threat was transformed into an equally 
serious economic threat* though fortunately one that will be easier 
to contain. The economic powerhouse is bound to have difficulty 
maintaining its booming prosperity as Western nations, including 
the U.S., are Forced to put higher tariffs on Japanese and other 
Easi Asian products to save their own manufacturing base. 

Gthes pacific Ocean and Asian Minorities; History reminds 

us that until quite recently, Hawaii, the 50th state* was a territory 
governed with a strong hand by white planters and the American 
armed forces. Because the more vociferous U.S. minorities are not 
found in large numbers in Hawaii, M it does not follow that racism 
is nonexistent or that in the future the various ethnic groups will 
not engage in a bitter power struggle. Island paradises are not ex- 
ceptions lo die laws of racial dynamics. 

Starting in 1079, racially motivated crime against white residents 
and tourists became a recurrent feature in Hawaiian news. Many 
while students stay away from class on the last day of the school 
year, which is observed by many Hawaiians with such threats and in- 
timidations — so far largely limited lo words not deeds — as "kill a 
hank [white] a day." 



14. The 1900 Census showed 1,108,229 people m the Hawaiian Island* divided 
as follows: White, &60,616;Ja,parte*e, 247,4Bfi- Hawaiian, 21 1,014 (less than If>% of 
pure blood); Filipino, 168,682; Chinese, 68.&04; Negroes, 27,195; Other, 15,432, 
Many of the whiles belong r .n military families, 



212 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Census statistics demonstrate the unfolding of a racial tragedy in 
Hawaii, the only state where nonwhites outnumber whites. One of 
America's most colorful and romance-ridden minorities, the Poly- 
nesian, is rapidly becoming extinct. Of the 211,014 Hawaiian^ or 
pari-Ilawaiians counted by the 1990 Census, perhaps only 10,000 or 
15,000 "pure" specimens remain. A concerted effort is being made 
to save them by maintaining a subsidized refuge on the island of 
Niihau, where they live in voluntary quarantine, speak the old Ha- 
waiian tongue, and are without benefit of television, automobiles, 
liquor stores, and fast-food outlets. 



A nonwhiie minority wth large numbers in the Hawaiian Islands, 
as well as on the mainland, is the Filipino. In 1990 there were 
l,40fi,770 people in the United States whose point of origin was the 
Philippine* Islands — a jump of more than 600,000 in only twenty 
years. Filipinos had easy access to America when their country was 
an American possession, but were placed under a quota when giv- 
en independence in 1&46. For all practical purposes the 1965 Im- 
migration Act lifted the quota. 

Like Japan, South Korea has become a quasi-l_LS. protectorate. 
American armed forces, having defended the country successfully 
against a North Korean and later Chinese onslaught in 1950-5], are 
prepared to do so again. This military collaboration, together with 
a radical change in immigration policy, triggered a massive trans- 
Pacific migration of South Korean civilians. Once in (he United 
Slates, Koreans specialized in opening small groceries near or in 
the inner cities, where many were mercilessly robbed ami gunned 
down by blacks. 

In the aftermath of the Vietnam War and the conquest of large 
parts of Indochina by Communist North Vietnam, the United 
Stales government was suddenly confronted with the "boat peo- 
ple," hundreds of thousands of South Vietnamese {many of Chi- 
nese origin) fleeing South Vietnam by sea. Having abandoned 
i hem on the battlefield, the Congress and the media fell duty 
bound to lake them in — to the amount of more than L million by 
1990. They were later joined by smaller numbers of Cambodians 



TI IK MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMII A TED 213 

whose once placid nation was torn apart by Communist-inspired 
purges that approached the level of genocide. At this writing the 
rabble-rousing, Marx-worshipping Khmer Rouge have been pushed 
back into the jungle. For how long, no one knows. 

Million* of Southeast Asians would like to follow in the footsteps 
of those who have already found refuge in this country. How many 
more will lx k permitted to settle here will depend on the dem- 
ographic intentions of the various lndochinese governments and 
on the immigration policy, or lack of it, of the White Mouse and 
Congress. 

Other Asiatic or Mongoloid minorities include G2/JG4 Nainoans, 
41*, 345 Guamanians, 815,447 Asian Indians from the Indian suh- 
continent, 81,571 Pakistanis, 15 57,152 Eskimos, and 23,797 Aleuts 18 
(ancient Asian immigrants). Questions concerning the assimilation 
probability of these groups are best answered by Kipling's well- 
known lines. 



AMERICAN INDIANS: Several theories have t>een developed to ex- 
plain the racial origins of the oldest New World inhabitants. The 
one most acceptable to contemporary anthropology is thai they are 
descendants of fur-wearing, spear-carrying, mammoth-eating Mon- 
golian tribesmen who island-hopped or perhaps walked across the 
Bering Strait some 10,0(10 to 20,000 years ago t when most ol it was 
a grassy plain. A few dissident anthropologists allude to the possibil- 
ity of a partial descent from Polynesians and Melanesians who may 
have readied South America from Faster Island. There are also leg- 
ends of refugees from Atlantis and the lost continent of Mo, and of 
shipwrecked sailors from Chinese junks washed ashore on the Pa- 
cific coast. i? Puzzling pockets of Aj blood group may tie at counted 
for by Australoid elements, and there is even a remote possibility of 



15. Pakisianis have y;<nn- into use motel business with ;i vengeance, 
]('». I tie- Aleuts were* members of die early migration from Siberia, but Jscy nev- 
er went further east than the Aleutian Islands, There* 200 or so years ago, Russian 
fur traders found 25,000 of their descendant*, When die Russians tit-pas u*d, hav- 
ing sold Alaska to the U.S. in AH67, only 2,950 Aleuts remained alive. ][ ihe 1990 
Census iscorreel, their number is now on the rebound. 

17 2Tm American fleritag? Book of Ituliam, American Heritage Publishing Co-., 
New York, 1961, pp. 9, 25. 



214 



The Dispossessed Majority 



far-off kinship with the Ainus of Japan. 

In the year 1500, North America (above the Rio Grande) con- 
tained an estimated 830,000 Indians. 18 By 1900 the Indian popula- 
tion of the United States had decreased to 237,196, 19 a decline (hat 
seemed to bear out the theory of die Vanishing American and his- 
torian Arnold Toynbee's half-truth that the English-speaking pec* 
pies colonized by dispossession and genocide. 30 But the 1990 cen- 
sus eon tiled 1,878,285 Indians, many hundreds of thousands more 
than existed before die arrival of the Europeans. Some 70 percent 
of these Indians live on 31J9 government reservations.* 1 

The Indians of the United States and Canada never became a 
mestizo population as did so many Latin American Indians. The 
English settler, who often brought his family with him, was not as 
prone to miscegenation as the lonely Spanish soldier Moreover, 
Nortli American Indians were hunters, nomads, isolated fanners 
and fisher folk — less adept at socializing than Mongoloids in the 
more urban agglomerates of the A/tee and Incan empires, This is 
not to suggest that there was no interbreeding of Indians with trap- 
pers, traders, and other white "squaw men" in the West, and with 
Negro slaves in Southern states. 22 In Latin America, Southern Eu- 
ropean miscegenation diluted the Indian and Negro slock. In 
North America, Northern European miscegenation was largely 
with Southern blacks. 

In frontier days, despite Rousseau's well-publici2ed notion of the 
"noble savage" and Cooper's Pluiarchan Mohicans, Indians were 



IB. Our American Indians at a Giant*, Pacific Coast Publications, Menfo l*ark ( 
California,, I961 p p. 6. 

10, Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups 1 pp. 5&*59, Tbda\ the most 
numerous Indian tribe is the Navajo, with a population of LfiO.OOD. In thr seven- 
teenth century the Navajo* numbered 9,000. 

20. A Study of History, Vol V, p, 46. In the same exaggerated vein Tm-nbrr could 
have described the eternal warfare between nomadic Indian uibes as equally gen- 
ocida]. 

Si. Time, Sept 3, [965, p. 72. An Indian author, Vine Deloria, Jr., disagrees with 
these figures. He. esliinaLes dial half of all the Indiana in (he VS. live in eastern rit- 
ies and tJiar unoihei 100,000 are nr altered throughout eastern rural areas. ,Veur 
York Tiroes Magazine, Dec. 7, 19fi9. 

22. At least 200 communities in the eastern LIS. consist Largely of trifacial by- 
bridl of mixed Indian, Negro, and white ancestry. C*»ort, op. tit., p. 507. Madison 
Grant believed thai hall" the American Indian population has some white blood, 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMUATl'D AND LTKASS1MILATED 215 



regarded as the lowest and most debased of humanoids. 2 * Now 

that both sides have quit the warpath and there is little direct Con- 
tact between them, except in their tribal gambling dens, (hey are 
flattered and cozened by their new white friends, the modern gen- 
eration of eleemosynary ideologues, and forgotten by their erst- 
while foes. Indeed, it has become commonplace — and a measure 
of their declining race consciousness—for some whites to boast of 
their "Indian blood." Not too much, of course, but enough to con- 
jure up visions of wide open spaces and Remington scouts. Half- 
breed, at one time the most contemptuous expression in American 
English, lias been watered down to so anemic a pejorative thai it 
hardly raises an eyebrow, 

If minority vociferousness was proportionate to past suffering In- 
dians would be quite justified in being the most clamorous of all 
American population groups. Once the sole and undisputed ruler 
of all he surveyed, the redman has both fallen and been lowered to 
the bottom of the American social scale, where he remains, lie was 
herded onto reservations* dosed with alcohol, decimated by small- 
pox, and only given full citizenship rights in 1924. In 1966 the aver* 
age Indian had the lowest income of any American and an un- 
employment rate of nearly 40 percent. Ninety percent of his hous- 
ing was below acceptable standards. His life expectancy was twenty 
one years less than that of the general population.** Reservation In* 
dians are still the wards of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, an or- 
ganization of 10,000 government functionaries distinguished by a 
long record of administrative ineptitude.^ 

Taking their cue from more dynamic minorities, Indians have re- 
cently mad*- some efforts lo close ranks, a somewhat formidable 
task in thai they still speak more than a hundred different lan- 
guages and belong to more than 230 tribes. As they were seldom 
able to unite when whites were evicting them from then fields 



23. In iWtii, ihirr veils al'lci Lincoln had heed l he slaves, an Arizona county- 
was still ouYnntf $^>0 Ihr an Apache icalp. American Heritage Book of Imlian*, p. 
S&4. Fiaru is Turkman's dn:iilrd description of Indian cannibalHfln ami liuHnn 
habit* t~f torturing while pnataters of both sexes makes the fierce rea* iionsoi lion- 

tieismen more nncletsiariuabic. The Works of Francis Furkman, Little Hi own. Boston, 
lmi^Vol. Ill, especially Chaptn XVIII. 

24. Thm, March IS. 1968, p. 20. 

l 2 r >. San Fmnrisw Examiner. T&$ Worhl, April 1-1, IQ&£, p. 1 '->■ 



216 



The Dispossessed Majority 



and hunting grounds, their endemic tribalism will surely continue 
to hamper the organization of any effective national lobby, i he last 
major Attempt at an Indian revival was the Ghost Dance religion 
(1889-90) when Wovoka, a Painte medicine man, promised the re- 
turn of the Golden Age. Million-tooted herds of bison would re- 
populate the prairies. Dead braves would rise up with their great 
duels and go on one final warpath, which would root the palefaces 
out of the land. The movement was easily put down by the Seventh 
Cavalry. 26 Latter-day Indian stirrings, such as the sacking of the In- 
dian Bureau office in Washington and the 1973 ^uprising* 1 at 
Wounded Knee, while proving Indian racism was on 1 1 1 < - upswing, 
are more accurately described as media evetus than serious at- 
tempts at independence. 

Nohif.ssf ii//% dcniaiuls that a certain respect, even if their pres- 
ent acts and behavior do not deserve it, be accorded the oldest 
Americans, the onetime majority that centuries ago become a mi* 
rarity, the sole American population group with a large!) nuii- 
derivaLive culture. The Indian, although he Ills seldom measured 
up to his role, is the tragic hero of the American epic He was the 
enemy tor more than 2'jO years.- 7 h is eml) lilting that the honors 
erf" defeat should provide both for his physical survival and his spir- 
itual continuity. 



2<i. Auirncau Urnttigr [h>ok vj Indians, \i. *M\ . 

27. The Indian wars rsmc lo an end in 1891 with the Glial pat if'tcaiion ol the 

Sioux. Ibid,, p. 400. Compared 10 the centuries- long struggle with the InriJsns, 

America'* wars again « France in tile colonial period, Britain in revot m&tt i tHy 
times, Mexico and Spain in me nineteenth century, Germany, Japan, North Korea, 
North Vietnam and Iraq in the twentieth century wrre relatively I m i* I . 



CHAPTER 17 



The Negroes 



THE WRGKO MINORITY, the largest mM\ most violent minority, mer- 
its a special chapter because ii presents the United States with 
a problem thai often seems beyond solution. Fanned 'and over- 
heated by both black and while agitators foi ditfereiH ideological 
purposes, Negro racism has now reached the point where it has lit- 
erally grounded the once soaring American Zeitgeist and threatens 
to mutilate ii beyond recognition. For the first time since the pac- 
ification of the Indians, who themselves are now resorting to in- 
rreqiienL fits of localized resistance, self-anointed leaders of an 
American minority are seriously talking about Taking Up arms 
againsi the authority of the state,. Simultaneously, a large criminal 
caste is multiplying within the Negro community along with an 
even largei caste of welfare recipients and dehumanized drug ad- 
dicts. A black middle class has also taken shape, but so Ins a ghetto 
population of fatherless families whose illegitimate, children now 
outnumber the children of two-parent Negro families. 

The first Negroes to arrive in the British possessions in North 
America were twenty indentured servants who disembarked from a 
Dutch ship in Jamestown, Virginia, in 161°. Blacks, be it known., 
have been in America as long as the Majority and longer than all 
other minority members except Indians. Overwhelmed by white 
culture, Negroes quickly traded their tribal dialects for Kngiish, 
their tribal gods for Christianity, and their tribal names for those of 
their white masters. Rut they could never trade their skin. 

Negro slavery, one of the oldest and most enduring of human ire 
slituuons, was introduced into tin* New World at the behest of the 
pious Christian bishop, Bariolome de las Casas, who sermonized 

1217 



218 



The Dispossessed Majority 



lliat only Negroes could survive the yoke of peonage the Spaniards 
had fastened on the Indians. 1 Although the "peculiar institution" 
was firmly established in the Southern colonies by the end of the 
17th century, slavery did not become big business until (be stir- 
rings of the Industrial Revolution. When cotton became king and 
Blake's "dark Satanic mills* began to scar the landscapes of New 
and Old England, only Negroes were able, and available, to endure 
the rigors of Held work on Southern plantations. 

Contrary to conspiratorial theories of Negro history thai blame 
black misfortunes entirely on whites, African Tribal chiefs played a 
key role in the slave trade. They were the procurement agents who 
rounded up neighboring tribesmen, as well as many of their own 
subjects, and marched them off to the slave ships. " l Rum was the sta- 
ple of this dubious commerce and passed for currency on the Af- 
rican west coast. There, writes Charles Beard, "to slake their fierce 
appetite, [Negroes] would sell their enemies, (heir friends, their 
mothers, lathers, wives, daughters, and sons for New England's 
scalding potion," 9 

Slavery was the inhumanity of white to black. But it was also the 
inhumanity of blacks to their own kind. For many Negroes trans- 
portation to America was simply giving up one form of servitude 
for another. Often it was a fortuitous escape from starvation, dis- 
ease, human sacrifice, and cannibalism- Whites guilt-ridden about 
slavery should take into account that, although it lias been pro- 
scribed for more than a century in the United States, it is still prev- 
alent in Africa. In the 1960s, $5.60 would buy a healthy half-easte 
baby in Somalia; 52,20() an attractive young girl in the Sudan. 4 In 



1 . Davie, op. cil., p. I>87. l)e las Cusas's proposal was adopted too hie. Almost all 
the natives ol" die largo West Indian islands were wiped out before the amvaj ol 
their black i rplaremertl.s. 

2. Nfffti historian John Hope Franklin points out, ''Slavery was an important 
function of African social and economic life." From Slavery to Freedom, Knopf, New 
\ork, HK>7, p. SI, One ol" the favorite roundup methods was to set fire to a village 
\vf night and capture die fleeing inhabitants. Ena. Brit-, Vol. 20, p. 780. 

%> Beard, Rise oj American Cxxnlimlwn, Vol. I, pp. 93-94. The slaves were ti. im- 
ported in ships from which die hogsheads had been temporarily removed. 

■1. Sean O'Callaghan, Thr Slave Trade Today, as renewed in San Francisco Chronicle* 
This World, May 27, 19G2. In recent years in die 0.S., Negroes, not white*, have 
lx-en arrested for committing the crime of peonage. Miami HemUt March 22 
1978. n. 1. 



THE MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMILATED 219 

1980 the government of Mauritania passed a law abolishing slavery, 
as it had done several times previously, with little effect. The slavery 
question began to divide Americans from the very moment of their 
independence- The best minds of the day- — Franklin, Patrick Hen- 
ry, Washington, Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison — were opposed to 
slavery but unwilling to come to grips with it because of (he greater 
urgency of unifying the young republic. Opposition to slavery, it 
should Ik* noted, did not necessarily signify a belief in the equality 
preached so eloquently in the Declaration of Independence, 
Thomas Jefferson, the author of most of that document, suggested 
that "blacks, whether originally a distinct race f or made distinct by 
time and circumstances, are inferior to the whiles in the endow- 
ments of lxith hotly and mind.** 5 Jefferson was particularly pes- 
simistic about Negro intellectual proficiency. 

Comparing them by their faculties of memory, reason, and 
imagination, it appears to me that in memory they are equal 
to the whites; in reason much inferior, as I think one could 

scarcely be found capable of (racing and comprehending the 
investigations of Euclid; and that in imagination they arc 
dull, tasteless, and anomalous. . . .They astonish you with 
strokes of the most sublime oratory, ■ ■ .But never yet could 1 
find thai a black had uttered a thought above the level of 
plain narration, . * ." ° 

Alter the issue of slavery had reached the inflammatory stage, 
Maryland-born Chief "Justice Roger hV Taney, writing the majority 
opinion in the Dred Scott decision (1857), took judicial notice that 



5. The Life and Selected Writing of Thomas Jefferson, Modern IJbnuv, N.Y., HM-1, p. 
2f>2. )effei»on favored Ne^ro emancipation, but warned dial tfae black, "When 
freed , . . is to Ik* remowd beyond the reach of mixture. . . ." Ibid. How Jeffer win's 
ideas were edited to fit modern lilwral notions ol eepialitai ianism is shown by the 
inscription on die Jefferson Memorial in Washington, which tends, ''Nothing is 
more certainly written in die hook of late dian that these people are to Ix 1 free.* 
Hie stonemason put a period in place of the original semicolon. Jel lei son's sen- 
tence continued, "noi" is it less certain dial the two races, equally free, can no! live 
under die same government." George Washington, whose concern tot Negroes 
was not as verbal as Jefferson's, but perhaps more generous, arranged for his 
slaves lo lx; freed at his death. Jefferson, who at one time had as mauv as *>! 2, did 
not. 

fi. Ibid., pp. E5£5& 



T20 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Negroes were "beings of an inferior order.*' Abraham Lincoln, an- 
other nonbeliever in the genetic, equality of Negroes, was firmly 
committed to the separation of the two races and a strong support- 
er of the Illinois law winch made marriage between whites and Ne- 
groes a crime.' 

As pointed out earlier in this study, blacks in the United States in- 
creased from about 750,000 to nearly 4,500,000 in the years (1790- 
1860) when almost 90 percent of Negroes were slaves. 3 Slavery was 
abominable to the body ami spirit, but as an almost sixfold boost in 
the black population in seventy years demonstrated, it was hardly 
genocide. Since Congress had outlawed the slave trade in I808 s 
most of the increase could only be ascril>ed to Negro fecundity. 

The enormous casualties of the Civil War are proof that the 
curse oi slavery descended on whites as well as blacks. Alter the war 
had ended and slavery had been abolished hy the t3ih Amend- 
ment, twenty Negro representatives and two Negro senators were 
sent to Congress. At the same time, Southern state capitals were 
crowded with Negro officeholders and office seekers. For a while it 
appeared that Yankee military power and vindiciivencss plus Negro 
numbers and Southern demoralization might change the color 
and character of Southern civilization. But Southern whiles went 
underground and organized the Kit Klux Kkm, whose night riders 
taught the occupation forces and their white and black collab- 
orators a few points about terror tactics and guerrilla warfare. 

The North, ever more immersed in financial speculation and in- 
dustrial expansion, ihiallv grew weary of trying to enforce equality 



7. Benjamin Quarle^, Lincoln and the Nrgvo, Oxford University Press, N.V., 1962, 
pp. S&-S7. In one oi his 1858 debate* with Stephen Douglas, Lincoln was quoted 11 
saying, "What I would most desire would be the separation of uV white and black 
races." hi ]Kt>2, Lincoln invited some free Negrori to the White House to explain 
the reasons behind one of his p£i projects, the repatriation of American blacks no 
Africa. "We have between us a broader difference man exists between almost any 
other two races . . . this physical difference is a great disadvantage to us both. . . . 
Your rate suffers very gieatly. . . hy living among us, while ours suffers horn your 
presence.. . . . If this is admitted, it affords a reason, at least, why we should lie wp 
aiated." Carl .Sandburg, Abialmm lAncoln, Tfyf War Ye/its, Hate'ouit Brace, N.Y., 
19.S0, Vol. I , p. 571. For a summary of Lincoln's altitudes lowaids Ne^ioes, see the 
statement oi I.udwell II. Johnson, an associate professor at uhe College of William 
and Mary, in Putnam's lime and Reality, pp, 13*1-37. 

ft. Franklin, op. dr., pp. 1Mb, 217. 



11 IK MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMII ATED 221 

where none existed, President Rutherford B. Hayes, a moderate 
Republican, removed ihe last federal troops in 3877, and the South 
was returned to the Southerners. As the Negro sank hark into serf- 
dom and sharecropping, the Supreme Court acknowledged the 
constitutionality of postbcllum segregation in the "separate hut 
equal" doctrine of Ptessy v. Ferguson (1896). 

A casual visitor to Mississippi off Alabama an ihe end of the cen- 
tury might have come to the conclusion that except for a few legal 
formalities slavery had been reinstituted. He would have been cor- 
rect, but not for long. The Industrial Revolution, now in its middle 
stages, was preparing to wrench Negro destiny in a new direction. 
America's entry into World War I was accompanied hy a great 
shortage of factory workers. Tens of thousands of Negro tenant 
farmers and hired hands heard the call and began a mass migra- 
tion to northern cities which only stopped in the late 70s. In H)00, 
90 percent of the Negro population lived below the Mason-Dixon 
line; in 1950, 76 percept Today, of the 29,9HG ( 060 blacks listed in 
the 1D90 < "ensus, slightly more than half live in ihe South. 

The transformation of the Negro minority into an urban popula- 
tion ended the blacks' political isolation and brought ihem for the 
first time within reach of the liberal-minority coalition, which lias 
dominated American politics for most of tins century. In ihe North, 
and later in the South, Negroes were taught the secret of bloc vot- 
ing. 9 As political careers Ix'came more dependent on these votes, 
citadel after citadel of white resistance Ix-gan to crumble. Principal 
keys to the success of the civil rights movement were ihe huge fi- 
nancial contributions of the foundations, churches, and alihicni 
white minority organizations, as well as die legal maneuvering and 
lobbying of Negro organizations financed and in large part di- 
rected by white liberals and Jews. H1 The Supreme Court lent a hand 



S. In the 106-1 presidential e-lcciion, Negroes voted 95 fx-rrem for Lyndon John- 
»n. 'tune, Nov. -1, \9CA, p. 4. Twenty-eight years later in the 1992 presidential race, 
Clinton, the Democratic winner, received H'A percent of the Mack vote. Kleven per- 
cent of blacks chose Rush; seven percent voted for Perot. VoUn Re ware h ami Survey, 
A hC study of 15,214 voters. 

10. Julius Kosenwald of Sears, Roebuck was for many years the biggest financial 
contributor to Negro causes. The first president of tlie Urban League, the second 
largest Negro organization, was New York banker Edwin Seligmun. For a quarter 
of ■ century the presidents of die National Association for the Advancement of 



222 



The Dispossessed Majority 



by striking down the poll tax and literary tests, two political safe- 
guards which the South had erected against any recurrence of the 
Blade Power of Reconstruction days. By the late 1950s h appeared 
the Civil War was going to be fought over again in miniature, Free- 
dom marchers, federal marshals, Department of Justice attorneys, 
preachers, teachers, kibitzers, liberals, uitraliberals — iti short a 
whole new generation of carpetbaggers — -converged on the South 
to heighten the tension and fuel the violence that greeted the Su- 
preme Court's school desegregation decision (1954). Bin liines and 
geopolitics had changed. The squalid desolaiiou of the northern 
ghettos was a daily reminder that the Negro problem could no 
longer be relegated t<* the lower half' of a neat geographical bi- 
section. 

The white liberals and minority members who in rhe tradition of 
nineteenth-century abolitionists Siad enthusiastically used Negro 
deprivation as a political anrl economic club with which to brat she 
hated South, the last stronghold of Majority racism, were not so 
wildly enthusiastic when they came fare to face with southern Ne- 
groes migrating ctt masse to northern cities. It is more comforting 



Colored People (400,000 members and J13 million annual budget, as of 1002) 
were Jewish, l_he hist being Kivie Kaplan, fifty-ri^ht members of whose family held 
$500 life nieiTil*M ships. Perennial head oli die NAACP l-cga) Defense IuiiuL is Jack 
Greenberg;. Vaflc, The American Jr*i'\ t p. 257, and Arnold Rom-, The Xrgto ifj Amenta, 
Beacon, Boston, i'Md, p. 267. Before he was assassinated by hlatk separatists, Ne- 
gro activist Malcolm X wiote, "I gave the Jew credit Un being among .ill other 
whites the most active, and ihe moM vocal, financier, deader' and "liberal 1 in die 
Negro civil rights movctneni" Autobiography of Malcolm X p, S72, Jewish in- 
tellectual and financial wupjiort was just as generous to radical Negio oitfaniza- 
tions an it had been to the Urban league and the NAACP. Such groups its CORE 
and SNGC practically lived offjewish contributions. In January 1970, Leonard 
Bernstein held a party in his Park Avenue apartment and raised 13,000, to which 
he added Lbe fee from his next concert, for twenty-one Black Panthers ai rested for 
plotting to kill policemen and dynamite a polite slation, depaiuneni stores, and a 
railroad right-ul-way. Time, Jan. 26, 1970, p. 11. A week later tonne: Supreme 
Court justice Goldberg helped form a special commission to investigate whedier 
Chicago police had. violated die rights of Black Panthers. Previous to this, the 
press reported that the Panthers had killed five policemen and wounded toj Ey-two 
more in "shoot-outs" in twenty stales. Human founts, Feb. 1, 1970, p. 10. Jewish 
money wai all-impoi Umt m die election campaign s al Negro Mayors Cm! Stokes ot 
Cleveland and Richard liauhc-t of Gary, Indiana. Phillips, The Emerging Republican 
Mujtmty, p. S50. 



TIIK MINORITIES: ASSIMIIATKD AND UNAS5IMILATKD 



223 



to tell others how to remedy their errors than lo correct one's own. 
Part of the liU-ial-niinoriry solution for the Negroes' predicament 
was to inculcate them with a hatred of Southern whites. But to the 
Northern Negro all whites looked the same. Ironically the scape- 
goaters were becoming the scapegoats. 

The wind had been sown and the whirlwind reaped when Ne- 
groes finally sensed ihe hypocrisy and cowardice of their white al- 
lies. Front 1964 through ihe first half of 1968, Negro race riots, 11 
most of them in large Northern cities, accounted for 215 dead, 
8,950 injured, and $283 million in insurance claims. 12 The 1992 Los 
Angeles riot was (1m 1 biggest to date, costing upwards nf $1 billion and 58 
lives. Although not so reported in the media, the riots, a few of 
which could he more accurately described as insurrections, were 
not always mad, irrational acts of self-immolation. They could also 
be regarded as a well-conceived strategy of burning oul the mer- 
chants, especially Koreans, who in the view of ghetto residents had 
been gouging and overcharging them, 1 * Also not generally known 
was the fad thai the riots were not led by the pour or disadvan- 
taged, but by ihe higher-income, better-educated Negroes. 14 



li. Swedish sociologist Gumiar Myrdal, whose twowiurric integfauomst tract. 
An American thlemmn (1944), ignited the intellectual hist ol Black Power, pre- 
dicted noTurthei riots of any significant degree of violence hi the North." I lis cu- 
author, Arnold Rose, said in 1962 thai .ill formal segregation and discrimination 
would end in one decade and informal segregation would "decline to a shadow" 
in iwu. New York Ttmts Magazine. Dec, 7, 1969, p 152. 

l^. US Maus & World RepurLjafy \5, 1968, p. SI, Other outbursts ©("looting and kill- 
ing took place in ihe 1970s. The Miami riot, one of the bloodiest, occurred in M*H0. 

13. Ai the- <-iul of IWifl, ufiri several years of exposure to arson and looting, 39 
percent of lite stoics in ihe fifteen la-rgesi ghettos were still Jewish-owned. WaUSt. 
Journal, Dec. 51 , 1966, pp. I, 12 Black militants accompanied their attacks on Jew- 
ish business with occasional flare-ups of anti-Semitism. Will Maslow, then executive 
director of the American Jewish Congress reigned from CORE** Executive Com- 
mute after attending a ichool meeting i" Mount Vernon NT., in ihe course ol 
which a Nego educator stated dint Hiiler had not killed enough Jews. Most Jews 
were far loo committed to the Negro cause to cheer MaslnwN act Yaffe, op. ciL, p., 
261. It was noi until Negro leaders operify attacked Zionism in 1979, after Carter s 
dismissal of U.N, Ambassador Andrew Young for talking to a P.L.O. member, thai 
the rift in die black-Jewish alliance became a topic on ihe television evening news. 

14. Suspects iti die police lineup foftowlftg the 1968 Washington riots were found 
to be "amazingly respectable.* Moat had never been in trouble with &c law. More 
man halfwerc family men, VS News & World Hrptrrt. April 22, 1968, p. 29. 



224 



The Dispossessed Majority 



In 1969 black paramilitary cadres endeavoring to establish them- 
selves as the elite guard of racial revolution launched attacks 

against policemen, ambushing them in ghetto streets or gunning 
them down at poini -blank range when they stopped black militants 
for traffic violations. Armed Negro bands occupied buildings or 
classrooms of several colleges, held administrative officials and pro- 
fessors hostage, and wen- later amnestied after forcing tremulous 
presidents, deans, and faculties to bow to their demands. Other Ne- 
gro groups levied tribute on churches as "reparations'* for mis- 
treatment in the slavery era. 15 The sins of the fathers were being 
visited upon the children well Ix-yond the (bird and fourth gener- 
ations. Majority liberals and minority racists who could not abide 
Hitler's Nuremberg Laws were being asked to agree — and many 
did agree — to a moral law holding races accountable for acts com- 
mitted by individuals Kong since dead. 

When not attributed to the purposeful malevolence of "white ra- 
eism," 1 ' 1 black militancy is often explained as the expected and ex- 
cusable outgrowth of the Negro's low economic status. Reference is 
made to government statistics thai show the presence of a huge, 
growing black underclass. 17 Statistics for 1978, however, demon- 
strate black economic advances thai would have been unthinkable 
a lew decades earlier. Black entploymeni in the professional and 



15. "Hie* reparations issue has Iweji taken up by blaik congressman who intro- 
duced into ihe 1 [ou*r t>!' RrprrM-nlaLJws ! I,R. -10, a bill to establish a commission 
to recommend, among athcj things, Else .mioiuU of rrparalion* owed Negroes for 
the time theii amrsto'is sp^rn as slaves from colonial days until the passage of die 
lliii u-enfh Amen (hue nt 

16. White racism was specifically named as the thief villain in the plight of die 
American Negro by the government-sponsored Kmm Report (1967), compiled by 
Federal judge Olio Krrnrr wh*t, widi his former aswH-iate, Theodore Isaacs, was 
later found guilty of 'bribery, fraud, ami extortion. Time* Dec. 1^, 1971, p, 15, Such 
official denounce men is inrviuihiv intensify hatred of whiten as a group, which in 
turn hardens while feelings towards Negroes Malcolm X exemplified die end point 
of aroused racial hostility when he said of a plane crash thai killed some thirty 
white Americans, mostly from Atlanta, 1 ve just heard some ^hh\ news!* Auio- 
biiigraphy ofMakoIm X, p. 394. Such racial vehemence, of course, is not the sole 
property of Negroes. A similar strain was noticeable in the hue Ren lleclit who 
wrote he had a "holiday in his heart" every Drue a Zionist killed a British soldier 
New York Timu, May 20, MM 7. p. 1 . 

17. Nevertheless the Income of the average Negro family in the U.S, exceeds tbr 
income of the average Riitish hunilv. F.mmymisU London^ May 10, 1969, p 19- 



TME MINORITIES; ASSIMILATED AND UN ASSIMILATED 



technical fields rose to 8.7 percent (from 6.7 percenl in 1970). Me- 
dian income for working black women was $8,0*)?, compared to 
$8 t 672 for working white women. In clerical work black women were 
actually earning more than white women <$U>9 weekly vs. $105). 
Black high-school graduates were making 77 percent of the income 
of (heir while counterparts (up from 69 percent in 1967). Black 
college graduates were earning HO to 85 percent of "the income of 
while graduates (up from 54 percent in 1967). Two-income black 
families in the North and West were making more than two-income 
white families ($14,995 vs. $14,0:50 in 1974)."* Negro militancy, it 
turns out, is as much a function of Negro economic progress as it is 
of Negro deprivation. 

There is also an abundance of historical proof thai Negro vi- 
olence and Negro poverty have no strong causal links. No one can 
deny that the economic status of blacks was much worse in slavery 
and sharecropping eras than today, Vei in all thai time only three 
Negro revolts were known to have taken place, and even these were 
of Little consequence. The biggest was led by Nat Turner in South- 
hampton County, Virginia, in 1831. 11 this rather ignoble event- 
white deaths totaled ten men, fourteen women, and thirty-one rhil- 
dren — was the greatest explosion of Negro fury on the North 
American mainland in three centuries, it could be safety concluded 
drat blacks were not roused to violence hy WASP slave owners. 1 ' 1 

Elsewhere the Negro record was different. The French experience 
in Haiti, where the massacre of the white population was almost to- 
tal, and the recent war between Nigeria and Rialra, in which a mil- 
lion blacks died, hardly indicate a Negro proneness to pacifism. 
Nor does the 1994 intertribal bloodbath in Rwanda, where more 

1ft. Th*- Sunday Orrgonmn* Sept. 14, I960. These gams air oflset, of course, by 
high white— and higher black— ■unemployment ami hy the deteriorating social 
conditions of the ghetto Negro, In 1992, 67 percent of all black babies were born 
to unwed mothers. More than half the female-headed families lived below the pov- 
em line, As for black unemployed youth, some studies mdi< mc<\ tlwt if offered 
job*, a iarge numbei oJ young Negroes would either nun tlu-m down or would 
soon be fi\<-d for incompetence or absenteeism. 

19. Vwo of these three rebellions were betrayed by Negro household slaves. 
Each was inspired hv the French Revolution or hy appropriate pasties iujm UK- 
Old and New Testaments. FnuiUin Frazier, ThtNegrti in the Vmted Stria, Macaifflan, 
New York, 1957, pp. 87-91 



:>:•■, 



The Dispossessed Majority 



than 500,000 men, women and children were slaughtered. What is 
indicated, however, is thai Negroes are more likely lo revolt or riot, 
not when ihey are oppressed, but when they are stirred up by tribal 
fervor, racist speeches by black and white radicals, and Ix'ckoning 
opportunities for mass looting. 

An undeniable cause of black violence has been the weakening 
of white resistance. Throughout American history white supremacy 
has been a basic: premise of ihe country's social relationships. Even 
the most fiery abolitionists exuded die air of the Great White Fa- 
ther. In fact, white supremacy had such overwhelming acceptance, 
was so firmly entrenched and so thoroughly institutionalized that 
Negroes scarcely dared to criticize it, let alone lake more forceful 
measures. Today, however, white supremacy or to give it its modern 
name, white racism, is so debilitated thai Negro militancy is noi 
only possible but profitable. That ii would come to a hall once 
Negroes achieved both equal opportunity and equal results is tin 1 
purest form of wishful thinking. Who would be the judges? Black 
activists? Militant black politicians? And how are equal results to be 
measured? 

If Majority members would only comprehend thai the whole 
point, the whole drive, the very essence of minority racism is not to 
obtain equality but to obtain superiority, most of the misunder- 
sundings and misinterpretations of conicmporary Negro behavior 
would be avoided. Racism simply cannot be bough I off by token 
cabinet appointments, Supreme Court seuis, or racial quotas, In its 
dynamic stages racism can only be controlled or suppressed by su- 
perior force, a force most effectively provided by an opposing or 
countervailing racism. What is indisputable is that the one way not 
to stop Negro militancy is to reward it. 

There is no better evidence of the decline of the American Ma- 
jority Lhan the continuing successes of black racism. Negroes be- 
long to the most backward of the world's major races and to the 
most backward of America's large population groups. Nevertheless 
in the past few decades they have managed to erect a kind of state 
within a state and in the name of equality have achieved a kind of 
superequality which has led to the establishmeiu of a double stan- 
dard—one for themselves, one for whites— in the judicial educa- 
tional,, and economic sectors of Am eric an society. Thai what has 



If IE MINORITIES; ASSIMILATED AND UNASS1MILATED 227 

come to be known as affirmative action lias been accomplished so 
quickly is vivid confirmation of the power of racism. Negroes, as 
some of their own leaders will admit in private, have little else work- 
ing for them. Several theories have been advanced to account for 
Negro backwardness. One of the most publicized was put forward 
by Arnold Toynbee, whose monumental Study of History logs twenty- 
one civilizations, most of them created by white men, some by yel- 
low men, none by black men,* Toynhee explained the Negro's civ- 
ilizing deficiency by the theory of challenge and response. Sur- 
rounded by nature's bounty in the lush African tropics, the Negro, 
Toynbee postulated, only had to lift Ins hand to gather in his sub- 
sistence. With a minimum of challenge there was a minimum of re- 
sponse. Being, so to speak, spoon-fed by Mother Nature, the Negro 
was not sufficiently stimulated to develop his mental apparatus to 
its full potential. 21 

Another hypothesis, based on what die late A, L, Kroeber called 
cultural diffusion, asserted thai the Negro, having been shunted off 
tiie main track ol social progress by geography, suffered from lack 
of contact with other civilizations and consequendy was pro- 
grammed for enduring barbarism. A neater theory, so neat thai ii is 
practically unanswerable, states that the Negro's predicament is 
simply due to had luck, that the fate of all races is the result of 
nothing more than blind (fiance and historical accident, thaJ if for- 
tune had not been so kind to whites, they would still be living in 
caves, Siill another viewpoint, more rationalizing than rational, al- 
leges that the present condition of Negroes is due to a cleverly 
rigged while plot. White slave traders are blamed for deliberately 
wiping out thriving Negro civilizations in Africa, and the white em- 
pire builders who followed them are accused of transforming the 
surviving tribal states into sordid financial enclaves ami boss-ridden 
plantations. 

As expected, some or all of these conjectures have found favor 
with the environmentalist schools of social science* notwithstanding 
that they are loaded with non sequiturs, guesswork and racial ax- 
grinding, Toynbee's challenge and response hypothesis loses much 
of its credibility when it is recalled that many geographical zones 
occupied by African Negroes — such as the East African highlands— 



20. Vol 1 , p 2Sfc 21. Vol. 2, pp. 26-29. 



228 



The Dispossessed Majority 



are quite un tropical and similar in climate, flora and fauna to areas 
which produced some of Toyn bee's twenty-one civilizations. ?Sf With 
respect to the cultural diffusion theory, since great numbers of Ne- 
groes lived from time immemorial on the southern border of an- 
cient Egypt, they were consequently the most proximate of all peo- 
ples— ^just a short sail down the Nile — to one of the world's earliest 
and greatest civilizations. Given this head start, Negroes should be 
far ahead of other races in cultural attainments. As for the his- 
torical accident theory, all one can say is thai in 0,000 years Negro 
luck should have thanked at least once. 

Those who find genetic grounds for Negro backwardness seem 
to have a much stronger case than the l>ehavjorists and equ&Iitar- 
ians. They point to Carleton Coon's thesis thai the Negro race is 
younger in evolutionary grade than other tares, 25 They produce 
medical research to demonstrate that Negro infants have a faster 
maturation rale than white infants, just as animals have a faster 
maturation rate than human beings. In regard to figuration, supra- 
granular layer thickness and number of pyramidal neurons, they 
found the frontal lolx* and cortex of the brain are less developed in 
the Negro than in the white. 24 

Those who put more faith in genes than environment also sub 
mil a mass of documentation derived from decades of intelligence 
testing to show (hat the average I.Q. score of die Negro is from 15 to 
20 points below that of the white- 25 They refer to studies attributing 



22- It may have been disease, not insulin lent challenge, that has made the No 
gro so lritwtfir. Halt of all African blacks suffer &oro iicklc cell anemia, an en- 
demic malady that helps immunize them against rcrafcuia, but slows down hodLIy 
and men Lai Functions. Sickle cell anemia afflicts 50,000 Americans, most of whom 
are Negroes. 

23. Seep 1'.). 

24. For maturation rates, see Marcel le Cebcr, Tht Lancet, June I r> T 1957, Vol. 272, 
No. 6981, pp. 1216-1!). i«oi Ironial lobe and cortex studies, see C. J. Connolly! 
External MmphoU*^ „f the Primate Brain, 1930, Springfield, Illinois, pp. Mfi, 203-4; 
C. W- M. Pynter and J. J. Keegan, "\ Study of the American Negro Brain/ 1915; 
Journal of Gmparaihi AfaimftgjL Vol. 25, p P . 185*212; Ward C. Hal stead, Bminsand 
Intelligence, 1947, Chicago, p. 149; F W. Vim. The Brain of the Kenya Native," 
\W<\, journal of Aiuitom-i Vol. 68, pp. 216-23. 

25. Audrey M. Shuey, The. Testing of N* gn> Intelligence Social Science Press, 
New York. 1966. The hook analyzes 380 such tests accumulated over a forty-year 
|K'i ioiK 



THK MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UNASSIMII AT ED 220 



Consistent Negiro imderachievement in education to inherent learn- 
ing disabilities. 26 They juxtapose the emancipation of Negroes in 
the United States with the contemporaneous emancipation of the 
Russian serfs, contrasting the social mobility of the hitter's descen- 
dants to die prolonged post.slavery sluggishness of American blacks. 27 
They cite the success story of Chinese coolies who* upon their ar- 
rival in America, wen* as illiterate and penniless as postbellum Ne- 
groes and far less familiar with American ways. Nevertheless, they 
needed no more than a century to reach and exceed the median 
Income level. They quote Hegel, Conrad, Schweitzer, and Faulkner 
co suggest thai Negro differences are due to nature not nurture.- 8 

The upholders of heredity further substantiate their case by re- 
ferring to the Negro's political and cultural record. They point out 
thai neither in ihe Old World nor in the New has the Negro ever 
produced a system of government thai went one step beyond the 
most elementary forms of absolutism; that indigenous Negro so- 
cieties have left behind no literature, no inscriptions or documents, 
no body of law, no philosophy, no science — in short, no history. 
Even in those fields of art where Negroes have displayed some crea- 
tivity and originality, the ultimate effect, at least on the West, has 
been aniicultural — the contorted ugliness of modern painting and 
sculpture, the jungle screech of jazz and rock music, the grotesque 



26. The most notable of these studies are those of Or. Ai'ihui R.Jensen, who 
found thai white students had a "significantly grentri ability to giasp absii.u ( con 
cepu," See Chapter 20. 

27. Discussing the posterity of Russian serfs, Piuriin -Sorokin wrote, thev "yielded 
a considerable number of geniuses of the First degree, not to mention the eminent 
people of a smaller calibre . . , the American Negroes, have not up lo this time pro 
d<uced a single genhu of great calibre." (jnitentporary SoaoUigirai Theories, p. 29fij 
footnote 162. 

28. Hegel, Marx's pel philosopher, put blacks on a par with animals. VwUxungen 
iibtr die Phila.iitphie drr Gesehicht*. Stutlgart, 1971 , pp. "l 37—14 . For Conrad 5 illumina- 
tion of \\\e dark nannies of l he Negro psyche, see Henri &fD&*kjMS$. Schweitzer, 
who spem much of hta life in Africa, said die white man was the Negro s "elder 
brother." Me considered die average Negro a child, adding that "with childirn 
nothing can be done without the use of authority.* Pmuanu Rat? mui Utn.sim, p. ?('>, 
and Newsweek. April 8, 1963, p. 21 . Much as he liked and respected Negjroes, Faulk- 
ner said 'dial if amiwhite racial agitation increased he would lie forced to join his 
native staEe of Mississippi against the United! Stales and shorn Negroes in thi 
street. Reporter. March 22, 1956, pp. 18-10. 



230 



The Dispossessed Majority 



shuffling and weaving of the latest dance crazes. 

It would be superfluous to say lhat Negro intellectuals and their 
white partisans disagree with these biologically tilted arguments. In 
rebuttal, however, they are not above retouching history. The stone 
ruins of Zimbabwe in Southern Rhodesia are held up as proof tliat 
an ancient and sophisticated Negro civilization was in full flower 
when Europeans were groping their way through the Dark Ages. A 
little later the "kingdoms" of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai purport- 
edly inaugurated a golden age in West Africa, where two new 
emerging nations have been named in their honor. That the Zim- 
babwe stone "fortress** was probably built by Arab traders in the 
eleventh century with Hottentot labor should not be permitted t*> 
spoil a good legend In regard to Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, thov 
were founded by Hamiiic Berbers and Semitic Arabs and were noi 
in West. Africa, but locaied further east, 29 Actually the most evolved, 
all-Negro cultural enclaves were in western Nigeria and need no 
embroidered history by those who insist on measuring black ac- 
complishments by while standards. 

In an over/ealous attempt to raise Negro pride to the boiling 
point, one Ghanian historian has written that Moses and Buddha 
were Egyptian Negroes, that Christianity originated in the Sudan, 
and that the writings of Nietzsche, Bergson, Marx, and the Exis- 
tentialists were reflections of Bantu thought. In the same vein, ilu 1 
"original Hebrews" and St. Paul are described as black, and Spinoza 
is called a "black Spanish Jew" 50 The Nubian or 25lh dynasty, which 
appeared in the twilight of Ancient Egypt's history (730-663 B.C. ) , is 
taken as evidence that the brilliant Egyptian civilizations of the* Old 
and Middle Kingdoms were the work of blacks.* 1 To television audi- 
ences Cleopatra is sometimes depicted as a Negress, 32 and a black 
'Pf program Informed its viewers that a West African king sent a 



29. R. Gayre, "Nogrophilie Falsification of Racial History," TkeM&nkind Quarterfy 

Jan. -March, 1007, pp. 131-13. Also see "Zimbabwe" by die same author in Uic 
April-June, 1065, issue. 

30. Autobiogaphy o/Muhohu X, pp, [HO, 890, 

II . The Old Kingdom constructed forts to repel Nubians. The Middle Kingdom 
prevented die en try of "all bui slaves from Nubia. Darlington, The Evolution of Alan 
and Society, p. J21. 

32. Cleopatra was not even i thrive Egyptian, "bring by descent half-Greek and 
hall-Macedonian. "John Huchun, 4«tfutfi«, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1937, p. 77. 



II IF MINORITIES: ASSIMILATED AND UN ASSIMILATED 231 



hundred ships to South America 200 years before Columbus.* 3 As 
for U.S. history, Crispus Attacks, who may have been a Negro or may 
have been an Indian, has become a black hero, celebrated as the first 
patriot to give his life in the battle for American independence. 34 

Perhaps the mosi farfetched example of Negro historical re- 
visionism is I he version of (Genesis by Elijah Muhammad, the de- 
funct prophet of the Black Muslims, who asserts that 6,600 years 
ago, when al! men were Negroes, a black scientist named Yacub was 
exiled from Mecca with 59,999 followers. Embittered towards Allah, 
Yacub decided to create a devil race of *bleached-out whiles." Sci- 
entifically bred for blondness, Vacub's followers became, in suc- 
cessive 200-year stages, brown, red, yellow and finally "blond, paie- 
skinned, cold blue-eyed devils— savages, nude and shameless; hairy, 
like animals [walking] on all fours and [living] in trees."* Later 
these whites were rounded up by Negroes and sent to European 
caves where, after 2,000 years, Moses went to tame and civilize 
them. They then set forth to rule the earth for o.OOO years. The 
white interregnufa was scheduled to end when a savior, Master W. 
D. Fard, a half-white, half-black silk salesman, brought Allah's mes- 
sage and divine guidance to Elijah Muhammad in I93I, SS 

The gilding of die Negro past by religious and historical enthusi- 
asts throws little constructive light on the great debate ahout Negro 
racial differences, [f die environmentalists are correct, then Ne- 
groes ought to catch up with whites as soon as they are given equal 
political and legal rights, and equal educational and economic op- 
portunities. If, as the late Marshall McLuhan contended, the Negro 
is actually a superior bring, the time lag should be very short. 3f> Yet 



S3. From the program, Saul WNKT, Ni-w York, Aug, |1, 1W9. 

84, In the 1770 Boston massacre. Nrtv York Timr\ Magazine, April ?0, l ( .>f> ( .>, pp. 
33, i<HM it). 

35. Autobiography of Malcolm X f pp. KV1-o7. T[>on Klijah Muhammad's death his 
son, Wallace, inherited the leadership of the Blacfc Muslims and toned down the 

aiiirwhiu' rhetoric, 

3fi. McKuhan's racial theories give first place to the Indian as well as to the Ne- 
gro. The Canadian-born social critic has written, the "Negro and Indian . . . are ac- 
tually psychically and VH'iaMy superior to the fragmented, alienated and dis- 
associated man of Western civilization. ... It has tx-en the Bid fate of the Negro 
and the Indian to be . . . born -ahead ol rather than behind their rime. "Julius Ixster, 
Search fiw the New I and, Dial Press, New York, I n b9, pp. f>7-58. 



232 



The Dispossessed Majority 



every day the Negro problem increases in gravity. The more Ne- 
groes are helped, the more ihey seem to need help, and the louder 
they demand it. The more they process, the more America as a na- 
tion appears to retrogress. 

If, on the other hand, those who advance the genetic argument 
are right, then all the short-term gains Negroes have made in the 
last several decades will add up to a long-term disaster. Instead of 
trying to be the equals of whites, Negroes should try to be better 
Negroes. Instead of playing the white man's game with dice that he- 
redity has loaded against them, they should develop their own spe- 
cial talents in their own speeial ways. Negro frustrations, say the 
hereditarians, will only vanish when American Negroes lead a black 
rather than a white life. 

Some oi rhe most ardent support for the belief that Negro racial 
diflerences are so distinct as to make integration all but impossible 
ha* come from American Negroes themselves. Booker T. Washing- 
ton warned his people to accept segregation and to remain well 
apart from the main currents of white civilization." Marcus Garvev, 
who after World War 1 organized the first authentic Negro mass 
movement, derided the solution was to return to Africa, 58 Father 
Divine, although Mother Divine was a Canadian blonde, insisted OR 
moving his congregation into walled-off communities beyond the 
reach of white contamination. 

The most recent advocates of black separatism are Black Muslims 
ami a few blaek nationalist groups, who either demand a return to 
Africa or the establishment of one or more independent Negro 
states on American soil. But in aligning themselves with while 
fringe groups and hostile foreign regimes, black leaders are only 
compounding their troubles. 

The great, deterrent to black separatism is not the integrationisi 
aspirations of assorted black Marxists and black social climbers but 
the whole superstructure of modern liberal thought. If the notion 



37. "In liU things purely social," Washington said, 'W cm Ik- separate as the fin- 
gers, yet one as the hand in all tilings essential to mutual progress." Putnam, Rate 
and Reason, p. 90. 

3«. It is significant that Cai vey was a full-blooded Negro who directed his appeal 
in the blacker elements of die Negro population. He was an exception to the 
doubtful rule that the leaders of black movements must he nniLuuies, whose hy- 
brid status makes them ideal mediators between whites and Ncgrtx-s. 



11 IK. MINORITIES: ASSIMIi A1KL) AND UNASS1MII ATED 



233 



of racial equality is surrendered to separatism, which reo.ogniy.es 
and institutionalizes racial differences, environmemalism, behav- 
iorism, economic determinism, and even democracy itself would 
soon be called into question. The prevailing Western orthodoxies 
might then dissolve into thin air, and the occidental mind might 
have to set off on an entirely new path or find its way bark to an old 
one. 

Prom a political standpoint black separatism would be an over- 
whelming loss to the liberal-minority coalition. Racial separation of 
anv kind being not at all uncongenial to racially minded whites, it 
is not inconceivable that hard-pressed Majority mernl>ers, especially 
in the Deep South, together with harder-pressed Assimilable Minor- 
ity members in the nation's largest cities, would join black separ- 
atists in a pact to ft ee both whites and blacks from an integrationisi 
liberal administration in Washington. Also, if Negro separatism 
should ever become the order of the day, other Uuassiniilable Mi- 
norities might take the hint, leaving liberalism an ideology in 
search of a party. At the other extreme, total integration would deal 
an equally lethal blow to leftist political power by spelling the doom 
of all minorities and with thein present-day lilxMalism's principal 
mison d'etre}^ It is onlv in the boundary zone U-iween the segregat- 
ed and the integrated society, between reality and Utopia, that to- 
day's liberal feels truly at home. 

Because so much more is at stake than the fate of American Ne- 
groes, the liberal-minority coalition, abetted by a sizable contingent 
of so-called conservatives, presses forward with integration at all 
costs. As always, those who have the courage to air opposing views 
art! either ignored or subjected to instant character assassination. 

Rut while liberalism still rules the country's thinking in the mat- 
ter of social policy, it has little control over the organic processes of 
socieiv. As a tribesman, the Negro was a member of the tribal fami- 
ly. As a slave, he hail his master's family. As a sharecropper, he had 
his own family. As an industrial peon or one of the hardcore un- 
employed, he has no family at all, since the present welfare system 
provides financial sweeteners for fatherless households and for 



39. "What wr arrive at is dial ' integration,' socially, is no ^ood lor cither side. 
'Integration,' ultimately, would destroy the while rare . . . and destroy the hlatk 
race." Autobio^aphy n f Malcolm X, p. 27h. 



234 



The Disjxisse&scd Majority 



each illegitimate child. The upshot is that the urban Nej^ro has 
now reached an impasse where he has little left but his color and 
sense of oppression. Having lost his hearth, his roots, his religion* 
and his way, he is rapidly losing the few social commitments he still 
retains. 40 

The worst having been done, the more dynamic Negroes are de- 
manding redress, somewhat as undisciplined children who have 
lost their innocence might seek redress from parents who aban- 
doned them. To these demands whites have a choice of four re- 
sponses: oppression, which is immoral; 41 mutation without iiuer- 
marriage, which is impossible; integration with intermarriage, 
which is inconceivable; arid separation, which is impractical, 

Of these tour untenable courses of action the last, which would 
involve repatriation to Africa or the establishment of independent 
Negro communities tangential to white communities in states with 
large numbers of blacks, is perhaps the most nearly tenable. What- 
ever betides, the American Negro will sooner or later be out of his 
private wilderness, lie will either return io his Old World home- 
land or be assigned a homeland in the New, or there will be no 
homeland for anyone, white or nonwhitc, in Urban America. 



part v 



The Cultural Clash 



40. Charles Munay in Losing (.irtmnd (Basic Books, 198-1) has analyzed the fedfl* 
A programs which, he claims, led directly to the Negroes' contemporary plight. 

41. Ii is mudi km, bur tor die- tactics Tacitus put in the mouth of a Rom art gi-u- 

era] endeavoring lo suppress a revolt of the Gauls. "Nunc hostis, quia rnolle seivir- 
iiiiii; rum *poliati cxmjqoe fuerint, amicos Fore." Ilislmiarum, IV, Ivii. "Now they 
arc our memies because the burden of their servitude is light; when we have He- 
spoiled and su'ipjted them ihey will he our friends." 



CHAPTER 18 



The Dissolution of Art 



r ■ "* HE major tiikmk of Parts HV was the decline of the Majority 
-^- and [lie rise of the Unassimilated Minorities. The minor 
theme was ilie Majority-minority conflict itself, including the or- 
igins, motivations, and numbers of the combatants. The remainder 
of this study will examine the extension of this conflict into the 
realms of art, religion, education, politics, economies, law, and for- 
eign policy. This chapter, the first of three to deal with minority in- 
roads into the nation's culture, will l>e concerned with the artistic 
phase of the struggle. 1 In the dispossession of the Majority, it is the 
Majority artist who has beer) the greatest casualty. 

A basic assumption of contemporary Western thought is thai de- 
mocracy is the political form and liberalism the political ideology 
most generative of art The more there is of both, it is generally 
conceded, the greater will be the artistic outpouring, 1 x*l 1 1 quan- 
titatively as well as qualitatively. The corollary assumption is that 
once art has In-en lil>erated from the dead weight of caste, class, 
and religious and racial bigotry, its horizon will become limitless. 

Of all modern myths, perhaps this is the most misleading. If any- 
thing, art, or at least great art, seems to be contingent on two social 
phenomena poles apart from democracy and liberalism. They are: 

i. Gullinc is "a pursuit of out' total perfection by means of getting to know . . . 
the best which has been thought and said in the world; and through this knowl- 
edge, turning a stream of fresh and free thought upon our stuck notions and hab- 
its, which we now follow staunchly but mechanically, vainly imagining thul there is 
a virtue in following them staunchly, which makes up for die mischief of following 
them mechanically." Matthew Arnold, Culture and Anarchy, Cambridge University 
Press, F.ngland, 1961 , p. 6. 



Til 



238 



The Dispossessed Majority 



(1) a dominant, homogeneous population group which has resid- 
ed long enough in the land to raise up from its ranks a responsible 
and functioning aristocracy; 2 (2) one or more schools of writers, 
painters, sculptors, architects, or composers who belong to this 
population group and whose creative impulses crystallize the tastes, 
tone, and manners of the aristocratic leadership into a radiating 
culmral continuity. 

Few will dispute that the societies of Homeric Greece, Augustan 
Rome, Medieval Western Europe, Elizabethan England, sixteen* h- 
and seventeenth-century Spain, Louis XlV's France, Mozart's Vien- 
na, Goethe's Weimar, and nineteenth-century Russia had an aris- 
tocratic base. Few r er will dispute that great art was produced in 
i hese societies. 9 But what of Athens, scene of the most magnificent 
artistic efflorescence of all time, and of Florence, with the highest 
per capita genius o£ die Renaissance? Did not these i iiv states lack 
;t nuhiliiv or formal aristocracy? Is it not true that neither Pericles 
DOT CosintQ de' Medit i was a printer 

Before any conclusions are reached, these two cities and their 
two greatest statesmen should be placed in a sharper historical, fo- 
cus. If Athens was the glory of Greece, the Age of Pericles — 
artistically speaking — was the glory of Athens, tn 433 B.C., rwo years 
before the death of Pericles, the adult male population of Athens 
consisted of 50*000 citizens, 25,000 rnetics or resident aliens, and 
55,000 slaves. 4 Since the slaves had few or no rights, since nu-tics 
and women could not vole, and since citizenship was limited to 
those with Athenian parents on both sides, one historian, Cyril 
Robinson, has described Athens as "an aristocracy of a half-leisured 



2. Aristocracy is here meant to designate the iulc of the well-bom, li-. nieanfcifi 
is not rest! irU'd 10 families ol high s* >r i n I standing or to the products of one or two 
^riu-iLiijons ot poliiirnl or financial preeminence. Ai istocpata of the latter sort can 
1* found in all siau-s, including proletarian and phuofiaiic socieuea. l\n those 
convinced there is an unbridgeable gap between aristocracy and freedom, Alexis 

de Vol <|iit:vill<- WFQtS ihr following WCH els of 'caution: "|jaimi EOUICS les SOcieiCS <Jti 
inondr, relies t|iii amoiu toujour.* le plus dr peinr a echapper pendant longtempi 
au gouverneuirni abselu soiont precisement ces secretes ou raratocratie n'est 
plus et ne pent plus e"ire. w L'anarn regime ft la reitoiuiion. Michel Levy Fiere-*, Paris, 
L856, p. xvj 

3. Great art in this context is considered timeless, not dated; great artists to be 
creative, not interpretative geniuses. 

