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Full text of "The Dutch Republic in the Days of John Adams"

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FOREWORD 



£ z pleasure to have the opportunity of adding a few lines to the description of an event which is 

--red as a very special tribute to the United States of America at their Bicentennial Celebrations . 

'.:■ not the subject of this exhibition ("The Dutch Republic in the days of John Adams"), will appeal 

-i visitors as the proof of how deeply we in the Netheriands still feel about the heroic birth of the 

--Z States two hundred years ago. I also hope that it succeeds on conveying a vivid image of the 

.-2 1 and scientific life of my country at the epoch when the United States were able to respond to 

these influences as an emerging independent nation. 

: T . er, t feel that the main motive we in the Netheriands have for sending over this exhibition is the 

■■^z to express our gratitude to and admiration for the American people; admiration for its spirit of 

venture and enterprise which inspired so many Dutchmen, and heart-felt gratitude for the leading role 

it has played in helping us to survive in Liberty". 



*.. r- 



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«'*"*• 







IM. VAN DER STOELI 

MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS 

OF THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS 







• 3* 



INTRODUCTION 



It is a source of great pleasure to me that it has been possible to organise this exhibition. The Dutc 

Republic in the Days of John Adams, as part of the Bicentennial celebrations. 
It is intended to give the many Americans whom I hope will visit the exhibition a general idea of the wa) 
in which the Dutch lived and worked at the time of John Adams, the first American Envoy to the NetheHand 
A special point of interest here is that the Dutch Republic was the first country officially to honour th 
flag of the independent American Republic when on 16 November 1 776 the fort in the island of St. Eustatiu 

returned the salute of the brig "Andrew Dorea". 
The exhibition was organised by a committee chaired by the historian. Professor J.W. Schulte Nordho 
which devoted more than eighteen months to giving form to the idea taken as a guideline for th 
exhibition : "How did the Dutch live at the time of the American Revolution and what was their country like?* 

The names of the committee members are listed elsewhere in this catalogue. 
The name of John Adams, the second American President, came up as a matter of course. For it was h 
who had been sent to the Dutch Republic by the Rrst American Congress to try to win support fo 
the revolution. How he fared there, and what impressions he gained of the Dutch Republic and iti 
inhabitants, can be seen in the exhibition and read about in the catalogue, so there is no need to g< 

further into the subject in this foreword. 
To avoid making the exhibition too limited in scope, it was decided that it should cover the period fro 
1 775 to 1 795, and that it should be divided into sections dealing separately with four aspects characteristic 

of those two decades. 

For the section dealing with the social and political history of the Republic at that time the organisers 
had a wealth of material to choose from, notably the writings of Adams himself, which are not onl) 
informative but highly penetrating observations and make facinating reading. The sort of country h 
found on his arrival, with its towns and villages, its ports and rivers, farms and country houses, is shown 

in a separate section. 

Domestic life and interior decoration in those days, which was of a high standard, are illustrated b) 
carefully chosen pieces of porcelain, silver and glass, and by two period rooms, one from the house o 

a wealthy family and the other from a much more modest home. 
The scientific side of the exhibition is by no means inconsiderable. The Dutch leanned societies served a 
an example and an inspiration for their later American counterparts and the work of individual Dutc 

scholars and scientists attracted attention far beyond the borders of their country. 
It was a pleasure to see how the designers' enthousiasm for the project grew week by week and hovi 
that enthousiasm infected everyone who was working on it. The exhibits are on loan from more thar 

sixty museums and private collections. 
The task of organising the exhibition was by no means a simple one, and I take this opportunity of thankin 
everyone who has made it possible for it to be assembled and put on view in four major America 
museums. Without the close collaboration of the museums in Philadelphia, New York, Raleigh an 
Chicago, and of the Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service, this could not have been achieved. Specia 
thanks are due to all those who have so generally loaned valuable pieces from their collections forth 

considerable length of time for which they are required. 

I hope that with this exhibition. The Dutch Republic in the Days of John Adams, the Netherlands ha 

made a useful contribution to the Bicentennial celebrations. May the Americans who visit the exhibitior 

gain as much pleasure from it as did the organisers in putting it together. 




DR. J.H. VAN ROUEN 

CHAIRMAN OF THE NETHERLANDS 

BICENTENNIAL COMMITTEE. 