1. (lyiil Robinson, A History of Crecce, Barnes & Noble, New York, 1 857, p. 83, 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



239 



class. "* This aristocracy, of which Pericles wa£ a prominent member, 
traced its ancestry hack to the Trojan Wan 5 

In regard to Florence, one should not lx* surprised 10 Irani that 
its 1494, when the city's most liln-ral constitution was in force, there 
were not more than 3*200 citizens out of a total population of 
90,000. 7 From Dante*s day until the rise of the Medici, with the ex- 
ception of a few brief attempts at popular government by the mer- 
chants and guilds, Florence was largely the political plaything of 
two rival aristocratic factions, ihe Gttelphs (pro-pope) and the Glu- 
be ilines (pro-emperor). As for Cosimo de* Medici, the patron of 
Donatella, Ghiherti, Brttnclleschi, and Luca della Robbia, he could 
pride himself on a lineage that stretched back through ten genera- 
lions of Florentine history. Though Cosimo himself shunned titles, 
cardinals, princes, reigning dukes, and even two popes later bore 
Lite Medici name. 

If Florence and Athens are admitted to be semi-aristocracies or 
at least aristocratic republics, it is evident that all the great artistic 
epochs of the West have taken place in aristocratic societies. There 
has been art in non-aristocratic societies, often good art, but never 
anything approaching Greek sculpture and drama, Gothic cathe- 
drals. Renaissance painting, Shakespeare's plays, German musk, or 
Russian novels. 

The mere existence of an aristocracy does not guarantee great 
ait. It has to be a vital aristocracy with its attitudes, manners, and 
ways of life (irmly imprinted on the society in which it functions, It 
need not he, in (act it should not he, loo wealthy More important 
is the possession of a cultural conscience, plus the leisure and will 
to express this conscience in the form of art. To the artist, an au- 
tocracy is of immense practical value because it provides a cultivat- 
ed and discriminating audience to keep him on the creative qui 
vive, as well as a sense of refinement and a set of critical standards 
that are both a model and an incentive for the highest quality of ar- 
tistic craftsmanship* 

Paradoxically] relations between artist and patron are generally 



5 Ibid., p. 82. 

6. 11k' mother oi IVrii los was d<->ivndct\ horn am ancient Athenian family, the 
Alcmaconidac, and his father was a victorious naval tTommaiuU i. 

7. Pasquale Vittari, Lifeund Times QjMazfti&velli. Fisher, Utiwin, Uunlon, p. 1. 



240 



The Dispossessed Majority 



more "democratic 7 * in an aristocracy than in a democracy. 8 The aris- 
tocrat, having both by birth and upbringing acquired an easy fa- 
miliarity with art, is quite at home in the company of artists and 
generally makes a practice of seeking them out. The self-made man, 
on the other hand, no matter how high he climbs in politics or 
business, can never quite shed his native philistinism. He may take an 
interest in art, often surreptitiously to avoid accusations of cfT'erni- 
nacy, but he will always have difficulty moving freely in artistic circles. 

The close alliance between art and aristocracy is also advanta- 
geous to the artist in that it facilitates personal acquaintance with 
many of the leading men of his day. Aristotle tells us thai tragedy 
only really succeeds when it concerns the fall of a great or noble 
man — a theory still uncontradicted by the most valiant efforts of 
libera] and Marxist dramatists. History or current events may pro- 
vide names and plots, but only close contact with the ruling strata 
of his time furnish the playwright who tackles high tragedy with the 
meal and sinew of believable portrayal and characterization. 

That great artists must belong to the dominant population group 
of a nation seems to be as unassailable as the law that great art 
grows l^est in aristocratic soil A racial and cultural background sim- 
ilar to that of his patron makes it possible for the artist to avoid the 
usual psychological and social hurdles that often slow or break 
down communication between members of racially and culturally 
differentiated human groups. 

The fatal flaw that denies the minority artist a place among the 
artistic great is his inherent alienation. Because he does not really 
belong, because he is writing or painting or composing for "other 



8. Periclcf, Augustus, and the Medici freely mixed with the great aiEuta of their 
time. Vii£i! ivad Augustus his completed Gtorgicsan the latin "* reiui n from Egypt 
in 30 B.C. Tlw meeting was momentous because Virgil's lines may have revived Au- 
jrtisiusMatem Italianism. Btichan, Augu&ttu, p. 124. Lincoln, beyond a brief hand- 
shake at a White House reception, never met Melville. Raymond Weaver, Herwtn 
MfhHIU, Pageant Books, N.Y. r 1961, p. 575. Nor did Fnmkliu IV Roosevelt ever 
mwl Faulkner or T. S. Uliot. John F. Kennedy may have bestowed a few minutes of 
friendship on Robert Fttost, but this could hardly be compared to the attention 
Louis XIV lavished on Racine and Mohere. At one time the Sun King acted as "ad- 
vance man" for Racine's Fist her and actually played a role in one of Moliere'a pro- 
ductions. Karine, Theatre c&mpUt, Edition Gamier FreMes, Paris, I960, p. 598; H. C. 
Chut field-Taylor, Molirre. Duffield, New York, 1906, pp. 189-00, 



THE CULTURAL CIASH 



41 



people," he pushes a little too hard, raises his voice a little loo high, 
makes his point a little too desperately. He is, inevitably, a bit outre 
— in the land, (nil noi of the land. His art seems always en- 
cumbered by an artificial dimension — the proof of his belonging- 9 

in a non-aristocratic, heterogeneous, fragmented society, in an 
arena of contending cultures or subcultures, the minority artist 
may concentrate on proving his "non-belonging." Instead of adopt- 
ing the host culture, lie now rejects it and either sinks into nihilism 
or returns to the cultural traditions of his own ethnic group. In the 
process his art becomes a weapon. Having sacrificed his talent to 
immediacy and robbed it of the proportion and subtlety which 
make an art, the minority artist not only lowers his own artistic 
standards, but those of society as a whole. All that remains is [he 
crude force of his stridency and bis "message. " ie 

Perhaps the clearest proof of the art-building and art-nourishing 
qualities of aristocracy and racial homogeneity can be found in the 
history of (hose nations which have, passed through both aristocrat- 
ic ami democratic, homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. It was 
not in the First, Second, Third, or Fourth French Republic thai the 
cathedrals of Chartres and Rheimswere constructed, but in feudal 
France, when there was a dominant ethnic group (the Teutonic) 
and the structure of society was aristocratic The highest flights of 
English genius look place in the reigns of absolute, not constitu- 
tional, monarchs — well l>efore the English were absorbed in the en- 
larged and more heterogeneous citizenry of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland. The Rome of Augustus, who favored 
and enriched the patricians and heaped restrictions upon ple- 
beians, non-Romans, and slaves, brought forth the Golden Age of 
Latin literature. The Rome of Caracalla, who in A.D 21 1 extended 



0. A lew examples th;a come quickly to mind are Heine's super-romanite Ger- 
man lietlcr, Mendelssohn's thumping Christian hymns, Kl deco's hyperbolic 
Spanish landscapes and elongated holy men, Jakob Wasscrman's souped up Chris- 
tian W'ahnschafj?, Siegfried Sassoon's synthetic Memoirs of a Fox-Ihmting Man, and 
Rodgers ami 1 lammcrstein's totally counterfeit Oklafumui. For a belie i under- 
standing of the: liiMrienee rwtweeu tile authentic and the inaulhenlie in ail, com 

pare. Goethe's Faust witli 1 teine'a Doklor Faust 

M) Examples of cofttemporstfy minority stridency are the music of Darius Mil- 
baud, the se«lplure of Jacques Upchil/. the poetry of Allen Ginsberg, and the 
plays* of [ .i-Roi Jones. 



242 



The Dispossessed Majority 



citizenship to all the free inhabitants of the Roman Empire, left lit- 
tle of artistic consequence. The Spain of Philip II, III, and IV, with 
all its religious bigotry and inquisitional zeal, was the era of Cer- 
vantes and Galderon, artists of a caliber that were not to be found 
in more liberal eras of Spanish history, Dostoyevsky and Tolstoy, the 
culmination of Russian literary genius, flourished under the czars, 
not minority commissars. 

Liberal dogma to the contrary, such popular goals as universal 
literacy are not necessarily conducive to great literature. The Eng- 
land of Shakespeare, apart from having a much smaller population, 
had a much higher illiteracy rate than present-day Britain. 11 Nor 
does universal suffrage seem to raise the quality of artistic output 
When Bach was K&nzertmeisierin Weimar and composing a new can- 
tata every month, no one could vote. Some 220 years later iti die 
Weimar Republic there were tens of millions of voters, but no Bachs. 

Great drama, which usually incorporates great poetry, is the rar- 
est form of great art. Art critics and historians have been at some 
loss to explain why great plays have appeared so infrequently in his* 
lory and then only in clusters — fifth-century (B.C.) Athens, late six- 
teenth- and early seventeenth-century England, seventeenth-cen- 
tury Spain and France. The answer may be that conditions for 
great drama are only ripe when artist and audience are in bio- 
logical as well as linguistic rapport. Such rapport, unfortunately, is 
bound to be short-lived because the era of great drama is usually 
accompanied by large-scale economic and material advances which 
tend to soften national character, sharpen class divisions* and at- 
tract extraneous racial and cultural elements from abroad. To the 
great playwright a heterogeneous or divided audience is no audi- 
ence at all. 

Not only high art but all art seems to stagnate in an environ- 
ment of brawling minorities, diverse religions, clashing traditions, 
and contrasting habits. This is probably why, in spile of their vast 
wealth and power, such world cities as Alexandria and Autioch in 



11. Literacy here signifies the dimple ability tfl read and write, The rich lan- 
guage of Elizabethan literature and drama would indicate uSai if fewer people 
could write in those times, those able to write wrote much better than con- 
t«:niporary Englishmen, Even die "illiterates* of that day seemed Lo have a deeper 

appreciation and beater understanding of literature than Uieir Iiterair successors. 



1'HK CULTURAL CLASH 



245 



ancient times and New York Gty and Rio de Janeiro in modern 
Limes have produced nothing thai can compare to the art of mu- 
nicipalities a fraction of their size. The artist needs an audience 
which understands him — an audience of his own people. The- anisi 
needs an audience to write up to, paint up to, and compose up 
to — an aristocracy of his own people. These seem to he the trvo sine 
qua nous of great art. Whenever they are absent great art is absent. 

How else can the timeless art of the "benighted" Middle Ages 
and the already dated art of the "advanced" twentieth century be 
explained? Why is it that all the cultural resources of a dernii't ai 
superpower like the United Stales cannot produce one single mu- 
sical work that can compare with a minor composition of Mozart? 
Why is it that perhaps die greatest contribution to Lwoniielh- 
tvntury English literature has been made not by the English, Amer- 
icans, Australians, or Canadians, but by the Irish — the most nation- 
alistic, most tribal, most religious and most racially minded of all 
present-day English-speaking people. Modern England may have 
had its 1). 11. Lawrence and the United States its Faulkner, but only 
Ireland in this century has assembled such a formidable literary ar- 
ray as Yeats, Synge, Shaw, Joyce, O'Casey, Elizabeth Boweu, Paul 
Vincent Carroll, Joyce Carey, and James Stephens. If, as current 
opinion holds, liberal democracy, internationalism, and cultural 
pluralism enrich the soil of art, then these Irish artists bloomed in 
a very unlikely garden. 

The historical sequence of human communities seems lo be 
race-building, nation-building, art-building, and empire-building. 
As the country moves < loser to imperialism, the people move far- 
ther apart. The binding forces ofthe state are weakened by war, civ- 
il si rife, and entropy, as the cultural shell is penetrated by outsiders. 
The aristocracy withdraws into an isolated decadence, its place tak- 
en by a plutocracy, Members of the once dominant population 
group mix with the newcomers and in order to compete are forced 
lo adopt many of their habits. Art becomes multiracial, multi- 
national, multidirectional, and multifarious. 

Much of Western art, particularly in the United States, is now in 
such a stage of dissolution. The surrealist painters, atonal jazz mu- 
sicolgists, prosaic poets, emetic novelists, crypto-pornograp Iters, 
and revanchist pampheleteers say they an 1 searching for new forms 



244 



The Dispossessed Majority 



because the old forms are exhausted. Actually they are exhuming 
the most ancient forms of all — simple geometric shapes, color 
blobs, drum beats, genitalia, four-letter words, and four-word sen- 
tences. The old forms are not exhausted. The minority artist simply 
has no feeling for (hem, for they are not his forms. Since style is 
not a commodity that can he bought or invented, the avant-garde,, 
having no style of its own, can only retreat to a styleless primitivism. 

The dissolution of art is characterized by the emergence of the 
lake artist 12 — the man without talent and training who becomes an 
artist by self-proclamation and self-promotion. He thrives in a lis- 
siparous culture because ir is child's play to bemuse the artistic sen- 
sibilities of the motley wmvmux rich.es, assorted culture vultures, sex 
ually ambivalent art critics, and minority art agents who dictate the 
levels of modern taste. It is not. so easy to deceive those whose suuid- 
ards of taste were developed in the course of generations. 

In a homogeneous society the artist has to contend with fewer 
sets of prejudices. He does not have to weigh and balance his an in 
order to be "fair." He need not be mortally afraid of wounding the 
religious and racial feelings of others. Though his instincts, opin- 
ions, and judgments often add up to bias, to the artist himself they 
may be the driving forces of his creativity. What reallv limits and de 
vitalizes art are not the artist's prejudices but his audience's prej- 
udices, an infinite variety of which exists in avast heterogeneous so- 
ciety like the United States. The artist has trouble enough with one 
censor. When he has twenty his art is transformed into a day-nvday 
accommodation. 

Aristocracies have been sharply criticized for freezing common- 
ers into castes and classes. Yet artists almost cenainly stand a brtter 
chance in a state directed by a cultivated nobility than in one di- 
rected by a congress of Babbitts. By no means to the manor born, 
Horner, Virgil, Dante, Chaucer, Michelangelo, Shakespeare, Cer- 
vantes, Moliere, Mozart, Beethoven, Wagner, and Dostoyevsky man- 
aged to acquire enough social mobility in aristocratic societies to 
climb to the summit of artistic perfection. How rnanv of tln-sc 



12. The fake artist is not unrelated to the antiartist— the ivjk; of individual who 
blew up The Thinker outside the Cleveland Museum in the spring of 1070. If was 
one of the eleven castings made under die personal supervision of R, K lin New 
York Times, ]\\\y 17, 1970. 



■niK(;UI.TUR,M,(UASH 



24fi 



geniuses would have ln*en ilattcned by the leveling pressures oi late 
twentieth-century America is an open question. 

Arisroc racies have been attacked for stultifying art, even though 
artists working in or believing in tradition-oriented societies have 
made many more artistic breakthroughs than soidisant liberal or 
progressive artists. Aristophanes, who revolutionized comedy, Wag- 
ner, who revolutionized music, Dostoyevsky, who revolutionized the 
novel, and T. S, Eliot, who revolutionized rftodem poetry, 1 '' were 
certainly not liberals. The proletarian or ecjualitarian artist, on the 
other hand, hardly goes beyond photographic naturalism or child- 
ish doodling- — the mandatory tractor art of the late Soviet Union, 
and the op art, pop art, and spray-paint art of the Tree world. " u 

No great art ever emerged from isolation and no great artists 
ever sprang full blown from the forehead of Zeus, (ireat artists are 
the products of schools of art. Their works are the peaks rising 
above a high cultural plateau. "First families," whose attitudes and 
tastes have l>een shaped by centuries of participation in the higher 
reaches of" national life, are not merely content to collect old art. 
They keep schools of artists busy elaborating and improving on 
what has been done before — the surest approach to artistic evolu- 
tion. Conversely the present-day ragtag collection of scmilitcraie 
millionaires, who speculate in art as they would in copper or cattle 
Futures/* spend their money OH old masters and "name" artists 
whose works can be resold at a handsome profit or given away in 
order to obtain a handsome tax deduction, With no more demand 
for continuity in art, schools of artists soon disappear, to be replaced 



13. Compare the stai tlingly new effect oi the poetiy <>f Kliol, who declared him- 
sclt a royalist and Anglo Catholic, with the almost classical verse of the t>c-st work 
oi ilit: I'ieiu li Marxist poet, l.ouis ArfttOn. William Butler Yeats, the other great 
port of modern times, can hardly be described as a leftist. 

14. The painting of a (lumplx-11 Soup can by Andy Warhol, a Polish-American 
homosexual, was sold for $60,000 at a New York City auction in 1970, and increas- 
ed in price thereafter. The late British art critic, I Icrlx-ri Read, owned two paint- 
ings by a couple of chimpanzees who, he explained, allowed "their brushes lo be 
guided by instinctive gestures, just like die action painters of America." Times Liter- 
ary Supplement, Aug. 28, 1070. 

15. Regarding Joseph Hindi horn, the uranium king, James YalTe wrote, "When 
he likes the. painter's work, he often buys it in bulk and insists on a reduction iu 
the price, just like any garment manufacturer buying fabrics." Yaffe, The American 
Jrws, p. 233. 



246 



The Dispossessed Majority 



by artistic cliques. 16 The arbiter of taste is no longer the art lover, 
but the ait dealer. 17 Ait is transformed into artiness. 

The patterns of artisLie growth and dec line outlined in the pre- 
ceding paragraphs have already snuffed out most of tin 1 < rcaiivily 
of Majority artists. Today the Jewish American wi hes of the Jew and 
his heritage, the Negro of the Negro, the Italian American of the 
Italian, and so on. But of whom does the American American, the 
Majority writer, write? Of Norciirs and Anglo-Saxons? If he did and 
if he portrayed them as fair-haired heroes, he would be laughed 
out of modern American literature. Consciousness of one's people, 
one of the great emotional reserves, one of the great artistic stim- 
ulants, is denied the Majority artist at the very moment the minor- 
ity painter, composer and writer feed upon it so ravenously. Besides 
its Other psychological handicaps, this one-sided selective censor- 
ship obviously builds a high wall of frustration around the free play 
of the imagination. 

Aware or unaware of the forces working against then), many Ma- 
jority artists have fled abroad to seek the cultural kinship they miss 
at home. Stephen Crane died in Kngland. Kliot became a British 
citizen. Robert Frost was first discovered and published while living 
in the Sceptred Isle. Pound, who probably exercised more iniluence 
on modern English literature than anyone, settled down in Rapallo, 
Italy, where he dabbled in right-wing politics. Hemingway moved to 
France, Italy, Spain, Africa and Cuba, before committing suicide 



16. Picasso, often considered the greatest, twenlieirnreiUuiY painter, is alleged to 
have said this about his role in modem art: "I am only a public rnienainei who 
has understood his times and has exhausted as best he could die imbecility, die 
vanity, die cupidity of his contemporaries. Mine is a bitter confession, more pain- 
ful than it may appear, but it has die merit of being sincere." Whether Picasso real- 
ly uttered these words has not l>een verified. Nevertheless, Life, al a time when it 
was America's largest-circulation magazine, atlributed diem to Picasso (Dec. 27, 
I9b8, p, 134). Also see IHca\.so t Order and Destiny by Michael HuIBngtctft 

17. Frank Lloyd, an oil entrepreneur from Vienna, operated a chain of art gal- 
leries in London, Rome, and New York, which in the art world stood out "like U.S. 
Steel [in] a community of blacksmiths." A competitor said of Mr. IJoyd, who does 
not collect pictures liimself', "he might as well l*e in rhe used car business. . . ." 
Wall Slwet Journal, Dec, 31,1908, pp. I, 10. When last heard of, LJoyd was a fugitive 
horn justice living in the Bahamas. For the art rackets of Bernard Berenson and 
Lord Duveen, both of whom happened to Ik: Jewish, see Colin Simpson, The Part- 
nership, Ikxlley Head, London, 1987. 



II IE CULTURAL. CLASH 



l 247 



in Idaho. Thomas Wolfe- and F, Scon Fitzgerald spent many of their 
most creative years abroad. Filially returning home, both met early 
deaths that were either helped along or brought about by alcohol 
poisoning. Film gonitis D.W. Griffith was another casualty of 
the bottle. 

Some Majority artists tried to escape the dilemma uf deradna- 
tion by a form of spiritual emigration. Poet Robert Lowell, of rhe 
Boston Lowells who spoke only to the Cabois. convened to Roman 



me 



Catholicism. Others took mote desperate measures. Hart Cr 
a poet of promise, jumped off a ship and drowned in the Car- 
ibbean. '•' Ross Lot kridge, Jr., wrote an excellent first novel, Itciintnw 
(iounty, then shut his garage door, got in his car, and started the en- 
gine> MJ Thomas Ileggen, another young author who learned the 
hollowness of success in an alien society* wrote Mixtzr Roberts and 
then took an overdose of sleeping pills in a rented New York apart- 
ment. 21 F. O. Maitliiesen, a brilliant modern liierary critic, heard 
the siren wail of communism and leapt to his death from a KosLou 
hotel room. 2 ' 2 W. ). Cash, a Carolina-born essayist with ;i line in- 
telligence, lambasted his native South to the delight of liberal crit- 
ics, but apparently not u> his own delight. I le was found hanging by 
his necktie in the bathroom of a hotel in Mexico City, 23 Other tal- 
ented Majority writer* retreat to the sterilities and barbarities of 



Us. Ttm^Jniu- 17, I*»fi. r i,p. **>. 

14, New York 7/ffi/s April ?x, 1932, p. 1. 

W. Nrru Yink ftmrs, March 8, HMH, p. |, Oilier majority writers who Look thc:ir 
own lives: poets John Berry man and Sylvia PUth; I-urcl (loldsborongh, Tim? for- 
eign affairs writer; Parker Lloyd-SmiUi, genius of Fortune. 

l Jl . New Ywh Times, May 20, 1**10, p. 1. 

22. Time, April 10, 1950, p. 43. Another gifted writer who heard the aim: song 
and who perhaps symbolized better ihan anyone the tragic tale of ihe Majority ari- 
isl in a niinoi ilv-obsessed so* rely was Howard Rushniore. A tcnrh-grm-ralion 
American born in South Dakota, Rushmore first wrote for the Daily Wmtter, even- 
tually losing his job for refusing to inject. Negiophile sentiments in his film re- 
views. He then switched to ant.i-Ckmiinunist bombast tor Hearst newspaper*. (Us 
last job was with the lilwlous gossip magazine, Oyiifidential, for which, unbe- 
knownst to himself and to his publisher, he wrote some of the finest satire in 
American literature. In 1958 he shot and killed himself and his wire in the hack 
seal of a laxieab. Newsweek, Jan. 13, 1958, pp. 19-20. 

2:1. W.J. Cash, The Mind oj the South, Knopf, New York, 1941. Also see Joseph I.. 
Morrison, W.J. Cm*, Knopf, New York, 1967, p. 131. 



248 



The Dispossessed Majority 



college campuses where they avoid the problem of content by con- 
ctniniting on form, in a hopeless and fruitless attempt to separate 
the inseparable. 

All Majority artists necessarily experience the wrenching depres- 
sion that comes from enforced cultural homelessness. Of all people 
the artist is the least capable of working in a vacuum- Prevented 
from exercising his own "peoplehood," the Majority artist looks for 
substitutes in minority racism, in exotic religions and Oriental 
cults, in harebrained exploits of civil disobedience, in African and 
pre-Columbian art, psychoanalysis, narcotics, and homosexuality. 
On the latter subject Susan Sontag, the noted Jewish pundit had 
this to say: 

Jews and homosexuals are the outstanding creative minorities 
in contemporary urban culture. Creative, that is, in tlu- truest 
sense: they are creators of sensibilities. The two pioneering 
forces of modern sensibility are Jewish moral seriousness and 
homosexual aesthetics and irony. '^ 

George Steiner, a Jewish pundit, couldn't agree nunc: 

Judaism and homosexuality (most intensely where thry over- 
lap, as in a Promt or a Wittgenstein) tan be seen to have 
l>een the two main generators of the entire fabric and savor 
of urban modernity in LheWest**^ 

The ban on displays of Majority edinocentrism in art — a ban 
written in stone in present-day American culture — also reaches 
back to the Majority cultural past. Chaucer and Shakespeare have 
Ix'i'ti cut and blue-penciled, and some of their work put on the mi- 
nority index. 20 The motion picture of Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist 



24. Susan Sontag, "Notes on Camp* in Against Inter ptetatttm, DeH, Ww \hvY, 
19*19, pp. S9I££ 

S5. George Strinrr, "The Cleric of Treason," New Yorker, Der. ft, I960, p. ISO. 

2b. After the New York Board of Rabbis protested the television showing of the 
Merclutnt of Venice , it was removed from the English curriculum ol New Yen k City 
high schools. Time, June 29, 1962, p. 32. An ABC television presentation hi The 
Merchant of Venice (Nov. Hi, 107-1) ended with Rachel turning away from her hus- 
band's house as a Jewish cantor Stnga in the background. Shakespeare had her 
walking into [he house. A 1941 Simon and Schuster edition of Chaucer's Canter- 
bury Tales appeared with I foreword by Mark Van Doren, but wilhoul l he Prioresses 
Tale, which recounts ■ heinous murder commuted bv Jew*. Olx-iauimrrgau's 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



249 



had a hard time being released t>eranse of the recognizably Jewish 
trails of Fagin. 27 The masterpiece of American silent films. The 
Birth of a Nation, can no longer be shown in public without the 
threat of picket lines, while Jewish-produced black "sexploitation" 
films like Mandinga (1975), replete with the crudest racial slurs 
against whites, are exhibited nationwide. Huckleberry Finn was re- 
moved from the library — of all places — of the Mark Twain Inter- 
mediate School in Virginia. 2fi 

Henry Miller's 'Tropic q) '' Capriwrn w?*s attacked by millionaire: nov- 
elist Leon Uria as "anti-Semitic." 2 '* Southern high-school and col- 
lege bands have been forbidden to play Dixie at public gatherings. 
Kven nursery rhymes and Stephen Foster's songs are being re- 
written and bowdlerized.™ A private school in Chicago actually 
changed the title of the theatrical performance of Snow White to 
lYincrss of the Woods for fear of being Recused of racism. Meanwhile 
a tjreleM, clandestine literary vendetta is slill being waged against 
such Lowering modern writers, composers, and scholars, both 
American and European, as Kliot, Dreiser, Pound, Toynbee, Ernst 
Jringcr, D. H. Lawrence, Celine, Roy Campbell, Wyndham Lewis, 
Kipling, Kiuit Hamsun, Fran/ I.ehar, and Richard Strauss. Their 
crimes have been to have let slip some chance remark, written some 

I'nssion Play, a fixture of Kuropcan culture since 16^4, has been under constant at- 
lack by the American Jewish Congress for iLs "notoriously anti-Semitic text. In 19K0 
organized tours Lo the play tor servicemen stationed in West (iermany were tor- 
bidden by the Secretary uf the Army. 

27. The Saturday Reinrw ofUteiaturt, Keb. 2b, 1949, pp. 910. 

SB. The 1'hiladelpia Board of Education banished Huckleberry Finn from the 
city's public school system and replaced it by I version in which all derogatory ref- 
erences lo Negroes were deleted. Saji Frartnsco Chronicle, This World, May 27, 19f>2, 
p. 16 and April 27, 19o;i,p.K. 

29. t*X Angeles Times, Keb. lb, 1962, letter Section. Ibis's attack was p;u tit ula.i ly 
ungracious because he is the minority racist writer par excellence. His bestseller, E» 
otius, cheering the Israeli conquest of Palestine, is fifth-rale Kipling. 

SO. In My Old Kentucky Home, the state anthem of Kentucky, such expressions as 
"Mussa," "Darkies," and "Mammy" have been carefully deleted. The Viiginia state 
anUieiu, C&rvy Me Back to Old Virginny, has been attacked by a Negro state senator 
as "abhorrent, to his race." One Southern congressman lias predicted, not alto- 
gether facetiously, that minority lobbying will eventually bring about the renaming 
of the White House. US News 6> World Repent, Aug. 9, 1957, p. 4. l i and New Ycnk 
Times, March 2, 1970, p. 2H. 



The Dispossessed Majority 



poem* 31 novel or essay, joined, or at least not opposed, some polit- 
ical movement offensive to one or more minorities. Needless to re- 
port thai there has been no noticeable counter-vendetta of Major* 
ity literary critics against artists who indulge in minority rat ism. 

It might he added at this point that practically all the leading 
conductors, musicians, and operatic performers who remained in 
Germany or performed in Germany during World War II were vic- 
tims of Jewish boycotts after the war came to an end. The list in- 
cludes: Wilhehn Furtwangier, Herbert von Karajan, Walter Giese- 
king, and Klisabeih Schwarzkopf.^ Perhaps the most bigoted cen- 
sorship was exercised by refugee academicians who for years suc- 
cessfully "shut out" or demeaned Martin Heidegger, one of the 
most original and disturbing thinkers of the modern era, They only 
permitted the ideas of the German philosopher to seep through in 
the thinncd-down and mimetic adaptations of Sartre. 

To return to the main theme of this chapter, the power and sus- 
tenance that an artist derives from being part of a racially and cul- 
turally homogeneous community helps explain the success of Wil- 
liam Faulkner, the one first-rate Majority writer who survived both 
as an individual and an artist the nationwide uprooting of his cul- 
tural heritage. Faulkner was born, lived, flourished, and is buried 
in Mississippi, adjudged to l>c the fourth most illiterate state. ™ Be- 
cause they must ignore the communal nature ol art, lilx'rals and 
Marxists can only treat Faulkner as a paradox. M Fuvironmeiualist 
logic can no more explain why a supposedly backward state in the 



SI, Random House barred all works or Found from a poeiry anthology, even 
though Conrad Aiken, one oi' tin- editois, had specifically chosen twelve- Pound 
poems for inclusion. Charles Norman, Ezra Pound. Marmillan, N.Y., i960, p. Alt'*. 

S% For years Jewish "'monitors" in the post-World War II period were also re- 
sponsible for depriving American audiences of the renowned ftohhoi Ballet, 
whose American torn was cancelled in 1970 after a series of Zionist, attacks, in- 
cluding a bomhing, against Soviei installations in New York City. The plan was to 
punish the Russians for the alleged anti-Semitism ol some high Kremlin func- 
tionaries and for giving aid and comfort to the Palestinian taiiM'. 

3:1 19(K) estimate by Bureau of Census. 

54. Just « they treat as a paradox die fact that a disproportionate number of all 
modem Majority literary lights are Southerners: James Agee, Flanneiy O'Connor, 
Katherine Anne Porter, John Crowe Ransom, Robert Perm Warren, Thomas Wolle, 
Walker Percy, James Dickey, Stark Young, Carson McGullers, Kndoia WWty, Allen 
Tate, Tom Wolfe, to name a lew. 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



251 



Deep South should produce America's greatest twentieth-century 
novelist than why the most literate nation in Europe succumbed to 

Hitler. 

Outside the South, American art has been overwhelmed by 
mernhers oi minorities. To lend substance to the allegation that the 
basic tone of American creative intellectual life has become Jewish, 
one has only to unroll the almost endless roster of Jews and part- 
Jews in the arts. 3 '' The contingent of Negro and other minority 



25, ffltim: Edna Ferber, Gertrude Stein, Fannie Hurst, Mary McCarthy, Nat.li- 
anael West, Bruce Jay Friedman, J. O. Salinger, Herbeit Gold, Harvey Swados, Ber- 
nard Malamud, Saul Bellow, Norman Mailer, living Stone, Jerome Wc.idman, Ir- 
win Shaw, Howard Fast, Rudd SehuhVrg, Ben Hecht, living Wallace, Harold Rolv- 
bins, Philip Roth, Joseph Heller, Herman Wonk, Meyer Ix-vin, S. [. Perelinan, Al- 
exander King, E. L. Dootorow, Rona Jade, William (^olriinan. 

Poets: Louis Untermeyer, Dorothy Parker, Del mo re Schwartz, Kenneth Fearing, 
Balx-lte Deulseh, Karl Shapiro, Allen Ginsberg, Joseph Auslandei , Howaid Nem- 
erov, Muriel Ruko'ser. 

Playwrights: Elmer Rice, Ceoige S. Kaufman, Moss HarL, Lillian Hdiiuaii, Sidney 
Kingslev, Clifford Odels, Sam and Bella Spewm k, Arthur Miller, J. Howard Law- 
■orr, Nril Simon, Jack Gerber, Arthur Kopit, Faddy Chayelsky, Abe Buriows, Mur- 
ray Schisgal, S. N. Behrman. 

Critics: Charles AngoiF, Clifton Fadiman, Leslie Fiedler, John Gassner, Milton 
Hindus, Alfred Kazin, Louis Kronenberger* Norman Podhoreiz, Geoige Steiner, 
Diana Trilling, Lionel Trilling, Irving Krislol, Paul Gcxxlman, Paul Jacobs, William 
Philips, living Howe, Joseph Weclishei|(, Midge Heeler. 

Painters ami Sculptors: George Grosz, Saul Sleinbeig, Moses and Raphael Soyrr, 
Leon Kioll, Saul Raskin, Jacques Lipchitz, Jacob F.psleiu, Lury Rivers, Chmfcm 
Gross, Helen Frankrnthaler, Mark Rothko, Jack Irvine, Ken Shahn, Abraham Wal- 
kowilz, Milton Avery, Ixsonard Baskin, Eugene Herman, Leonid Herman, Hyman 
Bloom, Jim Dine, Louis Eilsheinius, Adolph Gottlieb, Philip Guslon, Hans Hoff- 
nian, Morris Louis, 1-ouise Nevelson, Rainett Newman, Jules Olitski, Philip Pearl- 
stein, George Segal. 

(jwipusrrs: Aaron Cropland, Ernest Bloch, Darius Milhaud, George Gershwin, 
leonurd Bernstein, Jerome Rem, Sigrnund Romberg, Andre Previn, Man BliL/ 
stein. 

Orchestra C.ondnriors, Vntuasos, fiiui Singers: Bruno Walter, Serge Koussevitsky, Pierre 
Montr ux, Erich Lcinsdorf, Eugene Ormandy, George Szell, Mischa Ehnan, Jaschn 
Heifetz, Yehudi Menuhin, Rudolf Serkin, Artur Schnabel, Alexander Kipnis, Na- 
than Milstein, Artur Rubinstein, Jan Peerce, George London, Robert Merrill, Vlad- 
imir Horowitz, Gregor Piatorgorsky, Arlhiii Fiedler, (George Solti, Richard 'Tucker, 
Michael Tilson- Thomas, James Ix-vine, Antal Dorati, Otto Klemperer, Rolwuur Pe- 
ters, Regina Resnik, Beverly Sills, Wanda Lmdowska, Einil Gilels, Dame Myra 
Hess, Isaac Stern, Joseph S/.igeli. 



; >tr,9 



The Dispossessed Majority 



aj -lists, writers, 36 and composers, i hough ii cannot, compare to the 
Jewish aggregate, grows larger every day. 

I he minority domination of the contemporary art scene is com- 
plicated by the presence of another, as yet unmendoned minority, 
unique in that it is composed of Ixjth Majority and minority mem- 
bers. This is the homosexual cult. Homosexuals, as is well known, 
are one of the two principal props of the American theater, the sec- 
ond being Jews. 37 Jews own almost all the large theater houses, 
comprise most of the producers and almosL hall the dire* tots, and 
provide half the audience and playwrights. The other playwrights 
are mostly well-known Majority homosexuals. 38 Combine these two 
ingredients, add the payroll padding, kickbacks, ticket scalping, 
and union featherbedding which plague all Broadway producers, 
and it is readily understandable why in New York, still the radiating 
nucleus of die American theater, the greatest of all art forms has etc 
generated into homosexual or heterosexual pornography,*' leftist 

36. Negro novelists and po<'ts include: Ralph Ellison, riank Yerby, i.angaton 
Hughes, Oountoe Cullen, Chunk* McKay, Richard Wright, James Baldwin, Lor- 
raine Hansberry, Claude Brown, James Weldon Johnson, Mava Augelou, and Poet 
LftUtemte, Rita Dover. Although they could hardly Ix- considered Majority members, 
Time (Mar. [7, 1980, p. M) has called Russian-Wn Vladimir Nalx>koy, who ended 
up in Switzerland, America's greatest living novelist, and Isami Noguehi, "the pre- 
eminent American sculptor." 

37. "Without cither [jews or homosexuals] Broadway would Iw desperately en- 
feebled; without both, it would he a clear case of evisceration." William Coldman, 
The Season, llarcourt, Brace U World, New York, 19WJ, p. 12. In his statistical analy- 
sis of the fifty-eight plays of the 1967-08 Broadway season, Goldman stated that ho- 
mosexuals produced eighteen and directed twenty-two. Ibid., p. 237. The Jewish 
share of Broadway was indicated by flw fact that of ihe thirty mernrx-rs of the 
Dramatist's Guild Council at least two-thirds were Jews. Ibid., p. 1 48. Regarding 
David Merrick and Hal Prince, the Jewish producers who raked in 10 percent of 
the season's gross, Goldman wrote, 'The point is this: neither ot them has ihe 
least, interest, time, taste, skill or knowledge to produce an original American 
play." Ibid., p, 111. 

33. 'Ihe chief dramatic contribution Of the homosexual playwright has Wen the 
sensitive heroine in an insensitive society, and the bitchy heroine in a depraved 
society, the former representing how the audio, feels, the fattier how he acts. «o- 
mosexuals devise most of the flashy sets and fancy dance routines of the: musical 
extravaganzas. 

39. Che, by minority playwright Ixnnox Raphael, was the first American play to 
present the act of copulation on stage. 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



25 H 



and Marxist message plays, foreign imports, and blaring, clockwork 
musical comedies.' 10 It is doubtful if a new Aesehylus, Shakespeare, 
or Pirandello eould survive for one minute in ihe Broadway of to- 
day. 

The minority penetration of the communications media greatly 
reinforces minority cultural domination because the press, mag- 
azines, and TV are the transmission belts of art and, as such, its su- 
preme arbiter. By praising,, condemning, featuring, underplaying, 
or ignoring books/ 1 paintings, sculpture, music, and other artistic 
works the media decide, in effect, what will lx- distributed (and lx-- 
come known) and what will not In- distributed (and remain un- 
known). A book reviewed unfavorably or not reviewed at all in the 
influential, opinion-shaping columns of the New York 'Times, the Ntffl 
York Times ftook Ifariew, Time, Newswei>.k* and a lew so called eoektail- 
tabie publications" 112 has little or no chance of 'getting into libraries 
or the better bookstores. 

This literary winnowing process also extends to advertising. Ads 
for lx>oks promoting minority rat ism are accepted by most news- 
papers and magazines. Ads for books promoting Majority racism 
are not. Not only would no major newspaper or magazine review 
The Dispossessed Majority, none of the leading weekly newsmagazines 
would accept paid advertising lor it. 1 * Press agentry in the form 



40. 'The Aincrican musical comedy. . sometimes steins to be largely the in- 
vrntion of Jews." Yaffle, op. eit., p. 2§5- Owen Wistrr, describing the Kosion mu- 
sical offerings of the late 1870s and contrasting them with those of New York fifty 
years later, wrote, "I'inajare had recently blazed its trail of tune and laughter all 
over our suaj), pretty and witty comic operas from Paris and Vienna drew crowded 
houses, not a musical show had yet l>een concocted by the Hioadway Jew Lor die 
American moron. . . ." Owen Wister, Roosevelt, The Slury of a Friendship, Macmillan, 
New York, I«)30,pp. I'M ft. 

11 . Speaking of books, more than half of the major American publishing houses 
now have- Jewish owners or Jewish chief editors. 

42, "American literaiy and political 'highbrow' magazines offer die clearest ex- 
ample we have of this [Jewish] predominance . Here a bias, oddly enough quite 
unconscious, selects die subject matter, the treatment, and the authors most ap- 
pealing to the Jewish sensibility (or which Cdi\ heat be Fitted into it). It can lx: fairly 
said that these magazines are dominated by what may Ik: called thejewish cultural 
establishment." Van den Haag, Thsjmnsh Mystique, p. 12*). 

43. Sec- Wilmot Robe.rLson, Ventilations, Chapter 3. Some newspapers took a wa- 
tered-down ad once but would not allow it to be rejK-aLed. 



254 



The Dispossessed Majority 



of praise from columnists and television personalities is another 
tested means of lending a helping hand to minority artists or to the 
Majority artists who Specialize in minority themes. Perhaps the most 
banal example of the minority mutual admiration society in the 
arts is the practice adopted by the Afesto York Times Book Uememof hav- 
ing l>ooks espousing Negro racism reviewed by Negro racists. Din 
Nigger Die! by H. Rap Brown, a fugitive from justice rearrested after 
holding up a New York saloon, received a generally favorable re- 
view, although Brown Wrote that lie "saw no sense in reading Shake- 
speare," who was a "racist" and a "faggot." 14 

Throughout his life and career the minority-conscious artist 
identifies with one group of Americans — his group. In set doing he 
will frequently attack the Majority and Northern European cultural 
tradition for the simple reason that Majority America is not his 
America. The Puritans are reduced to witch-hunters, reactionary 
pietists, and holier-than-thou bigots. The antebellum and post- 
bellum South is turned into a vast concentration camp. The giants 
of industry are described as robber barons. The earliest pioneers 
and settlers are typecast ;is specialists in genocide. The police are 
"pigs." Majority members are "goys, rednecks, honkies," or jusi 
plain "beasts." 

To accommodaic the minority Kultitrhimpf, a Broadway plav 
transforms Indians into a race of virtuous higher beings, while 
whites are portrayed as ignoble savages, and the quondam heroic 
figure of Custer struts about the stage as a second-rate gangster. Ah A 
Hollywood film shows American cavalrymen raping and mutilating 
Indian maidens. 40 A television play set in the depression years of 
the 19!$0s puts the blame for America's ills squarely on the Majority 
and ends with a Specific tirade against "Anglo-Saxons." 47 

Rut it goes far beyond this. A principal theme of modern Negro 
writing is the rape of Majority women. In his bestseller. So?tl on ke> 
required reading in the English courses of hundreds of colleges, 

44. New York Times Book Rtvint\ ]\mtr. 15, 19<>9, pp. 6, 3ft. Blown, the it-viewer 
seemed happy to report, stole a few article* From the White House dmiug a meet- 
ing with President Johnson. He wanted to filch a painting, but was unable to fig- 
ure out. how to conceal it under his coat. 

45. Arthur Kopit's huiians. 

46. Soldier Blue. 

47. Millard I-ampell's Hard Travdin', YVNKT, New York, Oct 16, 1909. 



TI IF, CULTURAL CLASH 



255 



Negro militant Eldridge Cleaver, a bail-jumping black who at last 
report was working the born-again Christian circuit, tells how he 
feels about "consciously, deliberately, willfully, methodically" de- 
spoiling white women, "It delighted me that I was defying and 
trampling upon the white man's law. . .that 1 was defiling his wom- 
en. . . .1 felt 1 was getting revenge. . . .1 wanted to send wave* of con- 
sternation throughout the white rate." 48 

On the same page Cleaver quotes approvingly some lines from a 
poem by Negro LeRoi Jones: "Rape the white girls. Rape their fa- 
thers. Cut their mothers 1 throats." Intercourse widi Majority fe- 
males, although on a somewhat more sedate and controlled scale, 
is a theme that also appears frequently in the writings of the so- 
called Jewish literary renaissance. Heroes of Jewish fiction often 
seek out Gentile girls because "there is less need for respect, and 
thus more possibility. . .to do things that could not be done with a 
person one has to respect." 1 '' 

Contemporary white artistic efforts are dismissed as "pimp art" 
by LeRoi Jones on the front page (second section) of the Sunday 
Nmt York Times™ One Jewish author states, The family is American 
fascism." A Jewish literary critic calls the late Thomas Wolfe, who 
equalled or surpassed the talent of any minority novelist, a "pro- 
fessional hillbilly." A leading Negro writer lalxds America, "the 
Fourth Reich." As mentioned previously, a literary [ewess describes 
the white race as "the cancer of human history.'* M 

But the ultimate objective goes beyond the deep-sixing of Major- 
ity culture. Then- is an increasing tendency in minority writing 



48. Kldrirlge Cleaver, Soulou kr. McCtaw-IIill, New York, 196B, p. 14. 

40. Van tlrn Haig* Op. fir, p. 217. The author refers in particular lo Philip 
Roth's novel, Portnoy's Complaint (Random House, New York. I9fl©), in which this 
paawgc appears (pp. 143-44): "But the shikses :ih, the shikses are something else 
a^ain. , . .the si^lit of theii fresh col<l blond hair spilling out of their kerchiefs and 
caps. . . .How do they get so gorgeous, so healthy, so hlond! My ( ■onlempt foi what 
they believe in is more thnn neutralized by my :uhnhation of the way they 
look. . . , 

50. NW. 16, 1969, Sec. 2, p. 1. 

53. Origin* Wrt of these quotations are in order: Paul (Goodman, Alfred Ka/in, 
James Baldwin and Susan Sontag. See Benjamin De. Mott, Supergroup pp. 74-75 and 
Partisan Rexnew, Winter, 1967. James Agee, a Truckler of some talent, preferred 
GhiUffV and Negroes to his own people, despised Irishmen :ind Germans, and 
married a Jewess, letters ofJamfsA^ftoFathrrf'f.yi', C. Rraziller, N.Y., 196$, p. [51. 



256 



The Dispossessed Majority 



to inject subtle and not. so subtle appeals for the physic al molesta- 
tion and even the outright masfiacre of whites. Such was the mes- 
sage of LeRoi Jones's play, Sl/ir'e Ship* 2 With die same vitriolic 
splash, Eldridge Cleaver writes approvingly of >oung blacks out 
there right now who are slitting white throats."* 3 A black poetess, 
Nikki Giovanni, has a poem in a popular black anthology which 
contains these lines: *Can you kill/Can you run a Protestant down 
with your/'riS EI Dorado/. . . .Can you [obscenity] on a blond 
head/Call you tut it ofT." M Ice- T, a sterling example of what is 
known as a "gangsia" rapper, wrote a hit song for Time War- 
ner, his paymaster, entitled (lop Killer, in which he urged his 
fans to siart "dustiiT off cops." 5 * The remarks of a female 
black rapper, Sister Souljah, were aimed not just at police- 
men but at whites in general, "If black people kill black peo- 
ple every day, why not have a week and kill white people.** 56 
In the same vein, but switching from the verba] to the pic- 
torial, the nonwhite, Andres Serrano, financed by a $15,000 Na- 
tional Endowment for the Arts grant, dunked a crucifix in a glass of 
urine, captioned his photographic chef {Toeuvre "Piss Christ 1 * and 
passed it on to slavering exhibitors.'"' Among other grantees was 
one Annie Sprinkle (SoO.000), a Jewish performei whose act 
climaxed when she urinated on stage; homosexual Robert 
Mapplethorpe, given $30,000 by the KEA for a touring ex- 
hibit of his sadistic and homoeroik photos: $15,000 for a 
Tongues of Flame traveling art show (the program notes cat- 
egorized Jesus as a drug addict and described Cardinal John 
O'Connor as a "fat cannibal from thai house of walking swas- 
tikas up on Fifth Avenue*- Sfi ). 

What has l>een described above, of course, has little to do with 
art. Ft could better be defined as anti-art. People incapable of pro- 
ducing or appreciating high art envy those who can. But instead of 



52. See footnote 23, p. 92. 

53. Cleaver, op. rit., p. 15, 

54. The BUck Poets, Kantam Books, New York, 1071 . pp. 3UV3!J. 

55. Los Angeles Tinte\ March 23, 1993, p. D6. 

56. USA Today.June 15, 1992, p. 2A. 

57. WnshingtmiTimes^ Feb., 22, H>92, p. A7. 
58. Ibid. 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



257 



developing rheir rudimentary art into higher forms tiiey concen- 
trate on perverting and banalizing whaievrr art ihey can get their 
hands on. It is their way of showing their hatred for the authentic 
artist and all his works. Julius Lester, a much applauded Negro liter- 
ary elder, identified, perhaps unknowingly, the minority artist's real 
grudge — die radiant Western artistry that seems forever l>eyc»nd 
the Negroes' reach — when, ranging as far iifield as Paris, he called 
Cor the destruction of Notre Dame "because it separaied man from 
himself. "* 

The communications media and principal academic forums be- 
ing largely closed to him, the Majority artist has no adequate de- 
fense against the blistering minority assaults on his culture. He 
must avoid praising his own people as a peofrie — and he must avoid 
castigating other peoples, particularly the more dynamic minor- 
ities. The minority iirtist, on the other hand, wears no such cultural 
straitjacket. He freely praises whom he likes and freely damns 
whom he dislikes, both as individuals and as groups. The Majority 
artist, with a narrower choice oi heroes and villains, tias a narrower 
choice oi theme. Lacking the drive and brute force of minority ra- 
cism, Majority art tends to become bland, innocuous, emotionless, 
sterile, and boring, 60 Forbidden to explore the text and context of 
his collective consciousness, the Majority artist retreats to surreal- 
ism, science fiction, murder mysteries, fantasy, Havel guides, and 



59. Ix-ster, Search fur a New Land, p. 1-1-1. 

tiO. An IFt historian oi the iuture, having only II his disposal lists ot bestsellers, 
art depositions, and musical recitals for tin- l-.itt.rr third ol the twentieth cenluiy, 
mi^ht COIldludc that the American Majority had erased to exist. As reported hy 
'I'imr (May I'.), I'.)h9, p. If), the nation's five leading fiction bestsellers were: #l, 
Pi>rtTuyy\ (jtmplaint, which has a Jewish hero or an ti hero; #2, The (kxijtitfirr, an Ital- 
ian-American novel about Italian Americans and the Mafia; #.H, The Salzburg Con- 
nection, a spy tide with sLock Nazi villains by an Englishwoman; #1, Slaughterhouse 
Five, a World War II novel by a Majority Truckler; #5, Sunday Lite Rabbi Gwsi hlome. 
The three top fiction l>es[sellers as reported by the New York Itnm (Sept. 5, 1970) 
were: #1, Trinity hy Leon Uris; #2, Doltrres by Jacqueline Susann; #3, 77a Ijmely Lady 
lny Harold Kobbins. All three authors are Jewish, When it is realized that only 17 
percent of" American adults read one book a year, thai 50 percent, of American col- 
lege graduates do not read one book a year, that. 50 percent ol Americans have 
never read one book through, American reading habits are even more of a trag- 
edy than Indicated by lx*sisellei lists. See Nancy Pole tie and Marjorie Hamlin, 
Reading Guidance in a Metlia Age, Scarecrow Press, Memchen, New Jersey, I ( J7f>. 



258 



The Dispossessed Majority 



pornography. 61 In the process he becomes the punching hag of the 
minority activist, who views "man's essential struggle as social, 
against other men, rather than the moral one against himself." 62 

Many potential Majority anists 6S probably sense well in advance 
the roadblocks in the way of a successful artistic career ami turn to 
science, where their creativity is less hampered. Similar situations 
in the past may illustrate why in the life span of nations the artistic 
efflorescence lias generally preceded the scientific — why Sophocles 
came before Archimedes, Dante before Galileo, Shakespeare be- 
fore Newton and Faraday, Goethe before Planck. Mathematics, 
physics, and chemistry, but not the life sciences, are less controver- 
sial than art.** In a divided, pluralistic society they may l>e the last 



(>1. Pornography assumes an ew greatef place in eras of cultural breakdown, 
not, as some apostles of permissiveness like to pretend, because it expands arustie 
horizons but because it shrinks them. As had money drives oui good, the art of the 
private purls drives out the an of the heart unci mind. Of all man's artistic ariivities 
pornography, if it. ran be railed an art, requires the least amount of mental effort. 
Perhaps nothing 1ms done more harm, to the torn Fabric of American civilization 
than the Supreme Court's 1957 ruling in Roth v. M.S'.. which defined obscenity as 
something "utterly without redeeming social iiu|Kii lam :e." Since 5 sharp lawyer 
can find at least a truce of "social importance" in any kind of trash, Pandora's box 
was opened, and the minority tycoons of Hollywood, Broadway, and Publishers' 
Row were quick to seize the opportunity — and (he profits. 

(iy. John I-eggett, The Wasp Novel," New York Timet Bonk Review. Nov. M), 1%9, p. 2, 

68. The genius bathed in what Matlhew Arnold has called "the national glow" 
has a less difficult row to hoc thuu llie genius in a fragmenting culture, which forc- 
es partisanship of one kind 01 another on everyone. As Goethe put it. "Bedauert 
tloch den amserorden (lichen Mens* hen, dass ei in einer *<> erbarmliehen Zeil. le- 
ben, dass er hninei fori polemisrh wirken lnnsste." h kermanu, G&pracht rnU Goethe 
(Feb. 7, 1827). 

6-1. lhe lea.sl l oniroversial art is music and consequently the lust to Ik- drvitaV 
r/.ed by censorship, The only art that still remains in Majority hands is country mu- 
sic, and even this is falling under the triple assault of Negro jazz, drugs and cynical 
show business promoters. Crilk Richard Goldstein, writing for die young female 
readers of Mudemokdh (June I973), charged that country music was "threatening" 
10 Jewish sensibilities. In its stead he recommended the luhricinus lilt of Negro 
rhythms. The rock festivals, which draw gigantic audiences and gigantic attention 
from the media, are in part I confused attempt to rescue popular music from Tin 
Pan Alley. Bui they are hy no means as impromptu as the press makes them ap- 
|x-ai. The Woodstock Festival had an advance ticket sale of $1 ,100,000, generated 
by the #800,000 its two Jewish producers, John Roberts and Mike I^ing, spent in 
radio and newspaper ads. Neru York Times Magazine, Sept. 7, 19(i9, pp. 18l[ I$4- 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



259 



refuge of free expression and free inquiry. It has been said by Or- 
tega y Gasset that *^>flipfc read to pronounce judgment* The 

aphorism might be expanded by saying that as nations become old- 
er and more divergent in politics, religion, class, and race, people 
read to soothe or excite their prejudices. 

The glimmering of a great artistic era appeared in the United 
States in the first half of the nineteenth century. In New England, 
New York, Philadelphia, and the South, a native American aris- 
tocracy was evolving out of generations of landowners, shipping 
magnates, army and navy officers, and government, church, and 
educational leaders. At the same lime, schools of Majority artists 
were emerging, their growth rate synchronized with that of the 
budding aristocracy. It was perhaps no coincidence thai the Hud- 
son River Valley, the stamping ground of the first American aris- 
tocrats, produced the first great American writer, Washington Ir- 
ving, t lie greatest American writer, Herman Melville, and the fust 
American school of painting. The Dutch patroons of New Am- 
sterdam had carved out their riverine estates decades before the 
founding of (he Virginia plantations and while Boston was still a 
log-cabin iheon aey. <>F> 

The traumatic experience of the Civil War was not entirely res- 
ponsible for putting an end to America's great artistic promise. 
There was the overflowing social fluidity which followed the war 
and made possible the settlement of lhe West. There were fortunes 
to be won — in commerce, in industry, in mining, in land — and as 
plutocracy waxed, art waned. ,,(i There was also the New Immigra- 
tion, which played havoc with the normal, organic processes of ar- 
tistic evolution. 

In the last moment of the Roman Republic, when Roman culture 
was displaying signs of rigor mortis, Augustus halted die dissolution 



65. Significantly, Melville's mother, Maria {ianst-voort, a nV^eendnnt of fcJn old 
Dutch family, was a Void, proud woman, arrogant in the sense other name, her 
blood and the affluence of her foreljcars." Raymond M. Weaver, Herman MHvilh?, 
p. M. Also see Morison, Oxford History of the American People, pp. 177, 487, for a 
chronological comparison of die New York and New England aristocracies. 

06. ""l*he real revolution [in the U.S. J was not what is called lhe Revolution in 
history lxx)ks, but. is I consequence of the Civil War; after which arose i plutocrat- 
ic ("lite." T. S. Eliot., Notes towards the Definition of (Culture, jtairourt Brace, New 
York, 1919, p. 44. 



!o(> 



llu- OisjKHScaicd Majority 



of Roman art by halting the dispossession of the Roman Majority. 
The outcome was the Gulden Age of Latin literature. It was not un- 
til Rome's decline properly began — according u» Gibbon, at the ac- 
cession of Gommodus in At) 180— that Roman art and die Roman 
Majority were on an irreversible path lo extinction. 

For the sake of the American Majority and of American ait, it is 
to I*' hoped that the United Stales is in its pre Augustan, not its 
pre-Commodan stage, 1 ' 7 



6?. The ways and means adopted by Augustus in his rehabilitation of the "Old 
Roinuns" should provide those inteu-Mrd in ivv<-rshi£ the disposition olt.hr Ma- 
jority with ample food tor thought Augustus's poinl of departure was 'That the 
Ilatian rare wan immeasurably ihe superior of any oilier, and he did not wish !o sec 
it losi. in a polyglot w.rltrr." Bnrhaii, Augustus, p. 20, "Considering it aUo of great 
importance to keep the people pure and unsullied by any taint of foreign or ser- 
vile blood, he was most chary of conferring Roman citizenship and set a limit 10 
manumission." Suetonius, [Hints Augustus, trans. }. G. Rolfc, XI, , l t. 



CHAPTER 19 



The Secularization of Religion 



A ki is onk OF Llu* battlegrounds of the cnhnral clash now taking 
** *• place in the Uniled States. Religion is another. The intention 
of this chapter, however, is not to indulge, in theological specula- 
tions or question the truth or error of any particular faith, but to 
examine the purely social and pragmatic side of religion and its ap- 
positeness to the present tides of political, economic* and social 
change. 

God may be dead, as it was once announced that Great Pan was 
dead, and as many twentieth-century chinch men, echoing the 
wishful chinking Of Nietzsche, proclaim. Rut the religious instinct is 
very much alive. Though scient e is a long way from confirming it, 
it often seems that men are born with a religious gene. There may 
have been an alarming decrease in the spiritual magnetism and up- 
lift of formal religion in modern times, but men have made up for 
it by shifting their innate religiosity to more mundane creeds — 
democracy, liberalism, capitalism, nationalism, fascism, socialism, 
and communism. If an abundance ol saints, devils, martyrs, and 
prophets is a sign of religious zeal, the twentieth century ought to 
rank as the most religious of all centuries. Never since the days of 
Rome have so many heads of staLe, both living ami dead, been de- 
ified or diaboli/ed on such a grand scale. Belief in the old gods 
may be flickering, btit l>elief in the more worldly deities of the 
present is laser bright. 

A review of organized religion in America should l>egin with a 
discussion of Christianity. Until quite recently, the United States 
was railed a Christian nation and statistically about GO percent of 

201 



262 



The Dispossessed Majority 



all Americans still belong ro a Christian church. 1 But what exactly is 
a Christian? The definition seems to depend on the religious de- 
nomination of the defmer. In Roman Catholic eyes, St. Francis, one 
of the few who ever took. Christ literally, and Boniface VIII, mote 
Caesar than pope, were both Christians. In ProLestant eyes so was 
Captain (later Reverend) John Newton, who composed the ever 
popular hymn, "How Sweet the Name of Jesus Sounds," while the 
vessel he commanded waited oil the Cuinea coast to pick up a car- 
go of slaves from the interior. i? Other Christians have included col- 
umn-sitting Syrians, sword-wielding Norsemen, cannibalistic blacks, 
lust-ridden empresses, and piety-stricken nuns. 

The difficulty of defining a Christian stems in part from the mis- 
sive polarizations and cyclic reconciliations of Christianity in the 
nearly two millennia of its existence. No religion has been so many 
things to so many believers and so many theologians. None lias pro- 
voked so many heresies and schisms, so much war and so much 
peace, so much animosity and so much love, so much nitpicking 
and so much ecstasy. Perhaps the only time that Christianity was 
truly unified and truly one religion was in its infancy, when il was a 
simple offshoot of Judaism— -one of the many sects that flourished 
in the spiritual ferment stirred up by Roman encroachments on 
Jewish statehood. 

'fhe first great problem of Christianity was a purely racial one. 
Would it be a religion for jews or for Gentiles/ Jesus himself was a 
a Galilean from "Galilee of the Gentiles. "There is no definite proof 

1. The 19H0 World Almanac lists 1 60 religious denominations in (he United 
States with a total mcnifxTship of 1 70, 185,693 or 78% of the population. Of these, 
45,856,1 7(i arc Roman Catholics, 3,970,785 Eastern Onhodox, 1,850,000 Jews, 
2,000,000 Moslems and tkJXXL Buddhists. Of the remaining [12,507^782 most are 
Protestants, quasi-Protestant*, and member* of unaffiliated Christian sects. The 
number of Roman Catholics is quilt- misleading because the Catholic Church 
counts as members all who are baptized. Hie Jewish figure was inexplicably in- 
creased to 3,985,000 in the 19X1 Work! Ahruirutc. though jews are known to be the 
most irreligious American population £ioup. Many of the larger Protestant 
churches, on the other hand, only count active churchgoers and communicants. 
The breakdown of the larger Protestant denominations is as follows: 15,862,749 
Baptists, lf,486 r 5i2 Methodists, 10,831,405 Lutherans, 5,745*526 Piesbylenaiis, 
2,818,130 Episcopalians, 2,237,721 Pentecosmls. 

2. Times Literary Suftpkrnent, Jan. 9, 19<">4, p. 25. 



TI IK CULTURAL CLASH 



263 



that he was a Jew, but it is almost certain he was brought up in a 
Jewish cultural ambiance. s At first many fews looked upon him as a 
possible Messiah come to satisfy their craving for a return to the 
temporal glories of Solomon, Later, when the ministry of Jesus be- 
gan to appeal to outsiders and when he demonstrated more inter- 
est in an otherworldly than in a worldly kingdom, the Jews quickly 
closed their hearts and their parses. 4 In the words of Arnold Toyn- 
bee, "this inspired Jewish scion of forcibly converted Galilean (ien- 
lilcs was then rejected and done to death by the Judaean leaders of 
die Jewry of his age." 5 

The next problem lacing Christianity, once it moved away from 
Jewry, was how much of its original Jewish background and tradi- 
tion would or should l>e preserved. One faction, the Man ionites, 
attempted to purge the early church of all Jewish influence, going 
so far as to brand the Old Testament the work of the devil. The IV- 
trine Church look the opposite tack of accepting the Jewish Bible, 
canonizing a gnat deal oi Jewish theology and law, and treating 
Jews as midwives of Christianity. Indeed the Catholic Church in 
Rome and the Kastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople afe- 
sorbecl almost everything Jewish except the Jews themselves. Kven- 
Lually the Jndaizcrs overcame practically all their rivals, though 
remnants of Maicionite influence persisted until the Cathars of 
Southern France were liquidated by papal] auxiliaries in the twelfth 
century.*' If the Marcioniics had prevailed, there would have been 



3. "Galilee of Lhe Gentiles" is fount) in Matthew '1:15*. At the time of Jesus' birth, 
Calilec, a Roman province in northern Palestine, had a mixed Jewish and Assyi ian 
population and had been considered ]«rwish for less than a ccnUny. Toynbee, 
Study oj < flistoty, Vol. II, pp. 7:1-7-1, and l.nn. SNt, Vol. 0, p. 078. Roth ultra- and 
anti-Semites have occasionally tried to make Jesus something oilier than a Jew. 
lhe Tahnudic tradition of a part-Roman an rest ry has Iwcn noted in footnote lG. r >, 
p. 1 99. One Aryan i/er of Jesus points to a rlesecnl from "IVoto-Norclics" who once 
lived in and about Galilee. C. G. Campbell, Rare and Religion, Peter Nevill, l_on- 
don, 1973, p. 151. Houston Stewart Chamlwrlain in his Fmindations of the NineUenth 
Century also questioned the Jewishness of Jesus. 

4. I he Spanish philosopher Miguel de I'nanumo gave another reason why Jews 
turned their backs on Jesus. He pleached immortality, in which Jews have scant in- 
terest. Unamuno, Dei I SentimienU) Tr&guo de hi Vida, has Americas Publishing, New 
York, 1966, Chapter III. 

5. A Study of History, Vol. V, p. 658. 

b. Emy. BnL, Vol. 5, p. 72, and Vol. 14, p. 8b8. 



264 



The Dispossessed Majority 



no Judeo in theJudeo-Oiristian heritage of Western civilization. 7 

One of the principal themes of Gibbon's magnificent obituary of 
the Roman Empire was the important role of Christianity in its de- 
cay and dissolution. 8 If die great historian had explored the work- 
ings of the Early Church more penetratingly, he might haw found 
the real culprit was not the Christian religion as such, but those 
who played up the equalitarian and insurrectionary elements of 
Christianity at the expense of the more fundamental Christian con- 
cept of immortality. On the one side, the power and privilege of 
die dwindling Roman elite were undermined by the New Testa- 
ment's accent on brotherhood and renunciation. On the other, the 
subject races were aroused to violence by die inflammatory ser- 
mons of the Early Fathers, whose strictures against Roman pagan- 
ism demanded the destruction of everyone and everything connected 



7. Certain racial manifestations can be detected in this divided inheritance, Mai- 
eion, a native of nonhein Asia Minor, was born outside the Semitic eeumriie. 
Saints Paifcf and Paul and many other leaders of the Petrine ( Hunch W£I* con- 
verted Jews. An im[K>naiu Jewish legacy to Christianity was the dextrine of original 
sin, strongly supported by St. Augustine, n North African, and Strongly opposed by 
IVlagiu.i, a native of the British Isles, in one: Of Christianity's most serious theo- 
logical feud*. Alien to Hebiew thought and tradition, but too well established to 
be purged by the more fanatic JiuM/ers, were the New Trsuunent's three wise 
men, uV temptation on the mountain, baptism, paradise, and ihe resurrection. 
This non-Jewish side of Christianity, according to one view, was originated by the 
Persian prophet, Zoroaster, whose teachings had become familiar to Jesus as a re- 
sult of his association with and perhaps blood relationship to the Anionics, who 
bad close contacts with the Persians, C. (;. Campbell, op. til., Chapter II. In regard 
to the seemingly congenita! differences in the religion* sensibilities of Semites and 
non-Semites, T. E Uwrence had this to sav: "I had believed Semites unable to use- 
love as f link between themselves and God Christianity had seemed to me the 

first creed to proclaim love in this upper world, from which the desert and the 
Semite (from Moses to Zeno) had shot it out. . . . tu bii lh in Galilee had saved it 
from beksg j usl one molc (> f x ] iC innumerable revelations of die Semite. Galilee 
was Syria's non-Semitic province, contact with which was almost tint leanness for 

the perfect Jew Christ by choice passe.] his ministry in its intellectual freedom 

. . . ." £&&l I^lkns of Wisdom, Doubleday, Doran, Garden City, NY., 1935, p. 356. 
There might, also have been a racial repulsion on the part of Gentiles for some 
Jewish religions practices, in particular that aspect of the circumcision ritual in 
which a -venerable and honored guest is asked to apply his mouth to the penis 
and suck up the first drop of blood." Ernes, Van den Haa^, The Jewish My<ti<rue p 
160. * r 

8. Dec lint and Fail of the Rcmia n Empire., Chapters 15 and 10. 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



265 



with the old religion. In A.I) !U() there was one last flare-up of pa- 
gan repression when Kmperor Galerius poured molten lead down 
Christian throats and led the lions a final meal of martyrs in the 
Coliseum. Two years later, Constanfmc saw lhe blitzing cross, and 
Rome soon had a Christian Emperor. 

When Christianity became a state religion, the bishops changed 
their tune. Instead of opposing the government, the Church l>e- 
eauic its guardian. Instead of attacking military service, it advocat- 
ed it. Once the oppressed, Christians were now the oppressors, The 
names of Creek ami Roman temples lit the night sky of dying 
Rome Although it was too late to prevent the Empire's collapse, 
the bishops did manage to convert, in a fashion, the conquering 
'lentous, who later saved Western Christianity from the Huns, Ar- 
abs, Turks, and other heathen marauders. 

By the time of the Crusades, Christianity had split into the Ro- 
man Catholic and Creek Orthodox churches. It split again when 
Northern Europe,, incited by princes and potentates coveting the 
wealth going to the I loly See, broke away from the spiritual absolut- 
ism and temporal Rffi/fjolitik of the Latinized Popes. The Reforma- 
tion drew the religious frontiers which still separate Protestant 
from Catholic Europe and the racial frontiers which in many areas 
still separate Nordics from Alpines. 

The late Professor Cuignebert of the University of Paris, an ex- 
pert in biblical scholarship, has provided an interesting sidelight 
on the development of Christianity by noting the changing "ap- 
pearance" of Jems through the ages.' 1 The first depictions of Jesus 
had him hairy, ugly, and abject. Later in Gothic rose windows and 
statuary, and in Renaissance paintings and frescoes, Christ was en- 
dowed with Nordic features and at times looked more like Siegfried 
than the son of a Mediterranean carpenter. Many paintings of the 
Holy Family portrayed the Virgin and the Christ Child with blond 
hair and blue eyes. The Aesthetic Prop was everywhere visible in 
the greatest masterpieces of Christian art. 

Christianity was transported to the United States by members of 



9. Charles Guigneben, f/isus. Le Renaissance du Livre, Paris, \9\W, pp. J K<>9<>. 
In The Everlasting Gospel Blake expatiated on two different fares of Jesus: "The 
Vision of Christ that thou dost see/ Is my vision's greatest enemy./ Thine has & 
great hooked nose like dime;/ Mine has a snub nose like to niiiic." 



260 



The Dispossessed Majority 



practically every Christian denomination — Anglicans And Anabap- 
tists, Gai holies and Mennonites, Lutherans, Quakers and Shakers, 
Greek Orthodox and Doukhobors. The Episcopal Church — two 
thirds of the signers of the Declaration of Independence were Kpis- 
copalians 10 — and Galvinist churches (principally Congregational 
and Presbyterian) remained dominant until the rise of (lie revivalist 
and evangelical sects in the early nineteenth century. The slavery is- 
sue dissolved whatever Christian unity existed between North and 
South, turning many Yankees from the eye-For-an-eye morality and 
ironbound predestination of Calvinism 11 to Unitarianism and oth- 
er less rigorous and less selective faiths. In the same years, South- 
ern churches fastened a stratified, racially separate Christianity on 
tin- slave suites, justifying their actions by murky biblical passages 
on human bondage*® 

Shortly before the Civil War, Roman Catholicism commenced to 
assume some prominence in national affairs. In addition to its re- 
ligious function, the Catholic Chords served as an immense social 
service organization for the massive influx of hungry, homesick 
Irish immigrants. Decades later, it became the spiritual and, on oc- 
casion, the political shepherd, for the millions of Central and 
Southern European Catholics who supplied the bulk of the New 
Immigration. By the early 1930s the Catholic Church was the larg- 
est and most powerful religious body in the United States. In L92S, 
Alfred F. Smith test the presidential election partly because he was 
a Catholic. In I960, John F. Kennedy won the presidency partly 
beCAUSC he was a Catholic In the 87th Congress (1981-82), more 
congressmen belonged to the Catholic Church than to any oiher 
religious denomination. 



10. Km.y. Brit., Vol 18, p. till*. 

11. The late eighteenth-century New Kngland Calvinisi was typified by Samtirl 
Adams, who "was no revolutionist, but a racist, anti-Catholic — with no favor foi mi- 
norities." Samuel Morison, Oxford History of the American People, p. 1_M 1 . 

12. The most quoted was Onesis 9:22-27. Ham, considered by some Uirologians 
to be. the progenitor of the Negro rare, sees his father, Noah, naked in his drunk- 
enness. When Noah hears about it., he lays a curse on Canaan, the Son of Mam, 
destining him to be a "servant of servants." Shem (the first Semite) and Japheth 
(the first non-Semite?), Ham's two brothers, were thereafter to be served through 
all eternity by Canaan, at cording to proslaveiy interpreters of the Old Testament. 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



267 



Today, Christianity in the United States — the fundamentalists ex- 
cepted- — has turned its attention from God to man and become the 
champion of the minorities. Many Protestant ministers take the 
money from their collection plates and spend it on projects for 
blacks and Hispanics that are often more political than charitable. 
Churches are transformed into meeting places for black gangs. 15 
Clergymen record their "deep appreciation" to the black militant 
who stormed into Manhattan's Riverside Church and demanded 
$500 million in "reparations." 11 Long tolerant ol communism in its 
various Stalinist, Titoist, and Maoist guises, 1 -' 1 many churchmen now 
openly endorse revolution in Central America, 16 smuggle in illegal 
aliens, propagandize for unilateral disarmament, 17 raise bail for 
Black Panther thugs, 18 and conspire against a future draft as they 



13. All in vain, as Nietzsche predicted a century ago: "There is nothing more 
terrible than a barbaric slave class, who have learned to regard their existence as 
an injustice, and now prepare to avenge, not only themselves, but all future gen- 
erations. In the fare of such threatening storms, who Hares to appeal with any con- 
fidence to our pale and exhausted religion*. ■ . .* The Birth of'foagedy from The Phi- 
fasophy of Nietzsche, trans. Clifton Kadiman, Modem Libraiy, New York, p. I (MM. 

14. lime, May 16, 1969, p. 94. 

15. According to congressional investigator J. B. Matthews, 7,000 American cler- 
gymen once espoused the Communist, parly line. As the Soviet Union Ix'tame 
more grasping and l>ellicose, many ol them adopted safer and more acceptable 
brands of Marxism. For Matthews' estimate, see Waller Goodman, The (Committee, 
l'arrar Straus, New York, 196H, p. ,'W5. 

16. A Iondon conclave organized liy die World Council of (lYoteslant) Church- 
es released a rejMMt which stated, "guerrilla fighters struggling against racist re- 
gimes must be given the support of die church if all else has l>een seen to fail." ll 
also slated that in certain circumstances, "The church must support resistance, 
movements, including revolutions, which are aimed at the elimination of political 
or economic tyranny that makes racism possible." The. conference: was chaired by 
Senator (George McC.overu, a Methodist lay delegate. Time, June ri, 1969, p. 88. 
Over the years the World Council, to which most American Protestant de- 
nominations belong, lias continued to support black terrorist groups in Africa 
with sermons and cash. 

17. As did the National Conference oi Catholic Bishops in 198D. 

18. Um York Times,]iu\. 31, 1970, p. 9. In September 1970, black militant. Angela 
Davis, while on die Mil's ten most wanted list, for owning the guns that killed a Cal- 
ifornia judge, was honored by having her portrait prominently displayed in the an- 
nual liberation Sunday of St. Stephen's Episcopal Church in St. l/>uis. Miami Her 
aid, Sept. 27, 1970, p. 'M)A. Miss Davis, a raging Stalinist, was later exonerated by 
an alJ-wliite juiy. 



268 



The Dispossessed Majority 



conspired against the United Stales war efTori in Vietnam.' 9 Some 
Catholic priests have been active in inciting strikes of Mexican- 
American migrant farm workers against California farmers. ^ Or ti- 
ers, notably the Berrigan brothers, have broken into Selective Ser- 
vice offices and destroyed draft records. 21 Still others have taken to 
the streets and led mass sit-ins in open defiance of state and local 
laws, and Pope John Paid IPs strictures against priests in politics. 

For various reasons the current liberal-minority version of Chris- 
tianity in America lacks credibility and smacks of dilettantism. Jesus 
was an underdog, [lis poverty and minority status stimulated an 
honest concern for the oppressed and downtrodden. The well-fed, 
well-funded cleric, who walks a mile or two in a "freedom march," 
is given the red-carpet treatment in Hanoi, and drops in from time 
to time to see how his Negro friends in the slums are doing, seems 
a little counterfeit. So does the "social conscience* 1 of the Vatican 
($80 billion in assets, in< hiding a SMi billion stock portfolio) w and 
the American religious establishment (property alone valued at 
$102 billion).* 9 Such a vast hoard of wealth, which is nothing new 
in church history, has always made Christianity suspect in the eyes 
of leftist radicals. It helps to explain why, despite all that Christian 



19. Yale University Chaplain William Sloane Coffin, Jr., once married to Um? bstV 
3c rin a dauphin of Ailm RuhiiisU'iri, wjs vnirnrril r.i> two years in prison m 19bfl 
tor conspiring to counsel young Americans to evade ihe draft. The jury *s verdict 
Was later thrown out by a higher court. 1 970 World Almanac, p. 922. 

*20. Time, Dec 10, IMS. p. 96, 

21. Nn> York Tinus, Aug. 9, 1970, Sec -1, p. 7. In January 1971, the Berrigans 
were charged with plotting to blow up the heating systems of five government 
buildings in Washington and kidnap Henry Kissinger According to Time, the two 
bro tliers were "cradle rebels." Their father, Tom Berrigan, a trade union organu- 
fi, was th<- *>n of Irish immigrants who had He-d to the U.S. to escape die povrriv 
of the Ould Sod. 7m*J»a. 25, 1971 , pp. t4-I5. 

22. Nino U) Bcilo, The Vatican Empire, Fireside, Simon and Schuster, New Iferfc, 
L970 t pp. 23, 135. The Holy See, which has had its ihare of financial scandals, for- 
mally denied these estimates, though admitting iL is so ennirshed in high finance 
tt has established close relations with the RotKieKiWs, Nrw York 77™^ July 5ft, 
1970, p. 8. Pope John Paul II revealed the Church had a $ l Jt> million budget deficit 
in 197$. UPI report, Nov. 10, 1979. 

23. Timr. May lfl. 1970, p. 44. Of die $17.6 billion that American individuals or 
Organ iy.ations contributed to charity in 19o9, $7.9 billion was earmarked for re- 
ligious purposes. r.S. New & Worid Report, July 15, 1970, p 65. Chariuhle giving 
ro.se. to |I24,3 billion \ n 1982, 



THE CULTURAL U,ASH 



269 



liberals did to prepare the way, in the three great revolutions of 
modern history — French, Russian, and Chinese — Christianity was 
<>ffi< ially or unofficially proscribed. 

Though Christians are almost a billion strong, their faith is cool- 
ing. 2 * Popes no longer command armies, excommunicate kings, ex- 
ecute heretics, and organize crusades. There are no more Sarnie 
Chape lies almildinj* and no more artisis with one iota of the re- 
ligions intensity found in a Via Angelico paiming. The pens of Lu- 
ther and Milton are still The rousing Protestant hymns of yes- 
teryear have lost (heir Sunday punch and are increasingly unsung. 
Revival meetings in terns and on television continue to draw large 
crowds, though more lips are converted than hearts. The old-time 
religion is siill alive and well in some areas, hut it has more rel- 
evance to the temporal ambitions of pulpit-pounding evangelists 
than to God. Catholic and Protestant! preachers may get reams of 
favorable publicity in the press when they abandon their Hocks to 
Spread their "glad tidings" among the minorities, but it wins them 
few points with their hometown congregations. The leaders of tin- 
so-called Moral Majority have won a certain amount of acclaim, 
not, however, for preaching the gospel but Foi attacking the pan- 
demit corruption and immorality of the worldly powers that be. 
Ironically sunn- of this corruption can !>c ascribed to the priests 
and preachers who rail vociferously against it 

The deformation of religion in America, die shift from the Old 
Testament stamp of the original white settlers to the permissive so- 
cial Christianity of die present, raises the age-old question of how 
effectively religion shapes character anil how effectively character 
shapes religion. According to modern standards, the colonial 
American, his rifle in one hand, his Bible in the other, was a car* 
icatuie of a Christian. lie may have read the Good Book to his Fam- 
ily once a week. Inn he seldom went to < liuu h. The Pilgrims, it is 
known, had no pastor for nine years after their arrival. In Virginia 



24. According to the J994 World Almanac, there air ijB33,G22,10G Christian as 
compared to £71,328,000 Moslems, 732,812,000 Ifindw, 314,939,000 Buddhists, 

187,107,000 Chinese folk religionists, 18,800,000 Sikhs, 17.822,000 jews, 
10,493,000 StuiimusLv h ,028,000 Confucians, and 6.028,000 Baha'is. Despite the 
huge iiumlicr of Christians, Kahhi Arthur Heiuherg, president of the American 
Jewish league, is known to have said, "I think Christianity is d<ud." Nrw York 
Doily Nim, May 13, ll)7=>„ p. -it. 



270 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Fewer than one out of nineteen were church members. Among 
Massachusetts Bay colonists only one-fifth were even professing 
Christians, 25 Joshua, though perhaps not the late Bishop Pike, 26 
would have been proud of ihe Pilgrims. When they did manage to 
go to Plymouth Church, they marched in three abreast with (heir 
muskets and firelocks at the ready, as other members of the con- 
jrregauon manned six cannon on the roof, earh capable of shooting 



25. William W. Sweet, The Story of Religion in America. Harper, New York, 1050, 
pp. 5, 45, 48. 

'2fi. I~he public immorality of many modern church leaders is the best proof of 
the profound change that has taken place in Ajmerkan religion. Bishop Pike, tor 
example, was almost the antithesis of the seventeenth-century Puritan divine. Bom 
a Roman Catholic in Hollywood, Pike attended a Jesuit school and became a law- 
yer before being ordained an Kpisropal priest. An alcoholic when promoted to 
bishop, Pike was thrice married and twice divorced. His son and a favorite vc- 
retaiy committed suicide; his daughter attempted suicide. Before he died irt Israel, 
he resigned hi* bishopric under fire and devoted himself to Ipi ritualism Time, 
Nov. 11, 1*M>6, p. 56, and New York Times. Scpi H, IW», p. I. I wo pmmincni black 
churchmen set equally poor examples. Adam Clayton Powell, with his padded pay- 
rolls and rxpcuacr-atcounl shenanigans, and Martin Luther King, Jr., with hi* at- 
tempts to direct the course of American foreign and domestif policy, behaved 
more like Renaissance cardinals than Baptist ministers. New York Times, Jan •(, 
1969, p. 1 and Time, Aug. 17, 1970, p, 13, Even the "prophet" of the Black Mil* 
Urns, Elijah Muhammad, who served a Unee-year prison term for draft dodging, 
scandalized his principal lieutenant, by fib dalliance with die office help, Auto 
biography of Malcolm X, pp. 209-10, 299 Dean Moorehouse, a former Methodist 
minister, went to jail for giving USD to minors. lie was the friend of Charles Man- 
•w>n, leadei of a West Coast cult that committed at least nine murders. Moore> 
house remained Manson's friend, even after the latter "adopted" Moorr house's 
fi! Uin-yrat-old daughter into his homicidal band. New York Times. Magaztne, Jan. 4, 
I'JVO, \>. TJ.. Winn I' pi- -upal Bishop RtiU-i t 1 latch was informed dial his daughter 
was appearing nude in a San Francisco theater, he said, "*I am gliad she has a 
chance to express herself. 1 * Time, June 8, 1970, p. -40. "Hie Reverend Ted 
Mrltveiina, a Methodist minister in San Francisco, made sixty-four explicit sex 
films and sold them for $150 to $250 each to tt,OO0 customers, "one of our largest 
being the federal government." He used a cast of ten unpaid volunteer couples. 
New York Times, May 1 8, 1980. A few years earlier, ninety leading Episcopal priests 
agreed homosexual acts between consenting adults are "morallv ru-nual" and 
might even be a good thing. New York Timet, Nov. 29 f 1967. p. I Perhaps the low 
point in religion in America was reached in Jonestown, Guyana, where the psycho 
path i< Reverend Jim Jones ordered the mass suicide of 91 1 of his largely black flock 
in 1978. Another crazed divine, David Korcsh, presided over iihe immolation of 85 
of his semi-hypnotized Followers in his 1993 stand-off with federal agents in Waco. 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



271 



iron balls oi four to five pounds. 27 Was ihis a different kind of 
Christianity? Or was it a different kind of Christian? 

Many other aspects of early American Christianity are equally ab- 
horrent to modern church leaders. John Winthrop, the first gov- 
ernor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, probably spoke for all the 
Puritan elders when he said that, democracy "has always been 
Counted the meanest and worst of all forms of government. *** In 
Connecticut and Massachusetts the right to vote was restricted to 
church members, upsetting as this may be to those who believe that 
Use American political tradition is unalterably bound to the separa- 
tion of church and state. 2y Equally upsetting is the fact that the 
New England church thrived on the slave and rum trade, and that 
many well-known Congregational ministers were slave owners.™ 

The Protestant religion has passed through its Old Testament pi- 
oneering phase and, despite a lot of noisy fundamentalists, its New 
Testament evangelical phase. It is now well into its libeial phase. 
The Catholic religion in America is on a somewhat similar, but later 
starting, timetable. S1 The binning faith brought over hy immigrants 
from Ireland and Central :md Southern Europe has gradually cool- 
ed, Many of their descendants now obey a less rigid and more toler- 
ant code, which permits them to defy their Church's ban on con- 
traceptives and divorce, skip mass for golf, and escape or think 
about escaping from the warm protection of their religious cocoon 
into the uncharted spaces of agnosticism. 

Priests and even some nuns are marrying, not always within the 
Church. 32 Parochial schools are shuuing down for lack of funds. 
Members of the hierarchy are challenging papal infallibility. As the 
possibility of another great schism looms, the Church is having an 
increasingly difficult time keeping its decreasingly devout rommun 



For those with short memories, in the 80* and carry 90s, ;i. considerable number of 
Ciiiholic r)rir'*iAroiiirs.v-i1 to Ik bein^ homosexuals or « tiild molesters . 

27. Sweet, op. tit, pp. 46-47. 28. Ibid.,]!. 51. 29. Ibid., p. 58, 

30. Ibid., pp. 285-86. There were 6„000 slaves in Massachusetts in 1776. 

31 . The "Catholic" colony of Maryland was largely a fiction. During 1 most of its 
existence Catholic immigrants weie forbidden entry and Catholic Worship pro- 
hibited. Heard, 7'fie ifw of American (ATtUttition,\ r o\. I, p. 6f>. 

S2. Sister Jacqueline Crennan married Jewish widower Paul Woxler. Mis. Wexlei 
became president of Hunter College. Philip Kerrigan, the radical defrocked priest, 
married a nun who was later arrested lor shoplifting. Time, .Sept. 18, 1973, p. 46. 



Thf Dis|K>ssoss< - cl Majority 



hunts under one roof. If the Church moves too far to the left to ap- 
pease its growing Hispanic contingent, ii alienates its Irish ami oth- 
er assimilated white Catholics. As racial divisions within its ranks 
sharpen, as the old external battle against the Protestants turns 
into an internal struggle for power, Catholic unity, once such a 
strong political force in the United States, may soon decline in the 
point where Catholics will no longer vote according to their re- 
ligion but according to their race. 15 

Judaism in America has followed iLhe same hyiotheisiic route as 
Protestantism and Catholicism. The orthodox zealotry of the Seph- 
ardim of pre-Revoludonary and Revolutionary days compares to 
the more rational religiosity of contemporary Reform and Con- 
servative Judaism as an acetylene torch compares to a candle. At 
present no more than 10 percent of American Jewry observes die- 
tary laws. Polls suggest that Jewish college students are considerably 
less reBglOUS than non-Jewish students. u There are some 4,000 Jew- 
ish congregations in the United States, comprising approximately 
70 percent oi all Jewish .families. Nonetheless most Jews affiliated 
wiili synagogues can hardly Ix- described as pious. Only 19 percent 
ol American Jews visit a temple once a week.* 5 

1'he establishment of Israel has reversed or at least slowed this 
secular trend, drawing some Jews hack, into the religious fold by re- 
newing their interest in Jewish history. ™ Judaism also continues 
to be attractive to many Jews for a reason that has nothing to do with 
religion and much to do with practical politics, As one prominent 



33 A 1992 survey by the Princeton Religion Research Center Count! that '26 
percent of Americans adhered to the Roman Catholic Church; 56 percent to vari* 
oiis Protestant denomination*. 

54, Albert L. Gordon, hitrrmarnagf. Beacon, Boston, 1964, pp. 42, 47-1H, 50, 97, 

35. Gallup Poll, Jan. 13, 1974. 

3fi In respect to numbers, religious Jewry is barer/ holding its own, despite Lhe 
recent arrival of large groups of Russian Jews From the fragmented Soviet Union. 
Al best there are some 3,000 conversions a year, mostly Gentile women preparing 
to marry traditionally oriented Jewish males. Not many, however, convert to the 
Oi thoxiox hi anch of Judaism, a process which includes sitting in a tub or water up 
to the neck while two learned elders discourse on the major and minor command 
menu. litvinolT, A Peculiar PtopU, p. 26, and YafFe, op. cir, pp. 46, 100. 102. The 
declining number of Jew* ha* caused Rabbi Alexander Schindler, presides of the 
Union of American Hebiew Congregations, to propo*- .i i.ulu ;i[ icinclv. Normal- 
ly, Jewish law regards only the child of a Jewish mother as a Jew. In consideration 



TJ IK CULTURAL CLASH 



273 



American Jew explained, "In fighting (he cause of Jewish rights 
abroad, the religious approach is usually lhe one thai Jewish lead- 
ership funis ii most advisable to lake." 37 He mighl have added that 
Judaism also serves as a useful camouflage for Jewish activity in do- 
mestic affairs. In the meantime their old religious animus against 
Christianity has been mollified as Jews discover the advantages to 
be. gained hum the Christian liberal's emphasis on selective toler- 
ance and the Christian conservative's support lor Israel. 

lhe ecumenical movement, though successful in bringing Prot- 
estants and Catholics closer together than at any time since the Ref- 
ormation, has been powerless to prevent the various Christian de- 
nominations from abandoning their moral ascendancy over 
American life. If secularization continues at its present pace, Chris- 
tianity may soon have no deeper significance in the American 
scheme 6f things than does sports. Protestantism, in fact, has be- 
come so lukewarm thai even the issue ol federal aid ro (-duration 
no longer secretes undue amounts of adrenaline in Baptist or 

Methodist glands. Without regard to small, scattered voices oi 
protest, national, state, and local governments often subsidize pa- 
rochial schools with free lunches and transportation. Parochial in- 
stitutions of higher learning are aided with live- and six-figure mon- 
etary grants for the physical and social sciences. Little outcry is 
heard when the tlaniingly liberal Jesuit, Robert Drinan, white Collar 
resplendent in television floodlights, runs lor public office. 38 

hi recent years the most sensitive area of church-state relation- 
ship lias not been the mixing oi religion and politics, but the public 
observance ol religion. Supreme Court rulings against saying 
prayers in public schools 4 ' 1 and the display of religious symbols in 



of the growing rate of mixed marriages, Rabbi Sc hindlcr suggested thai, the child 
of a Jewish father and a (ienLile mother be recognized as a Jew. Conservatives and 
Reform Jew j did not seem to bridle at the suggestion. Orthodox ]ews were out- 
raged. Chicago Snittnsl, Dec, 20, 1079, p.& 

37. Israel Goldstein, The American Jewish Qmmumfy Block Publishing, I960, 

38. Bui there is a public or rather a media ontcrv when fundamentalist preach* 
en give political sermons, rather Drinan relinquished his seat in Congress by com- 
mand of Pope John Paul II in 1930, but was immediately elected president, of the 
Americans loi Democratic Action. 

39. In \9&2. the- Court decided thai lhe recitation oi' the lord's Prayet or Bible 
verses in public school* was unconstitutional, thereby, according to Senator Kivin 



274 



The Dispossessed Majority 1 



public places/ 10 minority assaults on Christmas pageantry in the 
classroom, 11 minority complaints about Christmas stamps with re- 
ligious themes 42 — all these are the outgrowths of what is essentially 
a mounting racial controversy. 

In former limes, separation of church and state meant that church- 
es were lo stand alone without financial, legal, or any other kind of 
assistance from government. Now it tends to mean that religion 
must be isolated and even quarantined from public contact. This 
could be construed as more of a constriction than an extension of 
religions liberty. The free exercise of religion is hardly possible 
without freedom of religious expression. 

The campaign against public celebrations of the Majority's re- 
ligion, 1 '^ in addition to its built-in iconoclasm, cannot avoid becom- 
ing a campaign against the Majority's culture, Quite apart from its 
religious significance, Christmas — decorative tree, yule log, Santa 
Clans, elves, reindeer, and sky-riding sleigh — is an exuberant man- 
iiestation, perhaps the most exuberant manifestation, of Majority 
lolkwavs. 



ol North Carolina, making <'**1 I hmsrlf unronstituUonftL L, A. Huston, Pathway lo 
Judgment. Chilton Press, Philadelphia, lOGo", p. t. The prayer on which the Court 
ruled said simply, "Almighty Gi*J, wc acknowledge our dependence upon Thee 
and we beg Thy blessings upon us, our parent, our irarhrcs und our country! 

40. The Court ruled five to two in forbidding the erection of a cross m a city 
park in Eugene, Oregon. New York Times, Oct 5. 1969, p. 68. 

41. In I9S9 die superintendent of the MEarbkhcad, Massachusetts, public school 
system banned all mention of Christinas, but finally reversed himself after a series 
of demonstrations hy Majority children. Washington Evening Star, Dec. 1, 1969, p- 4. 

42. Thfi U.S. Post Office was bitterly condemned by the American Jewish Con- 
gress foi issuing a stamp which contained a reproduction of Hans Mending's great 
Renaissance painting, Madonna and Child. New York Times, July J 7, 1966. In defer- 
ence to Negro pressure, black Santa Gauses and "integrated angels' are now show* 
tng up almost everywhere in the Christmas season. 

45. Christianity may be thought of m the national religion of the T.S, in rhr 
M-n.sc- th.it at most only A percent of the population belongs to non-Christian church- 
es and thai the. remaining 9o percent either by religious affiliation, church at 
tendance, birth, baptism, tradition or inclination exhibits some degree of attach- 
ment to Christian beliefs, Although a 1%8 Gallup Poll repented only 50,000,000 
Americans attend ehun h regularly, most Anient ans who do not go to church still 
consider themselves Christians San Fm*td$& Sunday Examiner & Chronicle, This 
WorUl, Doc. 29, l§fi$ p. 10. A 1974 Calhip poll indicated that 55 percent of Cath- 
olics, :*7 percent of ProtesuutLs, and 10 percent of Jews attend church every week. 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



275 



Already Majority memljers have permitted their biggest holiday 
to be transformed into an overcommercialized Oriental bazaar hy 
giant department and discouni stores, many of which are owned by 
non-Christians. Any further censorship or perversion of Christmas 
would be a further abridgement, not just of the Majority's religious 
freedom, but of access lo its culture, justice Potter Stewart, the lone 
dissenter in die Supreme Court's school prayer ruling, made this 
point clear when he said that the Court, instead of being neutral to- 
wards religion* was actually hostile when it denied students "the op- 
portunity of sharing in the spiritual heritage of the nation." 4 ' 1 

T. S. Eliot wrote, "the culture of a people |is| an incarnation of 
its religion,* and "no culture has appeared or developed — -except 
together wilh a religion. . . « H * & This is tantamount to saying that re- 
ligion and culture are indivisible, thai one cannot be isolated front 
the other without severe damage to Innh. In Knot's view it was no 
coincidence that mankind's greatest artistic achievements occurred 
when church and stale were working together, not apart. 

[n i he tradition ol the European motherlands, nine of the thir- 
teen colonies had established churches, as did England and the 
Scandinavian countries throughout most of their history. Church 
disestablishment in America came about during the War of In- 
dependence, which disrupted colonial lies to the Church of Eng- 
land. It was made official by the First Amendment, chiefly the work 
of Franklin, Jefferson, and Madison, many of whose religious (or ir- 
religious) ideas had 1 been borrowed from the French Enlighten- 
mem. 

tf the Creeks had been disestablishmentarians, there would have 
been no Parthenon, which was built with government funds, ami 
none of the great plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and 
Aristophanes, which were staged in a government amphitheater, 
subsidized in pari by the state treasury; and offered to the public 
during state-sponsored religious festivities. If church and state had 
been separated in (he Middle Ages and Renaissance, there would 



4-1. New York Times, June 26. 1962, p. 16, and June 1H, 1963. p. 28. In Boston the 
Jewish Aduotai*.. in an editorial agreeing with the prayer decision, suggested it 
mi^ht logically he extruded to bar the traditional dispiay at GhrisiLnv.ts of the Nativ- 
ity scene ant! other religious symbols at any public gathering or party. Watt Street 
>uruiljuiyt> t 1962, p. 1. 

45, Notes touHirds tlw Definition of Culture, pp. S2, 18 



276 



The Dispossessed Majority 



have been no Abbey of Cluny, no Gothic cathedrals, no Florentine 
Baptistery, no Sisune Chapel, no Last Supper. Bach, it might be add- 
ed, spent much of his musical life in state-supported churches. Fi- 
nally, since the most ardent advocates of church-state separation 
are frequently those who consider every word of the Bible divine 
revelation, ihey should be reminded that the Old Testament was 
the book of the ancient Hebrews, who more than any other people 
believed that church and state were one. 

It is ironic that the Supreme Court, at present the most powerful 
opponent of church-slate unity, sits in an imitation Greek temple, 
the originals of which would never have been built without the sub- 
sidies of an established church, 46 Could it be that the poverty and 
unoriginality of Washington's architecture — with its highest monu- 
ment copied from an Egyptian obelisk and its most famous land- 
marks slavishly duplicating Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman building 
styles — owe something to the fact that it is the capital of the only 
large nation where church and state have been separated for more 
than a hundred years"" 

1 be greatest attraction of religion, in the opinion, of Miguel uY 
Unaniimo, is the promise of immortality.* 7 Equally as attractive, if 



46. The anachronism of imitating ancient architectural style* in an a^e of inter- 
esting new construction materials was made plain to ail and sundry 1 When the Co- 
rinthian columns of die Supreme Court building were installed aftci the roof was 
in place 

47, Del sentimirnto trdgico dt la iido, p. 42. In addition in its purely religious im- 
pact. \l\t-. concept of an afterlife obviously has enormous social utility li is easier 
lor individuals and races to put up with die inequalities of eai tiilv existence if ihey 
believe, or can be persuaded to believe, they will haw another — and better— 
existence in the (IreaL Beyond. In this context, the promise of immortality cartnoi 
help but exercise a calming and stabilizing effect on society at large. On the oilier 
banc], the effect maybe loo calming arid stahitijing, perhaps to thr point of social 
stagnation, In the view of Martin Heidegger, whose teachings have been twisted 
beyond alt comprehension by the so-railed existentialist school of philosophy, im- 
mortality tends to devalue life. It is the awareness of deadt and its finality that in- 
trn sines human existence and gives it its deepest meaning just as the drama with- 
out a hnal curtain is hardly a drama, so endless, immeasurable time is not time at 
all Heidegger's philosophy increases man's individuality to where ii becomes al- 
most godlike— and almost unbearable. It goes well, however, with die new ami- 
Gopemiean view. Man, sharply reduced in size whrn the earth was demoted Irom 
die center of the universe to galactic speck, has now grown Urge again, perhaps 



THE CULTURAL CI ASH 



277 



endurance and survival are signs of attractiveness, arc religious cer- 
emonies, rites, sacraments, liturgies, and feast days— the inter- 
secting points between religion and folkways, between faith and art. 
The Northern gods have gone to Valhalla, hut the yule log still blaz- 
es. In the Soviet Union the Eastern Orthe iox Church was stripped 
of its primacy and its privileges, but the spectacular Russian Easter 
services continued to enthrall believers and nonlic-Hevers alike. 
(Now that 70 years of persecution have ended, the Church is back 
in business, though it still has a loi of catching up to do to regain 
the influence and special position it held under the Czars-) In Mex- 
ico priests are not supposed to wear cassocks in the street, vet each 
year hundreds or thousands of Mexicans go on pilgrimages, some 
even bloodying their beads with crowns of thorns in gruesome re- 
enaenneni.s of the Stations of the Cross. 

Unamuno to the contrary; most people want to live in the pres- 
ent a_s well as in the hereafter, The immediately understandable 
and enjoyable emanations of religion— particularly its dram- 
aturgy — seem as necessary to Western man and to Western aesthet- 
ics as its theology. As if sensing this, the liberal-minority coalition at- 
tacks the manifestations of Christianity rather than Christianity 
itself. Those in the vanguard of the attack, however, are already 
finding it simpler to silence prayers in public schools than ii is to si- 
lence Christmas carols. 

Many devout Christians, having taken note of the intelligentsia's 
open season on religion and religious observances, conclude that 
they are living in a profane age. They arc right to the extent that 
the times are inauspicious for organized religion. But, as pointed 
out earlier, the reservoir of human faith is always full, Ii is not the 
amount ol faith thai changes, ii is die direction. Religious ages do 
noi yield to ages of skepticism, as some historians pretend. Old es- 
tablished faiths simply give way to new inchoate faiths. Much of the 



larger than before. Just, possibly, man is the onfy intelligent being in all spare — die 
exalted status accorded htm utttil the Renaissance. H there are highei life forma in 
thr cosmos, 11 is almost niaiheinaueatly certain thai some would \w far enough 
ahead of man in ihr evolutionary process to send biin simple signals that could be 
pit ked up on l adio lelest t ipes and olhei sopbislic a led e|.ei tioiiii" listening devices. 
At least Tor the moment, outer space is very still. For the heavy odds against in- 
telligent extraterrestrial life, see Science Nezvs, Feb. 2-1, IV(79, and Natural ilitt#ry 
magazine, May 1070. 



278 



The Dispossessed Majority 



religious feeling loose in the world today U in the hearts of those 
who most object to being called religious, 

A frequent sequel to the decline of formal religion is the re- 
appearance of the shaman or witch doctor, whose bag of magical 
potions and cure-alls is as old as humanity Itself, In limes of an es^ 
tablished church, the shaman must work in the shadows. But in 
eras of religious "freedom" he is everywhere at once, gathering fol- 
lowers here, collecting donations there, and spreading the tidings 
of his own peculiar metaphysics up and down the land- Sometimes 
the shaman operates on the outer fringes of a universal religion, 
Someumcs he leads his flock out of one universal religion into an- 
other, as did Elijah Muhammad of the Rlack Muslims. On occasion 
he dissociates himself from all contemporary religious manifesta- 
tions and returns to the primeval lx-drock. of religion — to animism 
and anthropomorphism. 

The phenomenal resurgence of astrology and soothsaying is one 
example of this trend. But the most sinking evidence of the de- 
scent of religion from the sublime to the subliminal is provided by 
that special and somewhat illegitimate branch of psychology known 
as psychoanalysis. Here in one l>eguiling, gift-wrapped package is 
almost all the religious stock-in-trade of ancient man — casting out 
of devils, interpretations of dreams, incest myths, obsessive sexual 
teleologies, and gut-wrenching confessionals. The director of the 
show? None other than the grand old shaman himself, Sigmund 
Freud. 

As a scientific method for the investigation of the inner man, as a 
therapeutic tool for mental illness, psychoanalysis can hardly be 
taken seriously by any rational person. Yet this masierwork of spir- 
itual primitivism has been raised to such psychological, philosoph- 
ical, and even religious heights thai it has exercised and continues 
to exercise a deeply corrosive effect on Western manners and mor- 
als. In the realm of art and aesthetics, where it has probably done 
the most harm, psychoanalysis has homed in on man, once 
thought to be a little lower than the angels, and deescaJated hirn to 
the level of the brute. 

To learn about the workings of the human brain it would have 
seemed wiser to investigate the neuron, a physiological fact, rather 
than the id, ego, and superego, which are hardly more than psycho 



TIIECUITURM.CI.ASII 



27<) 



logical or, more accurately, psychomantk fancies. Thai Freud did 
not take the more difficult approach is one of the secrets of his 
popularity. Intuition and revelation, the scientific euphemism for 
which is synthesis, pack, in a much bigger audience than long hours 
of controlled laboratory experiments.- 18 To establish and preserve 
his professional status, Freud coated his teachings wuli just enough 
psychological lore to convince the unwary, unstable, and untutored 
that he was not a humbug. His scientific pretensions notwithstand- 
ing, he operated more in the tradition of Joseph and Daniel, his 
remote forebears, than in the footsteps of those who performed 
the plodding, painful research responsible for the authentic ad- 
vances in the study of human behavior. 19 

Reading Freud, one has difficulty imagining how the world man- 
aged to gel along until the advent of psychoanalysis. Either the pre- 
Freudian victims of neurosis never knew what they were suffering, 
or the affliction was no older than the diagnosis. Though only the 
rich can afford to be psychoanalyzed, the man-in-thc-street under- 
goes something like the process daily at bargain prices by exposure 
to the massive Freudian ijackwash in the arts. It is probably un- 
necessary to point out that the greatest writers in modern English 
literature — Eliot, Yeats, and D. II. Lawrence, to name three — 
abhorred Freud. Lawrence even went to the trouble of writing two 
anti-Freudian tracts. Fantasia of the Unconscious and Psyrliomialpu 
and the Ihicorarimis. Second-rate writers, however, made Freudian- 
ism a central part of their work. James Joyce and Thomas Mann 
were two of the belter novelists who borrowed heavily from Freud, 
although Mann warned in The Magic Mountain thai there is an as- 
pect of psychoanalysis which "maims life at its roots." 



48. The lei idem v of Jewish v:ienti$La to rely on mathematical instead of physical 
laws, on inductive traps insLead of the laboiious aro limitation of empirical ev- 
idence, is so pronounced dial it tan almost be described as a racial Trait. Kinstein 
is die most celebrated case. Spensler wrote mat Herte, who was half-Jewish, was 
the only important modem scientist lo aitempi to eliminate the concept of force 
from has physic*. The Decline oj tfo Wfst, Vol. I, p. 414. 

(*->- While- Fiend was pustulating alxtnt nnmjws and psychoses, John Hough- 
lings Jackson (1835-1911), a noted British neurologist, .spent his life studying the 

function and development of the nn vous system. Jackson's evolutionary theory ot" 
brain development is fundamental to the study of" the function or malfunction of 
rile human intellect. Bui how many have heard of John Houghlings Jackson? 



280 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Liberalism raised the environment togodhood. Freud preached 
the unconscious, the id, that seething mass of sex-ridden instincts 
and drives, that interior devil thai can only t>e effectively exorcised 
by the Freudian priesthood. Theorelitally, modern liberalism and. 
psychoanalysis should have not one square centimeter of common 
ground. The former appeals, or pretends to appeal, to [lie rational 
in man: the tatter to the irrational. Nevertheless there are sub- 
terranean links that establish a very odd symbiosis. Himself an au- 
thoritarian of the first water, Freud seldom let his writings stray be- 
yond equautarianisni into the political area of race. A liberal in 
politics, a minority member, and a fanatical enemy of Nazism, he 
probably did as much as anyone to change the shape of Western 
civilization, particularly in the United States, where he was forgiven 
for his illilRTal historicism, his determinism, and his sickening 
stress on the reptilian and mammalian aspects of human behavior, 
and welcomed into the club, 

Freud sharpened his attack on the freedom of the wilt by clas- 
sifying several important manifestations of individuality as re> 
pressions, which lie defined as harbingers of neuroses, psychoses, 
or worse. One sm h repression was guilt, Freud's favorite bogey- 
man, the elimination of which he set as one of the principal goals 
of psychotherapy. *° Bui by getting rid of guilt, one also gets rid of a 
bulwark of social stability and order — the most practical, possibly 
the most inexpensive, of all known crime deterrents. If it had the 
choice, which would society prefer, murderers who feel guilty or 
those who don't? 

Freud's advocacy of compliant adjustment to one's surroundings 
is not unrelated to the widespread intellectual conformity which 
has descended on America. His cloacal approach to the roots of hu- 
man thought and action has opened up a whole new dimension of 
vulgarity and itastelessness and helped smooth the way for the 
present Age of Pornography. The Freudian antidote for the mental 
imbalance caused by technology, deraci nation, and the con- 
temporary social centrifuge is to rummage around the events of 
one's childhood for sexual ghosts, fhe good doctor's seething con- 



30. When it is a question of the. guilt ol Majority members towards Negroes and 
other minorities or of Germans towards jews, Freudians often have convenient dog- 
matic lapses and turn from the teachings of psychoanalysis to the Ok [ Testament. 



Tilt CULTURAL CLASH 



281 



cern for the bizarre, ihe banal, and the perverse* 1 has attracted so 
many neurotic personalities to his camp it is often difficult to dis- 
tinguish between patient and analyst, 

A case in point is Dr. Douglas Kolley, one of the court-appointed 
psychiatrists of the Nuremberg trials, who wrote a bestseller on the 
neuroiic tendencies of the incarcerated Nazi leaders, much of the 
space being devoted to an analysis of ] lermann Goering. Uter Kel- 
ley, like Goering, committed suicide by swallowing a cyanide piU.* a 
Another Freudian doctor Wilhelm Reich, who died in Lewisburg 
Federal Penitentiary in 1957 while serving a sentence Tor mail 
Fraud, Founded and directed a schismatic psychoanalytic cub ded- 
icated to the knowledge, function, and psychological ramifications 



„ 5* 



of the orgasm 

In its aberrani attempts to cure oi control mental disorders psy- 
( hoanalysis has been able to obscure bui not bury certain axiomai- 
u truths, flic mind breaks down permanently or temporarily from 
overwork or over-leisure. Some minds are born with defects. Some 
develop them. If the mind lives alone, if the mind tries to survive 
on its own waste, it becomes disordered. Sanity is a function of pur- 
pose. Remove the spiritual props, the cultural reinforcements, the 

51. Only a spec iafot in perversity could have taken such liberties with the beauti- 
ful Greek legends of the phoeni* and Prometheus Of the former, Freud wrote, 
Trobably the earliest significance of the phoenix was thai of the revivified penis 
aftei its state of flarddity, raLher than that oi the sun letting m the evening glow 
and using again." Freud dismissed Prometheus as a "penis-symbol" and gave his 
own version of die discovery of fire "How I conjw ture that, in order to possess 
hiroseU of fire, it was necessary Ru man to renounce the homosexual*? tinged de- 
sire in extinguish li by a stream oi urine . .to primeval man the aiun.pt to ex 
tinguish Tim- by means or his own water signified a pleasurable struggle with an- 
.xhn phallus." U was for these reasons, according to Freud, thai primitive societies 
P«n women in charge of fire because then anatomy precluded yielding to the 
winpuimn bred hy mules. Freud, CoUtded Pafxrs, Hogarth Press, London, 1950. 
Vol. 5, pp. 288, 291-02, and Oinhiati&n arui its Disamtmts, Erans. ]oan Riviere, Jon- 
athan Cape and Harrison Smith, New York, 1930, p. 50. footnote 1 

52. Douglas Kelley. 22 CeUt in Nuremberg Greenberg* New Vork, 1947, pp, 76-77, 
Ben Swearingen, author of Tfo Myskry of Hermann Gomng's Suiridr [Hatttmrl 
Brace Jovanovirh, New York, L9S5), alleges that Lieutenant \,u k While slipped the 
Nazi seeond-iiKommand tlie pill hours l«-fore hi* scheduled eiecnliofl. Ur had 
reuieved u months c-ai lin from Coerin^'s luggage. 

53. Wilhelm Reich, Selected Writings, Noonday Press, New Voik, L95& Reich 
established a thriving business selling "orgone boxes' to his hand of m*« benevci s. 



282 



The Dispossessed Majority 



trine-tested morale builders, the four-dimensional insurance of fam- 
ily, race, naiion, and church, and the delicately balanced human 
mentality can easily crack. Even a brain as powerful as Nietzsche's 
could not stand the strain of continuous isolation. 

Psychoanalysis recognizes rootlessness as a cause of mental dis- 
order, but it avoids the subject of racelessness, the extreme case of 
rootlessness, Et stresses the importance to mental health of the feel- 
ing ol belonging hut it ignores race consciousness, one of the most 
intensive expressions of this feeling. For these and oiher reasons 
psychoanalysis totally misses the point when it tries to explain the 
origins of the ruosi pernicious mental affliction of all — the state of 
mind which leads to suicide. 

Suicide is the ninth cause of death in the United States among 
the general population, the ihird cause among die 15-19 age group 
and the second cause among college studems. 5 * Some of the lowest 
suicide rates are found in less affluent stales like Mississippi and 
South Carolina; some of the highest in the more affluent Pacific 
states. One 1992 study revealed that she suicide rate of American 
whites was 2.5 times greater than that of American blacks. 55 In 
11)50-77 the annual suicide rate for young white males rose from 
3.5/100,000 to 15.3/100,000, an increase of 437 percent. In 1992, 
3360 American males in the 15-24 year bracket took their own 
lives. 

The racial correlations thai emerge from these statistics seem to 
be almost totally lost on psychoanalysts, who continue to explain 
suicide in terms of death wishes, depressive states, the frustration 
of high expectations, and the implosion of aggressive instincts. The 
statistics also stand in sharp contradiction to Marxist and environ- 
mentalist theories which predict that the rich with their greater ma- 
terial blessings are less apt to commit suicide than the poor. 

ft is, of course, the opposite that takes place. The greatest num- 
ber oi suicides occur not in the world's backward areas, lint in the 
more advanced. It is among the rich and "successful* 1 that the high- 
est suicide rates an- usually found, not among the poor. Where 



54. Tvm Nov. 25, 1666, p. 48, and 19W World Almanac, p 956. 

55, The low n on white suicide rale was almost entirety due to Negroes, since the 
rate for American Indians was 1 1.5, for Japanese American*, 6.9, and for Chine**? 
Americans, 1 5. 1 . I^uis Dublin, Sulfide, Ronald Press, New York, 1963, pp. SS-35. 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



283 



there is more racism, there is likely to l>e less suicide. Urbanism, 
loss of religion, career setbacks, and intellectual exhaustion are 
contributing factors to suicide, bin an all-important correlation re- 
mains Uu- "racial morale" of a given population group at a given time. 
Almost everyone who has studied the origins of psychoanalysis is 
aware that it is the product of the minority mind. Not only was 
Freud Jewish, Inn so were practically all his associates. 56 Few, how- 
ever, are aware ihat psychoanalysis is also the product of minority 
animus. According to Howard Sachar, a noted Jewish scholar, a 
prime motivation of the pioneer Freudians was 

i Ik* unconscious desire of Jews to on mask the respectability or 
the European society which had closed them out. There was 
no way of doing this than by dredging op from the human 
[>sv< he the sordid ;ni<! iuhmlile scxu.il aberrations. - . Kven 
Jews who were not psychiatrists must have taken pleasure in 
the feat of social equalization performed by Freud's '"new 
thinking/ The [Vnai B'rith Lodge of Vienna, for example, 
delighted in listening to Freud air his theories. . . _ 57 

Freud could count a large number of prominent social scientists 



56. Sariiar, The Count of Modern Jewish History, p. -400. The original Freudian cir- 
cle included Kahane, Rcitler, Heller, Graf, Sadger, Sterner, Sachs, and Nilberec. 
Among Siginund Fiend's piincipal followers, though some strayed well lieyond 
the doctrinal frontiers of the founder, were Adler, Rank, Abraham, Stekel, Federn, 
Klein, Reich, Homey, and Fromm. Ruth I,. Monroe, Sr.hwls oj I'syihoawdytic 
Thought, Dryden Press, New York, 1955, p. 14. The three most prominent non- 
Jewish psychoanalysts were Ernest Junes, die glib and gifted Welshman known as 
Trend's apostle to die Anglo-Saxons," who had a Jewish wile; Harry Staek Sul- 
livan, of Irish extraction, the one top-ranking American psychoanalyst; and Carl 
Jung, a Swiss. Fiend was so interested in preventing psychoanalysis from being 
known a* a "Jewish science* that he tolerated Jung as head of the Intel -national 
Psychoanalytic Society, despite- the lattei's basic disagreement with Freudian dog- 
ma. Jnn£ eventually became interested in the collective rather than the individual 
unconscious and flirted with problems of racial memory and racial archetypes. For 
ihis and for making a few not too unfriendly remarks about National Socialist Ger- 
many, he was branded u fascist. Weyl, Tf\e Creative Elite in A merit' a, p. 95, and the 
Saturday Rrt'iero of Uttmturt, Sept. ('», 19-17, p. 21, and June II, 1949, p. 10. Al- 
though he never quite escaped the Freudian taint, Jung's most important work 
may eventually prove lo have l>een in the fields of mythology and culture history 
rather than in the plumbing of the psyche. 

57. Sachar, op. cit., pp. 400-401. 



284 



The Dispossessed Majority 



among his following. Claude Levi-Strauss, the "structural anthro- 
pologist/ has injected the Freudian schematic into modern anthro- 
pology, writing in typical psychoanalytical jargon, "In the language 

. of myth vomit is the correlative and inverse term of coitus, and 
defecation is the correlative and inverse term to auditory com- 
munication. " 5a 

Herbert Marcuse, the late mentor of the New Left, constructed a 
synthesis of Marx and Freud, modifying and rearranging the Oed- 
ipus Complex in such a way that the father stands for capitalism 
and the parricidal son, the proletariat. 59 Such fanciful nonsense 
would make interesting footnotes in a history of scholarly tomfool- 
ery, ii it were not taken seriously by so many liberal intellectuals, 

It is to Freudian practitioners that the Majority member often 
comes when seeking relief from real or imagined mental illness. He 
is at once subjei led to a sordid, demeaning, demoralizing, and de- 
racinating interrogatory that extinguishes whatever sparks of self- 
respect he has left* The crux of his problem is not touched, and 
the problem itself is exacerbated. For the Majority patient as he or 
more usually she may iu.i discover in time, the psychoanalyst's 
couch is the bed of Procrustes. In no area of the cultural clash has 
the toll of Majority psyches been SO heavy. 01 

Religious fervor can l>e a great catalyst of human energy'. Hut a 
pseudo religion like Freudianism, when ministered by a minority 
priesthood to a Majority congregation, can only induce a lethargic 
hedonism that brings out the worst in everyone. What good can 
possibly come from what Jung has called those "frightful gods [who] 



58. Edmund Leach, Uvt-Strouss, Eontana/CcHios, London, 1070, p. fli . 
5'.). Ahadair ^acltttyre, Marcuss, Fomann/Collms, London, 1970, pp. 41-54 and 
New Y&& Tmes ffotik ffanm Oct 26, 1960, p. uti. 

60. Jewish patients fare bole better, even though then hi-li ethnic waren™ of- 
ten more resistance to feracuMCton. As thev tm n fromjudawnjjews take to analy- 
sis in ever greater numbers because "such concepts as equality brotherhood and 
internationalism, have been differentially attractive to Jew*/ It was especially -at- 
tractive to Jews of Ewe European origin . . . steeped in Talmudk traditions, be* 
cause it Invoked a highly abstract manipulation of abstruse concept* and a mimi- 
muiin of scientific, experimentation." VVeyl, op. tit.., p, 96. 