• 4 • 




1, The Duti 
s. 

of the w 
feNetherland 
honour th 
^St. Eustati 

p\fe Nordho 
beline for t\\ 
jrcountrylike? 

it was 
support f( 

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need to g 

ie period fro 
t characteristi 

jjhe organisei 
i are not only 
K)f country he 
pes, is showr 

i illustrated by 
pi the house of 

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and how 
more tha 

of thanking 
American 
Raleigh and' 
ieved. Specie 
ions for the 

jriands has 
le exhibition 







THE NETHERLANDS BICENTENNIAL COMMiHEE 



His Excellency Dr. J.H. van Roijen, 

fomrer Ambassador to the 

United States of America; Chairman. 

Dr. E.H. van der Beugel, 

Professor at Leiden University 

(International Relations}. 

P. Dankert, Member of Parliament. 

R. Hotke, Director-General for 
Cultural Affairs of the Ministry 

of Cultural Affairs^ 
Recreation and Social Welfare. 

Dr. J.W. Schulte Nordholt, 

Professor of History and Culture 

of North America, University of Leiden. 

A. Jiskoot, Chairman of the Board of 

Managing Directors of Pierson, 

Heldring & Pierson N.V.; 

Member of the Board of Managing 

Directors of Amsterdam-Rotterdam Bank N.V. 

P.W.A.G. Cort van der Linden, 

Director of the Cultural Affairs 

and Information Department 

of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 

J. Lanser, Chairman of the 
Christian Federation of Dutch Trade Unions. 



EXHIBITION ORGANIZING COMMI^EE 



1 



Dr. J.W. Schulte Nordholt, 
Professor of History and Culture 

of North America/ 
University of Leiden; Chairman. 

P.W.A.G. Cort van der Linden, 

Director of the Cultural Affairs 

and Information Department 

of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 

R.R. de Haas, State-Inspector of the 
State-ov/ned Art Collection Department. 

AJ.F. Gogelein, Director of 
the Museum Boerhaave, Leiden. 

Dr. J.W. Niemeijer, Director of the 

Department of Prints and Drawings 

of the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

J.R. ter Molen, Curator of the 

Decoratieve Arts Department 

of the Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, 

Rotterdam. 

H. Citroen, Secretary. 

T.A.P. van Leeuv/^en, Co-ordinator. 

S. Stolk, Designer. 



H. Citroen, Secretary. 



ROYAL NETHERLANDS EMBASSY, WASHINGTON D.C 



His Excellency A.R. Tammenoms Bakker, 

Ambassador Extraordinary 

and Plenipotentiary. 

A. Ekker, Counselor for Press and 
Cultural Affairs. 

W.H. Simonsz, Rrst Secretary for 
Press and Cultural Affairs. 



MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, THE HAGUE. 



CJ. Wackwitz, Deputy- Director 

of the Cultural Affairs 

and Information Department. 

Miss S. Dorr, Head General Information 
and Publicity Section of the Cultural 
Affairs and Information Department. 



• 6 ^ 




Tenders to the exhibition 



THE QUEEN OF THE NETHERLANDS, THE HAGUE,- 
HSTORISCH MUSEUM, AMSTERDAM; THE CITROEN 
-••r^-:-'.'- COLLECTION CHR. R VAN EEGHEN, 
:-^vEENTELIJKE ARCHIEFDIENST, HISTOR1SCH-TOPO- 

- ^-^iS VAN MET GEMEENTEARCHIEF, AMSTERDAM; KO- 
: .:-EDKUNDIG GENOOTSCHAP, RIJKSMUSEUM, AM- 
^ . z' .JNSHOF, HNE PAINTINGS, AMSTERDAM; J.J. POST, 

=1?IVATE COLLECTION, PREMSELA & HAMBURGER, 

:• -.s~;que dealers, Amsterdam; private coLLEaioN, 

- ^IJKSMUSEUM, AMSTERDAM; "NEDERLANDS SCHEEP- 
--:E.M', AMSTERDAM; RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMU- 

":-:"M; TONEELMUSEUM, AMSTERDAM; GEMEENTE- 
- ' .-EVl; RIJKSMUSEUM VAN VOLKSKUNDE, "HET NEDER- 
^^EN.UCHTMUSEUM", ARNHEM; NEDERLANDS HERVORM- 
r'.'r EOLSVVARD; STEDELIJK EN BISSCHOPPELIJK MUSEUM, 
'.-NJE NAUSSAU MUSEUM, DELFT; STEDELIJK MUSEUM 
■iENHOF", DELFT; MUSEUM MR. SIMON VAN GUN, DORD- 
■• . ERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, EINDHOVEN; RIJKSMUSEUM 
EE-,' JSEUM", ENtCHUIZFN; 'T DR. COOPMANSHUS, FRANE- 
■^ NGER MUSEUM, GRONINGEN; FRANS HALS MUSEUM, 
3EMEENTEARCHIEF, HAARLEM; RIJKSARCHIEF PROVINCIE 
-;.LAND (PROVINCIALE ATLAS), HAARLEM; TEYLERS MU- 
--.iM; P.W. VOET, HAARLEM; ALGEMEEN RIJKSARCHIEF, 
„; DIENST VERSPREIDE RUKSCOLLEOIES, THE HAGUE; GE- 