61. "Thus ii is a mute unpardonable mistake," Carl Jung has written, "u> accept 
the conclusions of a Jewish psychology as generally valid. Nobody would dftam of 
lakm K Chinese or Indian psychology as bmdiftf upon ou, selves. The cheap accu- 
sation of anti-Semitism thai lias been levelled al me on the ground of this criticism 



Tl IE CULTURAL CLASH 



285 



have only changed their names and now . . . rhyme? with 'ism'"? 62 

Perdval Bailey, director of research ai the Nliums Psychiatric In- 
stitute, in perhaps the most devastating attack ever written on Frend- 
ianism, predicted thai psychoanalysis in the long run will probably 
be reinemlx-Tcd as something akin to animal magnetism. 63 As a 
means of avoiding (lie Freudian cul-de-sac which he asserts has nev- 
er kepi a psychiatric patient out of an asylum, as well as providing a 
cautionary guideline for Majority members in search of a religion, 
Dr. Bailey invokes some memorable words of D.H. Lawrence: 



is about as intelligent a.i accusing me of an anti-Chinese prejudice.. No doubt, on 
an earlier and deeper level of psyt Ine development, where it is still impossible to 
distinguish between an Aryan, Semitic, Kami be, or Mongolian mentality, all hu- 
man races have a common collective psyche. But with the beginning of racial dif- 
ferentiation: essential differences are developed in the collective psyche as well. 
Foi this reason we cannot transplant the spirit of a foreign race in gfofitf into our 
own mentality without sensible injury to the latter, a fact which does not, however, 
deter sundry natures of feeble instinct from affecting Indian philosophy and the 
like " CMUcled Works, trans. R. K C. Hull, Pantheon Books. New York, lWtf, Vol. 7, 
p. 119, footnote H. 

62, Fsyrhohgiml Rifltctions, Harper & Row. New York, I9l>l , p. 1H4. 

OS. Penival Bailey, "A Ringed Radio Interview — with lllusti atious of Various 
Ego-Ideals," Perspetlivts m Biology and Medicine, The University of Chicago Press, 
Winter, 1961, pp. 19^265. Another leading anti-Freudian is Dr. Thomas Siasz, 
who considers menial illness not so much a disease as a form of role playing Where 
the patient deliberately arts irrationally in order to get his own way. Thomas Szasz, 
The Myth oj Mental Illness. Iloeber- Harper. New York, 1961, Chapter 13, R.D. 
Lfting, a psychiatrist very much in the news, asserts that every psychosis carries the 
vrd i.A' its own cure, and that some forms of madness aye a vastly enriching hu- 
man experience if allowed to run their course. For more on I king's theories see 
Timr, Feb. 7, l%9, p. 8$ Philosopher Alfred North Whitehead found more fault 
with Freudians than with Fiend himself. "Hie ideas of Freud were popularized by 
people who only imperfectly understood them, who were incapable of the great ef- 
fort required to grasp them in their relationship to larger truths, and who there- 
fore assigned to them a prominence out of all proportion to their true im- 
portance." Dialogues of Alfred X. Whitehead, Little, Brown, Boston, 1054, p. 211. 
Henri Kllenbet^er, author of The Dhmxrj oj the Unconscious (Basic Rooks, New 
\brk, 1070), has shown dial many of these "ideas of Freud" were borrowed and 
that Freud received the credit for them because of Ins genius for self- 
populari/-ation, Certainly' the media have treated Freud most kindly. It was not un- 
til the late 1070s that the general public learned that die founder of psycho- 
analysis had been a cocaine addict and in 1885 had actually "published an essay on 
the glories of cocaine. . . ."Martin Cross, The Psyc/tological Society, Random House, 
Now York, 1978, p. TX>. 



28f> 



The Dispossessed Majority 



The soul is not Lo pile up defenses around herself. She is not to 
withdraw and seek out her heavens inwardly, in mystical ec- 
stasies. She is not to cry to some God beyond, for salvation. 
She is lo go down the open road, as the road opens, into the 
unknown, keeping company with those whose soul draws 
them near to her, accomplishing nothing save the journey, 
and the works incident to the journey, in the long life-travel 
into the unknown, the soul, in her subtle sympathies ac- 
complishing herself by the way. 6 " 1 

Psychologist Franz Winkler sized up Freudian psychoanalysis less 
poetically: "Almost invariably an increasing indifference to other 
people's needs, a shifting of symptoms with serious psychosomatic 
ailments, and a deep-seated un happiness replaced ihe emotional 
conflict* and struggles which had been 'cured,"* 65 



us in Classical American Literature Viking Press, N'cw 



64- I). II. Lawrence, Sirul 
York, 1964, |>. ITS. 

63. Fram WiniJer, Mm The Bridgt Between Two Worlds, I fcrper. New York, 1960, p. % 



CHAPTER 20 



The Atrophy of Education 



EDI ."CATION, THE THIRD of the" three principal combat zones in 
the cultural clash, is the process whereby man's most priceless 
possession, his culture, is passed on to posterity. If the process is 
iiuiiix ie<L rtith, if i lie < ultural i est amen of a people oj race is al- 
tered, so to speak, while still in probate, the inheritance itself may 
waste away It is the creeping atrophy of the traditional mechanics 
of cultural flow from one generation to another which character- 
izes the present state of American education. 

In the terminal chapter of The Decline mid Fall of the, Roman Em- 
pire, Edward Gibbon said he had described the triumph of barba- 
rism and religion. A future historian completing a survey of the de- 
terioration of American education might say with equal over- 
simplification that he had described the triumph of John Dewey 
and Benjamin Spock. Dn SpocK lias been singled out because his 
Common Seme Book of Baby ami Child Car* has sold more than 40 mil- 
lion copies and, except for the Bible, may be America's all-time 
bestseller. 1 It has been estimated that between 1945 and 1 ( J55 one 
out of every four American children was brought up according to 
Spockian precepts. 2 Since the hotne phase of education is as im- 
portant as any of the later stages, Spock has probably wielded 
more influence than any other person, living or dead, on Amer- 
ican education. 



L Alice Hackett, 70 Yean of Best Sellers, fiowker, New York, 1967, p. 12, and Amer- 
ican IfrtiUh. June 1992, p. SS. 

2. Current Biography, 1956, pp. MHM>fll. Y\v. percentage <mce 11>!S6 has tapered 
off, bur is still significant. 

287 



288 



The Dispossessed Majority 



As for (lie merits or demerits of such influence, one point should 
bo made clear: Dr. Spock is not only a pediatrician, bin also a psy- 
chiatrist, and a Freudian psychiatrist to boot. Consequently his the- 
ories are grounded in such banal Freudians* as birth trauma, in- 
fantile sexuality, oral and anal stages, and penis envy. 3 Spock, 
centered the child's preschool education on the child instead of on 
parent and child as a unit — on the link rather than the chain of the 
human continuum. Self-expression, in Spock's WeUhlhk, is more itn- 
portant than discipline, affection more important than guidance. 
Most important, although he never describes it in exactly these 
terms, is what mighl be called the economy of parental worry. Al- 
most nothing will go wrong, Spock promises, if things are allowed 
to run their course. In this respect LSpock's wildlife approach lo pe- 
diatrics reduces to a gigantic nostrum for the relief of parental anx- 
iety. In appreciation for lightening their traditional burden of rt*- 
sponsibility and pushing a great deal of it oflfon the child, millions 
of American mothers have made Spock a multimillionaire^ 

h was obvious from the start that parents who followed Spotk's 
teachings would pamper and spoil their children for fear of wound- 
ing their egos and implanting neuroses they might carry about 
with them for the rest of 1 heir lives. The fruits of such per- 
missiveness were to be seen in the activities of the "flower < hil- 
dren," hippie cultists, and student insurreciionaries, all of whom be- 
longed to the first Spock-trained generation of Americans- 5 fhe 



3. Spock began his career as a psychiatrist and only birr became .l pcdiaLru ian 
Alter Rfibs and Quid taffwas ELrsi published in 194$, In- continued to serve :** av 
sod ace professor of psychiatry at the University of Minnesota. Mr then joined the 
Psychiatry Dept of Case Western Reserve Univ., a post In- held for almost two dec- 
ades. Freud's daughter, Anna, who specializes in applying psvt hoanalvsis to child- 
hood disorders, has had almost as much influence t>n Spc*k as J-irud turns*'!! 

4 Speck's popularity may be attributed in part to what Alexis Carrel has de- 
scribed as la irahison des femmes" — putting careers, sexual pleasures, bridge- 
pi iiyrng, and moviegoinj* above child-rearing. Me urged wimrn "rum srulemeiu 
de fa ire desenfants, maisde les clever/ L'h**mm* T rW inconnu, pp. 372, 131 

5 Out* wonder* how much of the speech of Jerry Rubin, one of the 'Chicago T 
hooligans, to a gathering of Ohio college students could U- traced to Spock. Ru- 
bin's remarks included: **I*he first pan of die Yippie program, you know, is kill 
your parents* And I mean that quite seriously, because unless you air prepared to 
kill your parents, you're not reallv prepared to change die country. . . ." Human 
t.ivntt. May Hi, L»70,p. 31. 



Tl IE CULTURAL CLASH 



280 



results are also to be found in Spock's oldest son, Michael, a prob- 
lem child and ihrrt'-lime college dropout who spent nine years in 
deep analysis, 6 

loo late and somewhat reluctantly, Spock came to see, at least 
dimly, the error of his ways. Admitting he had been w over- 
pcrmissive/ he recanted lo the extent of shortening some of the 
latitudinous boundaries he had placed on self-expression. In later 
editions of his book, the word discipline appears more frequently. 
In 1968, after shifting his sphere of interest from pediatrics to the 
war in Vietnam, Spock was sentenced lo jail for conspiracy to coun- 
sel draft evasion, fie had finally become a martyr, albeit a short- 
lived one. The verdict was later reversed. 7 

After Spock had begun to devote most of his nine to protest 
movements and street theater, his place was filled in part by the Is- 
raeti-born Dr. Haim Ginott, described as the "Dr. Spock of i he emo- 
tions," Ginoti'ft principal thesis Is that parents should become am- 
ateur psychologists in order to "decode" their children's behavior. 
Misbehavior may be tolerated bm not sanctioned. A balance be- 
tween strictness and indulgence is liesi achieved by a strategy of 
sympathy, 8 

The minority grip on the upbringing of Majority children lues 
been further tightened by newspaper and magazine pundits whose 
readers can be counted by the millions. The columnists who hold 
the most authoritative sway over parental and teenage attitudes are 
those who deal with personal problems in the form of replies to let- 
ters, some of which are bona fide, some obviously planted or re- 
cycled. The two most widely read "sob sisters" are Abigail van Bureti 



fi Michael Spock, "My Kaihrr,*" Indus Home Journal May, 1968, p. 72 Michael 
also revealed — rathe* surprisingly considering die emphasis his father pui on pa* 

renlal love — -dial hi* father had never kissed him. 

7 II should be pointed out that Spock is a selective pacifist, Mr has admitted, "U 
another Hitter came along, I would jusl as soon go u> war and Lake thr chance n[ 
being killed/ Bui when he had the chance to fight the living, breathing i [illet in 
WoiM Will II, he spent most of I lis Lime wiving in a .San Francisco Naval Mnlieal 
Facility, writing hi* bestseller in the evening, Jessica Mitfard, The Trial of Ih. Spotk, 
Knopf, New York. 1969, pp 8, 10-12 

B. Tim*, May SO, I9G9, pp. 62-63, Ginott adamantly refused to say whether he 
himself had any children His book, Bthutrn Parent and Child [Mac rail! an, New 
York, 1965), lias been translated into thirteen languages. 



290 



The Dispossessed Majority 



("Dear Abby") and Ann Landers, who arc idcnlirat Jewish twins. 9 
The creator of Sesame Street, (he network television program that 
teaches integration to children at the preschool level, is Joan Ganz 
Cooney> also of Jewish extraction. Dr. Rmh Westheimer, the televis- 
ion sexologist^ was once a member of the Haganah Underground 
in Israel, 

Once the child leaves home for school, the dogmatic lures of 
child psychiatrists, amateur and professional, are traded for ihose 
of formal educationists. Here, even in the first grade, children will 
fall under the long, quixotic shadow of the late John Dewey, the 
driving force of what has become known as progressive education. 
To Spoc k the child is the senior partner of the parent. To Dewey 
the student is die senior partner of the teacher* 

The subject matter of education, hi Dewey's view, is not as im- 
portant lls flie method. Character forming and moral training must 
yield to problem solving and learning by doing. The use of re- 
ligious and historical example to instill courage, loyalty, pride, and 
good citizenship is discouraged. The true goal of education is de- 
fined as the search for a better social order. Classroom discipline Is 
relaxed in favor of teacher-student dialogues. The instructor is 
more concerned with the how oflearning than the wliat. 

Predictably, progressive education soon progressed into a stale of 
educational anarchy. It was a noble attempt, as so many of the great 
ideals of liberalism and democracy are noble in theory before thrir 
indiscriminate application makes them ignoble in practice, TnEiap- 
pily man, who belongs to Homo sapiens, nor to a race of gods, is nei- 
ther menially, morally, nor physically self-sufficient The most intel- 
ligent, the most advanced, and the most re.sponsible society in his- 
tory could hardly have profited from such uncontrolled and unco- 
ordinated experimental stabs at the learning process. Vel they were 
thrust upon increasing hordes of uprooted slum-dwelling children, 
whose upbringing, surroundings, and educational capabilities were 
hardly above die Neanderthal level. In no time, all the high hopes 
and good intentions were reduced to shibUdeihs of racial and class 
agitators, while in large urban areas the lack of ethical teaching 



9. Bom on July 4, 1918, to Mr. and Mr*, Abraham Friedman of Sioux City, Iowa. 
In her column in the Miami tleratd (Jan. 2H r 1974, p 3D), Ann Under* uibacribed 
to the theory of Jewish racial superiority, 



THE CULTURAL CI ASM 



21M 



■a\u\ the incessant depreciation of tested societal values turned out 
a whole generation of mentally anesthetized, morally disoriented 
nihilists. 

Even Dewey began to see the light in his latter days. Like Spock, 
he trimmed his sails by advocating the reesiablishmem of a meas- 
ure of educational discipline. 10 But it was much too little and far 
too late.. The blackboard jungle, student assaults on teachers, cam- 
pus violence and sit-ins, the senseless destruction of laboratories 
and libraries — all signaled the death agonies of a once great educa- 
tional system,. If Dewey had lived, he would have been forced, as an 
Old Believer and an honest pragmatist who knew the proof of the 
theory was in the testing, to have abandoned almost all his educa- 
tional ideas. 11 Si monumentwn rtquiris, arcuwtspice. 

One extreme example of education failing completely to equip 
young Americans to meet the trials and tribulations of modern life 
was the mass murder of eight nurses in Chicago in 1966. A ninth 
nurse, a Filipino girl> was the only one to escape. It was no co- 
in* idence thai she happened to be the one who had been least ex- 
posed to contemporary educational techniques. She hid under the 
bed while the others were led off one by one to be knifed to death. 
The other nurses did not resist because they fell they could reason 
with the murderer. They thought they could calm him with pro- 
cedures they had learned in class. They "all had psych and they 
were pretty sharp, reported, one newspaper. 12 

Although American education is in extremis, there have been few 
aitempK to save it. One proposal has been to bring back the "great 
books" and let them stand as pcrmaneni guideposts lo learning.'* 1 



to. Ency. Brii t Vo\.7, p. 347- 

11. It a unfortunate that the brilliant minds thai » frequently attempt to prod 
society into new educational byways have die habit of warning their social guinea 
pijjs of the obvious pitfalls after rathe? than hrfart I he event. Willi :tll due allowance 
for L>cwrv**i cpisu-molotfioil Hair and contributions lo modern philosophy, there is 
simply no excuse for hi* avoidance of the racial factor in education and for stat- 
ing; as he did, liiat any learning activity "done under external constraint or dicta- 
tion . has no significance for the mind ol him who performs it." hitrlligfncr itl iht 
Modem World, John Dewey's Philosophy Modem Library, New Voik, 1939, pp. 607-8. 
How much of the chaos of modern education flows from >uch a premise? 

12.. .Sari Francisco Chumtctf. July 23, 1966. p. 7. 

h '■. .'•■ ['.. i !<>■ I. I. . ;...■/-.■,:' j.', r-v.-v tn ,U ,■-.,■.■> Ijiurriiunt. . froublrday, Garden City, 
N.Y. 1962, \>. VI. 



292 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Bui the problems of American education are much too complex to 
be solved by the simple substitution of the very ok! for the very 
new. Another proposal has been put forward by the "*essendalist" 
pedagogues who have agreed on a common core of learning to be 
absorbed by everyone, regardless of ability or personal aims. 14 A few 
educators arc turning back co Plato, who believed that education 
was the drawing out of innate ideas and who could not insist 
enough on the moral aspects of teaching. 

|l|l liu- question is universally what considerable advantage 
(he city derives from the education of the educated, the an- 
swer is easy. Education is the way to produce good men, and, 

once produced, such men wilt live nobly, , . . Ifl 

Aristotle, once considered the greatest of all authorities on ed- 
ucation, has been largely abandoned by Western pedagogues. The 
Creek philosopher asserted that the chief purpose of education 
was i In- molding of citizens to lit the form of government under 
which they lived, to develop in them a sense of affection for the 
state, and to encourage the growth and unfolding of human in- 
telligence.^ Still Iking bandied about, but largely for the wrong 
reasons, are the educational theories of Locke, who stressed the 
teaching of tolerance and civil liberty. More popular are the ideas 
of Rousseau, who abandoned his own five offspring, but whose 
Emikhzd more influence on child upbringing than any other work 
until Dr. Spock's magnum opus. Ah hough Rousseau declared that 
Negroes were intellectually inferior to Europeans, 17 he is a favorite 
theorist of those who press hardest for school desegregation. 
Whereas Plato suggested thai goodness be implanted in the stu- 
dent by education, Rousseau decided thai goodness was already 
there and that the teacher's job was to coax it to the surface. 



14. Ibid., pp. 26-27. 15 loots, I, 641c 

16. Plaio was more favorable than Aristotle to ihr Spartan c-cltirational system, 
which removed all mate children iiom home :u the ;ik»- ol icven and put dimi in 
stale institutions, where they received an eleven-year indoctrination course hi such 
soWie-j lv qualities as bravery and courage. Because ROTC began so early in Spai ta, 
Spartans have been considered educationally backward, even though lIh-v *wrc the 
only Greeks who provided for the education of women, For Aristotle's thoughts on 
education, see Politics. VIII, I, and Etwy. lint., Vol, 7, pp, 9tf:i-84, 

17. Entile, Editions Garnfer Freres, Pans, 1964, p. 27 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



293 



In colonial times atid in the early days of independence, Amer- 
ican education was primarily a religious undertaking, It did not be- 
come public, secular, compulsory, and "universal' until the last half 
of the nineteenth century. At present, religious control and spon- 
sorship of education are limited lo parochial and some other pri- 
vate schools. In 1990-91 the Roman Catholic Church operated 8,731 
parochial schools. In the same time period 2,555,930 students were 
in parochial schools, 18 a number expected to decrease in the next 
generation. Catholic education is assisted by die fact thai thousands 
of members of religious orders are willing to teach for next to noth- 
ing in compensation. Needless to say, the steady increase in living 
costs and the steady decrease in faith seriously threaten the future 
of the Catholic teaching profession. 

While tile number of Catholic schools has been declining, the 
enrollment of other privarc schools, especially Christian academies 
iti the South, has shown a marked increase in this period, as white 
families of all faiths move their children from desegregated public 
schools. 

As suggested previously, a decline in format religion does not 
necessarily result in a nation of atheists. The religious instinct does 
not mortify. It flows into different channels m the search for differ- 
ent divinities. In the school system, as in so many other American 
institutions, Christianity is simply being phased out by the modern 
religious syncretism of democracy, equality and minority racism. 
Anyone familiar with contemporary school and college curricula 
can hardly fail to detect a theological tone in much of the subject 
matter. Whatever else they may be, political science lectures are bo- 
coming increasingly difficult to distinguish from sermons. 

No attack on American education — not even Hie bombings, the 
schoolyard drug traffic, or the incredible vandalism — has been as 
shattering as school desegregation. The 1954 Supreme Court ruling 
in Bronm. v. [hard of Education ofTopeka may some day !x ] ranked as- 
dic Fort Sumter of the Second American Civil War. Although the 
Constitution says nothing about education, the Court ordered the 
desegregation of all public schools on the ground thai segregation 
denies equal opportunities to minorities. Even if school facilities 
were equal — as some were but most were certainly not — the very 

18 1994 World Almanac, pJ97. 



294 



The Dispossessed Majority 



fact of separation, in the Court's view, was generating in black chil- 
dren u a feeling of inferiority as to their status in ihe community 
that may affect their hearts and minds in ways unlikely ever to be 
undone." The Court built its case on the equal protection clause of 
the 14th Amendment* 19 

In reaching its decision the Supreme Court took judicial notice 
of sociological evidence that had not been heard in the lower 
courts, evidence introduced during the hearings by a legal tech- 
nicality known as the u Brandeis brief." Normally, appeals courts do 
not permit the injection of new facts or new evidence. But Bran- 
dels, when a Supreme Court justice, broke this longtime precedent 
by encouraging the admission of briefs containing materials which 
he considered unquestionable and not openly prejudiced against 
either side of the dispute. As it turned out, t\ie Rrandets brief 
heard by the Supreme Court in Brown was simply the repetition 
and elaboration of the liberal-minority thesis of racial equalitar- 
ianism. The genetic aspect of the argument and the effect of in- 
tegration on the education of while children were totally ignored. 20 
The 1 defense was permitted no "scientific" rebuttal.* 1 

Because desegregation implied social mixing of whites and Ne- 
groes, resistance to the Supreme Court's ruling flared up immedi- 
ately in the South. 22 It took longer to develop in the North, where 
de facto segregation in the ghetto areas gave authorities the chance 
to look, the other way. in both the North and South, however, in- 
tegration meant abandoning the concept of the neighborhood 



39, Frost, op. cic, pp. 305-6. 

20. In ii.v opinion the Supreme Conn mentioned Swedish sociologist, Cunnar 
Myrdal, !iy name. Myrdal's tract, An American D\Umma t boars somewhat die same 
relationship lo the contemporary black revolution in America as Diderot's En- 
evrfr/mfe bore to the French Revolution. Mytdal's almost laughable misconception 
t>f wx ial trends in the U.S. ha* already been noted in f on mote L 1, p 223, 

21. An attempt to overturn Brown by introducing such evidence in another 
desegregation case, SttU v, Savannah Board of Education, failed when the Su- 
preme Court refused to act on an appeal from the Fifth Circuit Court ot Appeals. 
For a detailed description of die St*U trial, as weU as an analysis of factual errori in 
the testimony presented in Brown, see Putnam, Rare and fitatily, Cliaptei IV 

22. The Brown ruling "crowned a generation's work by die American Jewish 
Congress in domestic affairs, consummating the alliance between the two minor- 
ities but incurring deep resentment among white conservatives. " Liivinoff, A Pe- 
culiar People, p. 51. 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



295 



school, since it could only be accomplished by die educational ger- 
rymandering oF entire school districts and by forced busing. 23 
Once such steps were undertaken or considered seriously by local 
school boards, the North ofien became more uncooperative and 
hostile lhan the South. 

School desegregation, slowed l>y massive white noncompliance, 
has provoked awhile exodus to the suburbs. In the birthplace of in- 
tegral ion, Washington, D.C., the public school system is now almost 
entirely black. Although it might be expected that (lie government 
sponsors of desegregation would at least make a pretense of doing 
what (hey are trying to force others to do, there are only a very few 
authenticated cases of highly placed white members of the ex- 
ecutive, legislative, or judicial branches sending their own children 
to desegregated public schools 

Preliminary to the Supreme Court's ruling in the Bakke case, it 
was shown that less qualified black and Hispanic applicants to the 
Medical School of the University of California at Davis had been ac- 
cepted while more highly qualified while applicants had been re- 
jected. Although the learned justices admitted this was wrong, they 
ruled thai race could be taken into consideration by the admissions 
boards of institutions of higher education. As a result, these boards 
pursue the same racial admissions policies as before, but are care- 
ful not to call them quotas, which is exactly what they are. They 
prefer to call them goals. Flying directly in the face of the Constitu- 
tion, the Supreme Court had made race a factor in college admis- 
sions. 

In once all-white schools where about half oi the nation's Negro 
pupils are now enrolled, the results of desegregation have been far 
from gratifying. 21 Students of each race have tended to adopt 

23, All recenl president*, including Clinton, haw continued to implement 
forced busing, although one Gallup poll showed that Americans opposed it by an 
H^is Mo-one margin. N*w York Tinas, April 5, 1 970. 

24. Twenty-five yearn after Brown, 60 percr.nl of black students intended schools 
thai were at least half black. Karher than send their children u> desegregated city 
m- hoots, millions upon million* of white Americans lost hundreds upon hundreds 
o| millions of dollars moving lo the suburbs or beyond. When middle-class blacks 
followed them, many white families moved again. To the dismay of its avid nip. 
porters, Brown turned out lo l>e die most effective social tool ever devised for the 
residential separation of races. 



'*)('> 



The Dispossessed Majority 



the worst customs, habits, morals, and speech of the other. Bright 
pupils, black and white, have either left, or attempted to leave, and 
in many schools all social activities have had to be abandoned. 35 
Classroom violence and vandalism have reduced the quality of ed- 
ucation as much as they have raised its costs (about Si HI billion in 
1980-81), 2* 

The sLeady decline of national averages of the Scholastic Ap- 
litude Testa taken by millions of college applicams is a dramatic ex- 
ample of what has happened to American education In 1962 the 

national average for the SAT verbal was 478; in 1991, 422. The na- 
tional average for the SAT math test dipped from 502 lo 474 in the 
same period. Anyone with the faintest understanding of racial dif- 
ferences in intelligence could have predicted these results, but the 
experts came up with every reason except the right one. The de- 
crease in these examination scores over half a century was almost 
exactly proportional to the decrease in the percentage of whites 
taking the tesL 57 hi 1972, nou whites comprised \\\'A of the 
students who took the test; in 1904, 30 percent. To eliminate 
any implication that the Standard Aptitude lest measured 
any innate learning ability, its middle name was changed to 
Assessment in early 1994. In the same year, to make low scor- 
ers feel better about their academic performance, the aver- 
age score on both the verbal and math was arbitrarily raised 
to 500, so everyone could receive a higher mark. This is some 
what similar to the grade-boosting practice of some < alleges arid 
universities that give practically every student an A or a B. (Stan- 
lord promised to begin flunking students once again in the 1995- 
96 academic year by handing out NP or no pass grades.) 

The mixing of Caucasian children with blacks two to three vears 



25. Ids Angrks firm Id -Examiner: Ocl 10, ] 980, p, 10. 

26. A Senate study of 757 public school districts indicated that ml a three-year 
period school vandalism coat American taxpayers J.^fXl million; mat there were 
70,000 assaults on administrators and teachers, and wcr:d hunched thousand on 
students; ihai over a hundred students had been mm-tleicd. Christian Same? Mon- 
itor, Apiil 10, ISTSjp & 

27- A more devastating and disheartening comment on die pre arm state of 
American education was furnished by the National Center for Health Statistics 
which slated in a 11)74 repot t dial a million Americans in die 12- to 17-year-old 
age bracket were illiterate. 



THE CULTURAL CLASH 



297 



behind them in educational level and fifteen to twenty points lower 
in l.Q. scores has not only substantially stowed the progress of 
students as a whole, but increased die number of dropouts by 
pressuring Negro students to perform beyond their ability. The 
celebrated Jensen study, which claims drat heredity accounts Tor 
about 80 percent of individual l.Q. variations, concluded that 
Negro pupils, while as adept as whites in rote learning, are much 
less adept in cognitive learning. 28 Although these findings clearly 
call for different curricula for black students, the drive for nation- 
wide educational conformity goes forward unabated. 

To help ihem "cmeh up." Negro students are frequently pro- 
moted on the basis of age. not achievement, with the result thai 
some student with a third-grade reading leveJ are found in the 
ninth and tenth grades. 29 As for higher learning, only about one- 
half of black high-school graduates are fully capable of handling 



28. Dr. Ailhiu R. Jensen is Piofessoi ol Kdncational Psychology a! the Univei s-ity 
of California at Berkeley. The Harvard Educational Review (Winter, 1%9) was large- 
1\ devoted to Jensen's statistic s-atudded examination of ihe inability ol education 
to court t genetic differences in Negro and while intelligence. After publication, 

Jensen icccived an unprecedented amount of venomous in.iil, including a lew 
death threats. In Berkeley, the Students foj a Democratic Society engaged a sound 
truck to ch-mand Jensen's dismissal, lain invading his classroom and forcing him 
to hold his classes in secret He fatally had to call on the police to protect his files 
and bad to keep the lights (jii in his office all night to discourage looters. A luini- 
bes of hi* liberal colleagues brought him Uiorr a specially organized invcstigaloiy 
board with all the trappings of a rnc-dicval witch trial — -die [us! time in American 
academic hi.stoiy that a professoi has had to defend a scholarh pa|x*t helme an in- 
quisitional proceeding dial included videotape cameras. New York Times Magem-ru, 
Aug. 31, 1969, p. 11. In 1070 1 a group of Harvard students called on the Harvard 
Educational Review to nun ovei to the Klat k Panihci legal hind all i even ties horn 
the sale or distribution of the Jensen article. They furlhei demanded dial all cop- 
ies and reprints in circulation !*■ destroyed and no further reproduction and dis- 
uabution l>e penniued. In addition to the heresy of racism, die fundamental 
charge against Jensen was that LQ, tests were culturally biased against nonwhitea, 
noiwiitufanding that Orientals sometimes obtained higher scores than "whites'" (a 
category thai often included Hispanics) and notwithstanding that Amoiican In- 
dians also did better than blacks. Jensen demolished these allegations in his book, 
Bias in Mrntal Testing, lire Free Press, New York, 1980. In die meantime a federal 
court judge in San Francisco ruled that l.Q. tests were hiasecl, and anoihei federal 
judge in Chicago ruled they were not. 

29. San Francisco Sunday Examiner* May 20, 19(>7, p. 2. 



m 



The Dispossessed Majority 



a college curriculum. 30 Once they get to college, Negroes may be 
given higher grades than whites for the same work. 11 Professors 
have been known to pass everyone in their classes so as 1101 to fail 
Negro students. 35 This same two-iier grading system is applied by 
other teachers to forestall accusations of racial prejudice. The envy; 
frustration, distrust, and cynicism aroused by such practices, in- 
cluding widespread cheating, are more noticeable in those uni- 
versities and colleges which, in their rush to enroll Negroes, have 
dropped their traditional entrance requirements, ss Insisting that 
this practice become universal, minorities actually closed down City 
College oi New York 10 enforce their demands. After Mayor John 
Lindsay and his Board of Education surrendered, an open enroll- 
ment policy for City College was begun in 1970. Any New Yorker 
who finished high school, ao matter what lii.s grades, was qualified 
to enter. In 1978, alter City College had become an academic mon- 
strosity, the door was partially closed on open enrollment. High- 
school graduates with mathematics and reading skills below the 
eighth-grade level were excluded!*' 1 

Admission to college without proper academic credits is a new 
idea in American education. 11' pursued, it could lead to certain 
complications, particularly in the area of scientific studies. If stu- 
dents can enter college with insufficient preparation, will they then 
be given degrees even though failing ntosi of their courses? And if 
given such degrees, can they then use thern to obtain employment 
designing skyscrapers, bridges, and aircraft? The answers have a di- 
rect bearing not only on national security — mosi other countries 
award engineering degrees on the basis of grades not skin color- 
but also on the security of every citizen who must work in these sky- 
scrapers, cross these bridges and llv in these airplanes. 

The Negro invasion of American education has brought with ii 



30. According to 1'ied Grassland, a Ford Foundation education expert Other 

estimates mo much lower 

31. One such tfcse in New York University was reported by James Burn ham in 

his Suicide of the Wrst,}o\\n Day, New York, !<JG4, p, l'C. 

32. New York Times Magazine. July 2&, 1 U("»9, p. I 1 ) 

SI, In 1964 there wen: 234,000 Negroes m college; in 19#0\ L.KXU'HHV 

M. Time, May 16, WW.), p. 59, and New York Time, Feb. 8. 1970, p. 25, In 1971 

half of the: City College students wvie on drags. New York Daify S'eun, Feb. 24. 1071, 

p. 4. Also see Chicago Trifmne, April i><>, Iy7t), Sect. 1) 



THK CULTURAL CLASH 



299 



Black Smdies programs, which teach minority racism in classrooms 
where any positive allusion to Majority racism is forbidden. But the 
injection of minority racism into college and high-school curricula 
is not exclusively the work of Negro groups Jewish and Hispanic 
organizations are also on the lookout for "racial slights" in courses 
and textbooks which do not elaborate fully on minority contribu- 
tions to American history or on the persecution of minorities 
abroad. 35 At the insistence of such groups, which often borders on 
outright coercion, many textbooks have been rewritten, and more 
have been replaced.* 6 At the same time, public educational facil- 
ities have been put at the disposal of minority groups for research 
projects highly critical of Majority institutions. 37 

Although minorities generally supported the British or were neu- 
tral in the War of independence,™ a reading of recently published 
school and college texts would indicate that without minority assis- 
tance Americans might now be swearing allegiance to the Queen of 
England. Crispus Attucfcs has been magnified into such an impor- 
tant figure in American history thai an illustrated child's history of 
colonial times gives him more space than George Washington- 1 * 
Haym Salomon, a Polish-born Jewish merchant, has been awarded 
an article under his own name in the Encyclopaedia Britannka, al- 
though this minority "hero" of the Revolution was more than once 
welcomed behind British lines/ On the other hand, those Ne- 
groes in the War of Independence who supplied British warships 
off the Southern coast and who remained on lx>ard as volunteers 
are seldom featured in the "new history." 11 



$5, In Octobd 19(i0, the New York City- Board of Education sent a letter to 100 
(textbook publishers a*lung for "substantial nSVteioiis" in history books to place 
niorr em pilaris on German atrocities against minorities in World War II. Overview, 

October, 1961, p. 53, 

$6, In California, mtftOrfty lobbies forced I resolution through the Oakland 
Board of Education to purchase textbooks which "accurately portray the contribu- 
tion of minority groups in America." San Francis n> Chnmiclf, Jan. 2M, 1053, p. .SO. 

37. The Anti-Defamation league gave $500,000 to the University of California, a 
state university, to investigate the role Christian churches [day in fostering anti- 
Semitism. Look, June 4, 1965, p. 78. 

38. William 11. Kelson, The American Tf/ry, Keacon Press, Hoston, 1968. p. 80. 
,S9. Review of An Album of Colonial America in the New York Titties Rook Review, July 

6, I960, p. 16. 

40. F.ncy. /int.. Vol. 10, p. 2. 41. Nelson, op. cit.., p. 11. 



800 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Whatever may be said about American education, its present state 
is a far cry from the 1660s when the enure stud en I body and faculty 
of Harvard conversed freely in Latin. 42 It is an even further cry 
from the onetime disciplined earnestness of Western education as 
summed tip by the Latin admonition with which Winchester 
School greeted its new pupils six centuries ago, Aut disce out disced^: 
mtinel sors tertia caedi.™ There was an air of Melville's Bmito Cereno AA 
about the armed band of black militants who occupied Cornell 
University's student union center for thirty-four hours and then 
marched out, guns at the ready, to receive a general amnesty from 
administration and faculty.' 15 There was an air of surrealism about 
Princeton making Brent Henry a trustee after die twentyone-yeap 
old Negro senior had distinguished himself in the seizure of a cam- 
pus building.* 6 

If the purpose of education is the transmission of cutrure, as a 
great modern poet has opined/ 7 then the duty of educators is the 
safeguarding of culture. Here the failure of American education is 
most glaring. One of the many instances of this failure is the career 
of Dr. Hsue Shemssien. With the help of scholarships paid for in 
part by the American government, Dr. Ilsue received his master's 
degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his 
Ph.D. horn the California Institute of Technology. I ie then returned 



42. Enty lint.. Vol 5, p. 876. 

43. "Lean! or depart; a third alternative is to be flogged." 

44. The charactei of Bentao Cereno, a Spanish sea captain made prisoner on Ins 
own ship by blacks, is most nearly duplicated in the modem educational scene by 
Kingman Brew&Lcr, former president of Yale University. Brewster banned George 
Wallace from the Vale campus in 1963, yet opened it wide to a I9?0 May Day meet- 
ing of'Hlat k I'andicrs. Nm Y&fk Tima, April 80, 1970, p. 3tf. Brcwsier. who claimed 
Ehal blacks could not get a fair uial in line United States, took a largr part in the 
nationwide mourning for the "Kertt State 4," who were presented by the press as 
typical American students, although three of them were Jewish and the girl kneel- 
ing beside the dead student in the widely distributed photograph was a fifieen- 
year-old runaway from Florida, later arrested for prostitution Brewster and his so- 
called New I .eft constituency made no outcry when a student was murdered and 
Other Students wounded in the left-wing bombing of a University of Wisconsin 
physics and mathematics center. Time, Sept. 7, 1970, p. 9. 

45. Time, May 2, 1 '.)<#, pp. 37-3P. 

-Hi. Ntw I'm* Times. June H, \\H)9, p, 1. 

47. kliot, Note Towards thr Definition oj r Culture, p. 98. 



THE CULTURAL CI ASH 



301 



to his homeland where he wa.s put in charge of the design and pro- 
duction of rocket systems for Red China's new I l-burntis. 48 

The concept of American education as a denationalized data 
bank whose deposits belong to everyone and should be passed on 
by everyone to everyone is not very realistic — especially in a world 
where most nations have a totally different idea of the learning pro- 
cess. Communist China and capitalist Germany hold fast to die old- 
fashioned view that the job of education is lo strengthen the staLe 
and that all instruction, a Marxist euphemism for indoctrination, 
should ultimately be directed towards thai v\u\. This attitude is es- 
sentially Aristotelian, 411 in spite of what the disgruntled heirs of Le- 
nin may say, arid is shared by those members of American minor- 
ities whose cry lor special educational opportunities is really a de- 
mand for power, not learning for learning's sake. 

The .Soviei Union, before ii went under, coddled its non-Russian 
nationality groups by giving them their own schools and uni- 
versities where they could pursue the study of their history and lit- 
nature in their native language. 50 So far the resurrected state oi 
Russia has done the same. Students, however, are no longer re- 
quired Co obey the dictum o< the Eighth Party Congress (1919) that 
Russian schools be transformed into a 'Hveapon of the Communist 
rebirth of society." 51 

In general, American schools place much less emphasis on the 
sciences and vocational training than other advanced countries do. 
What is mote, U.S. academics still take Freud much more seriously 
than do Comparable European institutions of higher learning. In 
tests given to American and eleven other higli-school student teams 
from the advanced countries, the U.S. contingent came in last in 
both the scientific and academic divisions. 



48. Life, May 28, HHu, j.p ■>*, 94. 
41). Polities, 1537. 

50. Nicholas Hans, Comparative Education, Routledgr., L&ndcm, I'.U'i, pp. SE8, 31, 58. 

51. Encythpfiiia of Russia and the Soviet Union, p. i!>0. It is notewoi thy that the 
Russians developed a spatial educational system for their bczprizorny. the great 
numbers of homeless < hildirn who lived by dirii wii.v and by t rime dining rite m- 
mult and chaos thai followed the Oclobei 1917 Revolution. For equally Iju'ge num- 
bers <~>i homeless ghetto children, who are displaying similaa criminal symptoms, 

American educator*, rather than put them m remedial schools, often tiv lo solve 
the problem by plating I hern in the same elauroom with noimal children. 



301> 



The Dispossessed Majority 



There arc some who ascribe the crisis in American education so 
the generation gap, a social phenomenon which has always existed 
to some extent in fragmenting societies. But in contemporary 
America the gap is more publicized than real. Those who do hi the 
description of belonging to an alienated younger generation — rhe 
current one is called Generation X — have not so much turned, as 
been turned, against their parents, often by minority intellectuals old 
enough to be their grandfathers. It was the septuagenarian Ger- 
man refugee philosopher, Herbert Marruse (1907-79), who gave 
most of the ideological impetus to that segment of the teaching 
profession which seeks not only to set Majority students against 
their families, but also against their history, their institutions, their 
race, and even against themselves. Having decided thai revolution 
is no longer possible according to the old Marxist formula of class 
war, Mareuse proposed building a new revolutionary base on an al- 
liance of students and blacks.* 2 He further proposed withdrawing 
the Constitutional right of free speech from those advocating war, 
racism, exploitation, and brutality. 55 

In spile erf intensive brainwashing by their political and social sci- 
ence departments, 22 percent of American college students were 
not afraid to identify themselves in 1970 as "right of center.** 1 It 
was obviously not this group thai provoked the campus violence 
that descended on the country. Nor was it always the radical stu- 
dents. Students did not seize a New York University computer and 
threaten to destroy it unless $109,000 was given to the Black Pan- 
thers. It was, asset ted the New York City District Attorney, the act of 
(wo minority professors, Robert Wolfe and Nicholas Unger.* 9 A stu- 
dent shotgun did not shoot down a judge in San Rafael, California, 
in an abortive courtroom kidnapping, h had been bought two days 
previously by black philosophy instructor, Angela Davis, whom Mar- 
euse had described as his "best" pupil 5 * Ir was not the student 



52. Machuyre, AforaiH, p. 88. 

53. UP! report, May 18, 196-1 

54. CaUup Poll, Haliimme Evening Sun, May 16, 1975, Predictably, ihc longer 
NtunVnis stayed in collect- the moir they moved to the left. Only 40 percent! of 
freshmen idrmiuVd themselves ai left of center" 01 "f.u left/ Fifty-three percent 
of the seniors so identified themselves. 

:'i. r >. Nnu York Times. July 30, 1970, p. M. 
:>6. i.ije T Sept. 1 1 , 1970, pp. 2MT 



Tl IE CULTURAL Cl«ASH 



303 



body as a whole which turned the University of California at Berke- 
ley; once the pride of American public education, into an in- 
tellectual skid row. It was a mindless clique of nonstudems, minor- 
ity students, dropouts, radicalized faculty members, and spineless 
administrators. 

It is (tot difficult to find a better explanation than me generation 
gap for the change that has come over American education. In the 
year preceding the four studeni deaths at Kent State, minority en- 
rollment in Midwest colleges jumped 25 percent. 57 The facidty at 
Harvard, one of the greatest centers of unrest and agitation, is now 
"dominated by Jews," arid 15 to 25 percent of the faculty of other 
leading universities are Jewish.™ jews now comprise 25 percent of 
the undergraduates at Harvard, 18 percent at Vale, 15 percent at 
Princeton, and 40 percent at Columbia, 59 

In summarizing the contemporary state of American learning, 
this much should be stressed: Like most established institutions, 
the American system of education was the outgrowth of a specific 
concrescence of people, environment, and history. To suppose this 
system would function efficiently, under strikingly different condi- 
tions for strikingly different ethnic groups is asking man to con- 
struct timeless macrocosms out of ephemeral microcosms. A multi- 
racial state, especially one that both permits and advocates cultural 
pluralism, would logically require a multiracial educational program, 
not only because population groups differ in learning capacities 
hut because they also differ in learning goals. To force-feed minor- 
ity and Majority students alike on a thin, curricular soup consisting 
of one part liberal dogma, one part Majority belittlement, and one 
part minority mythology is to provide little educational nourish- 
ment for anyone. 

How little nourishment was shown by the results of a fourtecn- 
nation test of 13-year-old children. Americans students came in 



57. Nnv Ytnk Times, May 20, 1070, p J. 

!>H. Yaffe, op. cit., p. 51. The perr.cn la gea are probably Higher in die social sci- 
ence departments, in which Jewish educators congregate. St is this high concentra- 
tion of Jews in the more sensitive areas of the. educational process that lends 
weight to van den llaag's comment, "Toe late rale American mind has conic in 
some measure to think Jewish, to respond Jewiahly. It has been taught to, and it 
was ready to." Thtjrurixh Mystique, p. 98. 
59, Yaffe, op, ciu, p. 52. 



-SD4 



The Dispossessed Majority 



next to last in math and hardly did any bailor in science. South Ko- 
reans came mil on top in both categories. Apparently the smartest 
American boys and girls will receive even less educational nour- 
ishment in the future. The newest learning fad is something called 
Outcome Based Education, which calls for "dumbing down" bright 
students so the less bright will not feel unhappy about their lower 
marks. This **feat w is accomplished by abolishing grades and slow- 
ing the teaching process so poor students can catch up. During 
catch-up time the bright students will not be taught anything They 
must spend their time in class tutoring the slow learners. 50 

Negro separatists, to the confusion and dismay of black and 
white integratiorusts, call for more, not less, educational segrega- 
tion so they can more fully develop their racial and cultural iden- 
liiy. Acceding to this proposal could lead to die establishment of 
separate schools and colleges for all Unassailable Minorities, who 
by definition can never Ix* assimilated by education or by i\ny other 
means. This would formalize die apartness of all such minorities 
and at the same time penetrate the assimilalionisi disguise of some. 
hi any event, such a measure could noi help but give Majority ed- 
ucation a new lift by removing it from the control of its detractors 
and despoilers. 

All in all, the great failure of a heterogeneous school system can 
be traced to its inability to stress effectively the morale-building as- 
pects of education. There is no higher incentive for learning than 
the self-esteem that flows spontaneously from die awareness of a 
great past— an awareness that does not come from guidelines pub 
lished by die Department of Education or from sterilized textbooks 
designed to please everyone and educate no one. 

The kind of learning that prepares a people to prevail and en- 
dure must be primed by centuries of common history and mil- 
lennia of common ancestry. Desegregation kills ij by destroying its 
binding force 1 — the homogeneity of teacher and pupiL The dis- 
appearance of this viial bond from the American classroom may 
prove to be the greatest educational tragedy of all. 



PART VI 



The Political Clash 



GO. Pcic du Pont. Washington Times, May, 3} p |<&4 ( p. AI3 



CHAPTER 21 



The Adaptability of Dogma 



Iy THE CX LTURAL PHASE of the Majority's dispossession may be 
described as the assault on the Majority soul, the political phase 
is the assault on the Majority mind, Political power may emanate 
inmi the barrel of a £ un > a * Chairman Mao once proposed. 1 A 
gun, however, is hartlly effective without the will to shoot, an ingre- 
dient supplied by that Form of intellectual programming known as 
dogma. 

The mind feeds voraciously on dogma because human beings 
hunger for some system of thought, some frame of reference, with 
which u> view the world. (Only a very few lonely souls have the stam- 
ina, courage, and wisdom to develop their own beliefs from inde- 
pendent observation. And there are fewer every day. The farther 
the frontiers of knowledge are pushed Outward, the more elusive 
this knowledge becomes and ihe farther it moves beyond die indi- 
vidual's grasp. Desperate for truth, ravaged by doubt, even the best 
minds home in on dogma, the great enemy of doubt, which is al- 
ways willing, but seldom qualified, to fill the intellectual void. Pon- 
tius Pilate received no immediate response when he posed his cele- 
brated question. 2 When Christianity was properly organized, the 
Church answered him — with dogma. 

Of die major components of dogma — truih, falsehood, opin- 
ion, and authority — the greatest is authority. < hie oi the oldest hu- 
man habits, a habit roundly encouraged by the brain's immeasur- 



I. St-c Chapter M loi other Nirtz-Hrhcin utterances Iiy the founding fathes <>t 
Chinese communism. 
Z John IftJB. 

507 



:u)H 



The Dispossessed Majority 



able inertia, is to surrender one's mind to a particular dogma, simply 
localise oi' its ancient pedigree. It was the authority of age which 
made it possible for readily delegable falsehoods in the Old Testa- 
ment and Aristotelian natural philosophy to he held as truths for 
more than 1,500 years. 

Those few who refuse to accept dogma half- instead of whole- 
heartedly do pick and choose to some extent. But the dogma i.hey 
finally light upon is usually selected not for its relevancy or corre- 
spondence to the facts, but because it coincides with their own par- 
ticular set of prejudices, animosities, and fears. Modern intellectu- 
als continued to subscribe to Communis! dogma long after they 
had recognized its contradictions, persiflage, diui errors. Indeed 
diey seemed io veneraie it most at the very moment (tin 1 climax of 
die great Stalinist purges of the H)30s) they were being most de- 
ceived. I hey wanted to believe, so ihey did believe. (Imio quia absitr 
dum."' 

Unfortunately For the human race, the intellectual has a near 
monopoly in the formulation and propagation of dogma because 
itl" his verbal training and linguistic ability. The facile tongue (or 
pen) and dogma appeal to he mutually generative. Ii was this close, 
almost predestined connection between dogma and intellectuals 
thai led Bi uneiiere, the French literary critic, to define an intellec- 
tual as one who meddles dogmatic ally in matters about which he is 
ignorant.' 1 

One would logically suppose dial ihe more education one has, 
ihe less would be one's susceptibility to dogma. It is quite the re- 
verse. Education, apart from the physical sciences, which them- 
selves are not always exempt, has been one of the most notorious 
examples of organized indoctrination. Indeed the best-educated 
person or. more precisely, the "most-educated" person is all too fre- 
quently the most dogmatic. The teacher who spends his life teaching 



3. In more ways ihiui one- IVitnllkut strikes a modern luuc A Caflhaginian 
lawyer ami the most dogmatic of the early church Father*, he advised Christian* to 
refuse military service uiwder the Roman emperor* and not io obey laws they 
deemed unjust. Will DuianL, Caesar and Christ* p. 647. For Tertullian's exact words, 
see Tnynlxc, Study qf-HistiOfy, Vol. V, p. 56. 

4. Times l.itrmn Suftf/Umnti, June 2*2, L9&2, p. 402. The difference between an 
intrlUvliial and an intelligent man might be desciiberl as Lhe difference tjetween 
one who uses his mind and one who vsei his mind wisely. 



n ie political c:u\sh 



:u>u 



dogma lias heroine, so to speak, dogmatically blind. He is quick to 
attack opposing dogma, hut slow to condemn or even to recognize 
his own. 

Only unsophisticated minds, whose number is legion, and great 
minds, miism&ae st/er, have developed some immunity to the dog- 
ma that props up prevailing Western political and social ideology. 
The former are equipped neither by upbringing, nor by training, 
nor by inclination to comprehend such dogma, while the latter are 
reluctant to swallow u because they comprehend it all too well. 

Consequently it should not come as a shock to discover that the 
"educated" 1 man can be more harmful to society than the uneducat- 
ed. Ihe literate person has the ability to spread his ignorance 
abroad, to sell his dogma wholesale. Ihe unlettered individual can 
only pass on his beliefs to those in his immediate vicinity. 

At times political dogma becomes so firmly rooted in the minds 
of men that merely to question ii is to put oneselfbeyond the pale. 
Often the entire intellectual establishment of a culture will draw in 
iis head, turde-fashion, as the slighter attempt to throw an objec- 
tive light on die shadowy recesses of the dogma it has come to live 
bv and liw- with. The merest trace of criticism will be Judged as a 
cynical, antisocial mixture of ieonoclasni and desaneuikauon. [f 
the critic works in secret, he eventually begins to feel like a crimi- 
nal ii he comes out in the open, he is regarded as one. In the 
words oi Charles Peirce, "let it be known that you seriously hold a 
tabooed belief, and you may be perfectly sure of being treated with 
a cruelty less brutal but more refined than hunting you like a 



Wo 



Political dogma, as all dogma, ultimately rests on opinion and 
feeling rather than on fact. It can only !><■ tested objectively by the 
almost impossible hum hod of placing similar population groups in 
similar environments over a period of generations while subjecting 
each to a different political svstem. Even then the results of these 
lengthy and complicated tests would have to be measured accord- 
ing to such dubious < riteria as economic progress, cultural achieve- 
ment, governmental stability, and public security — all oi' which easi- 
ly lend themselves io varying interpretations. 



5. The Fixation of Belie, f, (Uilleit,-d Ptiprrs, Harvard University Press, < lainbi idgt- 
Mavi., |9$4, pp. 24.V1I'.. 



3H3 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Not surprisingly, in view of man's incurable "dogmatids,* scien- 
tific dogma often receives the same uncritical, acclaim and accep- 
tance as political dogma, as amply demonstrated by the life and 
works of Albert Einstein. The German-Jewish physicist is universally 

credited with being the father of relativity, although in 1904, the 
year before Einstein published his paper on the Special Theory of 
Relativity, Henri Poincare, the French physicist, gave a lecture in 
St. Louis on "The Principle of Relativity." 6 Moreover, the various 
parts of the Special Theory that have checked out rather well arc 
largely based on the mathematical equations of two theoretical 
physicists, George FitzGerald, an Irishman and Hendrik Lorentz, a 
Hollander. Referred to are the FitzGerald-Lorenu contraction and 
the Lorentz transformations. 

In 1916, when Kinstein introduced his General Theory of Rela- 
tivity, he was still practically unknown in the world 1 of physics. In 
fact, whenever relativity was mentioned, it was likely to be associat- 
ed wifh the name of Lorent/. 7 Then, in 1919, came the famous Brit- 
ish scientific expedition to study the total eclipse of the sun. The 
bending of light as it passed through the sun's gravitational held 
roughly approximated Einstein's predicted measurements. Almost 
overnight the media, with the help of the well-known British scien- 
tist, Sir Arthur Eddingioit, made Kinstein an international celebri- 
ty. In 1921 the physicist, now world renowned, made a triumphant 
tour of ihe United States, not, however, to preach his new physics, 
but to raise money for Zionism. 

In the Weimar Republic the enthusiasm was more muted. Some 
leading German physicists convoked an anti-relativity congress, at 
which Kinstein was accused of leading Western science away From 
the path of experiment into tin- wild blue yonder of mysticism, ab- 
straction, and speculation. One hundred scientists and notables 
contributed to a lx>ok (hat denounced Kinstein for developing a 
physics that was no longer in touch with physical reality. 8 When Hit- 
ler arrived on the scene and the attack was expanded into a loud 
broadside against "Jewish physics," Kinstein left for America. 



6. The l-insuin Myth nnd th* Ives Paper*, «]s. Kir haul I foetal and Dean Turner 
Drvin-Adan, Old Ga eervwieh, Conn., 1979, p. ]:,-\. 

7, rim!., p. 2t>6. 

H. llumlnl AuUum Crgm Eitistrin, R. Voi K tk'inder Verlag, Leipzig. l'J.VI 



TOE POLITICAL CI ASH 



811 



Germans were not the only critics of relativity. Some prominent 
British and American physicists disagreed with some or all of Kin- 
siein's ideas and were not afraid lo say so. Among them were such 
luminaries as: Dayton C. Miller, president of the American Physics 
Society, Herbert Dingle, president of Britain's Royal Astronomical 
Society, Herbert Ives, the American optical physicist who helped 
develop television, and, after World War II, Louis Essen, the British 
expert on atomic clocks. Bun as Einstein's fame grew, these voices 
Med into the distance, RuGerald, Lorentz, Poincare, and other 
pioneers were largely forgotten as the media awarded Einstein an 
exclusive and un< lit j< izable patent on relativity. 

Special Relativity posits that nothing can move faster than the ve- 
locity <>1 lighi and thai mass increases with velocity and becomes in- 
finite at 186,282 miles/sec. Just as (here was a sound barrier, there 
is now a light barrier. Who knows how long Einstein's light barrier 
will hold.- At this writing lour extra^akirtic radio sources have been 
observed to be expanding at velocities from two to twenty nines 
thai c >£ light, 9 Relativity enthusiasts have written off these observa- 
tions as illusions, the same term geocentrists applied to Galileu's 
discovery <>i the moons of Jupiter, 

In contrast to the Special Theory, the General Theory of Relativi- 
ty has been confirmed onty rarely and tenuously. Every time a solar 
eclipse comes along or some mysterious object is detected in deep 
space, the media, but noi necessarily the astronomers, dramatically 
announce ihai Einstein has once again been proved right, If the 
General Theory is so solid, why must it be proved so repeatedly? 
Ihe fact is there are several other plausible theories about gravity, 
the basic iheme of the General Theory- One of them, the Brans- 
Dicke Theory, has occasionally checked out as well as the GeneraJ 
Theory when put to the test. 10 In spile of die increasing modality 
rate ui several TiiniK established physical laws," however, General 



9. Scientific American, Aug. 1980, p. 82& 

10. Scientific Ammten, Nov. 1974, pp, 2S-3S. 

11. hi 1962 a theory more firmly imiscoik ed in the wienufiO deralogue thuii 
relativity was jettisoned when Professor Banleii of tlie Ihiiversily of British Columbia 
made some xenon-platinum hexafluoi ide. Uniil then there had been an "iiniimia- 
hle 1 * law in eheinisliy that platinum and xenon, a noble metal and a noble gas, 
were totally resistant lo t hrmieal romhinalion. SttH FrrtHcisro Chronic?* , This. WarM. 
Dee. 9, 1962, p. 25. 



312 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Relativity remains unassailable. One good reason is that, if a scien- 
tist should speak out too loudly against Einstein, he might jeopar- 
dize his career. 

Einstein 1 3 political meaiiderings — his support of the coalition of 
Communists and leftists in the Spanish Civil War, his Utopian so- 
cialism, his association with at ]ea*>L eleven Communist-led organisa- 
tions in the United States, the lending of his name to countless Sta- 
linist manifestos, 11 * his role as "salesman* for the atomic bomb, 18 his 
friendship for Communist East Germany after World War II — all 
this has earned him bad marks with such an eminent Westerner as 
Ortega y Gasset: 



Albert Einstein has assumed the right to offer an opinion on the 
Spanish CM War and to take a one-sided stand on it. Albert Kin- 
slein displays a profound ignorance about what has happened in 
Spain today, centuries ago, and always, The spirit that inspired this 
insolent intervention is the same that has brought universal dis- 
credit to other intellectuals, as they set the world adrift by depriving 
it of ptmvmr spirUufl ' A 

If. {.. Mencken was even harsher: 

[N jo Jewish scientist lias ever equalled Newton, Darwin, Pasteur, <>i 
Mendel. . . such apparent exceptions as Ehrlich, Freud, and Kin- 
Stein are only apparent. . . .Freud was nine-tenths quack, and there 
is sound reason for believing that Einstein will not hold up; in the 
long ran his curved space may he classed with the psychosomatic 
bumps of Ciall and Spur/.heiui. 15 

However history treats F.instein, howcvei his a< hievements with- 
stand, the lest of time, it i.s indisputable that he has received much 
more acclaim than he deserves. What "put him across" was his abili- 
ty to adapt so well to the prevailing lil>eral-ininoriiy dogma, the hu- 
maiutarianisrn run amuck, the rootless internationalism, the ami- 
Naztsm, the Zionism, the tolerance of and occasional outright 



J2. For Einstein's, long-lasting flirtation with Stalinism, «r Fifth Rtport of the Srn- 
(iff I "net -Finding (jtrnmitUe on Vn-Amrtican Activities, California Legislature, 1949. 
15. Sec pp. 5-12-43. 

14. Im rebeiion de Ins maws, p. 189. The paragraph was translated by the author of 
this study. 

15. Mirunity Report, U. /.. Mencken's Notebooks, Knopf, New York, 195b, pp. 



THE POUT1GAL CLASH 



813 



affection for Marx and Freud. All these ingredients were combined 
inio a recipe irresistible to the media. Einstein was bathed in an 
ocean of favorable publicity far greater than had been accorded 
any of his contemporaries, with the possible exception of Franklin 
D, Roosevelt and Churchill. An ingenious physical scientist who 
dabbled incessantly and confusingly into political science was trans- 
formed into the greatest brain of the twentieth century, if not of all 
rem urtes. 

As Fiiistoiii himself would have admitted, there is one marked 
difference between scientific and political dogma. The former can 
l>e put to the test tinder controlled latioralory conditions. 18 When 
validated, it becomes a law, an exalted status seldom achieved In 
any political dogma or ideology. When a scientific dogma is over- 
turned, a wave oi astonishment ripples through the scientific com- 
munity, and that is thai. But when a political dogma goes under — ll 
may be whittled away by reason, but ii can only be supplanted by 
another dogma — its demise is fre.epienlly accompanied by social 
chaos, revolution, ;md the destruction of thousands or even mil- 
lions ol lives. 

1 he most powerful dogmas are those winch have a timeless, uni- 
versal appeal to the hearts and minds of all men. Yet it is the very 



I (">. Mac.uilav was one oi 'he few politicians who favored applying the scientific 
method to politics: "How, thru, arc Wf to arrive at jusi conclusions on a subject so 
iinpoi L&nt to die happiness of mankind? Surety by that method which, in e^very <*x- 
peiimcnial science lo whit h it has been applied, has serially iiu 'leased the power 
and knowledge of oui speck's — by that method for which our new philosophers 
would snbsutute ([nibbles scarcely worthy of the barbarous respondents and oppo- 
nrnt3 ol ihe Middle Ages — by the method of Induction — by observing the present 
state of the world — by assiduously undying the history of past ages- — by sifting the 
evidence of facts— by carefully combining and contrasting those which are authen- 
tic — by generalizing with judgment and diffidence — by jwqxuually bringing the 
theory which we have constiucted to the test ot new foci* — by correcting, or alto- 
gether abandoning it, according as those new facL". prove to "be partially or funda- 
mentally unsound. Protrrding thus — patiently, diligently, candidly — we may hope 
to form a system as fai inferior in pretension to that which we have been examin- 
ing, and as tar superior to it in real utility, as the prescriptions ol a great physician, 
varying with every stage of every malady and with (he constitution of every patient,, 
to the pill of the advertising quack which is to cure all human beings, in all cli- 
mates, of all diseases." The Miscellaneous Worfc of Lord MaoruUiy, "Mill on (Govern- 
ment," Universal Library Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Vol. I, p. 
399. 



314 



The Dispossessed Majority 



universality of the* great dogmas which makes them so fickle and 
unpredictable, which allows them no play so fast and loose with the 
hopes and aspirations of their expounders. Dogmatic pronounce- 
ments concerning mankind's inalienabk' rights have a totally differ- 
ent political and social effect on monoracial than they do on multi- 
racial societies. The same religious dogma which helped destroy 
the Roman Empire helped preserve the Holy Roman Umpire. The 
same political dogma which inspired one race to put American so- 
ciety together now inspires other races to tear it apart. 

It seems reasonable to suppose that the great dogmas have not 
survived for centuries and even millennia on content alone. Their 
vitality must also have depended heavily on their adaptability, on 
their capacity to alleviate so many human sorrows, to satisfy so 
many conflicting human goals. The gift of adapting dogma to na- 
tional growth and progress is surely one of the greatest a people 
can possess. A greater gift, however, is the ability to reject the dog- 
ma that can no longer he put to any constructive use, 

From the standpoint of the American Majority, the political dog- 
ma which served it so well during most of American history lias 
now In-come one of the chief agents of its decline. From the stand* 
poini of the minorities, this same dogma lias become a powerful 
tool for their advancement, since aJmosi every political act, past 
and present, is now measured against the yardstick of minority in- 
terests and assigned to some way station on the March of Democra- 
cy. I his leads to the deceptive and distorted view thai the contem- 
porary political struggle is between liberalism and conservatism, 
exploited and exploiters, tolerance and intolerance, equality and 
inequality, ireodom and oppression. Since the real nature of what 
is happening and the real intentions of ihe dngmati/crs are there- 
by concealed, intelligent Majority members must conn- to under- 
stand thai they are living in an age and in a world where the inter- 
pretation of dogma has become as powerful a force as dogma itself. 



CHAPTER 22 



The Three Phases of Democracy 



SOCIOLOGIST William Graham Sumner once said of democracy, 
"It is impossible to discuss or criticize it. . . .No one treats it with 
Complete candor and sincerity." 1 In the years since Stunner 
wrote these lines the climate for objectivity has not noticeably im- 
proved. Yet without some (Irani understanding of democracy 
than exists in the popular mind there can be little comprehension 
ol present-day Amcih an politics. 

Most contemporary political scientists like to place democracy at 
the top ol the ladder of political evolution, although traces of it 
have hern found m the tribal organizations of the most backward 
and most ancient peoples. In the considered opinion of Rolx*n 
Vfarrcti, Oxford don and noted anthropologist. "Where society is 
most primitive it is most democratic, . . ." a 

Historically, democracy did not appear as a recognized form of 
government until the flowering of the Greek city states, when it 
acquired enough status to be included among the five political tax- 
cms ol 1'lato. In order of precedence these were: (1) Aristocracy; 
rule of the best; (2) Timncrac)\ rule of the honorable; (3) Oligar- 
chy, rule of the few; (4) Democracy, rule of the people; (5) Tyran- 
ny, tide ol the despot Or Upstart, 5 Plato's Classifications were five 
sieps ol a descending staircase down which most Creek city states 
were doomed lo travel. The Stairs could be climbed ag;ain, ei- 
ther partly or all the way, but inevitably then' would he another de- 
scent, possibly even alter the creation of the perfect stale, that 

1. Fo&at&ys, p. 77. 

2. Emy. #?//., Vol. 18j p. IBS, 

1 fa-public, nans. Paul Shon-y, VIII, 544-43. 

315 



316 



The Dispossessed Majority 



supreme feat of Platonic utopianism, the dream polis where "either 
philosophers become kings. . .or those whom we now call our kings 
and rulers take to the pursuit oF philosophy. . . ."' 

Aristotle found a similar degenerative process at work in politics. 
He divided government into three good and three bad forms. The 
good forms were monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional govern- 
ment, which were ^perverted™ into tyranny, oligarchy, and democ- 
racy, respectively. 5 In Aristotle's political science there were five dif- 
ferent varieties of democracy, which he had some trouble delinea- 
ting. He did 7 however, make a sharp distinction IxMween demorra* 
cies where the law was above the people, and democracies where 
the people were above the law. 6 

Aristotle's politics was shaped in part by his faith in the middle 
class, to which he happened to belong. His preferred stale was a 
middle-class republic not too dissimilar to ihe limited represen- 
tative government of the United States in the early years of its inde- 
pendence..' 1 But Aristotle was also a political relativist, who believed 
that the t>est government ntight be the one best suited to the peo- 
ple, time, and circumstance. He was not a fanatic believer in the in- 
herent superiority of any one political system, 8 

The aristocrat, Plato, was more hostile than Aristotle to democ- 
racy, whose end stages he desrril>ed in terms which have a curious- 
ly modern ring: 

[ T|liose who obey the rules. . .it reviles a* willing slaves and mm 
of nought, but it commends and honors in puhlic and private 
rulers who resemble subjects and subjects who are like rulers. . . . 
[T]he father habitually tries to resemble the rhild and is afraid 
of his sons, and the son likens himself to the father and feels no 

awe or fear of his parents \nd the resident alien feels himself 

equal to the citizen and the citizen to him, arid the foreigner 
likewise. . . .The teacher in such case fears and fawns upon the 
pupils, and the pupils pay no heed to the teacher or to their 
overseers either. And in general the young ape their elders and 
vie uith them in speech and action, while the old, accommodat- 
ing themselves to the youn^, air full of plr.tisantn. and j»rat kuis- 
ness. Imitating the young for fear they may be thought disagreeable 
and authoritative. . . .And [ almost forgo! to mention the freedom 



1 Ibid., V, 473d. 5. Politics, trans. Jowett, HI, 7. 0. Ibid , IV, 1. 7. Ibid., IV. 11. 
H. Ibid. 



THK POLITICAL CI JVSH 



317 



and equal rights in the relations of men lo women and women to 

men. . . .-' 

As suggested in Chapter 18, Greek democracy had very little in 
common with ihe kind of democracy affected by present-day demo- 
cratic regimes. In their democratic phases, almost all Greek city- 
states clung tenaciously to the institution or slavery and refused vot- 
ing rights to women, foreigners, and metics — even disenfranchis- 
ing many of the native horn by means of racial and property qualifi- 
cations, On the other hand, some cities like Alhens carried 
democracy to extremes by the practice of sortition, in which office- 
holders were selected not by vote but by lot. Sortition, a kind of 
democratic bingo, is only conceivable where a small, homogene- 
ous, highly intelligent citizenry possesses a high degree of political 
sophistication. 

The Roman Republic had iis democratic moments. Greek exper- 
iments in democracy being well known to Roman politicians, with 
the passage of time the plebs wrung concession after concession 
from the ruling families, including the control of the tribunate. 
The Senate, however, the most enduring and most prestigious R«>- 
man political institution, was congenitally authoritarian and the re- 
pository of privilege. When the flickering candle of democracy was 
finally snuffed out by the (irarchitcs and dictators who buried the 
Republic,* it did not burn again until the seventeenth century. 

During this long hiatus some feeble democratic stirrings were 
manifested. In AD. §30, Iceland's Althing had its first session. As this 
parliamentary body still sits today, Icelanders can claim to be the 
founders of history's most enduring representative government. 11 



9. Republic, trans. Shorey, VIII, JW2-64, One of Plato's most telling com- 
plaints against democracy was its failure to encourage the emergence of vinu- 
OU* statesmen: "[Except] in ihe case of traim rodent natural gifts no our 
could ever become a good man unless horn childhood his play and all his pur- 
suits were concerned with things fair and good — how superbly [democracy} 
tramples underfoot all such ideaJs, caring nothing from what practices and 
way of life a man turns to politics, but honoring him if only he says that he 
loves the people-!" Ibid., 558b. 

10. Roman impeiial rule was perhaps Ix-st summed up by Tilx-iius, who wrote, 
"it was the part of a good shepherd to shear his Hock, not skin it." Suetonius, 
Tiberius, trans.]. C Rolfc, I,oeb Classical Library, XXXII. 

11. Ena. Brit. r Vol 12, p. 4.5. 



SIS 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Other pallid democratic stirrings ran he detected in the early days 
of the English Parliament, in the Swiss canions, and in die medieval 
communes, "the chief parent of modern democrat v." 1 - 

It is generally conceded that modern democracy was horn dur- 
ing the popular reaction against ihe Stuart dynasty in England, Its 
midwife was John Locke* whose treatises on civil government con- 
tained many seminal democratic ideas, In phraseology that was lat- 
er reworked and panly plagiarized by Jefferson in the Declaration 
oi Independence 1 , Locke asserted that men, all of whom had 
certain natural rights, were "free, equal and independent" and 
that "no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or 
possessions. ,11;i 

Iii it then Locke rook a dogmatic tack that alienated him forever 
Irom the oracles of contemporary democratic thought. The basic 
purpose of government, he declared, was the preservation of prop- 
erty. 1 '- [f monarchs could not protect the material possessions of 
their subjects, people had the riylit to look elsewhere for protec- 
tion, <ven if" need l>e to themselvt 



.« 15 



In Locke's opinion the preservation oi property was tantamount 
to the preservation of human liberty. To safejmard this Liberty he 
called for the division of government into legislative and executive 
branches. Later the French philosopher Montesquieu expanded 
the I .ockean separation of powers by adding :i third branch of gov- 
ernment, the judiciary. 111 ' Jeanjaoques Rousseau rounded out the 
bask structure of pre-Marxist democratic theory by making man in- 
herently good, that is, capable and worthy of controlling his own 
destiny without outside interference or regimentation. 37 It was less 



\ l 2. Ditrant, Th* Age of Faith, p. 641. 

l:i Locke, Of Gait Ciatfernmrnl, First Treatise, preface, p. 3. Also Fncy. fkit, Vol. 
16, p. I72Q and Vol. 7, p. 217. ft might be noted that in the constitution he was 
asked to draw up for Carolina, l/xke included such strange democratic bedfel- 
lows as hereditary serfdom and primogeniture. Beard, Rise of American Ciinlization, 
Vol. 1, p. 8& 

14. Locke, op tit , Second Treatise, No. 9\ 

l& Ibid, No* 228-29. 

lo". L'esprii de& his, XI, vi. 

17. At least this is the impression gathered from reading the first pages ol Rous- 
seau's I hi (antral social. In the latter pan ihe citizen is threatened with death 
ii he cJocs not believe in the articles of the religion of the state in whii h he hap* 
pens to reside. Rniis.vau, parenthetically, considered a mixture of aristocracy' and 



THE POLITICAL CLASH 



319 



of a mental strain for Rousseau, born in ihe relatively pure moral 
atmosphere of Geneva, to entertain such heuristic views than for 
philosophers brought up in the fleshpots of Paris or London. 

English democracy, though it made important strides after the 
Stuarts had been sent packing a second and final time, did not lose 
its aristocratic flavor until the Reform Act of 1832, But across the 
Atlantic in North America, British colonists, more safely removed 
irom the conservative restraint of king and lord, gave democracy a 
freer hand. Iii New England, after the relaxation oi Puritan theoc- 
racy, these colonists demanded and in some cases won the right to 
intervene in government affairs, to have magistrates publicly ac- 
count foi their anions, to be tried by a jury of" one's peers and to 
enjoy statutory guarantees of personal liberty, and, perhaps most 
dramatic and controversial ol" all, to let t iti/ens set the rate oi taxa- 
tion, fhe totality of this radical legislation, which made the British 
in Britain green with envy, slowiy came to be considered the birth 
right of most whites in the thirteen colonies. 18 

I he democratic exuberance of the Mew England town meeting, 
however, did not spill over into the new nation as a whole when the 
colonies obtained their independence. 10 Some of the intellectuals 
among ihe Founding Fathers, notably in the South, subscribed to 
man) of the ideas, truisms, ami platitudes that were giving birth to 
the French Revolution. Tins doctrinaire brand of political and so- 
cial leveling, however, differed sharply from the evolutionary and 
pragmatic democracy of most independence-minded Americans. 
While ii is true thai Jefferson's clarion appeals to human liberty 
helped build up die colonists' inclination for war, they were mere 
rhetorical shadows compared to the substantial democratic achieve- 
ments ol Majority pioneers and settlers who had never heard of 
natural laws, social contracts, or "unalienable Rights" and to whom 



democracy die Ijom form of government. He Fell direct democracy was Impossible 
Mid thai people living in an tic or tropical zones might require absolute rule, 
Duranl, Uousieaii and Ibvoluiian, pp. 173-74. 

18, De ToequcvUle, l)t la Omaaatie m Amenqut, Tome 1 , p. :\H, Tome 2, p. 298 H 
10. When the I nited States became a sovereign nation in 1770, the popula- 
tion numbered less than loot million, ol which only mx. peitent voted. Tim*, 
Match 22, 1963, p. 96. Since citizen participation in government was much 
highei in New England than elsewhere, it must have been extremely low in 
most other colonies. 



S20 



The Dispossessed Majority 



"the pursuit of happiness" would have seemed blasphemous and 
downright hedonistic 

Perhaps more than any oiher American, Thomas JefTerson must 
assume die responsibility for loading American democracy with the 
ambiguity and cam that have pursued it down [he years. When one 
of the largest slave owners in Virginia solemnly writes, "ail Men are 
created equal," either his semantics or his integrity must tx* ques- 
tioned. What Jefferson and most other signers of the Declaration of 
Independence meant by equality was that English colonists had the 
same natural right to self-government as the English in the mother 
country. 20 But that is not what was written. And it is what was writ- 
ten that, carried forward to the present century and used in an- 
other context, has proved to be such an effective time bomb in the 
hands of those who advocate projects and policies totally antitheti- 
cal tojeffersonian democracy. 

To obtain a clearer picture of JefTerson's interpretation of equal- 
ity, one need only read the Declaration of Independent :e all the 
way through. In the beginning the tone is equalitarium. liul further 
on, Jefferson writes of "the merciless Indian Savages, whose known 
Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction of all Ages* 
Sexes and Conditions."* 1 Other signs of a basically auii-equalitarian 
disposition Lire provided by Jefferson's belief in "natural aristocra- 
cy" and by his insistence on the innate supremacy of the American 
yeoman or small tanner. In spite of his strong sympathies for the 
French Revolution, he wrote to Lafayette, Tin- yeomanry of the 
United States an- not the canaille q[ Paris, "** 

Jefferson gave American democracy a chance of survival only so 
long as the country remained basically agricultural. He was con- 
vinced that merchants and speculators were corrupt; ihat cities 



20. Richard Hof«adtcr, The American Political Tradition, p. 12. Stephen Douglas 

said (1858): "die signers of the Declaration had no reference to the Negro what- 
ever . . . [tfeeywerc referring ioj white mm, mm of European birth and European 
descent . . that such was their understanding i* lo 1*- found in the foci . . . every 
one of the thirteen colonies was a flaveholding eokmy, every' signer oi die Declare- 

hon repL-rvnird a slaveliolding constiru^ncv . . . if they intended to declare lh.it 
the Megro was the equal of the white man . . . thry were bound, as honest men, 
that day and hour to have put their Negroes oil an etttjalitywith themselves. 
21 ForJefTerson's remarks on Negroes, see p. 1*1 *. > 

22. Holsudter, op. cii., p. 22. 



Ti if; political clash 



321 



were "pestilential*; that city mobs were "the panders of vice and the 
instruments by which the liberties of a country are generally over- 
turned." 2 * Paradoxically this same Jefferson is now, with Lincoln, 
the idol of the people he held in abomination. The paradox has 
been compounded by the Democratic party which, despite its pow- 
er base in tine big cities, has named itself Jefferson's political heir, 

Jefferson was in France during the framing of the Constitu- 
tion 84 — one good reason the word democracy appears nowhere in 
thai document. The Founding Fathers, most of whom were of a 
conservative bent, determined to make the United States a repub- 
lic, which in those days meant almost any government that was not 
a monarchy, 25 The few delegates to the Constitutional Convention 
who did profess democratic sentiments held views closer to Greek 
and Roman concepts of democracy than to the leveling notions of 
Utopian Parisian regicides. John Adams probably represented the 
feelings of most of his colleagues when he expostulated, "Remem- 
ber, democracy never lasts long. It soon wastes, exhausts, and mur- 
ders itself. There never was a democracy yet that did not commit 
suicide."' 20 

Such prophetic gloom was in no small measure responsible for 
the fear of democracy inherent in many of the laws and proce- 
dures which shaped the political siance and behavior of the nation 
during its childhood and adolescence. Senators were chosen by the 
legislatures oi the various stales, not by direct popular vole* 7 There 
were property, occasionally even religious, qualifications for voting 



23. Ibid., pp. 31-32. 

21, 'The men who put 'We, the People* into the Constitution, with a few excep- 
tions perhaps, feared the rule of the people and would have been bonified il th* 
could have foreseen all dial was to happen under their Constitution in the next 
150 years." Beard, Thr Hrfmhlir, p. 4. ITie Constitution, il might be ;idded, was; even 
rreated in an undemocratic atmosphere, since all sessions of the Convention were 
sec r i l 

25. Needles* lo say, democratic shades of meaning have now been iimoduord 
into the word. We&sier's Thmi N*w International Dictionary offers as an alu-i nate defi- 
nition of republic, "a community of beings . . . characterized by a general equality 
among ineniUrs." 

26. Uofsladter, op. tit., p. l;t. Hamilton, who Called the people a "great beast," 
was even more pessimistic about democracy than Adams. Charles Beaid, 
The Republic) p. 11. 

27. Constitution, An. 1, s< < . :*, l\u. 1. 



322 



The Dispossessed Majority 



in almost all the slates. A Negro, For statistical purposes, was count- 
ed as three-filths of a white man. Slavery was acknowledged and 
pro tec led by the federal government and by most states. 28 There 
wa& much interest in guarding the rights of citizens, as demonstrat- 
ed by the Rill of Rights, but much less interest, as evidenced by the 
emergence of machine politics, hi encouraging citizens to partici- 
pate independently in the governmental process. 

Nevertheless the democratic seed had been planted. The subse- 
quent campaign 10 broaden and widen the voting base, to make 
everyone a citizen and every adult citizen avoter> is one of die most 
discernible threads in American history. At first the electoral evolu- 
tion moved rather slowly. Property requirements for voting persist- 
ed in some states until lrt. r jn> N 1 he slaves were freed in 1803, but 
the Negro's right to vote was not specifically spelled out until 
1870. ^ J Senators were riot elected directly until the 1 7tli Amend- 
ment (1915). Women were not given the ballot until die 1 9th Amend- 
ment (MM9). The electoral process for selecting presidents is still 
retained, but is now almost wholly dependent on the popular vote. 
The poll lax was not. prohibited until the 24th Amendment ( 1962}. 
The "mir man, one vote" Supreme Conn decisions in 1962, 1964, 
and 1968 made it mandatory thai districts electing representatives 
to legally constituted city, county, and town governments he sub- 
stantially equal in population. 31 If" the constituencies of representa- 
tives to the same legislative l>ody diilered too greaily in population, 
tin) would he brought into line by reapportionment. Onlv sena- 
tors, some i>1' whom now represent slates with ten to twenty times 
the population of other states, are exempl from this rule. 52 

That universal suffrage and equal representation now exist in 
theory in the United States does not mean thai everyone votes. 33 In 



28. Art. I, Sec, 2, Pat. 3; Arc. IV, .Sec, 2, Par. 3. Slavery- was fodndden in the 
Northwest Territory in 1787. The lasi Northern state to abolish it was Now Jersey, 
which began lo phase out slavery in 1304. 

29, Bmy. BriL, Vol. 7, p. 218. 

'M). I"he J r )th Ainends&em (1870) forbade denying the right to vole lo any citi- 
zen on account of "race, color or previous condition of servitude." 
SI, Ttm*,]vify 6, I960, pp. 62-63. 

32. The exemption is provided by die 17th Amendment and Art. I, Sec. 3. Par. I 
of the Constitution. 

33. There are still some restrictions on residence, voting age, and literacy teslj. 
Where sncli I^ls do not imply i.u i,il (iisenmiriaiion. 



THE POLITICAL CLASH 



323 



presidential elections, for example, a little more than half of the 
votirag population go to the polls.* 4 In off-year congressional elec- 
tions voter participation is sometimes as low as 10 to 15 percent. 35 

One explanation for this poor showing is that candidates for 
public office seldom address the issues of most concern to voters. If 
people cannot register their feelings on the national and local 
problems of most interest to them, why should they bother to vote? 
Also to blame are the lackluster candidates who, despite belonging 
to different parties, often seem to speak the same political lan- 
guage, a bland soporific rhetoric whose sole effect is to augment 
voter apathy. Add to this the hopelessness of defeating political ma- 
chines whose concept of universal suffrage extends to the registra- 
tion ol voters who are repeaters, deceased, or fictional, M and the 
result is general cynicism seasoned with a growing disbelief in the 
political system. Those who have lost their trust in democratic gov- 
ernment can hardly be expected to participate wholeheartedly in 
the voting process, the Fundamental mechanism of democratic gov- 
ernment. 

Belgium, Australia, and a few other nations lure voters to the 
polls in fining absentees. Without going to such extremes, Ameri- 
can politicians might accomplish the same purpose by presenting 
their constituents with clear-cul issues they can either support or 
oppose. The candidates' long-established habit of dividing on sec- 
ondary rathei than primary issues is one of the great failures of 
Ameri( an democracy. 

In the 1940 presidential election, when the overriding question 
was intervention or nonintervention in World War 11, both major 
party candidates promised to keep the United Slates out of the con- 
flict, although both were interventionists at heart. In fact, while 
campaigning For his third term, President Roosevelt was already 
implementing a policy of military aid to Britain thai made American 



34. 19H0 World Atmawtr. p. 280. 

35. Ferdinand LwiullxTg, 'IkeTimwti ofthfPeopk, pp. 9-10. 

36. In the I960 presidential election 150,000 "ghost" votes were aimed in by 
5,190 Cook County (Chicago) precincts. In liic same election Texasjudges threw 
out ;m rsiiinairil 100,000 ballots on technicalities. A shift of 23,1 17 voles in Texas 
and 4,430 rotes in Illinois would have given Nixon die presidency, not John. 1* 
Kennedy. As it was, Nixon had to wait 12 more years before he made it to the 
White House. Rttutn '$ Digest, July, l!Mi<), pp. 37-43. 



324 



The Dispossessed Majority 



involvement all but inevitable,* 7 

The situation was similar in regard 10 Affirmative Anion more 
than a quarter of a century later. Nearly ali Republican and Demo- 
cratic presidential candidates supported it or treated it with silence, 
though polls showed a majority of the voters were opposed. In the 
1970s at least 75 percent of Americans were against forced busing, 
which leaders of the two parties proceeded to expand rather than 
curtail Both major parties supported huge amounts of military and 
financial aid to Israel before, during, and after the 1973 Arab oil 
embargo, which sent ihc price of gasoline skyrocketing. I [ere again 
voters had noeffective means of approving or disapproving policies 
of crucial importance. 

In HM>4, in the very same election in which President Johnson, 
an ardent backer of civil rights, carried California by L2 million 
votes, the people oi that state voted two to one to repeal an open- 
bousing statute in a statewide referendum* which was then prompt- 
ly ruled unconstitutional by the state's Supreme Court. 58 Proposi- 
tion 13, providing for a reduction in properly taxes, was another 
California referendum thai won the overwhelming support ol the 
voters, though it was fought tooth and nail by the stale govern- 
ment, the media, and the money magnates. So far, despite some 
agitation to do so, the courts have not overturned it. Meanwhile 
constitutional amendments to make forced busing ilk-gal and to 
forbid racial quotas cannot get out of congressional i ommiitccs, al- 
though both the full Senate and House approved by the necessary 
two-thirds vote liberal amendments for equal rights for women 
(ERA) and statehood for the District of Columbia. In the state leg- 
islatures, however, they met with much less enthusiasm. 

One of the greatest of all voter shutouts developed during the 
Vietnam Wat. En (he I9bH presidential campaign, both major party 
candidates proposed a strategy of slow disengagement. Those 
Americans who wanted io win the war or who wanted immediate 



S7. Beard, Fresidenl RoMnvit ami thf Gmiingoftkt War, HMl, pp. T \ 41S 
.'is. Time, Nov. IS, 1964, pp. ^0, 4$. That die courts can overturn a referen- 
dum — the purest expression of democracy afu-r sortition — raises questions about 
how democratic Lh^ American form of democracy really is. Since open housing 
was almost universally suppoi led by (lie nvw\ media, the referendum also served 
to demonstrate thai rditoriaJ Opinion i^ usually much closer to minority ilixn 
Majority upmi<m. 



I'M K POLITICAL CLASH 



325 



withdrawal simply had no vote, or no vote that counted. The only 
candidate who promised a harder line on both the war and the 
rate issue was George Wallace, whose American Independent party 
received 9,897,141 votes or 13.53 percent of the total cast, the larg- 
est percentage obtained by any third party since Senator La Follette 
ran on the Progressive ticket in I924.* 3 

Wallace performed this minor miracle although die entire Amer- 
ican political establishment and communications network were sol- 
idly arrayed against him. Even in the South noi one important 
newspaper came to his support If Wallace had had the political 
machine of a major parly, if even 10 percent of the press had back- 
ed him. if Republicans had not tried to steal his thunder ics the 
campaign progressed, he might have won atlmosi as many votes as 
Nixon or Humphrey.'" 

In the IW1 race for governor of Louisiana. David Duke received 
more while vou-s {55%) than the winner, Edwin Edwards, (hough 
Fdwards had an extremely shoddy reputation a\u\ though Duke 
was viciously attacked nationwide by the leaders of both political 
parties (he rati as a Republican). Fhejuggernaua of power arrayed 
against him was immeasurable. 

All of which tends to prove thai democracy, as it now operates in 
the United Stales, does noi genuinely reflect the wishes of the poo- 
he. Both the voter and the candidate are simply noi given a fair 
chain e to make theij opinions known, if they stray from the accept- 
ed major party line. Kven on the rare occasions voters manage to 
elect someone who seems to stand for their interests, the moment 
he gets into Congress he is likely to hedge on his most solemn cam- 
paign commitments once he feels the hot breath of the news 
media, (he veteran politicians and the liberal-minority lobbies. 

A principal cause of this powerful and pervasive antidemocratic 
element in modern American democracy is that elections come 
and go every two, four, or six years, while the press and pressure 
groups grind out then propaganda every day. Ii is very difficult for 
any political figure to stand up for long against the combined 



3ft San Francisco Chronicle, Dec 12, 1668, p, II. 

40. 7iw,(Vi. 18, 1968, p. 70, 

il. Wallace performed more specia*coIarfy in the 1972 primaries, coming out on 
top in Michigan, onlv to l>e immobilized physically by a bullet in the spine and jxj- 
lilirallv by ihr McGovrm steamroller at the Minmi Democratic convention. 



526 



I he Dispossessed Majority 



onslaught of the press, hundreds of radio and television stations, 
and scores of policy-making periodicals. To all hut the hardiest pol- 
itician the partial betrayal of his constituency or even the loss of an 
election is preferable to the social Siberia reserved for die maverick 
who insists on putting die interests of society as a whole af>ove spe- 
cial interests. The sad fate of James Forrestal and Senator Joseph 
McCarthy should be an unforgettable object lesson on the danger 
of promoting policies with a broad appeal to the people, but with a 
narrow appeal to the people who count. 1 '- 

Allowing the voter a limited choice or no choice at all has had 
the effect of moving government towards a "corporate democracy" 
— Mussolini would have called it a corporale state — hi which pro- 
fessions, religions, regional economies, business and labor groups, 
chesses, and races supplant the individual as the basic voting unit 
Every politician is extremely sensitive to the labor vole, religious 
vote* farm vole, and minority vole, llis political reflexes, however, 
respond more slowly to ihe wishes of the individual Majority voter 
who does not enjoy the bloc voter's ready access io the media. It is 
this corporate system of representation — [he organized vote or, 
more precisely, the fear of such a vole— which inspires most ol "the 
policies and decisions of present-day elected officials. 

The economic blocs which spring up under the protective roof 
of representative government are storm signals of the second stage 
of the democratic cycle, the progression from political to economic 
democracy. 43 Leading contributors to the development of political 



4^. An extraordinary series at persona] attacks by acwspapei columnists and 
radio commentators helped drive ihe nation's firM secretary of defense to suit ide 
in HH9 One commrnUtm, Ira Hii s* hin.tn, wmi *> l;u .in rn :u < nsr I'niM'Mat t*( 
preventing ih<- bombing of an \.G. Farhen chemical plant in Germany in World 
War tl because he owned stock in die company. Another, Waiter Winchdl. 
accused Forrestal of running away while his wife was bring robbed, Korrestal had 
incurred die wrath of organized Jewry because he was opposed to American sup- 
pori ol the Zionist talteovei oi Palestine and the stirring up of the Arab world 
against the United States. Arnold Rogow, Victim oft>uty, Rupert Hart-Davis, Lon- 
don, |<MKi, p t\ The media's wn delta against McCarthy! together with his almost 
unprecedented (ensure by the Senate, seemed io break him down physical!) ^ 
well as mentally and certainly had much CO do with his untimely death in 1957, 
Tim*, May 30, 1 949, -pp. [3-14, and IS AWs & World Rsfxnl June 1, 1957, p. 143. 

43. Other economic aspects of the three types of democracy will be examined 
more thoroughly in ['art MI, The Economic Clash. 



niK mnncAi, clash 



327 



democracy— Locke, the ISth-cemury British Parliamentariana, a 

few philosophers of the Enlightenment, and the authors of the 
American Constitution — generally held economic democracy in 
contempt and dismissed it as the fantasy of disorderly and danger- 
ous minds. But there are imany who claim— and if the cqualitarian 
premises of democracy are granted, their logic ran hardly be refut- 
ed — that without an "equitable" distribution of wraith there can be 
no democracy at all. The Otic great stumbling block in this line of 
reasoning is usually passed over in silence. To prevent the accumu- 
lation of vast amounts of property in individual hands, and to effec- 
tively flatten the- highs and lows of the national income curve re- 
quires a centralized control which is only a step removed from 
absolutism. 

Economic democracy has haunted the halls of government 
almost as long as political democracy. The Levellers, who are said 
to have founded the first political party in modern history, were 
ardent supporters of Cromwell in the initial stages of the English 
G5vil War, although their economic demands, which included the 
abolition of trading monopolies, finally caused Cromwell to turn 
against them. 44 Thereafter, both in Rngland and on tin- Continent, 
there were lew evidences of economic democracy until the French 
Revolution. What helped to keep it in check was the absence of any 
developed body of doctrine, any corpus like Locke's, to give it 
direction and coherence. 

EJ Locke was the apostle of political democracy, Marx was the 
prophet ol economic democracy. Borrowing many of his ideas and 
methods from the hard 1 line. "share-tho-wealth rt faction of French 
Jacobinism, Matx drew up an impassioned, encyclopedic agenda of 
Utopian eschatolotfV, obsessive materialism, and crude economic 
leveling which clashed so violently with classical democratic theory 
that tin- latin has never fully recovered "Passionately concerned 
wiili the achievement of economic democracy as he conceived it, 
[Marx] had no real interest in or comprehension of the problems 
of democratic politics." 45 The lack of this comprehension among 
his followers was made plain in the Bolshevik Revolution. 

Economic democracy first became a permanent fixture in tin" 



44. Emy. Brit, Vol. 13, p. S6t 

45. Frederick M. Walk ins in the |] tit !<-, "DcnxxTiKy," £ncj, Brit., Vol. 7, p. 222. 



32 o 



The Dispossessed Majority 



American political scene with the advent of populism. Bryan may 
not have prevented mankind from being crucified on a cross of 
gold, but lie and the Populist party which supported him firmly 
implanted an enduring; awareness of economics in the American 

political consciousness. TrusC-busling Theodore Roosevelt, Senator 
I, a Folleite and his Progressive parly, Woodrow Wilson and his 
graduated income tax and, most important, the rise of Big Labor— - 
all these set an economic tone to democracy that culminated in the 
New Deal, which in its early years was concerned almost exclusively 
with democratic solutions «o economic problems. Welfare in the 
form of security for the aged, the minimum wage, medical and un- 
employment insurance, and all the other dollar sand-cents legisla- 
tion of recent administrations are additional examples of democra- 
cy's continuing accent on economic issues. 

The third phase of democracy is the social phase. Like political 
and economic democracy, social democracy is not new. But it 
comes last in the cycle of democratic growth (or decay}. Because it 
capitalizes on the deeper, instinctive undercurrents of human U- 
havior, its historical manifestations art 7 nor always easv to recojniize 
and do not often penetrate conventional history books. Its theoreti 
eal genesis, however, is not difficult to trace, being a composite of 
the religious concept of the brotherhood of man, Lockean and Jef 
iersonian assertions about human rights, Marxist (lass agitation, 
and the pronouncements of modern anthropologists ami sociolo- 
gists concerning human sameness. 

Once the political and economic forms of democracy take hold 
in a society, the pressure for social democracy is certain to mount 
This is especially true in a multiracial state. Inevitably the unwashed, 
the disadvantaged, and the envious will begin to ask, or will be 
asked to ask by ambitious politicians, "Why, if man is politically 
equal and getting to be economically equal, should he not be so- 
cially equal?" In the Context of contemporary democratic politics, 
such a question lias but one answer. 

Social democracy is the thorniest stage of democracy, especially 
in a multiracial state, because it greatly expands die area of con- 
tact, the social interface, of the various demographic elements. 
Political demo* racy ordains that members of different population 
groups vote together and legislate together. Economic democ- 
racy ordains thai they work together. What is known as social 



THE POIJTir-Al, CLASH 



S29 



democracy exponentially enlarges the area of contact by forcing 
the most diverse elements of the population to live together. At 
present this social mixing is mainly restricted to schools, jobs, gov- 
ernment and the military,'* 6 But there are forces at work — last 
night's television program, yesterday's newspaper editorial, the lat- 
est federal regulation — thai carry social democracy into the last re- 
doubt of individualism and privacy, ihe home. 

The internal contradictions of ihe three phases of both ancient 
and modern democracy become apparent when il is remembered 
diat political democracy Iiegan as a means of protecting property, 
whereas economic democracy seeks to distribute it, and social de- 
mocracy encourages its theft. In the ironic chain of events that gov- 
erns tin- democratic cycle, the same rights that were secured and 
recognized, often with great difficulty, in the political phase, of de- 
mocracy are frequently revoked in the economic and social phases. 
It is hard to believe thai the right to privacy, the right to choose 
friends, neighbors and schoolmates, to join fraternal or social or- 
ganizations, n» air one's opinions in public, and the right of access 
to one's own culture are not as fundamental to human liberty as 
any other. Yet these arc precisely the rights held in lowest esteem 
by the most ardent advocates of social democracy, 

Hindsight and a certain amount of historical streamlining make 
it possible to view ihe three phases of democracy in America as 
three stages of the Majority's dispossession. Political democracy di- 
vided the Majority into parties representing various geographical, 
regional, and sectional interests. Economic democracy and its ac- 
companying inflation, welfare subsidies, and high taxation deplet- 
ed the Majority's wealth. Since economic leveling, at least in its ear- 
ly stages, raises class consciousness, ihe Majority was further weak- 
ened hy the sharpening of its class divisions. 



36, jews, who piopoi lionately have a far greater n amber of Clubs and organiza- 
tions than any other population group, have waged a ceaseless campaign under 
the leadership of the American Jewish Committee to force non-Jewish clubs 10 ac- 
cept them as members on the ground (hat exclusion discriminates against them fi- 
nancially as we]] as socially. Many prominent politicians and other public figure* 
have been persuaded to resign from such clubs in order to escape chaises of anti- 
Semitism. More recently nominee.* for high government posts have resigned from 
"all-while" clubs to prove to various 5enat<- committees they air not prejudiced 
against hlacks. 



330 



The Dispossessed Majority 



THE POLITICAL GUSH 



Deprived of much of its political and economic- power, the Ma- 
jority was next subjected to the kind of attack that most pleased its 
opponents. It was attacked as a race. The strategy, sometimes con- 
scions, sometimes unconscious, always subconscious, was to raise 
minority racism to the boiling point while subjecting Majority race 
consciousness to the numbing ideology of liberalism. Hie secon- 
dary plan was to develop a refined technique for quashing any Ma- 
jority attempt at resistance. This was accomplished in two ways: (1) 
controlling the votes by managed news, educational indoctrina- 
tion, and the nomination of carefully screened candidates: (2) go- 
ing around the vote, when necessary, by Supreme Court rulings 
and secret foreign policy commitments. If social democracy should 
go too far, too last, and a spark of resistance flared, nhe cotnre- 
lemps could be taken care of by character assassination, shouting 
down Majority activists, breaking up their meetings and demonstrat- 
Lions, occupying plants, government offices, and centers of learn- 
ing or, if worse came, to worst, resorting to entrapment, and releas- 
ing a new docudrama on network television. 

Though the ballooning of social democracy seems unstoppable, 
minorities always have the nagging fear that someday the Majority 
might come alive and form a Majority political parly, hi (his case 
the laboriously assembled liberal-minority infrastructure would col- 
lapse like a house of cards. To prevent this, the prophets of social 
democracy have formulated doctrinal antidotes to any possible 
manifestation of what they nervously refer to as (he "tyranny of the 
majority," a phrase dredged up from John Stuart Mill. One propos- 
al is to make minority votes count more than Majority votes by the 
simple expedient of permitting ethnic and economic groups to 
have their own representatives, in addition to representatives cho- 
sen in the traditional manner. This would permit delegates of mi- 
norities, urban conglomerations, and welfare groups to wield as 
much power as delegates of the people at large. 17 Another tactic to 
defeat the will of the majority is cumulative voting, the brainchild 



331 



47. Neto York 'limn Magaihw, Aug. 3, 1959. 'ITiat this proposal appeared in the tin in 
of a long artir 1c in America's mmi highly regard*- d newspaper mranl that it was to 
be taken seriously. Ihe author was Herbert J Cans, a prominent todotagitt. In 
the I'ouist: of his irjUmeJCU, Cans suggested that the approval of 'JtS prrcenl of a 

legislative body would be sufficient for the introduction of minority-sponsored 
legislation while 7(» percent would be necessary to prevent its passage. 



Of Lani Guinier, the half black, half Jewish lady whose nomination 
for Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights was withdrawn by 
President Clinton when her agitpropping views became more wide- 
ly known. In an election for seven county commissioners, for exam- 
ple, Ms. Cuinier would give every voter the right to east seven bal- 
lots. This would allow minority voters to combine all their votes for 
one candidate, thereby making it difficult for whiles to win all sev- 
en seats, as they often do iti the standard one-man, one-vote system 
when (hey outnumber blacks and other minorities in all the voting 
districts. 1 * Another efTon to boost minority voting power, one al- 
ready written into law in the Voting Rights Act, is the assumption 
thai illegal voting practices have taken place when whites are elect- 
ed in districts heavily populated by nonwhites. ** 

American democracy, even in its social or "depraved"™ phase, 
could hardly survive too much minority gerrymandering^. All things 
considered, the <>nl\ real possibility of a democratic revival lies in 
tJhe creation of a united Majority voting bloc. Hut before this can hap- 
pen it must be understood, as it once was clearly understood, thai 
genuine democracy makes serious mental and moral demands on 
its participants, It limits its offei of freedom to those who can han- 
dle freedom. Democracy only works well when it is the rule of a peo- 
ple, not several peoples. The most Utopian and most quixotic of all 
political forms, it may be the expression of a racial aptitude. If such 
is the case, modern social scientists of the rare-mixing category have 
i>een the biggest prospectors of fool's gold in the history of politics. 

■\H. T\mt t April i*f>. \\M. 

49. Some minoiily politicians have < ait :i loud eye al proportional representa- 
tion Which has been adopted by some European countries. Parties thatwin five per- 
cent or more at the hallo!* are entitled to st-.its in lite national legislature in pro- 
portion hj ihcir share of die vote. Consequently, minority candidates are not. shut 
out by the winnei-take-all system, At limes proportional representation gives mi- 
noiiiv parties more power than then numbers would suggest, especially when 
SWUIg voters can pass or defeat an idl-imjjorlant piece of legislation. 

50. De ToeqUeville used the word advisedly when he predicted that the political 
future of Americans "lay between two inevitable evils; that the question had ceased 
to be whelhet [ it ] would have an arisl<H racy or a democracy, and now lay between 
a democracy without poetry or elevation indeed, hnt with older and morality, and 
an undisciplined and depraved democracy." Letter to M. Stoffcls, Alexis de 

i'oequeville, Democracy in Ajiirrica, trans. Phillips Bradley, Knopf, New York, 1063, 
Vol. I, pp. xx, xxi. 



CHAPTER 23 



The Metamorphosis of Liberalism 



TAT nr.N discussing democracy and liberalism in the same breath, 

*▼ i! is haul to make a distinction between the two. One way to 

resolve the difficulty h m treat democracy as a political system rat h- 

<-r than a political theology, ;ls ihe expression of a dogma rather 
than the dogma itself. Then liberalism can be considered the dem- 
ocratic credo — the ideology that provides democracy's intellectual 
justification as well as its emotional drive. 

Webster's Third New International Dictionary ofTers as one definition 
of liberalism, *a political philosophy based on belief in progress, 
the essential goodness of man, and die autonomy of the individual 
and standing I'm tolerance and freedom foi the individual from ar- 
bitrary authority in all spheres of life. . . ." With less elaboration 
and bombast, and in better English, a popular dictionary describes 
the liberal as being "free from prejudice or bigotry." 1 If a historical 
reference will help nail down fhe elusiveness of liberalism, the first 
liberal, according to Walter Bagehot, was Jeroboam, presumably 
because he appointed "die [owes! of die people priests in high 
(daces" and asked King Rehoboam to "make the yoke which thy fa- 
ther did pur upon us lighter."* 

In a more irreverent vein a modern libera] might be defined as 
one who, while professing a horror of totalitarianism, favors one 



1 . The American Everyday Dictionary , Random 1 louse, New York, 1955. 

2. Writer Bagehot, Pfysia and Pottttts. Knopf, New York, 19-18, p. $[. [ n reply, 
Rehoboanm promised to r has rise Jeroboam, not with whips but widi scorpion*, Jer- 
oboam thereupon permanently split the Jewish suue in two by setting up the 
northern kingdom of Israel, where he worshipped two golden calves. I Kin^s 
12:4-19: 15:33, 



332 



1 1 IK POLITICAL CLASH 



353 



brand of totalitarianism over another; 3 who, professing a horror of 
racism, actively promotes minority racism; who, professing a horror 
ol big business, is an enthusiastic supporter of big labor. The intol- 
erant champion of tolerance, the modern liberal is the bigoted en- 
emy of bigotry. It is true he is willing to forge ahead, recklessly 
ahead, in the search for new ways of promoting equaliiarianism in 
politics, educaiion, and intergroup relations. Bui he is not so pro- 
gressive about space exploration, 4 political science {the only form 
of government he will hear of (aces left), ami anthropology (except 
for the Boas and LevkStrauss schools). It is unnecessary to add that 
he is very suspicious of genetics and keeps his mind firmly closed 
on the subject of "eugenics. 

The sharp discrepancies between liberal pretensions and liberal 
behavior, between liberal pose and liberal performance, are rela- 
tively recent phenomena and not typical of die liberalism that exist 
ed two centuries or even two millennia ago. Like democracy, liber- 
alism made a brief appeaiance in Greece and Rome, wlioe Cynic 
and Stoic philosophers occasionally threw anti-establishment epi- 
grams at kings and dictators. There were liberal sentiments in some 
of the sayings of Jesus, 5 and a libera] outlook in some of the writ- 
ings of Spinoza.^ But liberalism never really found its voice until 
the time of John 1 ,ocke — a voice which swelled into a chorus when 
joined by the thunderous pronounc cment.s of such other liberal 



8. In August L939, the month of the sibling of the Ruiso-Grrman Nonaggres- 
sion Pact Lhat sel the Stage for World War II, Lhe names of 400 leading American 
liberal* appeared em a manifesto affirming thai Kuwia was a bulwark of peace and 
thai Soviet citizens enjoyed a * many civil liberties as Americans. Nation. Augusr S?u, 
1939, p. 228. 

4. Nolle 1 laureate linns Pauling, a pillai of modern American lilwialism, called 
the Apollo project, long before it got off the ground, a "pitiful demonstration." 
Sdcitcr, Nov. 1, 1 963, p. 560. 

5. Both liberals and conseivatives c;m quoit- scriptme, but the pie sent world- 
wide tone of Christianity is decidedly lilnTal — on the radical, anti-familial Jeans 
who set father against son and mother against daughter (Luke IStSS), not on die 
■political Je.su* of "render unto Caesar," nor on the authoritarian Jesus who said, 
"but those mine enemies, which would not that I should leign over them, bring 
hither, and slay diem before me" (Luke 19:27). r'undamentali>ts may crowd liar 
air waves in the United States, hut liberal thr.ologisls get I much better press. 

6. Tile political philosophy ol -Spino/.a is the first statement in history of the 
standpoint ol a democratic liberalism." lewis Feurr, Spinoza and tht ms& of Liberal 
ifm, beacon Press, Boston, 1966, p. 05. 



334 



The Dispossessed Majority 



sa^es as Hume, Voltaire, Rousseau, Adam Smith, and Thomas Jef- 
ferson. The word of liberalism became flesh with the eighteenth- 
century Whig governments in England, the founding of the United 

States, and the Fairopean Aufkldning. 

But the Old Literalism of Locke and Jefferson was an entirely 
different breed of ideology from the New Literalism of today. The 
Old Liberalism stressed individual not collective enterprise, less 
government not more, states' rights not federal control, laissez- 
faire not welfare, liberty nm security, evolution not revolution. 
Moreover, very few of the great liberals of the past, in spire of their 
ringing appeals to equality, were willing to concede the equality of 
races. 

l'oday, in the hands of those who call themselves modern liber- 
als, ihe grand humanistic design of eighteenth- and nineteenth- 
century liberalism has been reduced to a mechanical; catechism of 
"other caring." Contemporary liberal artists care more about what 
Other* think of their work than what they themselves think. Liberal 
statesmen and politicians do not act. They react. The literal guardi- 
ans of national security pui defense above offense and base their 
nuclear strategy on mass retaliation and tin- indiscriminate annihi- 
lation of urban populations, not on a preemptive strike against ene- 
my ICBM installations. On the rare occasions their thoughts turn 
to God, liberal intellectuals prefer to blame him for the evil in man 
rather than praise him for the good. 7 Again and again the focus 
shifts from the heart of the matter to the periphery. 

Although the literal's obsessive extroversion leaves him Utile op- 
portunity to solve his own problems, he nevertheless feels obliged 
to tell his imd all die other population groups how to solve theirs. 
Public figures whose private lives have teen a shambles and who 
have proved utterlv inrapable of raising their own children pre- 
sume to write copious newspaper columns and magazine articles 
on family life, marital problems, and child upbringing. I he mother 
with a definquem daughter, instead pf improving conditions in her 
own home, becomes a social worker and attempts to help other 
families with delinquent daughters. 

7. "Gad rawle my Wiv, and if it is dircy, then the imperfection lies with the 
manufacturer, nor the product.* The quotation u from the Ufes Leany Bruce, a 
comedian whom many liberal writers have endeavored to elevate to maitvrdom if 
not sainthood. Huliday, Nov. MUX, p. 7t. 



THE POLITICAL CLASH 



335 



In the libera! scheme of things ihere is a widening gulf between 
the person and the act, the thought and the deed. The politician 
who fights for school integration sends his own children to private 
schools. The criminal is not really at fault, lie has merely commit- 
ted an unfortunate act caused by an unfavorable or hostile environ- 
ment. Someone else or something else is guilty. Millionaires of the 
liberal persuasion are often more interested in helping poor for- 
eigners than poor Americans. The literal loves everyone of every 
race, but he flees to die suburbs where he prefers to live among 
whites, even conservative whiles. 

It is no secrei that literals are fonder of mankind than man. The 
tragic view of life— the struggle of one man, not mass man, against 
the irreversibility of fate — does noi fit easily into liberal thought. 
Nor does patriotism. While tin- average American looks upon the 
United States as his country — no more, no less — the liberal prefers 
to regard it as a repository of liberal principles. 

El is this habit of relocation, this fear of the personal touch in hu- 
man affairs, which may explain why the modern liberal pantheon 
only has room for heroes who have displayed a markedly anti- 
heroic sneak. Woodmw Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt won two im- 
portant wars, but lost two equally important peaces. Winston 
Churchill, who as a British Tory was roughly equivalent to a liberal 
Republican in the United States, beat back the Germans, but pre- 
sided over the liquidation of the British Kmpire* Charles de 
Gaulle, hailed as a tfreai libera] crusader when leading the Free 
French against Hitler, after the war surrendered France's richest 
possession, Algeria. It was the deified liberal Democrat, President 
John Kennedy, who permitted Cuba, once an American economic 
outpost, to become a Russian client state. 



tf. Churchill's phrasing and cadences may have sounded like Gibbon and M;l- 
cartllay to those who like their oratory served with sonorous corn, but hero i* hard- 
ly the word for a brilliant political opportunist who Lakes the- helm of the ship of 
*tate during a storm and in spite of soith* gallant Ueersmanship leave* ir a drilling 
hulk. In somr of his most Hying moment* in World War II, for motives not too dif- 
ficult to flrciphcr, Chuichill made much <»t his AiiH'! icau ancestry. His mother, 
Jennie, was die daughter of Leonard Jerome, a New York City plavhoy promoter. 
Hut Churchill said little of the Indian Mood which may have; txien (ransrniacd to 
him thiough the Jerome familv. Ralph Martin, Jennie; iht Life of Lady Randolph 
Churchill Prenticedlali, Lnglewoori Cliffs, New Jersey, 1969, Vol. !, pp. *2. 1'J. 



33li 



The Dispossessed Majority 



To recapitulate, the metamorphosis of classical liberalism — the 
liberalism of Locke, Jefferson, and Lincoln — into modern liberal 
ism has been as miraculous and complete as the tadpole's trans- 
mogrification into she hoptoad. What was man-centered has be- 
come state-centered; what was dedicated to the protection of prop- 
erty now threatens it; what attempted to get the crushing load of 
absolutism off man \s back now weighs him down with regimenta- 
tion; what was once progressive in the truest sense of the word has 
now become the ideological crutch of nihilists, cranks, obscuran- 
tists, and, yes, reactionaries. 

How is this IHO-degree shift in liberal orthodoxy to be explain- 
ed? Mow has this sophistic, schizophrenic, new-style, illiberal liber- 
alism managed to fob itself oil as the authentic product? Why 
hasn't this twisted and inchoate mind-set been argued or ridiculed 
out of existence? Above all, how does it keep such a firm bold on 
the American mind? 

One answer has to do with the tenacity <if tradition. As the credo 
of democracy, liberalism has gone down mm h the same path as 
democracy has traveled. Irs articles of' faith nourished and inspired 
the popular movements that freed Europeans in the Old World 
and European colonists in the New horn the stifling authority of 
decadent monarchs, princelings and popes. Its roseate pronounce- 
ments on the nature of man produced some of the finest hours of 
the British Parliament and the American Congress. In its great days 
classical lilx'rahsm transformed the political soul of the Western 
world. 

But as times changed, as the proprietor of forty acres ami a mule 
moved into a rented, coklwater flat, as financial ami industrial mo- 
nopoly passed beyond the bounds of reason, as the population 
doubled and redoubled, liberals began to concentrate on econom- 
ic problems. Somewhat apologetically, they explained that a decen- 
tralized government of checks and balances, the kind of guvern- 
ment they had always upheld in the past, did not have the power to 
enact and enforce the economic legislation and control which the 
injustices and the inanities of mass unemployment, boom-ami bust 
business cycles, and unbridled exploitation of the environment de- 
manded. Accused of neglecting property rights, they [jointed to the 
blight of poverty and declared that "human rights" must now take 
precedence. 



THE POLITICAL CIASH 



337 



h was this new lotus-eating liberalism, hardly distinguishable 
from a watered-down form of socialism, which prepared the way for 
the welfare state and the social services made possible by deficit 
financing. Were it not for the inflation and pacifism which go with 
it and leave the nations that adopt it fair game for hardier, more 
frugal, and more aggressive neighbors, the festivities might go on 
forever. 

In its attachment to collectivism, modern liberalism has taken 
the same- direction as socialism and communism, withoui going 
quite .ls far. Continually assailed and insulted by hard-core Marxists 
for their lukewarm attitude toward revolution, liberals have turned 
the other cheek and gone on lending their support and respecta- 
hiliiy to ,i variety of uliralciusi causes When the twists and turns of 
Kremlin policy permitted, European liberals joined Communists in 
Popular Front governments. Dining the Roosevelt and Truman 
administrations, it became so diffu ult to differentiate between lit>- 
erals and Communists that their opponents could be forgiven for 
olten Considering (hem identical twins. 

In recent sears liberalism and the Leninist version of commu- 
nism have tended to drift apart, even though their hostility to laissez- 
faire economics remains as strong as ever. The reason has been lii>- 
eraliMii's recent concentration on social democracy and race level- 
ing rather than economic leveling, mid on human rights, ;i topic 
given slum shrift by Marxist governments. 

wiihkt the last several decades in the United States, modern lib- 
eralism has evolved into the party platform of minority racism. 
With just a few changes in wording — race, for men, security for Utterly, 
minmiiy Tights for human tig/Us — the whole apparatus of Western lil>- 
era! thought has moved bag and baggage into the minority camp. 
The enemy — always the most important figure in any aggressive 
ideology — is no longer dissolute European monarchs, llamiltouian 
reactionaries. Southern slave owners, nineteenth-century indus- 
trial magnates, Italian and German fascists, or Japanese militarists. It 
is now the corporal** elite, the m i lit ary-indusr rial complex, the 
white [lower stria "tore, white racism, WASPs — in short, the Ameri- 
can Majority. 

Modern liberalism, of course, does not admit to being racist. ( )n 
rhe contrary it pretends to be antiracist. But every word it speaks, 
every policy it supports, every program it publicizes, every cause it 



338 



The Dispossessed Majority 



underwrites, every piece of legislation it introduces is likely to have 
some direct or tenuous racial connotation. Classical liberalism in 
America, in spire of its emphasis on mankind, was principally con- 
cerned with the interests and aspirations of the Majority at a lime 
when Negroes, Indians, and other minorities hardly counted. Mod- 
ern liberalism, in spite of its bewitching ecumenical cliches, is also 
dedicated to one segment of ihe American population, the Unas- 
si milahle Minorities. 

lis original purpose subverted, its original ideals redirected and 
reinterprete*}, liberalism has become a grotesque masque in which 
the players will not and cannot suit the action to the word and 
where the platitudes of the script almost totally obscure the plot, 
which is woven around the protagonists' thirst for power. This in- 
cessant clash of dialogue and motive lies at the root of the dramatic 
contradictions between modern lil>eral thought and modern liber- 
al behavior, contradictions unresolved by fmrian soliloquies on hu- 
manitarianism designed 10 conceal the * lose collaliorarinn between 
liberalism and minority racism in major areas of political, econom- 
ic social, and foreign policy. 9 

Modern liberalism is. particularly useful to minorities because it 
has the effect of dimming and distorting the Majority's racial per- 
spective. Its ambiguous idealism and counterfeit Good Samaritan- 
ism encourage Majority members to support the minority side with- 
out realizing they are working against the interests of their own 
people. Equally important it also allows those Majority members 
who are quite aware of what they are doing to rationalize their anti- 
Majority behavior. 

One of the notable curiosities of modern liberalism is the strik- 
ing variance between the Majority and the minority literal — a vari- 
ance of intent, not content. Majority and minority liberals not only 
have different motivations; they are accorded significantly different 
privileges. To the Majority liberal, liberalism is at best a warm faith 
in human goodness and human intelligence, at worst a dubious set 
of value judgments which it is wiser and safer to accept than reject 
Vo the minority liberal, liberalism represents a package of solid 



9. "liberalism is die American Jew's lay religion," wroie James YafTe, who point- 
ed out that half the membership of the Peace Corps, perhaps the mo*t libera! 
agency of the U.S. government, is Jewish. Yaffr. op. tit., pp. 24M6. 



'H IK POLITICAL CLASH 



339 



accomplishments that lias not only put money in his pocket, but 
has armed him with an ideology with which to baiter away at the 
Majority, the traditional enemy. Liberalism, consequently, is to the 
minority member a pragmatic program of advancement, a means 
of revenge, and an idealistic crusade. It wraps him in a glittering 
robe of shining generalities, while allowing him the privilege of be- 
ing a racist. The Majority liberal is permitted no such raiment. A 
minority racist can be a good liberal. A Majority racist cannot be a 
liberal at all and is anathematized as an incipient Na^i. 

The question was previously raised as to how liberalism with its 
monumental inconsistencies and aberrations could survive in 
present-day America. The question ran now 1m? answered in specific 
instead of general terms. Liberalism has survived and even pros- 
pered because it has become directly attached to the cause of 
minority racism, the most dynamic movement in contemporary 
American life It will continue to survive and prosper until minority 
racism has no further use for it, until it is no longer able to func- 
tion as die "emotional cover" of Majority liberals in their role as 
minority fellow travelers. 

As the years progress and the racial struggle in America hardens, 
die Majority libera] is IhuuiJ to become increasingly suspect, not 
only to Majority members at large but also to minority members 
who, as good racists, can only have contempt for racial renegades. 
While ihe Majority Libera! continues to lose face, while he finds it 
ever more difficult and humiliating to tout other people's racism, 
he will probably have no choice but to retreat to conservatism, 
which in its present guise, as the next chapter will show, is simply a 
selective and expedient rehash of classical liberalism inspired by 
people, many of them ex-Marxists, whose motives are far from 
pure 

In the very largest ami broadest sense, the metamorphosis of lib- 
eralism signifies ihe transformation of an m/rararial struggle for in- 
dividual rights ami liberty into an interracial struggle for power. 
The struggle is a total one. It encompasses every domain of Ameri- 
can endeavor, from the lowest levels of bullishness to the highest 
levels of art, religion, education, and philosophy. It was not Socra- 
tes — pace Nietzsche — who put an end to Greek creativity, lie was a 
sower a\m\ a reaper of the intrarectal conflict. The greai works of 
Plato and Aristotle came later. What did signal the dec line of 



340 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Greece and the metamorphosis of liberalism that accompanied it 
was the establishment, still later, of the Cynic, Epicurean, and Sioic 
schools of philosophy. 10 h should l>c no surprise to those familiar 
With the workings of racial dynamics to learn that the founders 
of these schools did not come from Greece proper, but from Asia 
Minor. 

Diogenes, the mosi cynical of the Cynics and the archetypal hip- 
pie, was a self-confessed forger from Sinope, a semi-Greek colony 
Car up the Black Sea coast of Asia Minor. Fancying himself a Vorid 
citizen," he celebrated "freedom of speech" above all other human 
rights. He also came QUI strongly for cannibalism and incest, 
Menippus, another proroineitl Cynic, was a native of Code-Syria. 
Although starting oui in Hie as a moneylender, lie [aught that the 
rich must share their wealth with the "virtuous* poor, Epicurus, the 
pivot man of the Epicurean philosophy, was Ixitn in Samns, an is- 
land one mile off the Asia Minor shoreline. According to Will Du- 
rani, "He made no distinctions of station or rare. . . ." Zeno, the 
first Stoic, came from Ciiium. a Phoenician city in Cyprus. One ol 
the lit lust men oi his time, he may have been the first to say, "All 
men are by nature equal." Stoicism, writes Durant, derived from 
"Semitic pantheism, fatalism, and resignation. . . ."" Epictetus, the 
apostle of Stoicism to the Romans, was originally a Phrygian slave. 12 

Both as to foment and timing, the latter-day schools of Greek 
philosophy are in many ways analogous to the laiter-day "Western 1 * 
doctrines of Marx, Freud, and Boas. Although a strong equalittarian 
strain runs through all of them, the end resull is never equality, but 
the casting up of new class or racial hierarchies. Distributed under 
a universal label, these ancient and modern doctrines, white seem- 
ingly aimed at all men, have a special allure to those beni on revo- 
lutionizing the social order. Ii need not be Mh\i>t\ that in the ranks 
ol the leading proselytizers and leading proselytes Majority mem- 
Ikts are in short supulv. 



10. .Wi.dr s died in 390 B.C; Plato. .147 B.C., Aristotle. 522 B.C. The Cynic, Epi- 
curean, and Stok philosophies began to flourish after [he death of Aristotle Tlie 
Stoics proposed, "one vast society in which there would 1m- no nations, no classes, 
no rich or poor, no masters or slaves ,.* Durant, The life of Greece, pp. 506-7, 656 

i 1. Ihul.. pp. f»M-l'.. 

12, Biographical data from Diogenes Laerlius, The Lhm and Opiniom oftheEmi- 
nent Philosophers, trans. C. D. Vbnge, Bohn s Classical library, London, L90i 



II JE POLITICAL CLASH 



The metamorphosis of liberalism takes place when the normal 
defenses of society are lowered, when the euphoria and exultation 
of conquest, settlement, and nation-building give way lo the race- 
iessness and mindlessness which are the bitter fruits of a (ask well 
done. Prosperity brings materialism, which in turn brings what Gus- 
tave Le Bon lias wisely described as the "enfeeblemeni ol charac- 
ter. w ' 3 The situation might be compared to that of an air foil, the 
pressure over which decreases as the wind velocity increases. As the 
winds of Babbit i ry blow more fiercely, the minorities flow into the 
vacuum. 

1$, "Oi ce tut toujours pai eel aiTaibtfasemen! du caracterc, el non par oelui de 

rinLrllitfenft*. que tie giantls [M-uplea rlKparnreni c|e 1'hisioiuv" Psyriwlogi* Poli- 
tiqitf, Klammarion, Pans, 1919, p. 205. 



CHAPTER 24 



Conservatism Redefined 



^T ow that THE indian no longer qualifies for the label, ihe classi- 
-L^l cal conservative has become the Vanishing American- Consid- 
ering bis beliefs — and considering ilie times — it is no wonder The 
classical conservative upholds the mystique of authority and rank in 
society. He is an aristocrat by birth, antidemocratic by nature, and 
his principal concerns are family, race, and continuity. To him the 
chain is more important than the links. He perceives Ihe divine af- 
flatus in man, but he also recognizes the odds against which it is 
working. He places (he collective wisdom of the species (folkways 
and institutions) above the wisdom of governments and individuals 
(laws and politics). 

The modern conservative has little in common with these views. 
I le favors democracy up to a certain point, believes in racial equal- 
ity — or says he does— and wants less government, not more. He is 
all for human rights, but is equally, if not even more, enthused 
about property rights, Believing himself to be a rational, common- 
sensical person, he lakes his religion with a grain of salt. I le is, in 
sum, a classical liberal 5 and has strayed as far from the fountain- 
heads of classical conservatism— Plato, Dante, and Eiobbes— as the 
modem liberal has strayed from Locke Where modern conserva- 
tism differs from modern liberalism— in its solicitude for property, 
decentralized government, and laissez-fain — is precisely where 
classical liberalism parts company with modern liberalism. 



1. "Classical liberalism, which took on ita characierisUt form in the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries, ha* with modifkaUow become ihe conservatism of our 
time.™ Henry Girveiz, The Evolution ofLtbnr.lism, Collier Books, New York, 1963, 

342 



■n-IK POLITICAL CI ASH 



343 



Modern conservatism was diverted from what might be described 
as (he conservative world line by Edmund Burke at the end of the 
eighteenth century. Burke, an Irish Protestant who married a Ro- 
man Catholic and went to an English Quaker school, bad surpris- 
ing credentials for a leader of conservative thought. He belonged 
to ihe Whig pariy, was a conciliator and appealer in the dispute 
with the American colonies, and strongly opposed the policies of 
King George III and British imperialism. What propelled Burke 
into the rarefied heights of political philosophy was the anarchism 
of die French Revolution, lie was one of die first to realize that the 
Jacobin fury was deadly to the existing European social order. In 
his Reflections on (he Revolution in France, Burke, like Locke before 
him, advocated individual responsibility, the sanctity of property, 
and minimal political and economic controls. Unlike Locke, he 
stressed religion, tradition, and prescription, by which lie meant 
the totality of a people's ancient rights, moral precepts, and cus- 
toms. 2 

In spile of the loss of the most aristocratic element of the Ameri- 
can population, the 100,000 Loyalists who were expelled or retired 
voluntarily to Canada and elsewhere (luring the War of Indepen- 
dence, American conservatism got off to a relatively good start. 
President Washington, the Federalist party and its leading intellec- 
tual, Alexander Hamilton, as well as most of the judiciary, were all 
conservatives in the Burkean sense, while the Constitution was as 
conservative a document as could be expected from men who had 
recently established a representative government ihat seemed like 
a raging ochlocracy to horrified European autocrats, John Adams, 
the second president, though not as good a Christian as Burke, was 
a liule farther to the right. Owing to his high oilice he was able on 
occasion to manifest his conservatism by executive order — 
something that Burke, in spile of his brilliant, oracular career in 
the House of ('ominous, was never able to do. 

As the years passed, American conservatism followed the lil>eral 
drift of American history, though generally with a time lag of one 
or more decades. Jeffersonian and Jacksoniari democracy dealt con- 
servatism some hard blows, but the hardest blow was the Civil War, 
which divided Northern and Southern conservatives and cut short 



2. BsjUtfXGns Qfi the Rrt'otution tnl'ramf. Dolphin Books, N.V., UM»1 , pp. 71 , lf»7. 



344 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Southerner John Calhoun's dream of an aristocratic, racially 
oriented, slave-holding republic on the Periclean model. 3 

The great industrial expansion in the second half of the nine- 
teenth century, together with the winning of the West, helped con 
servaiism indirectly by the political stability inherent in prosperity 
and economic growth. Conversely, the conservative cause was hurt 
by the tidal waves of the New Immigration, which brought in mil- 
lions of liberal recruits. Despite certain libera! tendencies, Theo- 
dore Roosevelt's dynamic blend of enlightened patriotism, the 
strenuous life, and an America First foreign policy was perhaps the 
last expression of an American conservatism with a high sense of 
national purpose. (When he was no longer in the White House and 
vainly seeking the presidency as a third-party, Hull Moose candi- 
date, Roosevelt sang a different tune. His call for intervention in 
World War I foreshadowed the tragic and disastrous international 
adventurism ol ' Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and most 
of the nation's chief executives thereafter*) 

The Great Depression was a setback to conservatism of almost 
catastrophic proportions. As the champions of property, unrestrict- 
ed capitalism, and an unregulated stock market, conservatives were 
directly blamed for the financial chaos and misery oi' the depres- 
sion years. Modern liberals, on the other hand, since they had long 
ago shaken off their Lockean anrhoi to property, were able to profit 
politically from the fear and confusion, and claim all the credit lor 
imposing \}u> urgent economic countermeasures. As die New Deal 
wrestled boldly with the frightening problems of production and 
distribution in the world's most highly Industrialized society, con- 
servatives made matters worse by their destructive criticism, their 
reactionary financial nostrums, and their antiquated and pathetic 
appeals for a return to the "good old tkivs." 



3, Iti die posuVUuni period, after the battered South had Mink baa k into a ha 



"TV- I—- ■- Tf»—— "7">m-'"i \iJitiy i}(uui). jinny ,-vciams loci: 

tion and imagination on the Middle A^cs {Mont-&n „! -Michel mui CMrlres) and the 
dreadful future {Vie Education oj f Henry Adams), while brother Kiooks threw in the 
■pengC by predicting and even blueprinting the inevitable triumph of % cold, gut- 
less scientific determinism (Tfu Law of Civilization and Decay). 



THE POLITICAL CLASH 



345 



The rise of European fascism provided liberals with another 
opportunity for demeaning and demoralizing the conservative 
opposition. There are, of course, vague bloodlines that tie certain 
aspects of conservatism to the Nietzschean attitudinizing of Hitler, 
just as there are historic ties that link certain aspects of liberalism 
to tin- demoniacal politicking of Lenin. 4 Both liberals and conserva- 
tives had often taken advantage of these tenuous analogies for pur- 
poses of mutual slander. But since liberals bold the reins of power 
from the 1930s on, they were better able to make their calumnies 
Stick. 5 These calumnies, given further credibility by the events and 
alleged events of World War II, phis lingering memories of the de- 
pression, kept millions of normally conservative voters in the Dem- 
ocratic party. It was not until mid-century, when crucial liberal fail- 
ures in Foreign affairs and incredible liberal lapses in national 
security omld no longer be concealed, that a resurgence of conser- 
vatism became noticeable. In the 1960s and 70s the conservative 
cause profited greatly from the white backlash generated by Negro 
riots, reverse^ discrimination, accelerating crime, and massive illegal 
and legal immigration. 6 Inflation, however, was probably the pri- 
mary cause of the Reagan electoral victory in 1980. 

Ironically the conservative resurgence was also a liberal victory. 
Bv now modern liberalism was so entrenched it was able to dictate 



\. It is :i!mj |H>s,sil)lr to aigue lh:u classical cojiseivausni ami modern literalism 
in theii high negard foi governmental authority stand closer to each othei and to 
iit-rrin and Ilitlei tli, ui to t l;issir:il lrlx-j ali\m and modern conservatism. 

. r >. ". . to the Jewish mind, the Gest&U of the rightist requires aniirSeiiaiiiarn,* 
Van den i iaag', op. cit. p. 139. 

S. (lonsnvatiMit had little intellectual leadership after the takeover of die New 
Deal, The works ol the- racial hisroriaBS, Madison Grant and Lodnop .Stoddard, 
fell inti) disrepute and the voices of two college professors, Paul Elmer More and 
frying Babbitt, who tried to rehabilitate Burke* were barely audible, Alter World 
Wui II the ideas oi" three Genua] frnopean economists, WiEhrlm Ropke, Lndwig 
von Mixes, and F. A, Hayek, all of whom proposed the removal of economic con- 
trols and the recstablishment of a free market, were only given cursory attention. 
The monarrhism and Ajiglo-CathoScisin of expatriate T. S. Eliot had no discerni- 
ble impiict on American thought. Nor did the economic and racial theories of 
Earn Mound. The two most influential conservative intellectuals in the fluid quar- 
ter of die century wete William 1*'. Huckley, Jr., and Russell Kirk, whose thinking 
was pure Burke and who shied desperately away from the race issue. Kirk, inciden- 
tally, attacked universal niilitaty (raining as adamantly as any liberal, 77w CflttSflruo- 
live Mnui, Ilenrv Rcymery, Chicago, i960, p. 378 



346 



The Dispossessed Majority 



ihe arguments and even the tactics of its critics. Before he. was al- 
lowed a nationwide platform ihe modern conservative had to dem- 
onstrate that lie was a member of the loyafc opposition, that on the 
"sensitive" issues he was of one mind with the liberal himself. No 
public manifestation of classical conservatism— i.e., no forthright 
attack against democracy and minority racism — would be tolerated. 
If the fires of minority Uliberaiism and minority racism could nor 
be quenched by modest, tow-decibel appeals for decorum, they 
were to be left raging. Ihe only notes of dissension permitted the 
modern conservative were the safe ones, lie could be more rever- 
ent towards big business, property, patriotism, religion, government 
decentralization, and law and order. He could be more critical of 
socialism, Marxism, Castro, overreduction, tabor unions, and bud- 
gel deficits. Bill the permissible differences were differences in de- 
gree, not in kind. On the larger issues, the issues behind the issues, 
modern liberalism and modern conservatism were often becoming 
synonymous. 7 

Such were and conrinue to be the liberal rules of the road, the 
liberal-minority limitations on conservative political debate. Not 
<>ne prominent conservative politician in recent memory has failed 
to observe them. 8 The three most prominent— the late Senator 
Robert Taft, Senator Barry Gotdwater, and Ronald Reagan— were 
each very careful to proclaim, throughout their criticism of the lib- 
eral establishment, their total commitment to the democratic pro- 
cess, to racial equality, and to liberal dogma in general." An for sods 
rniddie-of-thtsroaders as Presidents Eisenhower and Nixon, they 



7. As conservatives were becoming liberals, so some "leading Communists in the 
hue Soviet Union were becoming conaervaOvea. "Suslov is the leada of the party 
conservative*,* wrote Stalin's daughter, Svetfana Allilnvrva. Only One Year Harper 
& Row, New Yoi k, i960, p. 47. 

8. L'.VL-n political mavriick George Wallace complied with die ban <>,, open di* 
cussion of fiie race problem, h\ hi* campaign speeches he relied on inference 
rather than statement, sfkwing his listeners to draw their own conclusions when- 
ever he attacked school integration. In his December years the crippled Wallace 
uvnu-d to iv|* by apologizing for his curlier white supremacist mnd and voted 
tor Jimmy Carter. 

9. It was not as great a mental leap as some imagined for Karl [less, a trusted 
Goldwater speechwriu-i and idea man, to change into a "radical and philosophical 
anarchist" and a backet of the North Vietnamese and die Smd.-nt, fhr :, Democratic 
■Society. New Y&k Tim**., Sept. 28, j %9 t p. 62, 



THE POLITICAL CI ASH 



347 



both preached the fundamental tenets of modern liberalism as 
loudly as any Americans in public life, Plato, not to mention Locke 
and Jefferson, would probably have classified these two Republicans 
as wild-eyed radicals. 

It is relatively simple to identify the modern conservative pundit 
and politician. But who are the members of the conservative rank 
and file? There must be a great many because a 1970 Gallup Poll 
claim ed there were more American conservatives than liberals. Of 
those who agreed to give themselves either a conservative or liberal 
label, (he Former outnumbered the latter almost three to two.' 

By occupation, farmers, business executives, officers in the 
armed forces, professional people, and white-collar workers are 
supposed to be conservatives. Clergymen, college professors, media 
people, blue-collar workers, and welfare recipients are usually cate- 
gorized as liberals. Property and a stock portfolio allegedly turn a 
man into a conservative. Lack of property and a mass of unpaid 
bills make liim a liberal. 

Suih generalizations, which have become articles of faith to many 
sociologists, fit some but noi all erf the facts. Jews, the richest, popula- 
tion group in America — richest, that is, on a per capila basis— have 
been almost solidly liberal for most of the twentieth century 1 ' and 
still are in regard to most social issues, though black anti-Semitism 



10. llic breakdown was conservative, fi2 percent liberal, !M peicenl; no opin- 
ion, M pen fin. Gallup Poll, New York TtflMft May I 1 , 1970, p. 56. In a 1977 Gallup 
Pol], 17 percent od the respondents described ihemsolves as M right of renter,* 32 
percent as "left of center," 10 percent :i<* "middle-of-the-road." 

1 1. "All the available evidence indicated that politically jews remain dispropor- 
tionately on the left. They vote Vr^fi percent Democratic. . . Jewish money sviij- 
pons mm h ol the civil rights activity in this country. . . .Radical movements in 
Anient a . . . are again disproportionately Jewish in composition." C&mmenUBfy } July, 
1.961, p. ftM. In ihe 10(H) piesidenlial election (lie Jewish vote was HO percent Dein- 
i* ratlc, Yaile. The American Jews, p. 2-10, In the 1968 pUtijoii Jews voted belter than 
\H) pen cut Dciium mh'k , Time. Nov. 10, 1958, pp. 21 22. In 1966 the voters oi Scars- 
dale, New York, one oi die lichest suburbs in the U.S. and heavily Jewish, chose 
Hubert Humphrey over Richard Nixon. Phillips, The Emerging KeftubliaiH Majority, 
p, 170. Thai many Jew* voted lor Richard Nixon in 1972, Gerald Ford in 1976, and 
Ronald Reagan in 1980 did not mean that they were abandoning lilwialism, These 
iiecxonserva lives, as lliey railed themselves, simply felt these politicians wei e "bel- 
ter for fennel* and that the Republican party's aeccnt on a strong economy and a 
strong military would put the T hiiled Slates in a bei ter position to defend the 
/at mist state. 



$i a 



Flie Dispossessed Majority 



al homo and anti-Zionism abroad enticed more than a few into the 
neo-conservative camp. Many blue-collar workers have developed 
some noticeably conservative tendencies. Whenever there is a di- 
rect political confrontation between the white and the nonwhite 
poor, (he former usually become less libera] in their voting habits. 

Geographically, big cities are marked off as liberal territory; sub- 
urbia and rtiralia conservative country, The flight from ilie land to 
the dries which began in World Wai I r swelled the ranks oi urban 
liberals, just as (he post-World War 11 flight from (he dues to subur- 
bia swelled the number of conservatives. Changing one's address 
often changes one's politics. Regionally, the Midwest, the Deep 
South, and the so-called "Sun Belt" are said to be conservative, 
while the Northern industrial states, the megalopolises everywhere, 
and the Northwest are liberal 

Here again ther< is much truth, ;ls well as much half-truth.. The 
Deep South has its "fiberaT Negroes, now casting ballots in great 
numbers. The Sun Belt has its "liberal" Mexican Americans, also in- 
creasingly addicted to bloc-voting habits. The Northwest, where the 
old Democratic pluralities are dwindling, is still liberal, but more 
by tradition than conviction. Because of its relatively high degree of 
homogeneity, the Northwest is one of the few regions in America 
that has remained relatively unscathed by minority violence, keep- 
ing in mind that "relatively" still allows for a lot of mayhem and 
mugging in Seattle and Portland Without racial problems literal- 
ism wears better. 

1 he racial correlation of liberalism and conservatism is more 
clear-cut than their geographical and economic correlations. The 
American Majority is largely conservative. The I massimilable Mi- 
norities are liberal, (hough one or two Asian population groups in 
the continental United States as well as the Cubans in Florida vote 
Republican, while the Amerindians have exhibited few enduring 
political commitments of AU y kind. Since conservatism is, among 
many other factors, a function of assimilation, the Assimilable Mi- 
norities have been moving from the liberal to the conservative side. 

From the political standpoint both liberalism and conservatism 
have probably been more hampered Lhan helped by the two-party 
system. Southern Democrats, once the most conservative Ameri- 
cans, have long acted 3S a brake on the ultra-liberalism of Northern 
Democrats. At the same time, the liberal wing oi the Republican 



THE POLITICAL CI ASH 



MO 



party has consistently stunted the growth of conservatism within Re- 
publican ranks. 

If parties are supposed to represent basic political differences, 
the Republican should be the party of conservatism, the Democratic 
die party of liberalism, To some extent this desideratum has al- 
ready been accomplished by liberal Northern Democrats, who in 
the last several decades have outmancuvered and overshadowed 
the party's Southern membership. The presence of President Car- 
ter, a liberal New South Truckler, had only the smallest braking ef- 
fect on this power play. By 1980 it could be fairly said that the 
Southern Democrats, instead of mobilizing to resist the Northern 
wing of the party, were split in two. The New South faction went 
along with the Northern liberals, partly for ideological reasons, 
partly to hold the Negro vote, while the Old South faction either 
voted for old-line conservative Democrats or for Republicans. This 
scenario continued more or less unchanged during the administra- 
tion of Bill Clinton, the second Southern Truckler to move into the 
White J louse in the last third of the century. 

I he Republican party, despite making noises to that effect, has a 
long way to go IxTore it becomes the champion of conservatism. Its 
attempt to enlarge its following in the South, the so-called South- 
ern strategy, had and will have no more than limited success ai 
long as Republican presidents enforce Supreme Court rulings on 
busing and reverse discrimination. As for the hard-hat strategy, the 
Republican Inguiling ol lalx>r by siren promises of safer streets, 
more jobs, and less inflation may win over many Assimilated Minor- 
it)- voters, but it may infuriate just as many long-time Republicans, 
who still associate unions with red flags and street barricades. 

Even if Republican conservatives did manage to assume undis- 
puted control of their party, even if both the Southern and hard- 
hai strategies paid off handsomely, even if Republicans were able to 
dominate American politics as long and as effectively as the Demo- 
cratic reign inaugurated by Roosevelt, they would still have little to 
after the American Majority. By combining the humanistic abstrac- 
tions of classical liberalism with modern liberal notions of equality 
and social democracy, the modern conservative's net effect on Ma- 
jority members is to anesthetize them into dropping their racial 
guard at the very moment they need it most. 

Thai is why, of all those who consciously or unconsciously 



350 



The Dispossessed Majority 



oppose the Majority came, the modern conservative is the most 
dangerous. Majority and minority Iil>erals are always somewhat sus- 
pect to (he average, uncommitted Majority member. The dissimi- 
larity in racial or religious background of the minority liberal may 
affect his credibility, while the faked htimanitarianism and special 
pleading of the professional Majority liberal may have a hollow and 
unconvincing ring. The modern conservative, on the other hand, is 
given a more attentive hearing. His ideas and arguments, less mi- 
nority-oriented (except when the subject is Israel), are presented 
less abrasively and are not as likely to rub Majority members the 
wrong way. That I he modern conservative politician usually belongs 
to the Majority also works to the minority member's advantage. 
People are more amenable to following "one of their own/ 

The Old Believer, 12 who is the quintessential modern conserva- 
tive because he is the quintessential classical liberal, is probably the 
most effective of all Americans in keeping the Majority in the deep 
freeze of racial apathy. The Old Reliever has come by his political 
views honestly and does not degrade them with ulterior motives. 
He sincerely feels that the principles of Locke and Burke an- still 
operative in the United States. He Mill believes in the innate good- 
ness of man and in the power of reason. Unlike the modern liberal, 
he is devoted to the advancement of all people, not just minorities, 
and still finds a place in his heart lor religion, though he prefers 
the social teachings of Christ to Christian theology. He dors not re- 
alize that by publishing the tidings of equalharianism and toler- 
ance at this particular moment in time he is disarming the Majority 
iit the very throes of its dispossession. Also, since he stands for all 
that is best in the American experience, the Old Believer's ratio- 
nale is embellished by the appeal to tradition. 

There are, of course, many less idealistic conservatives: the mil- 
lionaires and hci tomillionaires who support conservatism in the 
hope that it will keep their taxes down and their profits up; the Avn 
Rand i ukists who have deified capitalism and sanctified the dollar. 
Not to be forgotten are the religionists of the fundamentalist or 
evangelistic variety, who are more interested in saving their church 
than their congregations. Then there arc the fearful conservatives, 
who know l hat modern conservatism is not enough, but also know 

12. See pp. ] 10-12. 



II IK POLITICAL CLASH 



351 



it is as far right as they can go without losing their respectability or 
their livelihood, 

Other conservatives include: sunshine patriots who ease their 
consciences and fill their pot keibooks by specializing in a reaction- 
ary conservatism aimed principally at little old ladies and big old 
generals; obsessive anti-Communists who avoid the racial issue by 
discovering bearded Bolsheviks under every mattress; 13 bathetic ex- 
Couimunishs, avidly aware of the pecuniary rewards of recanting; 
reformed liberals ashamed of their political myopia. Last but not 
lease are nostalgic Southerners who wistfully believe that the day 
will come when a loosening of government controls and a reaffir- 
mation of states' rights will permit the South to work our its own 
destiny. 

It is probably unnecessary to point out that more than a few mi- 
nority members appear in iht above categories. After all, modern 
conservatism is now as safely equal itarian as modern liberalism and 
die presence of minority intellectuals in its higher echelons can 
only serve to keep it that way. Leading Jewish or partlyjewish con- 
servatives, living or deceased, include: Ayn Rand, -be Russian-born 
authoress of Atlas Shrugged x a wordy, hero-worshiping, capitalistic 
soap opera featuring a poltroonish industrial giant; 1 "' David Law- 
rence, founder of US. Nans cf World Ileport, the mass-circulation 
conservative newsmagazine; Lionel and Diana Trilling (literary crit- 
icism); Herman Kahn (futurology); Alan Greenspan, chairman of 
the Federal Reserve System; Milton Friedman (economics); Na- 
lhaniel Weyl (history and social criticism); Ralph de Tolcdano, 15 
Victor Lasky, Mona Charen, Norman PodhoreU, David Horowitz* 



13. It is easier to understand unci condone conservative and Catholic hypersen- 
sitivity to tin* handful of American Communists if it is remembered thai there 
were onlv K),(KK> r.aid-curiyi.ng QjininniiisLs in Spain ar the beginning of the Span- 
ish Civil War — during which Che Republican side murdered 12 bishops, 285 rains, 
5,255 priests, 2,492 monks, and 2A K .i novices. 1 high Thomas, The Spamsh Civil War, 
pp. 99, 172-74 hi 1917, die yea* of Lenin's successful revolution, there was one 
Russian liolstaevik for every 2,777 Russians, In 1947 dicre was ont: American Com- 
munis! for every 1 S 814 Americans. Goodman, The (Jmimittte, p« 196. 

14. Poltroonish because when hounded to the breaking point by liberals and 
Communists, instead of lighting b;tck, Miss Rand's hero "Vent on suikt:" and re- 
treated to tiie safety of a Rocky Mountain fastness. Ayn Kauri, Alias. Shrugged, Ran- 
dom 1 Eouse, New York. 1957, Part III. 

15. The "dr" was added hy Toleriano liiuisdf in an act of self-ennoblement. 



352 



The Dispossessed Majority 



William Safire (punditry); the late Lessing Rosenwald* 6 of the 
American Council for Judaism; such tirelessly polemicizing ideo- 
logues and intellectuals as Irving Kristol, Daniel Bell, Nathan Glaz- 
er, Seymour M. Upset, Milton Himmclfarb, Walter Laqueur, Midge 
Dccter, Sidney Hook, Daniel Boors tin, Ben J. Wallenberg, and 
Richard Hofstadier. Perhaps the best-known Jewish conservative is 
Senator Barry Goldwater, onetime Republican candidate for the 
presidency. 

In recent years the Jewish conservative ranks have been bolstered 
by a political phenomenon know as neo-conscrvatives. Liberal Jews, 
dismayed by the tendency of liberal Israeli governments to palaver 
with Yasser Arafat about giving bark land for peace, and equally dis- 
mayed at the rise of black anti-Semitism, have shed some of their 
liberal trappings and adopted a more conservative stance. Jewish 
neo-eonscrvatives feel more comfortable with non-Jews who have 
pledged their troth to Israel than they da with Jewish liberals. They 
work openly and behind the scenes for conservative governments 
in Israel that are sworn to keep a firm grip on every inch of land 
taken from the Palestinians. In many instances Jewish neo- 
conservalives feel more comfortable with Republican than with 
Democratic politicians. 17 

Although Unassimilahle Minority intellectuals and politicians 
have infiltrated modern conservatism, the L'n assimilable Minority 
masses have kept their distance. They are not at all fearful of con- 
servatism in its present-day anemic form, bnt they are afraid of 
what conservatism has been in the past and what it could be in the 
future. They can hardly forget the aristocratic, classical conserva- 
tism thai for centuries kept their forebears "in their place" in both 
the Old and New Worlds. They are well acquainted — and some- 
have had firsthand experience — with German National Socialism 
which they identify with conservatism, although Nazism had many 



16, Rosetiwakl, of the Sears, Roebuck Roscnwalds, let! she small, almost invisi- 
ble band of American Jews who brl loved that Zionism a detrimental lo the inter- 
ests of the United States — as writ as to Jewish interests. At this writing, the tnost 
prominent anti-Zionist Jews aro Murray Rothbard and Rohen Novak. 

17. The development of meo-conservatism in the last 20 years has ronsiaied t>f 
a reaction to one major trauma — the fear of annvSemiiisni," Uadorr Silver, profoa- 
soi of ronsriiuiiunal law at |oh,i I iy College of Criminal Justice. New York Ttm$& 
Dec. 4, 1977, p. 73. 



n it: POLITICAL CI ASH 



353 



radical Facets. They quite understand thai the quiescent racism of 
the Majority eould one day be reawakened and turned against cer- 
tain kinds of whiles as well as all kinds of nonwhites. 

In spite of their savage overrcaction to the slightest sign of seri- 
ous conservatism on the American political horizon, most .minori- 
ties are often far more conservative (old-style) than the Majority.** 
Many minority whites may be liberals in the voting booth, bnt they 
are often reactionaries in the living room. They rim their inner 
world according to rules and regulations they publicly decry in the 
outside world. Their family life is authoritarian. The father is still 
very much the paterfamilias and the children, when they return 
from school, are still filial. It is this fireside eonservaiivism, this up- 
dated tribalism, which germinates the racism thai has won so many 
minority victories in the ethnic scramble for power. 

Modern conservatism, which lacks the racial drive of modern lil>- 
eraiism, has been and will continue to be of little help in unifying 
the Majority and raising it to the high pitch of performance neces- 
sary to reverse its present decline. 19 Stronger medicine is required 
for those who are trapped in a racial conflagration getting out of 
hand and who must fight fire with fire to avoid being consumed in 
the flames. 

The onlv conservatism that can be useful to the Majority in its 
present state of siege is a conservatism stripped of the dead weight 
of outmoded political dogma, one that appeals to the young as well 
as to she old, to the heart as well as to the pocketlxmk, to the imagi- 
nation as well as to reason — a conservatism, in short, which vitalizes 
tradition and builds continuity, as. it concentrates on the care and 
feeding of the Majority ethos. 



IS. Even Negroes, whose trail links to the past arc partially responsible fes mak- 
ing diem thr most uneonseivaUvc of all Americans, are becoming slightly mote 
conservative as they search Ibi bits and pieces of thru African heritage anil invent 
vdial (Ju-y cannot find. Their air a lew Negro columnists who peddle- the Standard 
modem conservative bur. Thomas SoweH and Walter Williams are two of them. 
The most noted Negro conservative, of course, is Supreme Court Justice Clarence 
Thomas, 

19. Some of the most biltei attacks against Majority racism and some oJ the 
kindest words U>i minority racism have emanated from modern conservatives. Il 
Was William I'". Buckley, jr., not Senator Javits or Senator Ke nneily, who proposed 
thai Israel become the fi.fty-fir&t state. 



PART VII 



The Economic Clash 



CHAPTER 25 



The Biology of Revolution 



IF niKin- vv.vs kvkr a discipline thai should In- Founded on reason, 
and on reason alone, it is economics, Yet, like politics, econom- 
ics has now been so theorized and theologized, so supercharged 
with tendeniiotiMies* and unreason, as to he almost completely 
shrouded From the prying eye of objectivity. 1 Officiating as ihe 
priesthood of the various fiscal cults that dominate modern eco- 
nomic thought — many of which wander Jar afield from the tradi- 
tional concerns ol economies and meddle in practically every as- 
pect ol human behavior — is a mishmash of libera! hisioricisis, 
doctrinaire materialists, bureaucratic statisticians, anarchic Utopi- 
ans and tax-happy plutocrats, 

Any given economic system mnsi prove to be false or inadequate 
over a period of time, for the obvious reason that no one economic 
system can effectively adjust 10 the wildly fluctuating economic con- 
ditions which harry and bedevil every nation during its life span. 
What is good economics for a country with unlimited natural 
resources and an industrious, expanding population can be bad 



1. A course in < omparsmive economics would be an extremely enlightening addi- 
iumi to the college cun iculi nn, Kfjually enlightening would be St compulsory tjesl 
on ihr scienlifir method, lo b<* taken ami passed hy every writer on economic sulv 
jeris hfftwf fmhtiiwtum. "The se.ientifie method, - according lo one inierpreLidon, 
"involves skillful handling ol the mafriial Ix-ing sunlied, careful observations, con- 
trolled experiments, if possible, close attention to detail , . . intellectual honesty . . . 
opeu-min dei li less . . . cauumisiirss in reaching conclusions . . . willingness to n-- 

peat experiments - ■ vigilance Foi the occurrence of possible flaws in hypotheses, 
theories, evidences and < t <m lusions." Hegnei ami Stiles, (sttffgf Zoofogy* Macniil- 
Lan, New Vork, 1959, p. It 

:C7 



58 



The Dispossessed Majority 



economics for a nation without resources and with a declining 
birthrate. Also, since foreign or civil wars have a habit of overturn- 
ing I he best-laid economic plans, even a small shift in the economy 
of one nation in an ever more interdependent world may produce 
a chain reaction in the economies of others. 

One of history's most dismal sights is that of two political factions 
(earing a country apart in order to force a pet economic dogma on 
the population at large. The best that can happen when two eco- 
nomic doctrines are in sharp opposition is thai one oF them is 
right, or at least better geared to serve the country at that particu- 
lar moment. Often both are wrong and totally inappropriate. Nev- 
ertheless thousands, sometimes millions, of people have to die so 
thai one side or the other can make its point. Two physicists who 
fought a duel to the death over the outcome of a laboratory experi- 
ment before performing it would be considered hopelessly insane. 
But mass duels to the death between partisans of economic systems 
over unproved and unprovable economic assumptions have be- 
come increasingly common, 

It seems almost impossible for modern man, as it was impossible 
for ancient man, to understand or accepi the basic relativity of eco- 
nomics. By reducing economics to the common denominator of 
the pocketbook and by capitalizing on the economic breakdowns 
thai affect living standards and sometimes even life itself, the politi- 
cal agitator manages to inject irrationality, emotion, and fanaticism 
into a subject thai requires the highest degree of rationality. Just as 
man attunes his politics to die fact that there are more commoners 
than aristocrats, he attunes his economics lo the fa< i that there are 
more paupers than millionaires. Consequently the politician who 
promises to take from the rich and give 10 the poor always has 
more votes or more potential votes in Ins pocket than his oppo- 
nent. Except in those rare eras when a highly responsible and gift- 
ed people finds itself in the midst of an almosl limitless expanse of 
fertile, undeveloped land and is n>o busy pioneering, exploring, or 
acquiring worldly goods to listen to the siren songs of economic 
Loreleis, Robin Hood is always a vastly more popular figure than 
Horatio Alger, 

If the two great rival economic systems of the twentieth century, 
capitalism *md socialism, are judged on the basis of production, 
the former (in its American version) will be found to outproduce 



THE ECONOMIC HASH 



359 



the latter (in its pre-Gorbachev Soviet version) by as much as twen- 
ty to one in consumer products, 2 In spite of its lower living stan- 
dards, however, throughout most of this century socialism has out- 
distanced capitalism in gaining converts or conscripts, particularly 
in China and the Third World, while capitalism itself has adopted 
more and more socialist controls. 

Repetitious references to the successes of capitalism no longer 
evoke the Pollyanna responses of the past. Nor do they help to jus- 
tify capitalism's cyclic recessions and depressions, creeping and gal- 
loping inflation, high unemployment, vast pockets of desolation 
and poverty, and the monopolistic proclivities of the large produc- 
ers. Rut the defects of socialism are equally considerable, Socialist 
economies have their own wrenching inflationary periods and are 
continually plagued by severe economic shortages and dislocations. 
Socialists have never solved the agricultural impasse created by the 
collectivization of the land and have never managed to avoid the 
habit of stifling individual initiative by promoting the growth of 
monstrous, bumbling bureaucracies whose lieartlessness and spine- 
lessness exceed those of the capitalist variety. 

The off and on swing to socialism, which oilers no real economic 
advantages lo consumers, must he explained by other than econom- 
ic factors. The most important of these is that socialist economic 
doctrine — though not socialist economic practice— is tailored to 
the spirit of the age. In a lime of equalitarianism and minority ra- 
cism, economic policy concentrates on the sharing not the creation 
of wealth, on job security not job betterment. It is no longer a ques- 
tion of making a decent wage, but of being guaranteed a decent 
wage, no longer a matter of accumulating savings for retirement 
but ol being given a retirement income. In psychological terms, as 
capitalism moves toward socialism, proletarian feelings of envy and 
insecurity yield to consumerism, 

Votes are still bought with economic promises, but the promises 
are now made lo races, classes and population groups as well as Lo in- 
dividuals, 1 he attack on private ownership grows fiercer not hrcause, 



% In I9t>1, after nearly half ;i tenuity ol Maixisr-Lerumst economics, the average 
Moscow citizen Milt had lo woik 1 f i minutes for a loaf of bread, HI 5 minutes tor a 
Eftto-pOUtfd chukrn, 71 minutes for a quart of milk. The average New Yorker, on 
the Other hand, worked only H minutes foi his bread, 23 minutes for his thuken, 
7 minutes for his milk. San I'rannsco Chro?titU, Nov. l^, 1964, Financial Section. 



560 



The Dispossessed Majority 



as official socialist doctrine has it, state control of the means of pro- 
duction and distribution Will bring about greater economic bene- 
fits, but because private property is one of the biggest stumbling 
blocks in the way of latter-day democracy, 3 The liberal-minority co- 
alition does not covet property solely to divide it more equitably 
among the citizenry. The aiTUieiu minorities and most Majority lib- 
erals already have enough possessions, and die poor minorities 
are as greedy as they are needy. The prime motivation is an odd 
mix of compassion and resentment. The declining fortunes of 
Chose on the way down seem to provide a kind of ghoulish satisfac- 
tion to those on the way up. 

Similarly, Majority members are not merely defending private 
property for its own sake or for the power and physical comfort it 
affords. They are defending an institution handed down from the 
Majority's great days." 1 Property, particularly property in the form of 
farm land, was a fixation of the Majority settlers who transformed 
America into the cornucopia which now feeds populations whose 
rulers favor collective agriculture. 

The noneconomit foundations of economic doctrine show up 
clearly in revolutions, which Marxist historians define as wars be- 
tween classes. This interpretation may have some relevance when 
confined to monorarial nations, hut in most instances of class war- 
fare the racial factor has probably outweighed the economic 8 In 
the Incessant clashes between the Roman patricians and plebeians, 



3h Private property waa not dead tn the heyday of Soviet communism, People 
could still own homes, have bank accounts, and leave Lheir povse:«ions GO heirs. 
But the elimination of the profit system prevented die accumulation of ^rear. foi- 
tuncs, even though the frulf between high and low wages in die T.S.S.R. made 
Maixisi purists shudder. 

•1. Max Weber has alleged thai die great economic tears of nineternlfxenturv 
capitalism were inspired by die Protestant Kthk\ He might have traced die inspi- 
ration back further, to die Northern European peoples themselves, who were not 
only responsible for Protestantism but also for capitalism and die industrial revolu- 
tion which accompanied it. Weber, however, was careful to distinguish Ix-iween 
Protestant capitalism, die "bourgeois organization of labour," and Jewish capital- 
ism, a "speculative pariah-capitalism." Max Weber, Thf Ptvtastanl Etkk and the Spirit 
of ' GipiUilfcm, nans. Taleott Parsons, A.Hen and t'nwin, London, 19S0, especially p. 
271 , footnote 58. 

5. Darlington finds that the makers of [evolution have few economic motives. 
"Most I revolutionaries! came from groups denied their oppoi tunities in society 



nit: economic; ci ash 



361 



anil between the medieval peasantry and the Teutonic nobility, the 
contending parties differed racially as well as economically, the 
racial differences preceding rather than following the establish- 
ment! of class a.m.\ caste. 6 

Although the French Revolution is supposed to be the prototype 
of die modern class war, it might be profitable to heed what a lead- 
ing- British literary journal had to say about Re&tif de la Bretonne, 
whose eyewitness accounts of Paris in the climax of the Terror pro- 
vide an almost inexhaustible storehouse of background material 
for historians. 

There arc hitlCS tn Rrstif too of a class racialism, of the fears felt 
by the bourgeois and by the artisan for the pale men wiih dark ill- 
kempt hair, piercing eyes and shaggy mustaches. ... His canaille is 
always dark and glowering. . . , The respectable, the men of proper' 
ly, the virtuous < raftsmen, are fair and have good complexions. . . . 
Restif dwells on Charlotte Corday'a essential innocence, for she in 
blonde and Norman, In the 1780s the population of Paris . . , was 
Mill predominantly fair. In die 17909 Royalist pamphleteers make 
miK h of die fart dial die terrorists tended to he dark and horn the 
Mediterranean area: Marat in particular served their purpose in 
this respect And so too Restifs massaerrurs would almost inevitably 
be depicted as men of the South. 7 

Abbe Sieves, who also happened to be from the South and who 
wiih perfetl timing turned from Catholicism to Robespierre's God- 
dess of Reason and back again, revealed the racial motivations of 
the revolutionists when he urged returning the French aristocracy 
to the "German marshes" whence they had come. 8 Sic.yes's racial 
line was echoed by thousands of more authentic sansculottes who 
insisted on portraying themselves as Gaul.s fighting for lilx'ration 
[rum the barbarous Franks, 3 



on national, racial or religions Rounds: Irish in Britain, Poles in Russia, jews in 
(knmaiiy ami liiLei in Russia, basLards (like Herren) anywheie." The Evolution of 
jMtin and Society, p. !7-i.S. 

(>. "Indeed class differences ultimately all derive horn genetic and, usually, cacial 
ditfeiences . . . il is ihe inequalities u'lii< h create advances in society rather than 
advances in society which cieak- the inequalities." Ibid., p f 547. 

7. Times Literary Supple mm t, Oct. 27 , 1961. 

8. Ripley, Thr Raits nj ('Europe, p. 13& 

9. Toynlice, Study of History, Vol. VI, p. 217. 



362 



The Dispossessed Majority 



[f race had something to do with the overthrow of the Bourbon 
kings, 10 it had much to do with the overthrow of the Romanovs. 
Almost to a man, the Bolshevik ruling clique was composed of 
members of Russian minorities. 11 Lenin was a farrago of races. Dar- 
lington writes that Lenin's grandmother "married a welko-do re- 
tired Jewish physician, Alexander Blank. . . . Lenin's four grandpar- 
ents were . . . of four different races and religions, . . ." l2 

Once the revolution had been won and the expropriators expro- 
priated, Marxist theory predicted there would be no more cause 
for internal power struggles or Machiavellian horseplay. Reaction- 
ary and internecine politics were the fatal consequences of such 
primitive economic systems as feudalism and capitalism. Racial the- 
ory, on the other hand, predicts thai once the minorities had driv- 
en out the czar, the aristocracy, the Orthodox Church, and the - ar> 
iialist elite, ihey would then direct their racism against each other. 
And this, of course, is what happened. After Lenin's demise Stalin, 
a member of Russia's Georgian minority, began his tortuous rise to 
one-man rule, first by exiling his rival, Trotsky (whom he later had 
murdered in Mexico City), then by the sequential liquidation of 
kamenev, Rykov, Zinoviev, Yagoda, Yezhof, and Radek, all of whom 
happened to be Jews. 



la The tieracifistion of the Fit-nth nobility and the elite of the Catholic hierar- 
chy represented an aristocratic split in ihe ranks. The Third Estate by itself would 
nt*v<-r have been strong enough to bring ahouL the French Revolution if t.l had not 
been joined by 50 nobles, 44 bishops, and 200 parish priests in 1789. In 1792 the 
National Convention was composed of 782 delegates, of whom only two were 
workmen. Even Damon and Robespierre wcie so unproleiariaii that they original- 
Iv wished to be known as d* Aft ton and dc Robespierre. Dmlmgimu, op. ctL, p. SSI. 

11. "lW|irh ii population ratio of 1.77 percent, jews in Lenin's Russia made up 
&S percent af (he total party membership. 25.7 percent of the party's Central 
Coauiiluoe and from 36.8 percent to 42,9 percem of the ruling Politburo, white 
among Soviet diplomats and especially senior Officials of the secret police the per- 
centage c if Jews was r\'i;n greater/ Geoffrey Bailey, Th* Conspirator, Harper New 
York, I960, p. 129, footnote, 

12. Darlington, op. cit., p. 557. The autfeoi also points oui the minority status «f 
two other historic equalitarians— Engels, the British capitals ;tnd ronton magnate 
who was a German of French Huguenot descent, and Rousseau, the French moraS- 

ist hum Switzerland. Ibid., pp. MS, M\ Only a tew high Jewish officials escaped 
judicial murder or Siberia, among them Maxim Litvinov and U/nr Kagunovic.h. 
"Hie highest-ranking .Soviet officer to be purged by Sulin was Marsli.il Tukharhev- 

sky. who was half Italian. 



THE ECONOMIC CLASI I 



363 



During World War II other minorities were brought to heel: 
600,000 Volga Germans, as well as. most members of the Tatar, Kal- 
myk, Karachai, Balkar, and Chechen-Ingush nationality groups 
were deported to Siberia, 15 At the height of the German attack, 
when Russia was on the verge of collapse, the Russian Majority 
came back into favor, since it was called upon to do most of the 
fighting. 1 * Stalin, who died in 1934, was succeeded as Communist 
party leader by Malenkov, a Southern Russian with a "Mongolian 
admixture," 15 who in turn was followed by Khrushchev, the Ukraini- 
an, and Brezhnev, born in the Ukraine. 16 It was Malenkov who de- 
posed and ordered ihe shooting of Beria, Stalin's fellow Georgian 
and longtime chief of the secret police, though he retained Mikoy- 
an, the Armenian financial expert. 17 Alcxei Kosygin, a Greai Rus- 
sian, was prime minister under Brezhnev. When Kosygin resigned 
in 11)80, he was replaced by Nikolai Tikhonov, who met Brezhnev 
when l hey were students in the Ukraine. In the Soviet Union's final 
days the ruling clique was composed almost entirely of Slavs, with a 
strong emphasis on Great Russians. As for Jews, in the years preced- 
ing (he U.S.S.R.'s collapse and as they had in much of the Stalin 
dictatorship, ihey became the targets of an official anti-Zionist and 
a quasi-official anti-Semitic campaign — a turn of events which con- 
stituted a supreme act of ingratitude towards Marx and other Jew- 
ish prime movers of Soviet communism, ia 

The commanding role played by minorities, particularly Jewish 
minorities, in the abortive or short-lived post-World War I revolu- 
tions in Hungary, Bavaria, and Prussia has already been noted in 
Chapter 15. Marshal Tito, the architect of Communist Yugoslavia, 



13. Ency, of Ritx.ua aiui thr Soviet Union, p. 2.10. 

1 t. "[Sulin] abolished . . . thr extensive cultural autonomy which the minori- 
ties had enjoyed in the 1920*, leaving iheiti m the end with liiuc more than the 
right to use their language . . . and to enjoy folk art. Stalin . . . felt impelled to dis- 
criminate against the- minorities, not only in the mailer of stale and party appoint- 
ment^ but also in cultural affairs." [bid., p, 580. 

15. Milovan Djilas Canvtrsati<nu -miih Stalin, Harcom t Brace, N.Y., p. 108. 

16. Ibid., pp. 7445, 274, 329. 17. Ibid., pp. S£9, 555. 

IS. Sec Chapter S3 of this study. Yuri Andropov* Brezhnev's heir, may have been 
pai L-Ji-wish or part-Armenian, but he was carefil! to play the part of a Great Rus- 
sian, iisdid his heir, the Sibej i;ui-lx>in Konslauiiji Chernenko. Mikhail (iorbachev, 
tihcriirnko i he-ii, was a true-blue (heal Russian and began his reign by displaying 
an niuhaiaf lei istic Communist openness in domestic and foreign policy. 



S64 



The Dispossessed Majority 



belonged to the Croatian minority in his country. The original 
leadership of the Polish and Chechoslovakian Communist parties 
was heavily Jewish 19 and, accordingly, decimated by Stalin- 20 In Chi- 
na Lhe chief advisers to the local Marxists in the 1920s were Vasili 
Blucher, a Russian, and Mikhail Borodin, a Russian Jew who once 
taughi school in Chicago, 21 

In the United States, minorities dominated the Communist party 
from its inception. Although the number of Irish Americans in the 
highest Party councils was large* 22 the proportion of Jews was stag- 
gering. 2 * When Jews began resigning as a resull of Stalin's purges 
and the 1939 Rosso-German Nonaggression Pact, they did not nec- 
essarily abandon their traditional radical leanings, but channeled 
them into other non-Soviet or anti-Soviet forms oi Marxism. 24 By 
the close of the 1960s, American Jews composed "at least half of the 



19. Typical of the revolutionaries who peregrinated about Europe in the early 
pan oi die rerun ry was ParvovHelphand, born in Hungary of Jewish patents, stih 
tit at o! Marxism in Switzerland, leading ideologue of the German Soc ialrst parly's 
left wing, friend or Lenin, German spy 1 , booster of the Bolsheviks, and finally a mil- 
lionaire land speculator. Parvus*Help}iand wiU probabJy be beat remembered Ear 
his deathless words cm Bra! arriving in Germany: "t am looking for a fatherland. 
Where can 1 huv one cheap?" kh iuthe ein VaterUimi, u*o at ein Valeriana 1 tu haben fur 
tnihgts oWi/P Win fried Scharlari and Zbvnck Zeman, Pmbewier der /foWuiion, Verlag 
Wissenschaft und Pnlitik, Cologne, 1964, especially p. 36. 

20. Sachar, The Course of Modern Jewish History, p. 545. 

21 . F.nry. of Russia arid the Soviet Union, pp. 70, 72-75. 

22. See pp. ISfrSl 

23. Even as late as IQ47 it was estimated that 59.3 percent of American Commu- 
nist party activists were Jewish — approximately twelve limes linger than 1 he Jewish 
proportion of the population at that time. The 39,3 percent did noi include Jew- 
ish U- How travelers. Wevl, The Creohtfe Elite tn America, p. 103. 

24. A few jews became strident anCJ-trfummiiiisLs, hui theit uittwomnuiitisin waj 
dialectical, polemical, and frequently hysterical. Some Jews hnn^ on no matter 
what. Herbert Apthekcr has remained chief theoretician of die dwindling Ameri- 
can branch of rite Party. Other Jews have tempered a Lingering sympathy for com- 
munism with ft rising sympathy for Israel. An example of such mixed feelings. If it 
were not taken from die Watt Street Journal (July 3, 1962), would seem appropriate 
to the wilder pages of die Protowis of Zu>n. Hie Communist spy, Robert Soblcji, 
who jumped S 100,000 bail, sought refuge, not in Russia, but. in Israel. Part of the 
bail was raised by Mrs. Benjamin Buttenwieser, the wife of a Kuhn, Loeb partner, 
who lent Mrs. Soblen $(i0,(KK) with die mnleisiaiiding dnat George Kirslr.in, pub- 
lisher of the Nation, would reimburse half die amount in ease of a loss, Soblen, a 
psychiatrist* later committed suicide in England while being returned to the U.S. 



THE ECONOMIC CLASH 



365 



active protestors among the Mew Left/ 25 and "the nonpopulist 
brand of radicalism [was] noisy, intellectual, ideological, and pri- 
marily Jewish. "^ 

In the mind's eye of Marx,* 7 the proletarian revolution, the ulti- 



25. According Lo an estimate by Nathan Clatter, professor of sociology at One 
University of California. New Vm* Times, May 4 ,1969, p. 80. /Another sociology pro- 
fessor phrased Ids estimate differently, "Out of ten radicals, five are likely to be 
Jewish*" Van den 1 laag, op. c it., p. 1 18. 

20. Yaffe. op. cu., p. 255. 

27. Due %t\p\ that human evolution has just begun or is already at an end is the 
seriousness and respect which generations of Western minds have bestowed upon 
the "thinking" of Marx and Kngek Like most of die ir contemporaries both were 
as knowledgeable in biology and genetic* a* a present-day "flat earther" is in celes- 
tial mechanics and astrophysics. Although they made- disparaging remarks about 
Negroes and sneered at die "tartarized and mongoliaed" Slavs, the two founding 
fathers o' communism were convinced that all evidences or racial inferiority would 
be quit kly eradicated and all Inferior human* quickly raised to die level of the ad- 
vanced lAca once die proletariat took over, Weyl and Possony, Geography of Intel 
Irtt, p. 10, and Darlington, op < it., p. 546. Engelswas particularly noted for a per- 
verted hi and ofl [egehan gibberish thai would be utterly ludicrous were it not now 
considered Holy Writ by a large segment oi mankind, "Buuerifo, for example, 
spring from the egg through a negation of die egg," wrote Engels in Anti-Duhiing, 
trans. Kuule Burns, International Publishers, New York. 1066, p. U9. "Bill if we 
take . .a dahlia or an orchid: Si we Lit at die seed and die plant which grows from 
ii as a gaidcnci (U-\ we get as the u-siilt oj this negation of the negation riot only 
more <**ciU._ but also qualitatively hctiei seeds [and] each repeated negation of the 

ne^. nion increases this impioveinent." [bid. hike die cavemen of die Stone Age, 
who taw the world as a battleground oi rival supernatural powers, Kngels had an 
equally simpli ,iic vieu a world .iinggle lx-tw< i n exploiters and exploited, i apitaV 
ists and workers. "All past history was die history of class, struggles. . .die waning 
classes of society are always the product of die modes of production and ex- 
change. . . ." Ibid., p. 53. Thece was, of course, no possibility of rational debate 
with Marx and F.ngels since "their adversaries could only be either bourgeois idi- 
ots or proletarian traitors." 1 aid wig von Mi«*s, TtMty ami //iWr\. Arlington House, 
NewRochelle, NY, 1969, p. 131. As time went on, Marxists "no longer based their 
hopes upon the powei of their arguments but upon the resentment, envy, and ha- 
tred of the masses." [bid., p. 65. In his Address on the Cnil War in France (1871), 
Marx displayed his philosophical detarbment by accusing Vice-President Jules Favre, 
ol "living in concubinage with the wife of a dipsomaniac* Ibid., p,194, "As far as 
the . theory of Marx's materialistic conception of history is concerned [he. add- 
ed not one] single new ides in this field. . . ." l'iririm Sorokin, Contemporary So 
acfogizai Theories, p. 520, footnote 2-1. Sorokin commented that a little-known Prus- 
sian economist, Georg Wilhebn von Raumer, formula ircl an economic theoiv of 
history almost identical to Marx's. Ibid,, pp. 521-22, 



366 



The Dispossessed Majority 



mate extension of class war, would first occur in the highly industri- 
alized nations, which in his time were Britain and Germany. 28 Plac- 
ing Russia towards the end of the revolutionary timetable and Chi- 
na at the very end, he paid little or no aiteniion to the influences 
that racial homogeneity or heterogeneity might have in provoking 
or dampening the revolution. Marx's predictions might not have 
been so wide of the mark if he had stopped to consider that just as 
some races are more prone to industrialization than others, some 
are more resistant to revolution than others, particularly revolution 
in its proletarian form. 

Why is Japan, in spite of a defeat in World War II thai involved 
atomic devastation, the most stable great power in Asia and the 
least susceptible to revolution? Is not part of the answer that it is 
the most racially homogeneous of the large Asian nations? Why is 
Costa Rica the most prosperous and progressive country in Central 
America? Thai it is the one Central American state with a largely 
white population may provide a clue. Why did Germany almost suc- 
cumb to revolution after defeat in World War I, ami why did its 
western part become the most prosperous nation in Europe after 
the much worse German defeat in World War U? Could it be that 
the dynamic minority present in large numbers after the First 
World War was conspicuous by its absence after the Second? 29 



28. The despised "racist/ de Gobineau, wan a much better prophet of Euro- 
pean event* than was Marx In an 1866 loiter the author of Tht [mqttniity of Races 
wrote thai if present trends in German politics continued, "power will fall to the 

first corporal who, in pawing, will sea* it* Dostoievsky, in his novel, Tht Possessed, 
painted an almost exact picture of rwendedi-ern.fury Russia. The most uncanny 
forecaster of the future, however, was French anthropologist Vaeher de [.apauge, 
who predicted in IS99: (1) the meteoric rise and fall of the Third Reich, £$) abso- 
lule socialism in Russia; (3) a control for world supremacy between Russia and the 
United States, with the latter being favored because it had 15 percent of the 
woi Id's Nordic population as against Russia's 9 percent; (4> the Jewish ascendan- 
cy, which he said could only be broken by socialism. A dyed-in-the-wool anti- 
Semite himself, Lapouge was opposed to the French anti-Semitism of his day, 
which he characterized as being a weird compost of economic protection ism and 
libera] clericalism that favored France's Gallic, element to me detriment of the 
Germanic. L'Aryen, son role social, Fontemoing, Paris, 18<H», pp. 345, 371, -1164, 469, 
-182,510. 

29. There were 600,000 Jews in Germany at the end of World Wai I — only 
l 2r>,()(.K) in West f it-nn.my ar ihr- cud <>t Woild Wai 1 1. Sat liar, op. < it . pp. 425.469, 



THE ECONOMIC CLASH 



367 



And was not this same minority, hyperactive in stirring up the 
revolutionary chaos lhai helped bring about Russia's defeat in 
World War l + unable and unwilling to deflate Russian patriotism in 
World War 11? It was the Russian majority not the peoples of the So- 
viet Union as a whole, as Stalin himself admitted, that was largely 
responsible for die defeat of the German armed forces on the East- 
ern front, 30 

The interrogatory in the preceding paragraphs is not meant to 
lay the foundation for a comprehensive racial interpretation of his- 
tory- h merely suggests that rare may often provide a better expla- 
nation of events than class. 51 Perhaps this is why in the vernacular 
of modern liberalism, class has often become a euphemism, if not a 
code word, for race. Race lias an ugly ring and tends to reduce all 
arguments to a personal equation. Class, on the other hand, is well 
suited to current political and economic semantics. Intelligent mi- 
nority leaders, knowing at firsthand the racial background of most 
class antagonism, realize that by bringing race out in the open they 
may awaken the race consciousness of those who have been so ef- 
fectively divided and disarmed by class propaganda. Also, since in 
some countries a coalition of minorities h necessary for a successful 
revolutionary struggle, loo much talk about race might set one 
minority against another. 

If the Marxists' prayerfully awaited proletarian revolution ever 
breaks oni in the United States, it will not be because of the hard- 



30. Foi an analysis of tht- breakup uf Die Soviet Ihikm see Chap lei 33. 

31. The wlurtti) ad abstirdum oi Marxism is thr rase of Marx himself. LI" Jic Marx- 
ist diagnosis of the economic moiivadon of human behavioi is correct, then 
Marx's own career must he the exception thai proves the rule The middle-class 
son of an affluent Jewish lawyer who converted to Protests nlism, Marx had aspira- 
tions towards Die aristocracy, as evidenced by his marriage to Jenny von Westphal- 
eu„ die daughter of a government official who was a member of Die petty nobility. 
What class motivations could possibly have influenced Marx to take up die cause 
ot die pioleiariat? As a member oJ a minority, however, bin social climbing, his 
self-serving dogmatism, and his haired of uineteenth-eeulury European civiliza- 
tion become more understandable. What is more, like all dedicated dogmatists, 
Marx was loath to practice what lie preached. At die very time he was finishing bis 
masierwotk, Das KafnUtl he invesied heavily and foolishly in the London stock 
inaikfl and hid to call on bis Uncle Philips, a banker whose descendants founded 
the giant Dutch electronics firm of die same name, lo bail him out. See (lie Ger- 
man periodical. Capital, Hamburg, June 1970, p. 166. 



368 



The Dispossessed Majority 



ening of class divisions or capitalist exploitation,*? bin because of 
the heterogeneity of the American population, the racism of 
minority elements within this population, and the derarination of 
the American Majority. The order of battle is already drawn up. On 
the revolutionary side of rhe barricades will be the fire-breathing 
militants of the On assimilable Minorities, the less assimilated lead- 
ers of the Assimilable Minorities, and the more desperate and 
more compromised Majority liberals. On the counterrevolutionary 
side* 3 will he the Majority core and the assimilated minorities. As in 
all revolutions most of the population will assume or try to assume 
a very low and very neutral profile. 

A proletarian revolution would obviously pui the finishing touch- 
es on the dispossession of the Majority. To speed the day, the hi- 
flainmaiorv rhetoric, the urban insurrections, and the guerrilla war 
the media still prefer to call a crime wave are putting so many 
Americans in such a revolutionary mood thai a further escalation 
of violence will hardly l*e necessary. A few more decades of this soft- 
ening up, this preparation for the kill, could Ik- as damaging to the 
Majority as an all-out Marxist putsch. 

With this in mind or. unfortunately in so many cases, with this 
not in mind, many of the richest Aiui most influential Majority 
members continue to lend substance to the notion of class war by 
their stiff-necked subservience to nineteenth-century economic dog- 
ma, Their voting record, their reading matter, and their speeches 
often give the impression that ihev are more interested in saving an 
economic system than in saving their people, their country, or 
themselves. The Marxists, who also believe in associating economic 
doctrine with ihe destiny of nations, rejoice at the paranoid mater- 
ialism of the Majority Old Guard. 

When economics becomes a sacred cow, ii also becomes a Tro- 
jan Horse. The only true measure of any given economic system m 
its ability to prime the environment for the maximum expansion of 



32, lii direct contradiction Uj Marxist theory ami, as already noted on pp. 224- 
25, Negro militancy in iht* United States seems to tie increasing in tliiect pro pur* 
tion to Negro income, 

33. The terms revolutionary and counterrevolutionary can be misleading when 
applied to die proponents and opponents i>F revolution. In the long run, a suc- 
cessful coun ten evolution rnav overturn more institutions and change six'iety more 
radically than the revolution which inspired ii 



THE ECONOMIC CLASH 



560 



people's creativity. To measure economics any oilier way, lo allow 
economics to degenerate into the peevish little dogmas which at 
present disarm Majority resistance is to hasten the economic break- 
down that the liberal-minority coalition awaits wiih bated breath. 



CHAPTER 26 



The Proletarian Syndrome 



A fc&iEF survey of American unionism furnishes additional proof 
■*** of the racial nature of the class struggle. Whatever form labor 
unions have taken tn the United States— the paternalistic craft un- 
ions, the revolutionary Industrial Workers of the World, the dynamic 
industrial unions of the thirties, the huge milllon-membered union 
conglomerates of rhe present— almost all have had one common 
denominator. Their leadership, ai least in recent times, lias not of 
ten been drawn from the ranks of the Majority. 

It is not news to say that little of the medieval guild is to be de- 
tected in modern unions. The religious lies of the guild, the oaths 
of brotherhood, the emphasis on quality instead of quantity, the 
personal pride in the finished work — all these are far removed 
from I he practice and philosophy of today's giant unions. The 
giuldsman worried about what he received for his tabor. But he 
also cared about the product of his labor. Not so with the typical 
member of the large industrial union, who is concerned almost ex- 
clusively with his pay and his fringe benefits. 

Unions had a spotty and somewhat violent history in nineteenth- 
century America. 1 Often their very existence was ruled illegal. Well 
mio the twentieth century conns were routinely handing out anti- 
strike injunctions. Then came the economic troubles of the early 
1930s, when the weight of the law shifted to rhe side of the union. 



K. One violence -ridden nineteen ih<entury racial labor union was the Molly Ma- 
guirei, a .secret group of Irish miners who committed murder anil mayhem in 
Pennsylvania coal-producing counties in 1462-76. Nineteen mcmbei s of the group 
were hanged. Many others were imprisoned. Ency, Ant, Vol. 15. p. 678. 

370 



THE ECONOMIC CLASH 



371 



Instead of the employee being punished for union activities, it was 
now the employer who was penalized for "union busting," As the 
closed shop became a hallowed institution, the yellow dog contract 
(prohibiting workers from joining a union) was forbidden. 

It was not until mid-century that the seemingly irresistible force 
acquired by the labor movement in the New Deal era was chal- 
lenged. The Taft-Hartley Act (1947), passed over President Tru- 
man's veto, curbed certain union abuses by providing a cooling-oil 
period in strikes affecting the national interest and by permitting 
states to hamstring the union shop with right-to-work laws. The eco- 
nomic determinisis who automatically deny any connection be- 
tween unionism and race might take note that the nineteen stales 
which had right-rework laws in 1906 were those states, witli one or 
two exceptions, where Majority political influence was Strongest- 5 

The Assimilable or Unasshnilable Minority vise on American un- 
ions was apparent from the very Start. The Knights of Labor be- 
came the first important national labor organization, owing largely 
to Terence Powderly, the lawyer son of immigrants from Ireland." 1 
The Knights of Labor later evolved into the American Federation 
oi Labor, whose first president was cigar maker Samuel Gompers, 
bomi in Britain of Dutch-Jewish parentage. Lugene Debs, organizer 
of the first large railway union and perennial Socialist party candi- 
date for president, was the son of French-Alsatian immigrants. 4 

I'he huge needle trades unions were almost solidly minority in 
Composition from the Jewish leadership at the top to the Jewish and 
halian rank and (He at the bottom. Both David Dubinskv and Sid- 
ney Ilillman, who headed, respectively, the International Ladies 



l i. the stales weir: Alahama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, 'Iowa, Kansas, 
Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, North Carolina, North Dakota, -South Carolina, 
South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, and Wyoming. 

3, l'oi a lostei of Irish-American labor leaders, see p. 132. 

■1. Assimilable Minority incmlxTs, some ot whom arc themselves descended 
from minorities in their Old Wodd homelands, have as laboi leaders both a pro- 
fessional and pcisonal slake in resisting assimilation. In a muJliraeial nation like 
the united States, since unions can haidly avoid a certain amount of pandering lo 
the minorities, a minority background is a helpful and olien neressaiy <niali(it a- 
tion fill union leadership. The ( arethllv cultivated "minority pose" of many union 
officials who belong to Assimilable Minorities cannot help but rub off on their pri- 
vate attitudes and feelings, and strew many psychological roadblocks in the path of 
their assimilation. 



372 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Carmen I Workers and the Amalgamated Cloihing Workers, were 
l>orn abroad of Jewish parents. MiJIman played a principal part wiih 
John I,. Lewis, the colorful son of a Welsh miner, 5 in the formation 
of the CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations). He personified 
the apogee of union power in the 1044 Democratic Convention 
when President Roosevelt gave instructions thai anvone wishing to 
make proposals concerning the party platform or political strategy 
first had to Vle;ir it with Sidney." 6 

Other high-ranking labor leaders with Assimilable or Unassaila- 
ble minority backgrounds were or are: William Green, the second 
president of the American Federation of Labor, like Lewis the son 
of a Welsh miner: George Meany, longtime president of the AFL- 
CIO, an Irish American; Ike Gold, the Jewish boss of the United 
Rubber Workers; Sol Stetin, the Jewish boss of the Textile Workers; 
Caesar Petrillo of the American Federation of Musicians; Philip 
Murray of the United Sn< lworkers, born in Scotland of Irish par- 
ents; Joseph Curran of the National Maritime Union; Mike Quill of 
the Transport Workers; Walter Rcuther of the United Auto Work- 
ers, son of a German socialist and husband of a Jewish social work- 
er; Harry Bridges, an Australian, chief of the International Long- 
shoremen, married to a Japanese; AIIkti Shanker, Jewish head of 
the American Federation of Teachers; Jerry Wurf, Jewish chief of 
the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employ- 
ees; Cesar Chavez of the United Farm Workers; and Jackie Pressor, 
Jewish head of the Teamsters, the nation's largest union. Because 
of bis gangster connections, Pressor had serious run-ins with the 
law before his death in 198ft. 

There are, of course, millions of Majority members in fhe rank 
and file of American unions, but they are not often found in the 
top echelons of union management. It is the high concentration of 
Assimilable and Unassimilable minority members in labor's rutins 
circles that has given a minority tone to unionism and explains the 
expenditure of vast amounts of union i'ui\ds on minority-oriented 



5. Lewis's father was a member of a Hi iiish miiKuilv. Hi* son must have allowed 
his inherited minority sentiment* and hd unionism u> delay the assimilation pro 
cess usually completed by a serond-gmnariou American of Bi imh descent It is 
doubtful if a fully assimilated American would have called a nationwide coal stiike 
in 1944 while his country was engaged in 1 world war. 

6. Adiian A. Paradis in Labor in Action, Julian Messner, New Voik. 1963, p. 119. 



ti if; economic CI ash 



373 



politicking which is often opposed to the interests of the member- 
ship at large. 7 Certainly school desegregation, appeasement of black 
militants, sanctions against South Africa and Rhodesia, imerven- 
lionist policies in the Middle Kast, and monetary grants to Marxist 
labor organizations abroad cannot be said to represent the wishes 
of the typical union member. 

American labor in conjunction with American business has been 
responsible lor ihe avalanche of goods and services that until very 
recently made the American standard of living ihe world's highest. 
But while achieving notable suet ess in raising the income of work- 
ing people and in ending some of ihe worst abuses of tooth-und- 
c.law capitalism, unionism has not had a spotless record. The loss in 
production caused by featherbedding, massive absenteeism, and 
strikes has been one of the greatest economic wastes in history. 8 

Unions still like to assign themselves to the progressive side of 
the political balance sheet, but its selfish and fearful attitude to- 
wards automation has made unionism One of Mir must retrogressive 
and reactionary elements in American life.'' In the communica- 
tions held, unions have succeeded in accomplishing what the press 
lords were never able lo do — reduce some of the largest metropol- 
itan areas to a diet of two daily newspapers, often owned by the 



7. Both unions and corporation* jure prevented by law from contributing direct- 
ly to national political campaign.*, though hoth can sponsoi "Political Action Con> 
miir. \ :s to fuiuirl money to candidates. Needles* to say, the management tan put 
pressure on employees to contribute: and union leaders can put similar "he-ai" on 
their rwilt *«d Gle. 'Hie result is thai company employees and union members 
may be forced to support a party, issue, or candidate to which or to whom diey arc 
opposed. Business PACs, surprisingly, an- often willing to finance antibusiness, 
proHlaboi candidates. In a preliminary tabulation of the 1980 presidential cam- 
paign, 8G7 registered i oi porate PACi gave %SM million to Democrats, $3.fi million 
to Republicans. In the sains- period labot PA.Cs gave Democrats $1.9 million, only 
$400,000 10 Republicans. Wall Street Journal Oct 13, LtfHO, pp. 1, I s *. In the t§68 
presidential race, unions donated $o0 million to the campaign of Hubert 
Humphrey, although 44 percent of die labor vole went to Nixon. Sec Vi< Un Rio 
sel's newspaper column, Nov. 11, 19o8. The TramslnV Union supporletl Nixon 
in 1072 alter ihe president had commuted |,imcs Holla's prison lenn. 

8. hi 1970, 66,414,000 man hours were lost in 5,7 Hi work stoppage*. 

9. I-abor's tear of technological progress might be described as similar to Vespa- 
sian's. When shown a machine that would eliminate the use of manpower in trans- 
porting heavy stout- columns, niinoi has ii that ihe Roman Emperor refused, sav- 
ing, "Let me feed my [>ooi common*.." 



374 



The Dispossessed Majority 



same publisher. In the cultural area union influence has been cat- 
astrophic. Fantastic wage scales and the forced hiring of superflu- 
ous stagehands and musicians have transformed the theater, opera, 
and concert hail into a big business operation, where the art of 
financing has taken precedence over art itself. 

The Majority has little to fear from the rank and Hie of American 
labor, union or nonunion. Most white working people are either 
bona fide Majority members or are rapidly being assimilated into 
the Majority. What the Majority has Eo fear are the unassimilable or 
truckling union leaders who call strikes during national emergen- 
cies, who use their stranglehold on various sectors of the economy 
to drive wages so high American products are priced out of foreign 
markets, who divert union dues to nonunion causes, and who are 
more concerned with what h happening in local and national poli- 
tics than in their own unions. 

In a relatively homogeneous country like Britain, unionism is the 
incarnation of the class struggle and not to Ik* viewed as the out- 
growth of a racial conflict, even though the minority component of 
the British population is almost always found on the union side. 
The success of the British trade union movement, which helped 
turn an empire into a welfare state, can he more accurately attribut- 
ed to an aging process, in which the aristocracy, landed gentry, and 
civil service, thinned out to the point of extinction by centuries of 
imperial swashbuckling ami two genocida! world wars, Host their 
grip. In other words the class war in Britain is not being won hy 
British unionism. It is being losi by the entropy of the British ruling 
class. Since the institutions of a nation can survive the surrender of 
power to another class, but not to another race, Britain in recent 
years, although it has not been spared lal*>r violence, has avoided 
revolution. 10 

In a multiracial state, on the other hand, unionism cannot es- 
cape Incoming a prop of minority racism. Fortunately for the 
American Majority, it is a weak prop because of the racial differenc- 
es which have opened a broad gap between union leadership and 



10. Yhcve is a growing colored population in Britain and a vriy rich, though 
small, Jewish minority. It is just possible ihai these abnufvc minority elements, with 
sonic substantial help from British proles, will be able eventually to turn Britain 
from evolutionaiy socialism to a more I-euinist variety. 



THE ECONOMIC CLASH 



375 



union membership. As long as labor leaders produce higher wages 
and greater fringe benefits for the union rank and file, all is well. 11 
Bin when union policies clash too sharply with the social attitudes 
and political instincts of a considerable part of the union member- 
ship, the delicate alliance begins to crumble. 

Some elements of the labor movement have taken a militant 
stand against the encroachments of social democracy — encroach- 
ments fostered and in part subsidized by the bosses of the labor 
movement. While most Majority members remain cowed hy minori- 
ty violence, the hard hats of the craft unions, many of diem belong* 
ing to Assimilated Minorities, have dared to fight Unassimilable Mi- 
nority street gangs with their own weapons on their own ground. 
The aggressiveness of the construction workers in attacking "peace* 
demonstrators on Wall Street in 197(3 not only dealt another mor- 
tal blow to Marxist theory, but revealed that the American Legion 
and the Daughters of tin* American Revolution no longer have a 
corner on patriotism. 

On the debit side many of these same hard haLs are staunchly 
committed, as are most other union members, to the wage-price 
spiral which has made big business and big labor synonymous with 
monopoly and inflation. Only the most affluent corporations axe 
now able to afford the ballooning wages, free medical rare, acci- 
dent insurance, retirement pensions, long vacations, multiple! rest 
periods, absenteeism, slowdowns, and walkouts that are inevitably 
associated with union contracts. The backtracking of some large 
unions in the face of mounting competition from Japan is not ex- 
peeled to set a national trend. That wage increases were temporari 
ly shelved, often in return for profit-sharing, could l>e taken as an 
admission by Big Labor that it had been demanding too much. 

Unable to meet rising costs, ever higher taxes and ever more fed- 
eral regulations many small businesses edge towards the red, and 
small farmers arc forced to sell out. The old-time American entre- 



11 . Il is both logical and preordained that American labor organizations sLrive 
tni higher living standards, beUer working conditions and job security for their 
members. If the- end result, however, is a labor force desultorily working thirty-five 
hours or less a week, while the workers ol an aggressive state — where piecework 
•And production quotas flourish and strikes are forbidden — are averaging fifty 
or more hours a week, how economically secure is the country with the better 
working conditions? 



376 



The Dispossessed Majority 



preneur, the store owner, the wildcatter, the prospector, the 
rancher with a small cattle spread, the dirt farmer 12 — many of those 
engaged in traditional Majority occupations — are joining, or facing 
the prospect of being forced to join, the ranks of the proletariat. 

The true hallmark of the proletarian," Toynl>ee has written. a is 
neither poverty nor humble birth bui a consciousness — and the re- 
sentment which this consciousness inspires— of being disinherited 
from his ancestral place in Society and being unwanted in a com- 
munity which is his rightful home; and this subjective proletarian- 
isrn is not incompatible with the possession of material assets. * 13 To 
apply Toynbee's words to the United States of the 1990s, the Major- 
ity proletarian is a casually of the ongoing racial confrontation, His 
body may be unscarrerl, but his mmd and his will have been tempo- 
rarily or permanently scathed. And as a proletarian, as one who has 
been racially neutralized, he may be eventually persuaded to sign 
up with the forces that have brought him low. 

Proletarianization often reaches as high as the skyscraper offices 
ol corporate management, where Majority executives, caught up in 
an OCtopean mass of government regulations, labor contracts, tax- 
es, affirmative action, and administrative ted tape, have become as 
much the faceless cogs of a soulless economy as the lowliest work- 
ers in sweat shops. Their six-figure incomes, their overly generous 
expense accounts, and their imposing titles hardly compensate for 
the frustration of losing command, of giving fewer orders and tak- 
ing more, of endlessly bowing and scraping to Washington bureau- 
crats, troublesome shareholders, and bumptious union shop stew- 
ards. They have lost or are losing the authority to fire, and are los- 
ing Lhe authority to hire. The union shop has abrogated the for- 
mer. Minority racial quotas are abrogating the latter. 

Ihe separation of ownership from management in large firms 
and the growing difficulty of retaining ownership in small firms 
have transformed once hard-working Majority executives into a no- 
madic bureaucratic caste that moves from company to company in 
an unending, often unproductive circular migrat 



ion. in main cor- 



\'2. The United States had 6,097,799 fauna in 1**40; 2,0*M,000 in I'.)92. 1994 
WmM Almanac, p. 121 The number of Negro farms hftf been declining ai an even 
greater ratr than white farm*. 

13. ,4 Stu<lyofIIi\l*ny, Vol. V, p. (tf. 



THE ECONOMIC CLASJ t 



H77 



porations the corner-cutting whip-cracking chief executive — in 
some cases the man who built the company from scratch, in most 
cases the only man who can get things moving — has been replaced 
by accountants or lawyers, with the result that quality mass produc- 
tion, the great invention of Majority business genius, has been 
subordinated to financial and tax considerations u Even more 
humiliating to old-school Majority decision-makers is that many 
critical company polities are no longer formulated by manage- 
ment, bin by federal agencies and "public policy." 15 

In its day-in, day-out attack on the Majority business community, 
the liberal-minority intelligentsia adds insult to injur)' by constantly 
raising the specter of a ^military-industrial complex," which is 
depicted as a sort ol wholesale conspiracy against the American 
people by WASP military brass and WASP industrial Leaders.* 8 Since 
all it takes is a stroke of the presidential pen to remove any officer 
from the armed services, the presidents themselves must have been 
privy to the plot. As the complex supposedly feeds on war, it musi 
have been much better nourished under Democratic administra- 
tions, which engaged the United States in World Wars I and II and 
Lhe Korean and Vietnam conflicts. To pill it another way the mili- 
tary-industrial complex, if ii exists at all, must be partly the brain- 
child oi its critics. That such powerful plotters gel such a bad press, 



1-1. Robert Mc Namara, ex-piesideni of the Foid Motor Company ami later sec- 
retary of defense, began his business career as art accountant, not joining Ford un- 
til he was thirty. Curmtt Biograpty 1961, p. 292 Today die boards of directors ol 
Detroit's "Big Three" automobile companies have some member* who probably 
don't know how to change a lire. 

15. Monroe J- Rathbone, when president of Standard Oil of New Jeiscy, stated. 
"We never do Anything of importance without first considering in great detail the 
public relations aspects." Wall Stmt Journal Vol. LXVII, No.W.p. 1. 

lf>. 'Hie phrase fiisl appeared in President Eisenhower's valedictory address at 
die end of bis second term, a speech ghostwritten by Malcolm Moos. Nation, April 
28. 19C9, p. 525, and U.S. Afeus & World Hrp&ru Sept. 19, 1958, p. 17. As head of 
the University ol Minnesota in 1969, Moos preferred no disciplinmy cluige* 
against 70 Negro students who seized a budding for 2-1 hours and did $5,0iX) dam- 
age, Ntw Ym-h Times, Oct £6, 19ft, p. V). The closest thing to a military-industrial 
complex first made its appeal am e elm ing World War I, when Beriuud Raruch 
regimented American industiy to inrci die icqum-iiu-iiLs oi total waifaie. It was 
revived in World War II as part ot the Industrial Mobilization Plan developed by 
Louis Johnson, assistant secretary of w.ir, and apptoved by President K<x>scvell. 
Ntw Ysfk Times, March 22, 1970. 



378 



The Dispossessed Majority 



and i liar any topflight Television commentator, newspaper editor, 
or columnist wields ten times the influence of a big corporation ex- 
ecutive or a Pentagon general, would seem 10 militate againsi the 
likelihood of such a conspiracy. 

The military-industrial complex is merely one of many semanti- 
cal bugbears — an updated version of bourgeois exploiter, capitalist 
monster, economic royalist, Zurich gnome. Wall Street bloodsuck- 
er, fascist, Nazi, and other liberal and Marxist pejorative*— which 
are intended to divide the Majority into classes, into rich and poor, 
business and labor, advantaged and disadvantaged. ]t is all parr of 
the grand ploy of assigning man to economic instead of genetic cat- 
egories, a very handy and very effective strategy for minorities who 
wish to overcome majorities. 

Labor leaders know better than anyone thai the most direct 
route to die human bear* is the appeal to self-interest, which in the 
best union tradition includes both the carrot of the pay raise and 
the stick of joblessness, They also know there is a bit of the prole- 
tarian in everyone ami that their job is to maximize it and bring it 
to the surface. What they do nor know, or pretend not to know, is 
thai when man is reduced to economic man he loses the major- 
part of his humanity. 



CHAPTER 2 7 



The Fiscal Battlefront 



f~\ N rHE surface taxation is a means of defraying the cost oi'gov- 
^ i'nniii'iit and— in these latter days of the Keynesian age — of 
regulating the economy. Beneath the surface, taxation is a means 
of capturing and keeping control of the state, of choosing die oc- 
cupants of the seats of power. In the past it was the habit of the 
conquerors of a nation to exempl themselves from taxation and 
place the tax burden squarely on the subjugated population. Taxa- 
tion, consequently, was the price of defeat. With the coining of eco- 
nomic and social democracy, liule lias changed. The purpose of 
taxation has been extended from the Lapping of wealth to its equal- 
ization and redistribution. Not surprisingly these new tax fiinc- 
tions, which under the name of "tax reform" have presented Amer- 
icans with a soaring tax bill, have had a peculiar attraction for the 
liberal-minority coalition. 

The taxes that lend themselves most readily to fiscal warfare are 
individual and corporate income taxes, and inheritance and gift 
laxes. Unlike property, excise, and sales taxes, these "selective" tax- 
es have a sliding (some would \ ail it a (rushing) scale. The over- 
whelming share of all federal tax revenues new comes from the in- 
dividual and corporation income tax and the "social insurance 
taxes" — taxes which did not even exist at the turn of the centurv. 1 



1. In fiscal 19&2 ihe federal individual income lax brought the Tre*fiify Depart* 
mem $476 billion; die corporation income u-ix over $100 billion; social security 
luxes, ieiiieinrut and unemployment < onuibuLiom more than |413 billion; excise 
laxes (alcohol, tobacco, fuel, etc.), custom duties, and estate anil gift notes about 
$101 billion. 1994 W'orli Almtinm, u. 99. 

•M9 



380 



Die Dispossessed Majority 



It was the Democratic administration ofWoodrow Wilson which 
pished through the federal income tax In 1913, the same year the 
16th "Income Tax" Amendment became law. 2 The rate was a flat 
\ percent on income above $3,000 (single) and $4,000 (married) 
with surtaxes of from 1 to 6 percent on taxable income almve 
$20,000- By World War i, income taxes had risen to 6 to 12 percent 
with surtaxes of up to 65 percent." 1 

It was another Democratic administration, that of Franklin Roo- 
sevelt, which raised individual income taxes to savings-destroying 
rates that ranged from 23 percent minimum to 94 percent maxi- 
mum, The corporation tax, ] percent in Wilson's day, was raised to 
52 percent. 4 Since World War II there have been some reductions 
of the individual and corporate income tax, hut few of great signifi- 
cance except Cor farge cuts at the high side of the individual lax 
bracket For the Americans who profit from investments or specula- 
tion (the Internal Revenue Service makes little distinction between 
the two), there is a capital gains tax which has been lowered in re- 
cent years. As salaries are raised to keep Up with the mounting cost 
of living caused by creeping, sometimes leaping, inflation, the tax- 
payer is moved to higher tax brackets and consequently must pay a 
disproportionately higher income tax. This may be stopped by in- 
dexing. Meanwhile SB states and at least forty cities now haw their 
own individual income lax. 5 

In its present form the income tax discriminates against the 
American Majority for many subtle and not-so-suhtle reasons. The 
historical record shows that the income tax, a Northern Kuropean 
fiscal institution, only functions effectively in countries where North- 
ern Kuropcans or descendants of Northern Europeans predomi- 
nate." In many Latin nations, cheating on income taxes is so wide- 
spread that collection, except for withholding taxes, has been re- 
duced to a catch as-catch-can operation that is \irtually nnenforee- 

2. lltcrc was a federal income tax lor n-n yeais during and alter the Chit Wai 
and another in I8«M that was i uied unconstitutional by the Supreme Cmri. 
S, i-'.nty. Bnt.,V<>\. TJ, p. IS6. 

■j. ri)id. 

5, /W \\\n Id Almiinac, p, 148. 

t>. "Credit for ihe. establishment of the fust major suet esafiil income tax in 
the world is usually gfc*it to Great Britain. The Krirish rax was firsi introduced in 
177') ....*' I'.ncy. lint.. Vol. 12, p. |2& 



THF ECONOMIC Q ASH 



381 



able. It is unnecessary to add that the iaxpaying habits of many Old 
World peoples have not been radically altered by their descendants 
in the New. 7 

A review of the tax fraud cases in the United States in recent 
years reveals an unusually high proportion of minority names. 8 The 
days of the medieval burghers of Bremen who, without benefit of 
tax collectors or tax laws, paid their taxes "in honest assessment of 
one's ability to pay and in voluntary fulfillment of an honorary 
duty" have long passed. 9 But it is fair to say that the Majority is still 
underrepresented in the list of tax dodgers who, according to an 
Internal Revenue Service estimate, annually bilk the United States 
Treasury of $95 billion. 10 I he Mafia, of course, pays little or no tax- 
es on its estimated annual $S0 billion "take." 11 

Since it is precisely at either end of the American income spec- 
trum that the minorities are concentrated, the UPC load has fallen 
oppressively on the middle of the spectrum, the Majority center. 
Tax loopholes help the very rich and tax exemptions help the very 
poor. II they own a home, middlc-ckiss Americans may deduct the 
mortgage interest, hut otherwise they benefit little from the lax sys- 
tem. Withholding taxes make it impossible for salaried people to 
escape the tax collector, but medical and legal fees, the emolu- 
ments received by the minority-crowded professions, are often diffi- 
cult to trace. As for tax reform, which all politicians say is an abso- 
lute necessity, it usually degenerates into a hue and cry against tax 
shelters and six-digit incomes, while little or nothing is said alxmt 
tax-dodging foundations, politically motivated "educational" organ- 
izations, and huge tax-deductible contributions to Israel. 

In addition to being weighted against the Majority's pocket bonk, 
the graduated income lax is also weighted against the Majority's 
work habits. When taxes get too high, they destroy incentive, dis- 
courage saving, and encourage spending — economic behavior which 



7. In Italy people arc often taxed lor their "apparent" rather than (heir real 
income. For this reason they keep then sjioi Is ears in llieir garages in the days pre- 
ceding income lax assessment. 

8. SecQiapl.nl 30. 

\). Wilhrlni Ropke, A Humane Economy, Regnery, Chicago, I960, p. K*H. 

10. More than one-third die fkctl EM budget delu -ii tf $290,20-1,000,000. 

11. If the Mafia paid taxes on its illegal profit*, there coulrl be. a 1,0 p«-iciait tax 
reduction for everyone. I&tider's Digest, Jan., 1969, p. $123* 



382 



The Dispossessed Majority 



adds up to a repudiation of the Protestant Ethic, the traditional 
guideline of Majority work habits. Centuries of religious indoctrina- 
tion plus some possible genetic influences make it more difficult 
for Majority than for minority members to adjust so the new Prodi- 
gal Ethic of expense accounts, credit cards, and limitless install- 
ment buying— the fly-now, pay-later mores of a spendthrift econo- 
my. Hardest hit is the Majority entrepreneur, who at the earliest 
stages of business growth is forced by high taxes on profits and usu- 
rious interest rates Ho find outside capital in order to survive. If 
somehow he manages to keep solvent and his business grows, he 
then becomes a prime target for minority corporate raiders. 

The heirs of those Majority fortunes which have not yet been 
squandered still keep most of their holdings in the large corpora- 
tions founded by their forebears. The income from these fortunes 
has now become the target of a double taxation system, whereby 
corporation profits are taxed at roughly 35 percent d\\d the divi- 
dends paid oui of the remaining profit taxed again as ordinary in- 
come. Even more detrimental to the conservation of Majority capi- 
tal are the federal inheritance and gift taxes (over 50 per cent), 
which have been chiefly responsible for the creation of the monu- 
mental tax dodge known as the tax-exempt foundation 

In 1985 there were some 1*4,000 of these lax-dodging groups in 
th* United Stares, with $20 billion in assets and doling out $1.5 bil- 
lion in giants annually. 12 By establishing these foundations many 
Majority millionaires and billionaires have managed to keep much 
of their wealth out of the reach of the Internal Revenue Service, 
but they have not prevented these cash cows from falling into the 
hands of those whose political and economic philosophies are far 
removed from the founders. Most of these organizations fall into 
tin* hands of lawyers and professional fund managers, whereupon 
they proceed to contribute lavishly to liberal and minority causes, 13 

One might well imagine Henry Ford\ chagrin if he 'discovered 



12. Enacfop&tia Americana. ISSfl edition. Vol, 1 1 , p. 646, 

IS, Alger Hiss once bended the Carnegie Endowment for International Pc&te. 
Another Carnegie foundation, tin- Carnegie Corporation, financed Gunnar Myr- 
dal's An American Dilemma. Of the few Majority-oriented foundations, the only gen- 
uinely anti-lil>eral one with assets worth noting is the Pioneer Fund. The Alexis dc 
Toqueville Institution and the John M. Olin Foundation are considered to have a 
right-wing bent, but their conservatism seldom strays from die middle of the road. 



THE ECONOMIC CLASH 



385 



that the Ford Foundation, one of the very richest, was headed by a 
Negro lawyer, Franklin Thomas. He might have been even more 
perplexed to have learned that the Inundation built on his money 
once gave $175,000 to the Congress of Racial Equality to help elect 
Cleveland's first black mayor, Carl Stokes. w The Ford Foundation 
also subsidized the writing and production of black racist melodra- 
mas, many of whose characters do nothing but mouth imprecations 
against everything white. 16 As an anti-Semite, however, Ford would 
certainly have been amused to know his foundation financed a 
New York (lily school decentralization experiment that precipitated 
a hitler racial split between Negro parents and Jewish teachers. m 

Small foundations are likely to have an even more pronounced 
minority slant than the larger ones. An increasing number are be* 
ing established by minority magnates who specify that their money 
be used solely to advance minority causes both at home and abroad. 
The minority rich are also more apt to take the alternate path of 
avoiding inheritance taxes by giving before they die a large part of 
[heir estates directly to "charitable organizations" — organizations 
strictly devoted to the domestic or overseas interests of their own 
population groups. 17 

It is ironic that Majority meml>ers, whose ancestors were the first 
to develop die revolutionary concept thai taxation should derive 
from the consent of tin 4 taxpayer and whose war cry in the struggle 
against King George III was "no laxation without representation," 
should have given up their tax prerogatives so easily. In theory, 
members of Congress still determine the national tax structure, hi 



M. Time, Jan. 19, 1368, p, 10. 

lb. The plays sponsored by the Ford Foundation were not. quite as bad us (hose, 
put on by the Black Arts Theater School with $44,000 of" federal anri-povcrty 
tuiuls- Even Sargent Shrive i - , brother-in-law of President Kennedy, who was ulti- 
mately responsible for the allocation of such funds, had to admit that uhey were 
'Vile, laeist plays." New York limes, Feb. .'*K, I960, p. 11, and March 9, I960, p, "24. 
In 1951 the Ford Foundation set up the Fund for the Republic, which among its 
either projects spent a small fortune attacking the House Committed on Un- 
American Activities. Goodman, The Qmimittee, p. 379. 

10. Wall Street Journal, Feb. 18, 1969, p. Hi. 

17. Of the 107 lax-cxempt foundations in Maryland in 1907, fifty-seven we re Jew- 
ish, almost all with specifically Jewish objectives. The Foundation Directory, pp. 3X5* 
28. The Jewish proportion of die Maiyland population in 1970 was approximately 
5 [XTcr.nl. 



384 



The Dispossessed Majority 



practice, government spending has become so enormous that, 
when Lax bills are rushed through to meet it, there is often nothing 
Congress can do but rubber-stamp them, 18 Also, as in other areas of 
legislation, Majority representatives are so sensitive to liberal- 
minority lobbying that they frequently vote for taxes which discrim- 
inate direcdy against their own constituents. 

Taxation, however, is only one aspect of the fiscal war being 
waged against the Majority. Welfare is another. The duties and obli- 
gations of society to the destitute, sick, aged, and unemployed were 
once assumed by the family, the village, private charity, and the 
church. Today these functions have l>een largely taken over bv fed- 
eral, state, and local governments. Here again, the benefits are not 
distributed fairly. The poor, who are disproportionately nonwhite, 
can have as many children as they want, since they receive free 
medical and hospital care, as well as fatter welfare checks for each 
additional child. Middle-income Americans, most of whom still in- 
sist on paying their own way, can no longer afford large families. 

Now thai charily no longer begins at home, the federal govern- 
ment is spending, according to one study, $305 billion a year on 
welfare.'' 1 This sum does not include the many State welfare pro- 
grams not funded by Washington. The Aid to Dependent Children 
program for 4*5 million families (fiscal \\){)2) cost $2L9 billion/ 10 
The number of mothers with illegitimate children rises as their de- 
pendent daughters have (heir own children, thereby pulling three 
generations of the same family on the public purse. 21 In one New 
York (lily tenement, "Every girl. . .over the age of L3 was pregnant, 
or had delivered a haby. [At] 18 ihey could expect to receive their 
own crisp, IHM-processed public-assistance check. "^ 

Relief is made more difficult by the work attitudes of America's 
proliferating indigent class. An unemployed person can consider a 
job "menial,*' refuse it, and still qualify tor unemployment insur- 
ance. Yet these so-called menial positions are the only ones for 



1H. Tin' most publicized Lax cuts arc strictly poliik al and seldom keep pace wiTh 
increases in payroll deductions for social security. 

19. Issues "94, Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.O., p. 55. 

10. 1994 World Alinana* , p. $T& 

$1. Wall Stree-t Journal, Feb. 7, 1914, p. 1. 

IS. Ibid. As quoted from a magazine article by a consultant to the New York 
State Senate. 



H IF. liCGNOMIC CLASH 



385 



which many of the jobless are qualified. 23 The unemployment prob- 
lem, consequently, has social as well as economic roots. It may also 
have genetic roots. All too many of the "disadvantaged" in America 
have always been "disadvantaged" in whatever countries they hap- 
pened to live. To permit and even to encourage this indigent class 
to reproduce at a much faster rate than the Majority 24 is simply to 
compound the relief crisis and fore*' the allocation of an ever great- 
er share of the gross national product to non producers. 

Welfare wears the dress of humauitariairism, but its political slip 
is showing. The bask purpose of welfare, it is reasonable to assume, 
if to ensure a decent standard of living and a decent life to those 
incapacitated by age, ill health, or accidents. But the most active 
pmpoiieiiis of the welfare state- talk about cradie-io^rave security, 
guaranteed incomes for every adult and, occasionally, capital levies 
io redistribute the wealth. They go far, but often in the wrong di- 
rection. Ihey look for the economic and social causes of poverty, 
while shunning the genetic causes. They demand slum clearance, 
hui do not demand an end io [lie irresponsible breeding which 
bears so much responsibility for treating and perpetuating the 
slums. 

1 he poliiha] nature of welfare is best revealed by the black and 
Hispanic minorities' tepid acceptance of birth control as one solu- 
tion to the poverty problem. As a high-ranking NAAGP official stat- 
ed, hl.uks "need to produce more babies, not less" to acquire nioic 
political clout.'-'' 

1 he welfare state contains the seeds of its own destruction in the 
underwriting of inflation as a means of meeting ever increasing 
government expenditures, in Order to keep the votes rolling in and 
make good on then campaign promises of larger and more ire- 



PS. in 1%4 unemployment coin the nation about 75,600,000 low work weeks, 

even though there were 2,000 Slate-supported employment olficrs Io help ihe job- 
less find work. Jn the samr year, California had to import tens of thousands of 
Mexicans Jo hurvesi tlu- crops. George Petri tt, PnsonfTS of CuUurt, Scribner's, New 
York, 1970, pp. M0, [42. In 1992 the. unemployment figure was 9.3 million, 1A 
per cent of ihe civilian labor force. 1994 W'orUt Ahnatfar, p, J SO. 

21. A cretin class is also making its Appearance- In 1905 there were 1,117,800 
menially letarded children, 972,000 mentally dUiui bed children, and 480,000 chil- 
dren with learning diificnl ties. Pcititt, op. cit., p. 221. 

25. Time, July 25, I960, p. 21. 



386 



The Dispossessed Majority 



queru federal subsidies, the politicians of welfare- — a caiegoiy 
which now includes some of the most powerful political figures in 
both parries— must resort to the device of deficit spending. As the 
national debt goes sky high, the value of the dollar shrinks. As un- 
ions refuse to allow companies, some on the verge of bankruptcy, 
to reduce wa^es, more firms turn to foreign vendors arid laborers. 
The trade imbalance in 1992 was more than $7 billion a month. 

It is alf very Keynesian, bin it hurts the Majority, the most stable 
element of the population, more than any other group. It is the 
Majority, which out of habit and tradition — sometimes even out of 
patriotism-- prefers savings accounts, life insurance, and govern- 
menl Uuids, the M safe" investments that depreciate most during in- 
flation, to the speculations and peculations which make fortunes 
for financial plungers In times of currency debasement. And it 
will be Majority members, clinging forlornly to the last shreds of 
the Protestant Kthic, who will doubtless continue io take this eco- 
nomic drubbing until the American dollar starts imitating the Ger- 
man murk, which in late 1923 was collapsing at the rate of 50 per- 
cent an hour.* 

The poison of inflation is alow-acting. It doea not destroy an 
economy its swiftly and dramatically as the* ravaging venom of a 
stock market debacle or a military occupation. Bill in the long run 
it is just as deadly. 1 hat the day of judgment will certainly come for 
the big spenders should offer the Majority scant comfort. Ry then it 
will be too late, just as it was too late for Aesop's grasshopper wlu-n 
winter came. 

InflaLion can be slowed by making every increase in wages con- 
tingent on an increase in production. Bui this must be preceded by 
far-reaching changes in the thinking and composition of the mone- 
tarist hierarchy. The welfare system, which starves the spirit as ii 
feeds the body, could be redeemed by continuing to assist the 
needy, but ceasing to reward the idlers, the delinquents, the illegal 
immigrants and the brood mares of the ghettos. The power of taxa- 
tion can be reclaimed by restricting it lo pay the cosi of govern- 
ment, lax laws should have a higher purpose than providing the 



i*f>. Postage tor a lcxal letter in Germany cost 100 billion marks at. die end of 
1923. Salaries were often paid daily so wage nanicb could puichase their necessi- 
ties irtsttttter 



T1 IF ECONOMIC CLASH 



3R7 



legal cover for arbitrary and selective assessments which encourage 
one population group Lo live off the income of another. If there 
are to be tax loopholes, let them benefit the farmer, the manufac- 
turer, the production worker, the engineer, and the artist — the 
makers and guardians of civilization, not the freeloaders. 

But none of these vilal reforms will be accomplished as long m 
they are regarded as purely fiscal matters. Fiscal policies are not the 
expressions or trademarks of an economic system. They are the ex- 
pressions of how different peoples measure the input they expect 
to give society and the output they expect to receive. When the 
work force in Detroit was of European descent, the American auto- 
mobile industry led the world in motor car production. As the work 
lorce darkened, as accountants, attorneys and government regula- 
tors replaced entrepreneurs and engineers as CEOs* the lead passed 
to the Germans and Japanese. * 7 

1 he question lx>ils down not to economics, but to race/ 23 There 
;ire those who view work as an end in itself, who conceive of Ameri- 
ca, the world, and even (he cosmos as an infinite series of frontiers 
offering infinite possibilities of work. Let them know thai the fron- 
tiers arc numbered, that the last ones are coming into sight, and 
their incentive and initiative will all but vanish. 

Then there are those who think of work as a means, as a hard- 
ship, often as a curse. Their America is a closed circle, an economic 
project that can and must be completed so thai all human labor 
can he reduced to the barest minimum. Their world and their 
imagination are finite. 2 * Even their universe is circumscribed by the 
Kinstehuan curvature of space, 

27. "From I '.14 7 to 1W>5, U.S. CNP increased by S.4 percent a year, dipped to 2-3 
percent in the 70s, down t© 0.9 percCBt m 1979 and 0.7 percent in I-9&5. (Japan's 
productivity growth, hy contrast, has been climbing at an average annual rate of 
about 73 peit-eni.)" Tune, Dec 8, 1980, p. 7$ and 79W Wttrld Almanac, p. 5.H. 

2H. Today the Vfel German* operate the white world's most successful capindiv- 
u< economy. The East Germans, until unification, had the Cauuiuunist world's 
most successful economy. Yet economists carefully avoid mentioning iaee or ge- 
netics when called upon to explain this phenomenon. 

29. "The more important fundamental laws dnc\ fads of physical science have all 
been discovered and these are now so fit inly established that the possibility of 
their ever being supplanted in consequence of new discoveries musi he looked for 
in the sixth place of decimals.'' Allien A. Michel son, 1894, M the dedication of the 
Ryerson Physical Lalwratory, University of Chicago. Another example of the static 



388 



The Dispossessed Majority 



I he present rulers oft ho American economy arc not moving the 
nation into the future. They are marching it backward to conform 
lo an age-old philosophy of work that is not — and never was — the 

Majority's. 



PART VIII 



mind is the iir^uncni of the boas school of anthropology, voiced most loudly by 
Margaret Mead, thut no oih should waste his lime searching foi the origins of cul- 
Lmv. a quesLion upon which "there is not and cannot ht- any valid evidence. * Les- 
lie A. While, The Evolution of Culture, Mi Hiaw-I Till, New York, 1959, p. 71. An 
*'i|iially shrill cry of negativism was heard Irmii Richard Lewonun, a Harvard ge- 
neticist: "We must face die possibility that we will nnvr understand the organiza- 
tion of the central nervous system ai any bur the most supeificial level." The em- 
phasis is Lewoniin's. The quotation is taken horn aw article he wrote for New York 
l<jn>iru> of Books (Jan. 20, 1.980, p. :i7). Peihaps the: most Hose-minded siatement of 
all came from the month of Max Horn, a noted Jewish physicist, who predicted in 
I9i>«: "Physics as we know it will tie over in six months." Nrat York Rnnew d/BooAv, 
June !(., 10H8. The prophecies of Cassandra, the Trojan princes*, always came to 
pass but no one ever believed her. bom's was the opjxisite Case. 



The Legal Clash 



CHAPTTR 28 



The Adulteration of the Law 



Mt:ui attention has Ixrn paid in this study to tin- adroitness 
shown by the Unassimilable Minorities in adapting Majority 
institutions to their own advantage. Nowhere lias this talent been 
more dramatically displayed than in the field of jurisprudence, The 
results have Ix-en so shattering that a few preliminary words on the 
nature and origin of law may help present a clearer picture of what 
has taken plaice, 

Laws have their origins in the customs of the trilx-. The first laws 
probably arose from crude attempts to formalize the social norms 
of primitive living. In time, certain wise old tribesmen, well aware 
of their kinsmen's fear of the supernatural, received direct in- 
structions from otherworldly voices concerning rules of behav- 
ior. Accordingly, laws were given a religious sanction. Even when 
the lawgiver claimed no hravenly connection, as in the cases of 
Lycurgus and Hammurabi, he was quickly elevated In semi-divine 
status. The canon law was the best proof of the early and persistent 
relationship between lawyer and priest. 

As social systems grew more complex, laws were codified and 
began to spin their webs throughout the length and breadth of 
human activity. In more sophisticated societies laws became the 
rules of the game of civilization. As respect for the law diminished, 
laws proliferated or rather degenerated into masses of bureaucratic 
and often contradictory regulations. Tacitus described the cause 
and effect relationship in one of his neater epigrams, "When the 
state is most corrupt, the laws are most abundant." 1 

1. "c-t c'.orfWpti&sijiia re publico plurimac Leges." AbKxcrssu Divi Avgusti, I, xxvii. 

391 



SfiS 'The Dispossessed Majority 

Nevertheless an established body of law has a conservative influ- 
ence on society. The older the laws, (he more inertia they acquire 
and the more difficult they are to change, particularly when they 
have the combined support of custom, religion, and practicality. It 
is a truism that these triple foundations of an effective legal system 
are far more common in homogeneous than in heterogeneous so- 
cieties. A diversity of peoples means a diversity of customs, which 
create basic contradictions in the law. As Matthew Arnold once not- 
ed, "the mixture of persons of different race in the same common- 
wealth, unless one race had a complete ascendancy, tended to con- 
fuse all the relations of human life, and all men's notions of right 

and wrong, ■ ■ ™' 2 

In his article on English Law in the Encyclopaedia Bvitunmca, Fre- 
deric Maitland took a similar approach to the subject by staling, 
"Law was a matter of race-" 3 The law of Northern Europeans was in 
fact the Germanic law, which later evolved into the Anglo-Saxon or 
common law and is still being practiced in Britain, some former 
dependent iess, and the United States, It was rare among sophisti- 
cated legal systems because it was based on precedent rather than 
Oil written codes (a partial exception should be made for the Amer- 
ican Constitution). In criminal cases the common law considered 
an accused person to be innocent until pronounced guilty by a jury 
Of his peers. - * 

The relationship of the law to the other symbols of State authori- 
ty is as important .is the law itself. De Toajueville said thai die sta- 
bility of England had been largely due to the alliance between the 
aristocracy and the bar. lie attributed the instability of France to 
the Bourbons' snubbing French lawyers as a class, thereby provok- 
ing their enduring resentment 5 Edmund Burke agreed with de 
Tocqueviik when the latter criticized the French Revolutionary As- 
sembly for being composed "of the inferior, unlearned, mechani- 
cal met civ instrumental members of the legal profession. . . . the 



2. .to quoit-el by W'altei ftagrhol,, Phy\in ami I'ohtitft j>Ji- 29-30. 

3. Volume 8, p. 47, 

■\. Trial by jury of onc'a peers was brought to England by ihr Normans and 
probably originated in Scandinavia, whrrr the judicial number of 12 was always 
held in greaJ venerauoa. William Forsyth, )hitory o/Tnalby Jury. John Parkrr, Lon- 
don, 1852, p. -1 

"c l)f la dfmoiratir tn Amrntpi*, Tonic I, pp. 275-76. 



THKbl.tiAMTASl 



;*93 



whole train of the ministers of municipal ligation. . . ."*' 

In the United Stales, de Tocqueville discovered, there was no 
aristocracy for the lawyers either to oppose or join, so they created 
their own and became a rang a pari, a veritable noblesse de robe. 
Describing the American legal profession as a powerful barrier 
against the vagaries of democracy, the French political philosopher 
came to the conclusion that, it represented a power which was 
scarcely noticed, caused no great fear, bent quietly to the needs of 
the time, and took a willing part in all the movements of the body 
politic, all the while penetrating deeply into every economic class, 
Working in secret, and acting unceasingly to mold society according 
to its wishes. 7 

De foccjuevi lie's somewhat caste-ridden, somewhat romantic 
view of American lawyers had a certain relevancy in the days of Fat- 
rick Henry, Jefferson, and Lincoln — attorneys one and all. Today, 
b] though such a characterization of lawyers might seem absurd, 
there still remains dc 1 ocqueville's attention to conspiratorial ele- 
ments at work in the legal profession — conspiratorial not in the 
manner of soldier lawyers Alexander Hamilton and John Marshall, 
who conspired with pen and gun to free the colonies from their 
British overlords, 8 but in the manner of union lawyer and supreme 
court justice, Arthur Goldberg, who specialized in pining lalx>r 
against business, and of the late lawyer agitator, Saul Alinsky, 9 who 
Specialized in pitting blacks against whites. As for those other con- 
temporary members of the legal profession — including the swarms 
of divorce attorneys, ambulance chasers, Mafia mouthpieces, and 
oilier assorted shysters whose principal functions are breaking up 
families tot extortionate fees, filing millions lulkir negligence suits, 
and generally making certain that the guilty go free — they have by 
and large reduced a once grear body of law to mere word games 
and litigious byplay. Meanwhile the few Majority lawyers who still 
cling to the tradition of a noblesse de rb&ehave for the most part 



H. Ufflrctions on the Revolution in i'rancr, p. T>4. 

7. this paragraph loosely smnin;uizrs the subchapter, ''De 1'espiiL le^iste ;iux 
KlaLvUnis," in dt Tocqueville'* De la democratic en Amfnqut,, Tome 1 , pp. 2 74-81. 

H. The ratio ot lawyers to non-lawyers in the First Continental Congress was 24/ 
l. r i; in die Second, 20/rHi; in ihe ConsiUutional Convention, 33/55. Beard, The Ui\t 
uj American CnnHz/ition, Vol. J , p. 101 . 
ft. 'lu/if, March 2, 1970, pp, &&£?. 



394 



The Dispossessed Majority 



walled themselves up in walnut-paneled skyscraper suites where 
they defend their corporate clients against V.lass action suits 1 " for 
not hiring or promoting enough women, blacks, and Hispanics. 10 

Legal statistics for 1990, when Americans were expending $100 
billion on the legal profession, showed 755,694 licensed lawyers in 
the United States, Of the 54,989 attorneys in Washington, D.C., 
20,480 were working for the federal government. 11 A 1990 survey 
found 192 lawyers in the House and 62 in the Senate. 

The ratio of lawyers to the American population is about one to 
"U>0; in Japan, one to 10,500. Tort payments were over $300 mil- 
lion in 1990, which represented about 2.4 percent of the GDP. 
Nationwide 20 percent of all lawyers are Jewish, in New York City, 
60 percent. In the top law schools jews now account for almost one- 
quarter or one-third of the entering Class. At Harvard, the most in- 
fluential and most prestigious law school (25 percent of the na- 
tion's law professors are Harvard alumni), almost half the faculty is 
Jewish. 

The more minority iniluence has been brought to bear on the 
American legal system, the more its breakdown is becoming appar- 
ent. The English common law, which derived from Northern Euro- 
pean folk law» IS functioned adequately, at times superbly, in the 



10. If these art- harsh woids, u should t>e recalled that even Jesus ( 'heist losi his 
equanimity when discussing the le^.il po'Jt -inioii. "Woe unto yon also, yc lawyers? 
for ye lade men with burdens grievous lo be home, and ye yourselves couch not 
the burdens with one of your fingers. . . .ye have taken away the key of knowl- 
edge. . . .* l.uke I I: 'to, 52 Shakespeare was probably venang his own personal 
feelings when Dick the Butcher advises Jack C^dc drat, come the revolution, The 
first thing we do, let's kill all the lawyer*.* Cade readily agreed, wondering why k 
was "that parchment being scribbled o'er, should undo a man?" II Httiry VI, act 
4, sc. 1. Harold LatLi, who qualifier a> an expert on the subject, has said (hat 
in every revolution die htwve is lead the way to die guillotine- 01 the firing squad. 
I'Ycd Rodell, Wne Unto You, LaurycrsJ, Pageant Press. New York. 1957, p 1 7. 

1 1. V:u ts and figures in this paragraph are taken from Martin Mayer, The $jtw- 
yers, Harper & Row, New York, 1967, pp. 97*%; Washington Pest, Aug. 27, 1980, p. 
A1&; EctnttJinisl, July J#, 1902; and WetA/ungtonian magazine, Nov. 1990. tVihaps the 
mail ominous statistic is the rapid rate of lawyer proliferation. In 1963 there were 
43,000 law students; in 19W), 124,471. The legal profession, it might he added, is 
now eostang Americans tKX) billion annually. W&U Stmt Journal |an. 3, 1991. 

li>. Hardly any Welsh, Irish, or Roman traces can Ix* found in die old AngU> 
Saxon laws, which see-m to haw predominately Prankish (Teutonic) origins. Ency. 
Brii., Vol. H, pp. 546, 548. 



T[ IK LEGAL Ci ASH 



395 



United States as long as the nation was dominated by people of 
English and Northern European descent. But when minorities be- 
came an important element in both the law-making arid the Jaw- 
breaking prut ess, American law underwent a deep transformation. 
The legal system whn h used to be prim i pally concerned with the 
intr&group relations of Majority members was now being Forced to 
turn its attention to the mtergroup relations of increasing numbers 
oi' alien elements. 

Theories of legal absolutism to the contrary, the law is not an ab- 
stract act of principles equally applicable to all men, but an organic- 
part oil a people's culture, with a style and form unique to its cul- 
ture. The English and American common law eventually came to 
rest on the axiom of individual responsibility and on commonly 
held moral altitudes and commonly shared ideas about life and 
property. The notion of collective rather than personal guilt, the 
habit oi blaming society rather than the individual for criminal acts 
rub sharply against the grain of both the substance and practice of 
American jurisprudence. Neither Jewish, nor Oriental law, neither 
Negro tribal "courts 1 ' nor Negro mores ever demonstrated any snl> 
stantial legal protection for the individual, whose interests were 
always put below those of the nation or tribe. This collective ap- 
proach is clearly evident in contemporary law where more empha- 
sis is being placed on minority rights than on individual rights. 

The liberal-minority dilution of the bloodlines of Anglo-Saxon 
law was demonstrated in the Nuremberg trials (1945-46), which the 
late Senator Robert Tail characterized as "a bloi on the American 
record thai we shall long regret/' The verdicts, Taft stated, "Violate 
iliat fundamental principle of American law thai a man cannot be 
tried under an SX post facto statute/* lie added that the purpose oi 
t!ie trials was to "clothe vengeance in the form of legal procedure." 1 "* 

The press, it goes without saying, gave the Nuremberg trials al- 
most unanimous support, as it did the Kiclunann trial in 19r>0, in 
which the accused was condemned to death by hostile judges in a 
juryless trial for a Crime which existed in no recognized body of in- 
ternational law when he allegedly commuted it. Kit hmann, who 
was kidnapped from Argentina by Israeli agents, hail to rest his 
case without testimony from his most important defense witness, to 



L3. AW York 'limes, OcL 6, 1941), p. 1 



S9fi 



The Dispossessed Majority 



whom the Israeli government had refused no issue a safe-conduct. 14 

Of all American legal institutions the one that lias suffered the 
most in recent years has been trial by jury, It is one tiling to be 
judged by one's neighbors and peers, It is quite another to pry a 
unanimous verdict out of twelve people of widely varying intelli- 
gence levels, economic status, and racial and cultural back- 
grounds. It is even more difficult when racially mixed juries are 
seated in cases that already have racial implications or into which 
unscrupulous attorneys can injeel such implications. In a San Fran- 
cisco trial ten while jurors who voted to convict a Negro "sit-in" 
demonstrator were actually threatened with violence by the pre- 
dominantly Negro audience in the courtroom, while the two Negro 
jurors who voted to acquit were applauded as heroes. 15 In a murder 
trial in Los Angeles, no verdict could be obtained because two 
minority jurors (a Negro and a Mexican) felt they had been victims 
of racial slurs from white jurors. Ih In the murder and conspiracy 
trials triggered by Black Panther violent* and by the 1 968 Chicago 
riots, civil rights lawyers managed to make race the major issue and 
justice the minor. 17 In a District of Columbia trial a seventeen-year- 



14. Yosal Rogal, The. F.ichvuinn Triai, Center for Study of Democratic Institutions, 
Santa Barbara, Calif., 1961, p. 28 The booklet (p. u J r >) coniia*ia leuoviclive taws 
with die ijarfitinjial Western attitude of nullum crimen situ Ugc, nulla poena sine lege, 

lb. San <- Francisco Chronule, Mav *2\ , 19(H, p. 16, 

16. Life, March 28, 1060, p. 76. The. admission of Negroes to Southern juries has 
produced another strange legal perversion — the illiterate juror, line foreman off 
one all-Negro jury signed a statement declaring die defendant innocent uVrtigh 
he and the rest of the jury had pionomieed him guilty. Time* Aug. 27. 1965, p. 40. 

17. The late William Kunstlci, a Jew and the most controversial civil rights leader, 
led the defense in the so-called "Chicago 7" trial in 1070, in which defendants, law- 
yers, and judge, almost all minority members, nearly succeeded in turning die 
courtroom proceedings into an uninterrupted brawl. Sentenced to four years in. 
prison for con te nip i, Kunsder actually Spent a lew davs in jail before the eon tempt 
ciUihon was overturned. Later, aftei he had finished a wikllv irtesponsihle speech 
at the University of California at Santa Barbara, some of his listeners staged a orifr 
uight. insurrection, during which they burned down the local branch of die Bank 
of America. AVm Ym°k Times, Oct I, I960, p. 30, and Feb, 27, 1970, p. 1. Kunsder's 
latest legal ploy is the "black rage sydrome." In the case of Colin Ferguson, a black 
who in 1903 shot and killed six people, five of them whites, and wounded eleven 
Qfher whites on a 1 *3tif Island Railroad commuter train, Kunstlei and his law part- 
ner, Lawrence Ktibv, who were iired by the defendant, excused the massacre on 
die grounds that racial discrimination has driven blacks out of their minds. 



THE LEGAL CI ASH 



397 



old black youth was set free by an all-black jury after he had 
attempted to rape one eighteen-year-old white girl and had suc- 
ceeded in raping another white girl of the same age, both on the 
same day. Later the judge admitted the defendant had voluntarily 
confessed his crimes to the police, but because of Supreme Court 
decisions the confession could not be admitted in evidence. 18 

Today jury 7 selection in the United States has been developed 
into a fine art. II the prosecutor wants to throw the book at a white 
defendant, he will try to stack the jury with blacks, That was the 
secret of so many Watergate convictions. The trials were held in the 
nation's capital, where juries are overwhelmingly black. On the oth- 
er hand, if defense attorneys want to get the best break for black 
criminals, they demand the inclusion of black jurors. If they don't 
get enough of them, they ask For a new trial. In "sensitive" cases, a 
battery of minority social scientists and specially trained minority 
lawyers are tailed in by the defense to screen jury lists and jurors 
with the use of census data, computers, telephone surveys, and an- 
thropological studies of "body language" and dress styles. '■' 

Perhaps the worst aspect of the present-day criminal justice sys- 
tem is I he return of double jeopardy, a legal trick long considered 
dead in the naore advanced countries. In the Rodney King beating 
rase alter a white jury had found the white policemen innocent, 
l.os Angeles was subjected to a $[ billion insurrection and looting 
spree. To appease the blacks a second trial was held in L.os Angeles 
proper in which the policemen were charged with violating King's 
civil rights, A mixed jury came in with a verdict of guilty and two of 
the lawmen were given jail sentences. Some months later another 
mixed jury awarded King, who had had at least three brushes with 
the law after his beating, Lhe primely stun of $ l XH million iti his suit 
for damages against Los Angeles. 

incredibly double jeopardy has now become a court-approved 
way of convicting a defendant DTI civil rights charges if he escape* 
conviction in an earlier criminal trial. 

In the past, the presence of different racial and cultural elements 
within the same society was solved by the establishment of several 
legal systems, lhe ancient Jews had one set of laws for themselves 



18. Miami Herald., Dec. (\, \W2% p. 7-A. 
10. Miami Herald. Aug. 5, 107:1, p. 16-A. 



398 



The Dispossessed Majority 



and another for the Gentiles in their midst, 20 The Romans reserved 
the jus entile for Roman citizens and used the jus gentium for dis- 
putes between non-Romans of different provinces. Local star cites 
were only preempted by Roman law and imperial edicts when the 
security of the empire was at stake. 21 In the Middle Ages, England 
had its common law, bun it also had a special law for Jews and for- 
eign merchants. 

The United States, although it has never formally recognized 
separate legal systems for its minorities, does not interfere too zeal- 
ously when Indians settle internal problems according lo old tribal 
laws. Since slaves did not come under the common law, a whole 
corpus of special codes, some originating from the judicial fiats of 
plantation owners, grew hand in hand with slavery and reflected 
not only white attitudes, but Negro customs brought over front 
Africa. Even after Negroes had been officially included in the 
American legal system by the 13th* 14th, and I5ih Amendments, 
even after the full legal equality they have been accorded in recent 
decades, criminal justice is slid geared to Negro "differences." In 
the South, minor violations committed by Negroes against each 
other are frequently overlooked. 22 In the North overt ly seditious 
appeals by Negro militants to commit arson, shoot down "white pig 
cops," and rise up in armed insurrection are often ignored, 

If the United States has the legal flexibility to acknowledge the 
Code Napoleon as the Mate law of Louisiana, might it not also recog- 
nize the need for separate legal systems for the L-iuLssiiuilable Mi- 
norities — a need for laws tailored to the different attitudes these 
groups have always displayed towards property, family relationships, 
business dealings, and citizenship? Apart from ending the impracti- 
cably and the injustice of imposing die law or one people on 
another, [he purpose would be twofold: 10 preserve the racial and 
cultural identity of dS Americans and to stop the immense psycho- 
logical damage wrought by aggressive cultural overlap. Certainly 



20. DeUL. 15:8 and 2.H:fi— 20. Perhaps (lit- most cejebrfcllfid CJMinpl* of this legal 
double standard is the law whit h permitted Jews io lend money at. interest r.o 
strangers but not to each other. 

21. Kncy. Brit., Vol. 19, pp. 147-18. 

22. A Georgia businessman who had given a lifetime to jury duly oner said: "In 
all my experience in ihe courts I have never seen a Negro ^e.l justice. What lit- ^ot 
was uieiry." Putnam, R&& <md Reality, p. 1 65. 



' I'l IK LK(;,\L CLASH 



399 



protecting one population group against the cultural monopoly of 
another is as fundamental a hitman duty as protecting one popula- 
tion group against the financial monopoly of another. 

Nowadays even the most obtuse American is beginning to under- 
stand that no legal system is big enough or broad enough to en- 
compass both the urban militanl who considers "the law" his mor- 
tal enemy and the Pennsylvania farmer who, working the same land 
his forebears cleared eight generations ago, has an almost genetic 
affinity for Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence. Herding widely different 
population groups into one mammoth legal super system, one vast 
noetic corral of incomprehensible statutes, incoherent regulations, 
ath\ unenforceable rules is as unrewarding and as dangerous a task 
as amy other sort of forced integration. The way out of the impasse 
is in exactly the opposite direction— minority laws for minorities 
and Majority law for the Majority. 

An ethnic departmentalization of American law would return to 
tin- minorities the laws they have lived by for thousands of years, 
while removing minority members from the jurisdiction of laws 
they have never learned to live by. The national law would be the 
Sains popuk supwna est les^ of the Romans, which would take prece- 
dence in disputes between but not within population groups. 
Majority law would be a mix of Anglo-Saxon common law and 
American constitutional law restored to a climate of reason, 
respect, and responsibility and ready to focus once again on what 
should be its primary purpose — guarding and expanding the Ma- 
jority's freedom of action. 



2S. The supreme law is Che safety of the people 



CHAPTER29 



The Legislating Judiciary 



r was korkskkauti: that the main wave of the legal attack against 
* tht 1 Majority would come from the judicial branch of govern- 
ment. Overriding the will of the greatest number of Americans is 
tnore easily accomplished t>y nine men appointed to office and re- 
sponsible to no one than by legislators subject to periodic electoral 
review. The rulings of the liberal and minority justices of the Su- 
preme Court offered anti-Majority factions a quasi-legal means of 
achieving societal goals that could never have been obtained 
through 1 1 10 normal legislative process. 

The charter of the Supreme Court is the Constitution, a docu- 
ment whose very existence violated Anglo-Savon legal tradition. 
The Founding Fathers' English ancestors had become quite wary 
of written recipes for government and had decided, according to 
Walter Ragehot, "most ol them contain many errors . . . the best of 
them are remarkable for strange omissions . . . all of them will fail 
utterly when applied to a state of things different from any which 
its authors ever imagined." 1 That the American Constitution did 
not remain unwritten, as did its British counterpart, was pax daily 
(\\u- to the influence of such Francophiles as Franklin and Jeffer- 
son. During Lfoeif stay in Paris, these two great statesmen had 
caught the contractual fever of t he French Knlightcnment.'- Fortu- 
nately the Constitution, despite its massive institutional inertia, can 



1. Bageh&i's Historical £\says. Anchor Booiks, New York, 1963, pp. 348-19. 

2. One Frenchman, who was not ol the Enlightenment, had an English view of 
constitutions, "Des tjur Ton tV.rit une constitution,* wrote Joseph de Maisixr, "rile 
est morte." 



400 



HE LEGAL CLAS1 



401 



be amended, and has been, as of 1993, twenty-seven times. It can 
also be changed by die Supreme Conn's interpretative function, 
which in itself is a form of legislation, as former Chief Justice F.arl 
Warren has freely admitted. 2 " 

Today the Constitution has become an object of special venera- 
tion to conservatives, who look upon it as a stumbling block to 
modern liberalism, concentrating i heir wrath on what the Supreme 
Court has tried io make of it rather than on the document itself. 
They have apparently forgotten that some of the great American 
conservatives of ihe past were very unhappy with the Constitution. 
Alexander Hamilton, who did as much as anyone to get it adopted, 
ulled it a "frail and worthless fabric." 1 Patrick Henry was even 
more pessimistic: "I look upon thai paper as the most fatal plan 
that could possibly be conceived to enslave a free people. w ' 

In their often quoted written and verbal debates, the framers of 
the Constitution refused to let their thoughts or actions be domi- 
nated by racial issues. Reading John Jay, the first Chiei" Justice of 
die Supreme Conn, one would hardly think thai minorities of any 
kind existed in the new nation. "Providence," be wrote in the sec- 
ond Federalist paper, "has been pleased to give this one connected 
Country to one united people — a people descended from the same 
ancestors, speaking the same language, professing the same relig- 
ion, attached to the same principles of government, very similar in 
their manners and customs. . . .'' 

Even though Indians and Negroes composed a higher propor- 
tion of the total population than today, the Constitution treated 
them with studied indifference. Slaves were described as "other 
persons* and ior purposes of apportionment were counted as 
three-fifths of a white. Untaxed Indians were Heated as nonpersons 
Wld not counted ai all. 7 The bothersome issue of slavery was care- 
hilly bypassed —with two exceptions. The slave trade was permitted 
until 1S08, and the relurn of fugitive slaves was made mandatory. 8 



3. As slated in a television interview on W'NKT, Sept. 8, i ( J69. 

4. Frank Donovan, Mr Madison's Constitution, Ootid, Mead and (>)., New 
Yoik, 1965, p 1. 

5. Ibid., p. I, 

6. The Federalist Papers, Mentor Rooks, New York, 1962 B p. .HH. 

7. An.X,£ee.t l fer.$. 

8. Art. I, See. 9, Par. 1, and Art. IV, Set . y, Par. g, 



402 



The Dispossessed Majority 



The Constitution's "neutrality" on slavery provoked Abolitionists 
beyond the limits of civil discourse. William Lloyd Garrison stumped 
the North, demanding nothing less than the annulment of this 
"covenant with death," "agreement with hell," ami "rehire of lies." 9 
Southerners slowly rallied to the document's defense. Chief Justice 
Taney, a Maryland planter's son, climaxed the verbal stage of t lie 
controversy by his ruling in the Dred Scott case (1857). Negroes, 
he stated, were "beings of an inferior order and altogether unfit to 
associate with the white race. , . so far inferior that they had no 
rights which the white man was bound to respect. . . ." I0 

The Constitution took on an entirely different aspect after the 
Civil War when it was updated to conform to the vengeful mood of 
the Northern victors. The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments abol- 
ished slavery and guaranteed citizenship and other rights to Ne- 
groes although reiterating that "Indians not taxed* were not to be 
counted in the apportionment of representatives to Congress. That 
these additional amendments were necessary — they had already 
been sketched out in the Bill of Bights — again proved that the Con- 
stitution in its original form was never intended to apply to non- 
whites. After Reconstruction came to an end and Northern occupa- 
tion troops were withdrawn, none of these amendments was 
seriously enforced in the South. Once again reversing itself, the Su- 
preme Court produced two landmark decisions which seemed to 
sanction non-enforcement: Civil Itights (188S), in which it ruled 
that Congress could not stop whiles from discriminating against 
Negroes in public places, and Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which set 
forth the historic "separate hut equal" doctrine. 

The Supreme Court welcomed its first minority member with 
Woodrow Wilson's appointment of Louis Brandeis in H>lh. Fogeth- 
er with Oliver Wendell Holmes, a constitutional and legal relativist, 
Brandeis racked up the all-time Court record for dissents. Though 
a millionaire several times over, he fought hard againsr the "curse 
of bigness,' 1 by which he meant Majority corporations, lie fought 
equally hard for what he called "his brethren.," going to great an- 
thropological lengths to establish their biological distinctiveness. 



9. Carl Becker, The Declaration of Independence Knopf, New York, 1956, p. 241'. 
'Hie parr ii [A of Garrison, an apprentice shoemaker, tame from the British prov- 
ince of New Brunswick. 

10. Bernard Slrhu-r, Rogrr H. Taney, Williams and Wilkin.s, Baltimore 1&$2, p. 347. 



THE LEGAL CI ASH 



403 



The percentage of foreign blood in Jews today is very low," he 
wrote. "Probably no important European race is so pure." Brandeis, 
now acclaimed as one of the Supreme Court greats, used the pres- 
tige of his high office to urge young American Jews "to be trained 
in Zionism . . . to know their ancestors' great past [so that] when 
they grow up, they, too, shall be equipped for the harder task of 
Palestine building. . . ." n 

After the appointment of Brandeis broke the bonds of custom, 
the concept of a permanent "Jewish scat" on the Supreme Court 
began to capttire the imagination oi editorial writers. When Justice 
Holmes resigned in L032, Herbert Hoover, a Republican presi- 
dent, named Benjamin Cardo/o, a liberal Democrat, to fill the 
vacancy. Cardoso who, like Brandeis, made his millions as an am- 
bulance chaser, had no difficulty winning Senate confirmation 
because the press had kindly suppressed the unpleasant fact that 
his father had been a member of the corrupt Tweed Ring and had 
been forced to resign as a state Supreme Court [ustice during one 
of New York City's perennial political scandals.' 2 

Cardozo died in 1938, A year later Felix Frankfurter was appoint- 
ed to the Court. Frankfurter was the Vienna-born Harvard law pro- 
fessor who managed to get his first big publicity break as the result 
of his zealous agitation on behalf of Sacco and Vanzetti, two world- 
savers canonized by the liberal press and executed by the State of 
Massachusetts for their pan in a 1920 Boston murder-holdup. 13 
Frankfurter, a founding father of the American Civil Liberties Union, 



1 1. Brandeis an Zionism, Zionist Organization of America, 1942, p. 77. 

12. Dictionary of American B\ngraphy t Vol XXII, Supplement Two, Scribu<-r"s, New* 
York, 1958. p. 04. 

IS. In art article he wrote for the Atlantic {March 1924), Frankfurter called 
Judge Thayer 1 ! ruling in the rase "a farrago of misquotations, misrepresentations, 
suppressions and mutilation*.* If a professor of taw had made such a statement in 
England concerning a case on appeal, he would have been sent u> jail. Times Liter- 
an Supplement, July 26, l9f»S, p. M6. A year Iwfore Pearl Harbor, Frankfurter, 
win ii ;i Supreme Gnu! Justice, sent a "Personal Secret™ cable to Winston Church- 
ill urging him to "butter up" Roosevelt as a means of dragging the United States 
into World War II. Jack Anderson column, Oct. 19, 197H. Before Frankfuilrr 
joined ihe Court he received J50,000 over the year* from Justice Ri audein fen past- 
ing the biter's ideas on to the media and various politicians. Never had die separ- 
ation of powers been less separated. Bruce Murphy, The lira ndeis/l ret nkjitrter 
Connection. Oxford University Press, N.Y., I-fl^S, 



404 



The Dispossessed Majority 



aspired to the label of conservative in his later years. 14 He quit the 
Court in 1962 at age eighty, making way for Arthur Goldberg, a 
labor lawyer for the CIO. Goldberg; resigned in 1965 to become 
ambassador to the United Nations, whereupon President Johnson 
appointed Abe Fortas to succeed him. 

When Johnson tried to promote Fortas to chief justice, the Sen- 
ate refused to go along. Although the media raged, the senators 
were well advised. In I960, after the truth came out about his finan- 
cial dealings with convicted swindler Louis Wolfson, Fortas had to 
quit the Court. lB Thurgood Marshall, the first Negro justice, was 
nominated and confirmed in 1967, 

The votes of these Unassirnilable Minority members, when added 
to those of the liberal justices, were sufficient to generate the far- 
reaching decisions which have so drastically reordered American 
society. 10 The three Majority members most responsible for the 
Court's transvaluation of the American ethos were Chief Justice 
Warren and Associate Justices Black and Douglas. Some clues to 
the motivations of these men have already been given. 17 Others 
may be pieced together by scanning certain of the darker para- 
graphs of their voluminous biographies. 

Karl Warren was a second-generation American, both of his par- 
ents iiaving been born abroad, I lis Norwegian father, Erik Metliias 



14. One authentically conservative Supreme tksurt Justice, fames Mc Reynolds, 
was accused by Franklin lei of "pi imilive anti-Semitism .* Felix Frankfurter RemimstQ 
Reynal, New York, I960, p. 1 01. 

15. Sec pp. 432-33. 

16. The Court's impart on crime mid the rights d criminals will Ik- examined in 
Chapter 30. At t oiding to Wain n, liU and liis colleagues' must important de< LSfan 
was Baker v. Can (one man, one voir) Next was Brtfum v, Board of Education (school 
desegregation) Then tame Gideon v. W'ainwnfrht (Tree leg,*] counsel Foi tiie intlh 
gem accused), Mappv, Ohio (inadmissibility of illegally seized evidence}, tecobtdo 
v Illinois (suspect's right to le^jl ( oim«f| during miei u^iiton) and Mtraruiav, Ari 
zona (duty of police to wain the accused ol his ti^liu). Warren apparently did not 
consider the following decisions to Ik- significant enough foi comment: die l%3 
de< iston barring prayers and Bible readings from public schools, die pornography 
rulings, the unconstitutionality oj compulsory registration ot Communis! party 
members, the overturning ol Virginia's miscegenation law, the definition of libel 
as malicious and reckless untruth taiher than disregard for die lands. For a timnili- 
n ail epitome of the Warren Conn's record, see Time, July 14, 1963, pp 62-63 

17. See Chaptej 1 i. 



II IK LEGAL CfASII 



405 



Varran, whose education ended in the seventh grade, was an impe- 
cunious mechanic, who later became a prosperous California land- 
lord. In 1938 lie was bludgeoned to death with an iron pipe a 

murder that was never solved. 18 Karl, a local district attorney at the 
lime, is said to have shared a $177,653 estate with his sister.™ 

In 1942, as attorney general of California, Warren advocated one 
of the moat unconstitutional acts in American history the incar- 
ceration of masses of Japanese-American citizens in various West- 
ern "relocation centers."™ Two years later this Stalinist approach to 
internal security was given the official approval of die Supreme 
Court in Korematsuv, United States, Justice Black writing the majori- 
ty opinion and Jusiice Douglas concurring. 21 In 1952, having pro- 
gressed to the governorship of California and having failed \o se- 
cure the presidential nomination, Warren swung his delegation lo 
Eisenhower at a critical moment in the Republican convention. A 
year later, when Chief Justice Vinson died, Warren received his re- 
ward, although Eisenhower never admitted there had been a politi- 
cal payoff. 

On being notified of (he assassination of President Kennedy in 
1963, Warren in a national news release described the murderer, in 
so many words, as a right-wing bigot. ^ In spite of prejudging the 
case— and prejudging it incorrectly— Warren was put in charge of 
rite commission appointed by President Johnson to investigate ihe 



IB, Luther Huston, Pathway ^Judgment, < Ihilton, Philadelphia, 1966, pp. \'A, tr». 

!Q. John D. Weaverj Wan-en, l.iiu>, Eliuwn, Elusion, 1967, p. W). Anuthei Warren 
biographer says he only inherited $6,000. Huston, op cU.,p. 17 

20. See pp. 108.209-10. 

2\ Weaver, op. cit, pp, 105-6. Robert Jackson was one of tor three justices who 
could not stomal \i Korrmateu, although he latei look a leave of absence to Itcecime 
chiei prosecutoi in the Mureuiberg Trials- Anoihei Supreme Couri Justice. Tom 
Qark, who ,n 1942 as a Department of Justice official helped duct r the roundup 
ofjapanese Amej i» ans, said in 1966: "I have made a loi oi mistakes in my life, but 
there are two thai t acknowledge publicly One is ray pan in ihe evacuation ol die 
Japanese from California . and the oihei i-i the Nuremberg Trials, t don'i think 
they served anv purpose at all. . . ," Ibid , j» 1 LI. 

22. Mew York Tinas, Nov. 23, 1963, p, B. The news media's attempt to make die 
Kennedy assassination .i white supremacist plot failed lamentably when Warren's 
own commission conceded that, prior to gunning down the president, Oswald had 
taken a shot at right-wing General Edwin Walker. Report of the Pmidenft Committee 
on the Assassination of President John b Kennedy, I'.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C., 1964, pp. \%\\ 



4<)<: 



The Dispossessed Majority 



assassination. When asked by a reporter if all the Tacts would ever 
be made public, Warren replied, "Yes, , . .Bin It might not he in 
your lifetime." 23 

'The Warren Report, despite its length, had gaps. The investigation 
seemed to cool down perceptibly when il came to Jack Ruby's gang- 
ster background, die strange coincidence of his Cuban trip, the 
part played by higb government officials in arranging for the defec- 
tor Oswald's return to America, and the connections of Marina Os- 
wald's family with the Russian secret police. 2 "* The Commission ig- 
nored Ruby's statement that he had murdered Oswald localise "he 
wanted the whole world to know that thejews had guts.* 125 

Even Warren's most ardent supporters have had to agree that he 
displayed a broad streak of inconsistency in his career. He was 
more responsible for school desegregation than any other Ameri- 
can, yet he never sent any of his own four children (one adopted) 
to an integrated school. He diml>ed 10 the political heights as a Re- 
publican, yet usually acted like a Democrat and was even described 
as one by President Truman."-* Certain decisions of die Warren 
Conn should have rested at least partly on the scientific evidence, 
but Warren was exceedingly reluctant to consider such evidence, 
possibly because, said tiie rumor mill, he had almost failed science 
in high school 27 

Never one to be hamstrung by precedent, legal or otherwise, 
Warren did not become a crusader for the rights of the accused 



2S. Leo (Catcher, Earl Worrm, McGraw-Hill, New York. 1967, p, 45ft. A promi- 
m-iit member of die Warren Commission, Senator Richard Riuvll nf Georgia, was 
convinced that more thai: ime person was involved in the assassination "["here 
Were too many things — the fact that he [Oswald] waa at Minsk, and lhatw&a the 
principal center for educating Cuban Mudenla . . . some of tile trips tie made to 
Mexico City and a number of discrepancies in the evident e caused me lo 

doubt dial he planned it all by himself." Huvuin £i*nb.Jaji, 31 , 1970, p. 2 

24. Hearings Btforr tfu President'* Commission &n the Assassination efPmitUra Ken- 
nedy, Vol. l h p. 278. Marina Oswald's uncle, with whom she bad lived for many 
years, was ,i. Soviet security officer. 

25, Melvin Belli, Dallas Justiu. David McKay, New York. 1964, p. 167, Belli was 
Ruby's chief counsel in the minder trial. After losing die cav* for his client, Belli 
blamed his failure in part on his belief that Dallas wa* *ant*$emitic," -V™ York 
Times* March 16. 1964, p. 23, 

26, W7MET television interview, Sept. H, !% ( J. 

27. Huston, op. cil., p, 25, Also see footnote 21, p. 294, of this study and Put- 
nam, Race and Rmitty t Chapter IV. 



THE LEGAL CLASH 



407 



until he had taken his scat on the High Bench, In his early clays as a 
headline-hunting district and state attorney in (he Golden State, he 
had achieved a ceriain notoriety lor his arbitrary handling of sus- 
pects, occasionally holding them overnight without bail. 28 Today, 

however, Warren is remembered as the prophet emeritus of that 
school of criminal procedure that believes the accused should not 
only be aiforded every benefit of (he doubt, but every technicality 
of the law. Only in the area of religion did Warren, who may be 
fairly described as a Lathudinarian, maintain a certain consistency. 
As one of his biographers stated, "Warren, a quondam Methodist 
married to a devout Baptist whose children . . . have drawn no line 
in their marriages between Catholic and Protestant, Gentile and 
Jew, has never l>een one to make a public display of piety-* 6 

Warren's rationale for his Supreme Court record was the same as 
thai of his other Jilx s ral colleagues. He insisted lie was simply spelt 
ing out the Bill of Rights for all Americans instead of some. His 
legal philosophy might be understandable if the legal institutions 
laboriously developed by one people could Im" moved bag and bag- 
gage across the centuries and made to function efficiently for a 
population mix of many peoples without undotting an "i" or delet- 
ing a comma. Unfortunately they cannot. One people's right lo life, 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness may he another people's right 
to crime. Rights earned by one group become curiously transformed 
in text and context when they are donated to another group. It is for 
this reason thai the alteration of custom by judicial fiat is one of 
the more noxious forms of tyranny. 

Warren is the classic example of the political operator who sur- 
faces at the highest levels of government in a time of decline and 
disintegration — a man clever enough to swim beautifully with the 
political tide, but not intelligent enough to probe the deep-water 
evolutionary currents; The secret of such an individual's success is a 
delicate blend of ignorance, overweening ambition, and an acute 
sensitivity to the wishes and moods of those who control public 



2ft. Huston, op. til., p. 47. When the. Senate Judiciary Committee was debating 
Warren's appointment as chief justice, the. person who produced the most charges 
against him, ;i certain R, J, Wilson, was an e- sled after taming an executive session 
of the committee at the telegraphed request of the San Francisco police chief. 
Wilson was Utter released for lack of evidence, [bid., p. 99. 

3& Weuvor, op. cil., p. £fi&, 



408 



The Dispossessed Majority 



opinion. In one of the weirdest twists in the saga of human endeav- 
or, Warren's fame rests on his almost total misconception of the 
one-to-one relationship between law and culture.* 

Although it violates the hounds of permissible caricature both 
with respect to the Warren Court and Warren's role iherein, the 
late Justice Hn^o Black may be categorized as Warren's John the 
Baptist. Black, who Vent to law school . . . because he was too 
poorly educated to go anywhere else," 31 was not born a liberal, Like 
Warren he accumulated liberalism at the same rate he accumulat- 
ed power. In 1*123-24 he was a dues-paying member of the Ku Rlux 
Klan, a stern prohibitionist, and an affluent attorney who special- 
ized in personal injury cases. When he ran for the United States 
Senate in 1920, Black felt it politic to drop his Kian membership. 
But after winning his senatorial scat, he was given ihe Klan's (-rand 
Passport, which he gratefully accepted in a public ceremony, n 

Black was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1937, having con- 
vinced Roosevelt thai he was an authentic, uti-KJannish New Dealer. 
I low as a Supreme Court Justice he dispensed his newly acquired 
liberalism has been noted in The reference to the Kttmnalsn deci- 
sion. He went much further in Yama&hita (1046), when he upheld 
the deatli sentence given a Japanese general in a *Var crimes" trial 
which had violated almost every article and paragraph of the Bill of 
Rights, the very document of which Black was supposed to !*■ the 
champion.** In 1967 the learned justice, who in his metaphysical 
exaltation oi due process and social permissiveness had helped to 
push the law of the land to the threshold of anarchy, dismayed his 
liberal-minority claque by upholding the sentences of street dem- 
onstrators found guilty of underscoring their protests wiih violence.* 1 
As the end days of his judicial career drew near, Black seemed dimly 



90, Oilier Warren misconceptions were equally appalling. In an rxireme exanv 
pie of illiteracy in high plates, aired over a public television station, be pave his un- 
stinting approval to the "Roman democracy" which, he explained, lasted *onc 
thousand years" because of Roman proficiency in self-government — a siatenn-ni, 
needless to say, that would have l>een news to Manns, Sulla, Julius Caesar, and B*- 
gabalu*. WNKT television broadcast, SepL H, I9^>. 

51 .John I\ Frank, TJu Warren Courts Macmillan. New York, 1964, p. 42. 

32. I.ro Pfflfer, This Honorable (hurt, Beacon, Boston, 1965, pp. 326-27 

33. Roeco J. Trcsolim, justice and the Suprtrtv Cnn% UpptncoLt, Philadelphia 
1963, Chapter VIM. 

34. Weaver, op. cit., pp. 3S7-10. 



THE LEGAL CLASH 



409 



aware of what he had clone to the law and what had to be undone 
in order to prevent its disintegration. But he never made any for- 
mal amends for his judicial hyper activism. 

Associate Just ice William Douglas, like Black a product of the Ma- 
jority Split in the Ranks, was a vigorous mountain climber, long- 
distance hiker, world traveler, conservationist, and ton vwant, who 
often out-liberaled Black himself. As much of a libertine as a liber- 
al, at the age of sixty-seven he married his fourth wife, a twenty-two- 
year-old college coed.* 5 A few months later it was discovered that 
Douglas was receiving Si 2,000 annually from something called the 
Albert Parvin Foundation, the income of which derived principally 
from mortgages on a Las Vegas hotel and gambling casino.-* 6 Doug- 
las refused to give up this gratuitous supplement to his already 
large income (Supreme Court salary, expenses, lecture fees, book 
royalties) until it was further discovered that AllxTt Parvin had 
once hern named as a co-conspirator with Louis Wolfson in one of 
the hitter's many sordid financial dealings.* 7 Though Douglas's 
relationship with Wolfson 'a friend was just as unethical as Fortas's 
relationship with Wolfson, Douglas refused to resign his seat. 58 In 
1070, after the House Judiciary Committee's hearings to determine 
whether impeachment proceedings should be initiated against 
him, Douglas was given the expected whitewash by eighiy-two-year- 
old Committee Chairman Finanuel Celler. The liberal-minority co- 
alition protects its own. 

Whatever the cause of Douglas's extreme strenuosity, whether 
glandular or compensation for a childhood attack of infantile paral- 
ysis, he was without doubt the most energetic justice in Supreme 
Court history. He was also one of the most dissenting justices until 
he was able to join the liberal majority which emerged after Warren's 



35. Twu,]\\\y2\) s 1966, p. 17. 

36. San Prut t cisco Examiner > Ota. lf>, 1966, p. 1. 

37. Tim*. June- ti. lWl ¥ p. S3. 

38. Among his uihcr peccadilloes, in 1969 Douglas sold in article for $350 to 
the niaga/ine, Avtini (lard?, whose publisher, Ralph Gin/.burg, had been given a 
five-year senience for pornography. Earlier, when (iin/.burg's ease had come be- 
fcue i he Supreme Court and the verdict had been upheld, Douglas was the lone 
dlMCBter. In 1970 Douglas's book, Points oj'RebelUim, was published. In it he warm- 
ly encouraged unlawful demonstrations, writing that "violence may be the only ef- 
fective response* to current American problems, llunum Events, Feb. 14, 1970, p. 
4, and March 14, 1970, p. 3. 



410 



The Dispossessed Majority 



appointment. In the Gmmer decision (1945), which had its roots in 
an abortive wartime German sabotage operation, the Court, Doug- 
las dissenting, threw qui a death sentence for treason, since the 
Constitution specifically provides thai "no person shall be convict- 
ed for treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same 
overt act*" 59 Though there were two witnesses, neither presented 
any evidence of any overt act. Douglas based his dissent on the 
grounds that the mere presence of Cramer in the company of two 
German saboteurs was sufficient to warrant conviction* 49 

I laving failed to get a pro-German electrocuted, Douglas, who 
later posed as the archenemy of capital punishment, failed in an- 
other dissent to save a pro-Russian from prison. Fit Dennis v. United 
States (1950) his minority opinion defined Communist appeals to 
revolution as strictly within the law. 41 In view of his ultraliberal tilt it 
came as no surprise that, after the Court had refused to review 
the Rosenberg atomic spy case in L953, the defense attorneys 
turned directly to Dougla&, who ai the last minute took it upon 
himself to stay the Rosenbergs' execution.' 12 Douglas once again ex- 
hibited his partiality for the totalitarian left when, swept up in the 
anti-McCarthy hysteria, he enthusiastically joined the Court majori- 
ty in Waiktm (1957), which attempted to curb the power of con- 
gressional investigations by freeing a close-mouthed fellow traveler 
from a contempt citation issued by the E louse Un-American Activi- 
ties Committee. 43 

Other members of the Warren Court included William ftrennan, 
Byron White, and John M. 1 Iarlau. Rreiman, whose father was born 
in ireland, worked his way up from coal shoveler to union agent i» 
fore becoming a lawyer. White, a devoted Kennedy backer, was the 
highest-paid professional football player in the nation in 1938. 
John M. 1 Farlan was a Wall Street corporation lawyer, whose grand- 
lather when serving on the Supreme Court uttered tiie once famous 
(and now aiuulironous) words, "The Constitution is color blind." 
Of all tin 1 Warren Court justices, only Potter Stewart occasionally 
evinced concern lor the rights of the Majority, The lone dissenter in 



80. Art HI, Sec. S, Fai. I, 
■10. Frank, up. tit. pp. liO-fil. 

41. loid., pp. 58-59. 

42. Pfeflfe «,<>]). cie.pp. 374-76. 

43. Kalcher, op c it., pp. 365-68. 



THK LF.CAL CLASH 



41 J 



the school prayer decision, he was the only justice to recognize the 
real issue in the case, as demonstrated by bis comments that the 
ruling was just as much an assault on the "religious traditions of 
our people" as it was on religion itself. 44 

When Richard Nixon assumed the presidency in I960, he made 
it known he was going to reverse the leftward drift of the Court. Al- 
though the two conservative Southern judges he nominated were 
both rejected by the Senate, his nomination of Warren Burger as 
chief justice was confirmed, as were bis appointments of Lewis Pow- 
ell William Rehnquist, and Harry Blackmun. Witli Warren retired, 
Black dead, Douglas ailing, ami Forms having resigned in disgrace, 
the country was primed for a legal backlash. 

What the country got, however, was more of the same. The Bur- 
ger Court proved to 1.x* more ideologically attuned to the liberal- 
minority coalition than to Nixon. There was some tightening up of 
the criminal justice system, some loosening of restrictions on suing 
the government, a few reductions in the privileges of the press, but 
in regard to Majority interests the Burger Cowl did as much as 
Warren to skew the Constitution, A few of the Burger Nine's more 
infamous decisions: (1) Bahke (1078), which ordered a medical 
school to admit a qualified white applicant who had been turned 
clown in favor of" jess qualified Unassimilable Minority members, 
while at the same time ruling that race could l>e considered a fac- 
tor in college admission policy; (2) Weber (1979), where the Court 
agreed thai a 50 percent quota (or blacks in a company training 
program was legal; (3) FulUfave (1980), in which the Court ruled 
thai it was quite constitutional for the government to specify dial 
10 percent of the contracts in a federal public works program be 
awarded to minority contractors. 

Despite its down-t he-line liberal rulings on school desegrega- 
tion, pornography, criminal rights, and voting rights, the Warren 
Court never went so far as to introduce the notion of rat ial quotas 
in its decisions. Ft left this unfinished business to the so-called mod- 
erates and conservatives of the Burger Conn, who treated the 
American public to the spectacle of the highest tribunal in the land 

44. Sec rhaprer-length profiles of ihesr Jusim:* in John Frank's 'The Watrni 
Court For other remarks of Justice Stcwai t on the school player case, see p. 275 
ol this suitlv. 



412 



The* Dispossessed Majority 



standing the law on its head, Congress had solemnly affirmed in 
the 1964 Civil Rights Act I hat there would be no racial discrimina- 
tion in employment or employment opportunities. The Court slyly 
sabotaged or abrogated this law in Bakke, Weber, and FuUihve. 

To be fair to Burger and to William Rehnquisi who succeeded 
him as Chief Justice, it should be conceded that both usually voted 
against the most permissive rulings of the Court, But President Rea- 
gan's and President Rush's appointments of so-called middle-of- 
the-roaders, Sandra Day O'Connor* the first lady justice, and David 
Sot iter, as associate justices did little to stop the Court from playing 
cat and mouse with affirmative action. Neither were the newly ap- 
pointed so-called conservative justices, Anthony Kennedy, Antonin 
Sealiu, ( he I ligh Bench's first Italian Anient an, and Clarence 
Thomas, a black Republican, 15 able to curb legal restraints on the 
job opportunities ami job promotions of white males. In fan Presi- 
dent Clinton's appointment of two Jewish judges, Ruth Barter Gins* 
burg and Stephen Breyer, to the High Bench inched the court 
back to the legal ideology of Earl Warren, hark to social engineer- 
ing and to rewriting, not interpreting, the laws of the land. 

Since the one usually goes with ihe other, the dearth of justice 
displayed by the Supreme Court in the latter half of this century 
was accompanied by a dearth of dignity. The latter began in 1949 
when Justices Felix Frankfurter and Stanley Reed appeared in a feder- 
al court in New York City as character witnesses for Alger Hiss. 46 
Since then, the internal squabbling of the justices, their tecture- 
circnit moonlighting, their political partisanship, and their moral 
cowardice have dotxe Huh' to restore the public's waning confi- 
dence ill what used to be tin* most prestigious branch of govern- 
ment *' 



45. Thomas, married to a while r occupied the so-called "black scat" oa the couct. 
vacated by Thurgood Marshall, the first NegTQ justice, who was as far Co the left as 
his successor was to the right. 

46. Nau York Times, Jane S3, 1-M9, p. 1, Hiss started out as one of Frankfurter's 
Happy Hoi Dogs at the Harvard law School. After serving as Justice Reed's law 
clerk, lie joined Uu- Stab' Department. Reed himself had clerked for Rrandeis. 

47. H&tory will judgfcjasliccs of the Warren, Burger and Rehnqmst Courts oti 
iheir r*-< <ud and on their injudicious behavior as individual*; 



Item. Korias on the payroll of a notorious swindlei. Douglas on ilu- p.ivmll of* 
gangster. Brennan involved in shady reajfcstate deals with Fortes. 



THE l.k(;al clash 



413 



Wallowing in the deceptive glow of the liberal-minority Weltans- 
chauung, the Warren court attempted to transform the organic law 
of Majority America into a code of moral and racial imperatives as 
inapplicable to the crucial issues of the day as they were unenforce- 
able, The Burger and Rehnquist courts never made any meaning- 
ful counter-decisions to reverse die trend. By its ill-timed and ill- 
conceived reinterpretation of the Bill of Rights and other Constitu- 
tional guarantees, the Supreme Court has in effect usurped the leg- 
islative function of Congress — a gross abuse of the judicial power as 
defined by the Constitution. 

Before they addressed themselves to the impractical task of 
changing men by changing laws, the justices might have pondered 
die "words of Savigny (1779-1861), who wrote in his Theory of Organic 
and Natural LatiK 

Law is no more made hy lawyers than language by grammarians. 
Law is the natural moral product of a people . , . the persistent cus- 
toms of a nation, springing organically from its past and present. 

Even statute law lives in the general consensus of the people. 48 



Item. Ktennan flaunting a grotesque mask of Nixon in his rhanilHus. Marshall 
breaking oft a Imuh on "diity movie" Monday so he wouldn't miss viewing the* 
hardcore exhibits in obscenity caseis. White appending "Some man!" io a Bursef 
memo about Kit haid Spc< k, who laped and killed right women. 

lum. 'ITie nearly blind Harlan ruining his hospital ro«m into his chambers and 
signing his bedshcet instead of a legal brief. 'l"he halF-paralyTed Douglas insisting; 
on sitting on the bench when he could no longer stay awake in his wheelchair for 
more than an hour or two. 

Item. The Court reversing Muhammad Air's conviction for draft dodging on a 
technicality lor fear of arousing black resentment. 

Item, Marshall's unwillingness to do his homework to the point wheie he knew 
nothing of the contents of some of (he o[iinions his clerk* had wiiitcn Iot him. 

Item. Mai shall voting to force Nixon to turn ovel his tapes to Judge Sirica while 
admitting he would not want his own taped conversations with President Johnson 
made public. Powell hiring a Harvard Jewish radical foi his law clerk to prove he 
wasn't an old fuddy-duddy. 

Iiem. Lawyer William Kn itsflci throwing his STTOS around Hanv Btackinun alteT 
he hud supported a lower court's ruling against the Philadelphia police de.pl. 

Voi all the above — and more — see Boh Woodward and Scott Armstrong, Th» 
Hrethmi, Simon and Schuster, New York, VMS). 



■\X, As quoted lioin Carl Becker, The Declaration of Independent -.«, Knopf, New 
York, 1042, p. 284. 



414 



The Dispossessed Majority 



Some have proposed I tiai the best means of bringing a runaway 
Supreme Court to heel is by the complicated arid little-used process 
of impeachment. But this would not eliminate the disease — only a 
few of the carriers. If the Court is 10 be fought seriously, it musi be 
combatted wilh its own weapons and on lis own ground, That 
which perverts the law can be controverted by the law. The Court, 
one need not point out, exists and acts on (he sufferance of the 
Constitution. One simple amendment could limit its power, trans- 
fer iis authority to state courts, or abolish it altogether. 

When history hands down its final verdict on the Supreme Court, 
it will be found guiliy on many counts, none more serious titan its 
recent tampering with The criminal law. Criminal justice was origi- 
nally intended to protect society from the lawbreaker. By the time 
the Warren Conn had finished with it, its chief function was to pro- 
tect the lawbreaker from society. Needless to say, the Court's exag- 
gerated magnification of criminal rights worked directly to the ad- 
vantage of tin 1 minorities thai shelter criminal castes within their 
ranks. Willi batteries of expensive lawyers at their beck and call, or- 
ganized criminals, whether members oi the Mafia, black revolution- 
ary cadres, Jewish terrorists, or bomb-planting student gangs, stand 
to gain much greater benefits from legal permissiveness titan the 
criminal inner. By arousing false expectations of immediate eco- 
nomic gain and by apparently agreeing that Negro poverty and 
underachievement were entirely the fault of past and present dis- 
crimination on the pari of malevolent whites, the Court actually 
raised racial tensions. 

As will be seen in the next chapter, tiie Supreme Court has 
opened a Pandora's Box which may not 1m- closed again without re- 
pressive measures that will put criminal justice and much else of 
what, remains of American jurisprudence hack several centuries. 
Only the complete repudiation and reversal of the Court's major 
rulings on criminal rights will provide the necessary legal machin- 
ery for weeding out the blight that has all but ended Western civili- 
zation in broad areas of America's largest cities. Meantime, as vio- 
lent crime grows beyond all endurance, so dors the catalog u f 
criminals and of those who work hand in glove wiih criminals, This 

catalog is now so large and so replete wiih famous names thai it is 
beginning to resemble Who's Who in America. 



CHAPTKR 30 



The Minority Underground 



TiiK i.EAsn 'savory dimension oi the conflict being waged a^ainst- 
the Majority is the Underground war, deceptively described by 
law enforcement officials and the media as a crime wave. The ex- 
tent and ferocity of this war is revealed by the casualty lists pttb- 
lished periodically by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the 
form of crime statistics. Responsible for some of this lawbreaking 
arc the criminal elements present in every society and in every 
race. But an increasing share of it is due to the calculated efforts of 
minority groups and minority individuals. 

U.S. street crime is a form of "slow rioting" and "remains astro- 
nomical when compared wiih that of oilier industrialized nations." 
The words surrounded by quotation marks were written not in the 
1990s hut a half-century earliei in the Eisenhower Foundation Re- 
port {March 3, l§45). If crime was bad then, what would that foun- 
dation have written about crime today? 

In 1092, 33,64° t !i40 crimes were committed in the U.S. of which 
6,621,140 were classified as violent. Crimes of violence included 
140,030 rapes or attempted rapes, 1,225,520 attempted or complet- 
ed robberies, and , r >,254 t fi90 assauhs. 1 

What are we to make of these statistics? They certainly represent 
more than a "slow riot." Some full-fledged wars have produced few- 
er casualties. What we really have here is a simmering race war be- 
tween the blacks and whites, with the former taking the offen- 
sive and the latter puihng up a largely unsuccessful defense. In this 



1. National Crime. Victimization Suntey, 1993. Murtlrrs, running Hi 23,000 annually 
were not in-eluded because the- survey was based on interviews of victims, 

<I5 



416 



The DisjK>sse$sed Majority 



war blacks, who are currently responsible for 55% of all mur- 
ders, killed 1,698 whims in 1992. In the cases where the race of the 
killer is known, blacks kill twice as many whites as whites kill blacks 
To put it another way, the average black is 12.38 times more likely 
to kill a white than the average white is to kill a black. In 1988 (here 
were 9,406 black-on-white rapes and fewer ihan ten white-on-black 
rapes. It is bard to get exact figures on rape because some crimiuol- 
gisls estimate that as few as one in seven rapes Is reported. Negroes 
commit virtually all the rapes of blacks and half the rapes of whites 
One liberal researcher; Andrew Hacker, found dial black men raped 
white women 30 times as often as white men raped black women. 2 

With regard to other criminal offenses, a presidential crime com- 
mission has stated that less lhan half are reported.* Merely on the 
basis of reported crimes, it is a mathematical probability that a 
criminal act will be committed against one out of every five Ameri- 
can families every year. 4 In the view of former Senator Kenneth 
Keating of New York, "Everyone in this land can expecJ to be a vic- 
tim of a major crime at least once in his lifetime if he lives to Ix 1 six- 
ty years old.™ & 

Correlated with and perhaps contributing to the crime explosion 
were several Supreme Court rulings upselling traditional methods 
of bringing criminals to trial. In Gideon v. Watnwrigfit (1963) the 
Court upheld the right of the accused to counsel, if necessary at 
the taxpayers' expense. In Escobedo v, Illinois (1964) the justices 
ruled that a suspect may not be prevented from seeing his lawyer 
during police interrogation In Miranda v. Arizona (1966) the Couri 
stated that police must warn the suspect of his right to remain si- 
lent and to Ik 1 represented by counsel before questioning. 6 Since 



2. For a more complete look at crime statistics sec [ared Taylor, Paved With GWd 
fatrntwvtSi Carroll & Graf, N.Y., 1****2. pp 9LM 

3. San Francisco Fxaminrr, June 4* 1963, j*. 1 Only aboul one-lrnth Ol shoplifting 
incidents arc reported. Rriailcn nay ihey could lower prices 15 percent at iom thr 
board if shoplifting were halted. AW Yank Times Magazine, Mai eh 1 r> k 1 970. 

4. As stated by Earl Morris, president of the American Wai Association. U.$»Nea& 
& World Itrpwt. Feb. 5, 1968, p 50, 

5. Wall Street Jtwrntl, Vol LXV, Mo. 6&p. 1. 

6. Time, Julv -1, 1969, p. 63. Escobedo, who was freed while serving a murder sen- 
tence as a resuli of i h*- Supreme Court's ruling that bean his name, was latei ic- 
arreated for selling 1 1 gram* of heroin Stm Francisco (Jironicle. Aug. 4, 1967, p "2. 



THE LEGAL CLASH 



417 



all these decisions were retroactive, their effect on already crowded 
court calendars and on already overburdened law enforcement of- 
ficers was disastrous. After Gideon, in Florida alone 976 prisoners 
were set free and excused from retrial, while 500 more had to be 
arraigned a second time- 7 

For the Court to indulge in such a sweeping extension of due 
process at the very moment it was becoming impossible for millions 
of American citizens to walk the streets of their own cities at night 
was sheer judicial irresponsibility. Again, as it had in its rulings on 
miscegenation, school desegregation, and school prayer, the Court 
was playing favorites. Again, as in nearly all its landmark decisions, 
it ruled in favor of plaintiffs represented by minority lawyers in ap 
peals financed largely by minority-oriented organizations. 

Although the marked increase in crime could be attributed in 
pari to the breakdown of law enforcement brought about by the 
Court's coddling of criminals, it was also due it* the appearance of 
a new criminal type. Not that there was anything new about minori- 
ty crime in America. As Samuel Eliot Morison wrote, the "alliance 
between urban politicians, the underworld of gambling and prosti- 
tution, and the foreign vote was already established in 18:50.** But 
the invasion of the cities by an army of Negro looters, arsonists, and 
snipers more than a century Eater raised minority crime to the level 
of urban warfare. 

The property loss and death toll caused by Negro insurrections 
in major cities in 1964-68 have been given previously in Chapter 1 7, 
"The Negroes." No longer a common thief or mugger bin a self- 
appointed revolutionary, the Negro criminal began to Ix* looked 
upon by his own people, and by some ullraliberal whiles, as a kind 
of late twentieth-century Robin Hood. 9 The armed takeover of col- 
lege buildings by black students and the armed invasion of a state 



7 Anthony Lewis, Gideon \ Trumpet, Random House, New York, 1964, p. 20Ti 

H Morison, The Oxford History of the American People, p 4A7. 

!}. Mom leading Negro militants acquired a criminal record long before ihrv U-- 
camc revolutionaries, Malcolm X was a convicted pimp, dope peddler, and rob- 
ber, Eld ridge Cleaver, a convicted rapist; 1 1. Rap Brown, a convicted burglar; Mari- 
an ll.it iy reelected mayor of Washington after serving time foi cocaine possession. 
The crimes committed bv Kohbv Sv.ilr and odiers in iheir revolutionary acLiviiies 
on behalf of Lhe Black Panthers overshadowed their earliei lawbrealuitg. Federal 
District Ohio Judge 1 Alcee Hastings, impeached in H>88 hy the Senate foi mtsron- 
itmi \, bounced bark by getting FToridians to elect him to Congress, Kwrisi Minim-, 



418 



The Dispossessed Majority 



legislature by swaggering black commandos were greeted as acts of 
liberation. 10 There remained, of course, considerable black-on- 
black crime. But as white city dwellers and suburbanites were learn- 
ing firsthand, an intolerable amount of crime was becoming black- 

on-white. 1 ' 

Negro lawbreaking has been semi-militarized in the sense thai 
much of it is committed against "the enemy/ All too many of the 
victims do not bother to report offenses to the police, simply tie- 
coming "casualties" and silently await further attacks by foraging 
bands from the inviolate sanctuaries of metropolitan ghettos, 
where white Americans are no safer than they would have been in a 
Viet Cong stronghold, Negro crime has also been tribalized, in that 
it involves initiation riles and proofs of bravery. In 1972 members 
of a black group called De Man Man were charged with killing nine 



Lite leader of the Congressional ft lack Caucus and arguably the most powerful black 
politico in the country, was arrested several times when he was a voting thug in 
Baltimore. The lino woiship of these individuals by the Negro community and by 
many white Ubeials was probably us ^nar an incentive to bl.uk ciirne as the orders 
of white and Negro mayors forbidding police to shooi faciei i. Summing up the at- 
titude of Negro slum dwellers, Timt (Feb. 14, HMi9, p. 60) commented, they "not 
only passively accept crime, bin also aeuvely admire tin* criffliTialS'-~especiaIJy if 
their vit him are white.' Charles Evers, a Southern Negro politician widely praised 
by the media and his black fonsLiuients, was ;i former pimp who frequently ne- 
glected to pay his income tax.. Ronald Reagan was pleased to receive Evers' fii- 
dorsemeni in the 1980 presidential campaign. 

L0, In 1907 a gionp of Negroes with loaded riffles marched into the state capita! 
al Sacramento, Calif., while the legislature was in session. Punishment was meied 
on i lightly oi not a! all. Nfas York T\mes t May 3, 1967, p. 24. 

11, A 1070 government report stated that urban blacks are airesled eight, lo 
Twenty times more often than whites For homicide, rape, aggravated assault, and 
robbery. Since, a large proportion of the victims ol black crime are blacks, it 
wail gratuitously added thai no t ,n ul * oik Insious should lie drawn from the re- 
port. New Ytnit TinuSj Sep!. W, 1970, p, L Ural one pajiit tilat i a< e has a ( Time rate 
many times higher (ban othei races may not have any racial connotations U> gov- 
ernment bureau* rata, but ii has many such connotations to white victims of Ne- 
gro crime, In Washington, D,C, in t959-65» nine due oi ten insists were black and 
59 percent of the while women raped were raped by blacks. San Fjanmco ilhrojiicie, 

Jan. 4, 1967, □ .2. Anoihei ominous trend is the kidnapping of young white wom- 
en in broad daylight. One blonde housewife was abducted from a Birmingham 
bus station and taken to a black-operated house t>f prostitution, After thier days 
shr managed to escape by jumping fiom a second-siory Window. Birmingham fVfffctf, 
June 10, 1980, p. i. 



THE LEGAL CLASH 



4i<) 



Whites in Illinois. 12 Fn the 1973 Zebra murder rampage in Califor- 
nia, a Negro gang named the Death Angels killed, according to po- 
lice records, rweniy-ihree whites, torturing one for almost a day be- 
fore cutting him up into small pieces, wrapping then, in a plastic 
bag, and dumping them on a nearby beach. The writer of a book 
about the grisly killings asserted that the white death toll really 
amounted to 135 men, 75 women, and 60 children. Death Angel 
members received special promotions and commendations from 
their leaders for the mass murder. 13 Similar outrages have taken 
place in Illinois and Michigan In the latter state the head of a gang 
of young Negroes told a 22-yeai-old member: "Prove yourself a 
black warrior. Bring in the ears of a white man," The young black 
obeyed, leaving a Ifryear-old white youth not only earless but 
dead." In the 1980 Miami riot whites unfortunate enough to blun- 
der into the rioting crowds were mutilated both before arid after 
Ix-ing killed. 

It is true there has been some backlash to white violence, some 
evidence of white vengeance on blacks, such as a few sniper killings 
in various cities. But the number of blacks killed or wounded has 
been minuscule compared to the number of white casualties. Al- 
though black criminals have been gunned down while threatening 
the lives of police officers or while fleeing from the scene of the 
crime, the toll of white policemen shot by blacks has been substan- 
tially greater. From i983 to 1992, 963 law eniorrcmem officers 
were killed, :>,% by whites, 397 by blacks, 30 by other races. Eighty 
percent of the murdered police officers were white, 10 percent 
black, I percent other. 15 At the rate indicated above, it won't be too 
many years until the number of while police officers killed by 
blacks will rx.cc<>t\ the total number of black victims of Southern 
lynch mobs. The Encyclopaedia BriUmnim states that 4,730 persons 
were lynched in the United States from 1882 to 1951: 1,293 whites 
and 3*437 Negroes.* 



12. Miami Hmld>Qci. 16, 1972, p 2-A 

i:v Clark Howard, Zebra, Richard Marc-k Publishing, New York, 197*1, see espe- 
cially pp. 34, 173-«| 

14- The youth group, ii might be added, had received financial support from 
ihe "respectable" tax-cxempt I'rban L<eague. New York Times, March 4, 1970, p. 31. 

15. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, U.S. Dept. of Justice, IWM, pp. 401-05. 

16, Ency, Brit, Vol. 14, p 526. 



420 



The Dispossessed Majority 



"Police brutality/ whether real or imagined, has been fashioned 
into ii standard excuse for Negro rioting and looting. M a result, 
police officers in most cities have been ordered to use minimum 
force against black lawbreakers. The ever present threat of black 
rioting has also influenced judges and juries to lean over backwards 
to give accused blacks every benefit of the law and the shortest pos- 
sible jail time, A stiff sentence for a Negro defendant in a well- 
publicized trial can cost a city tens of millions of dollars in dam- 
aged, burned-out, and looted property- The same exaggerated le- 
niency extends to capital punishment. As of mid-1982, only five 
criminals had been executed in the United States since 1967. Four 
of the live were while, although death rows leein with blacks. 

lllack-on-white crimes have been committed against every stra- 
tum of white society. A white judge was shot dead in his courtroom 
in California by blacks. A black robber seriously wounded Senator 
John Stennis outside his home in Washington, D.C But by and 
large most white victims have been the owners or employees of fast- 
food stores T gas stations, and small retail establishments. All too of- 
ten, after the cash register has been emptied, the robbers kill the 
robbed. 

Meanwhile another large criminal caste, 17 the Cosa Nostra, has 
grown less militant and even semi-respectable as it has scaled new 
heights of prosperity, Its members having given up their white 
neckties and broad-brimmed hats for conservative Brooks Brothers 
styles. Some 1 of the ceremonial claptrap has lx*en waived, hni the 
blood oath remains, as does the basic requirement for member- 
ship, the racial lest of Southern Italian or Sicilian parentage* w 

This racial test has only been suspended for Jews, who have sup- 
plied ihe Mafia with most of its legal and financial brains. Indeed 
the Mob's leadership, in the words of Ralph Salerno, a onetime 
New York City Police Department crime expert, hits always been a 



17. Gypsies may also be defined as a criminal caste. Mac l-Uiii-Amem an gangs 
who are taking ovei much of tlie drug uade arc more arcniaielv drwriU-d a* 
"families." Hasidic Jews, who additionally en^a^r in jewel smuggling, do noL con- 
sider their occupation a crime because il is only against "Gentile Law." Yaffc, op. 
tic, p. TJi) In regard tojewish crime in general* Vaffe has written, "Nobodv, no 
matte) how reprehensible, cvcj ^t-u completely read out uf ihr Jewish conimuni- 
lv." Ibid., p. 277. 

IS. Ttme,Aug T2> VMO, pp 19,21 



THE LEGAL CI ASH 



421 



"happy marriage of Italians and Jews." Meyer Lansky, for many de- 
cades the Cosa Nostra's financial director, once boasted, "We're 
bigger than U.S. Steel" Since Mafia gross revenues are estimated at 
over $30 billion a year with annual profits of from $7 billion to $10 
billion, he might have included a few more corporations. 19 The 
wealth of some Mafiosos is almost beyond belief; $521,000 in cash 
was found in a suitcase belonging to the son of Buffalo's Boss Ma- 
gaddino; New York's Boss Gambino and his adopted family had 
real estate holdings valued at $300 million; Philadelphia's Boss Bru- 
no, when asked to produce collateral for a business venture, came 
up with a certified check for $50 million. 20 

The Cosa Nostra flourishes because of what might l>e described 
as political protection in depth. At one point in time mobsters ex- 
ercised varying degrees of control over some twenty-five congress- 
men as well as thousands of lesser political figures at state and local 
levels. 21 The servile relationships of certain Nt*w York City and Chi- 
cago judges to Mafia leaders are too well known to need extensive 
documentation, Frank Sinatra, an associate of leading mob fig- 
ures,^ was for years one of the chief fundraisers of the Democratic 
party before offering his talents to (he Republicans, for his work in 
organizing and directing the 156] Pre-InauguraJ Ball in Washing- 
ton, Sinatra received the profuse thanks of President Kennedy and 
the first dance with the First Lady, 23 Even Barry Goldwater, who was 
touted as one of die most honest presidential candidates in decades. 



19. Ibid., p. 1H. m Ibid., p. 21 

21 Jhni., p. 19. A* excerpted by Time from ihr U«,k, The Cn me f f deration, by 
Ralph Salerno. New Jersey Cosa Nostra leader Joe Zicarelli, Salerno asserted, 
wielded such powej ovri Congressman Cornelius Gallagher that he could sum- 
mon him From the floor of ihr House of Representatives to answer his phone 
tails. Gallagher was a mciubei oi ihe House Government Operations Committee, 
which watches over the federal agencies which in turn walch ovej the Mafia. In 
1972 he pleaded guilty to evading 471, 000 m income taxes. Miami Itertibi Dec 22 
11)72, p.36-A. 

22. Smaira was a prrsona) hieml of Lucky Luciano, once Lhe nation's top rank- 
ing gang&lcr. Frank owned 9 j^rfrnl of the MafWonli oiled Sands Hotel in Us 
Vegas before Howard Hughes bought ii. Ed Rrtd and Ovid Dcmaris. The Great Feti 
Jungle. Pocket Books, New York, 1964, pp, 56, 74-76, 19& Sinatra'sgaming license, 
revoked in l%3 Ixxau&c of his association widi gangaici Sam Giancana, was ie- 
stored in modified form in 1981 by the Nevada Gaming Control Board. 

23. Victor Lasky t jGK^ Th* Man and the Myth, Maemtllan, New York, 1963, p. [4, 



422 



The Dispossessed Majority 



was quite close to two important underworld members. Of gangster 
Gils Greenbaum, who died with his wife in a macabre gangland 
doable murder in Phoenix in 1938, Goldwater said, "I knew him all 
my life." Goldwater was also a good friend of Willie Bioft, a convict- 
ed panderer and gangland extortionist, whom the Arizona senator 
piloted back from Las Vegas to Phoenix in his own plane only (two 
weeks before RiofY was blown to fragments when he tried to start 
his car.* 

Gangster links to the highest levels of govern men i can be delect- 
ed in the executive pardons issued frequently 10 important gang 
figures. Lucky Luciano, who succeeded A! Capone at the top of the 
Mafia hierarchy and who was a specialisi in narcotics, murder, and 
prostitution, was given a full pardon by New York Governor Thom- 
as Dewey in I94& 25 Luciano's influence was so global thai, working 
wuh the American army in World, War II, he actually helped rees- 
tablish the Mafia in its original Sicilian homeland where it had 
been Stripped of most of Us power during the Mussolini era. At his 
direction American planes dropped special packages to die world 
Mafia chieftain, Dun Cain Viz/ini. in the town of Vtllabsu 35 

President Kennedy gave a presidential, pardon to another gang- 
ster, Jake (the Barber) Factor, who was scheduled For deportation 
by the Department of Justice bui was made a citizen after he con- 
tributed $10,000 to the Democratic party. 27 Factor repaid ihe favor 
by increasing his donations. In 1968 he was exposed as (he largest 
financial contributor to tin- Democratic party's presidential cam- 
paign.^ Another questionable pardon was given by President Tru- 
man to movie mogul Joseph Schenck, who had been sent to prison 
for lying about his Mafia associations.* 9 

There is no more visible sign of national decay than the continu- 
ing success story of the Gosa Nostra, an organization which, among 



24. Re id HndOnnatis.op. dr. pj>. -IS, 14-1,202. 

25. Yah Yfftk Times, Feb, 9, 1946, p. hi. 

2*i Times Literary Supplement, June ltf, 1964, p. 584. 

27. Nm York Times. Dee. 29, 1963 T p. 4. 

28. San Francisco Sunday Examiner and Chronicle. This World, Jan. 12, 1969 Factor 
ami his wife allegedly donated or loaned $350,000 u> various Muntphircy-Mttskie 
campaign committee* 

29 San Francisco Chronkk, This World, Oct. 25, 1961, p. 22. Schenck died a mulu- 
ir i illicit aire in his penthouse suite at the Revet Sy WiKliile I I old. 



TI IE LEUAL CLASH 



423 



other tilings, sold $850 million worth of heroin a year way back in 
the 60s, before hard drugs had become big business. M Majority and 
minority politicians and public figures are still shocked and horri- 
fied by Nazi misdeeds decades after the fact, but neither they nor 
the news media are half so upset a