MEENTEARCHIEF, THE HAGUE; HAAGS GEMEENTEMUSEUM, THE 
HAGUE; HERVORMDE GEMEENTE,THE HAGUE; KONINKLIJKE BIBUO- 
THEEK, THE HAGUE; KONINKLIJK KABINET VAN SCHILDERIJEN "MAU- 
RITSHUIS",THE HAGUE; KONINKLIJK PENNINGKABINET, THE HAGUE; 
HET NEDERLANDS KOSTUUMMUSEUM, THE HAGUE; COLLEaiON 
B.W.G. WTFEWAALL, THE HAGUE; NOORDBRABANTS MUSEUM, 
's HERTOGENBOSCH; H.J.E. VAN BEUNINGEN, LANGBROEK; FRIES 
MUSEUM, LEEUWARDEN; GEMEENTELIJK MUSEUM HET PRINCESSE- 
HOF: ALGEMEEN CERAMISCH STUDIE CENTRUM, LEEUWARDEN; 
ACADEMISCH HISTORISCH MUSEUM DER RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT, LEIDEN; 
GEMEENTELIJKE ARCHIEFDIENST, LEIDEN; MUSEUM BOERHAAVE, 
LEIDEN; PRENTENKABINET DER RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT, LEIDEN; STEDELIJK 
MUSEUM, DE LAKENHAL, LEIDEN; BiBLlOTHEEK DER RUKSUNfVERSI- 
TEIT, LEIDEN; COLLEaiON BODEL NIJENHUIS, BiBLlOTHEEK DER RUKS- 
UNIVERSITEIT, LEIDEN; KASTEEL- MUSEUM SYPESTEYN,LOOSDRECHT; 
BONNEFANTENMUSEUM, MAASTRICHT; FONDATION CUSTODIA 
(COLLEaiON FRITS LUGT) INSTITUT NEERLANDAIS, PARIS; STICHTING 
ATLAS VAN STOLK, ROHERDAM; GEMEENTELIJKE ARCHIEFDIENST, 
RO^ERDAM; MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN, ROHERDAM; 
AARTSBISSCHOPPELIJK MUSEUM, UTRECHT; CENTRAAL MUSEUM 
DER GEMEENTE UTRECHT, UTRECHT; OUD KATHOLIEKE GEMEENTE, 
UTRECHT; PROF. DR J.W. SCHULTE NORDHOLT, WASSENAAR; VER- 
ENIGING "DE ZAANSCHE MOLEN", ZAANDIJK; STEDELIJK MUSEUM, 
OUDHEIDKAMER VOOR STAD EN GRAAFSCHAPZUTPHEN, ZUTPHEN. 



i"»gen. 



GTON D.C. 



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jnt. 



• 7 • 



JOHN ADAMS AND THE DUTCH REPUBLIC 



BYJ.W. SCHULTE NORDHOLl 



When on April 19, 1775 the shot heard round the 
world is fired, its echo is scarcely audible in the 
Netherlands. Holland, or ratherthe Republic of the 
Seven United Provinces (fig.nr. 11, is no longer a 
power of international significance as it was in the 
seventeenth centun/; it has been for surpassed by 
Britain and France. It is still a nation with an inri- 
pressive trade, and a center of finance, but it has 
its Golden Age behind it. True, general decline has 
not set in, but the germs of decay are there. The 
Dutch live on their old glory, timorously and dis- 
trustfully. 



In a sense theirs is a world of appearances. Re^ 
ding some of the Dutch poets and authors of f 
time one almost gets the impression of an idyll 
society, where everyone has attained some mei 
sure of equality and contentment. "In our blesse 
land the least of laborers is just as much mast 
of what he owns as the most illustrious noblemc 
is of his: the laws of the land ore common kno\ 
ledge and in the hands of everyone ...He dek 
mines the fate of his children like a sovereign... h 
setHes in whatever region of the country he believ 
capable of providing him with a livelihood", rea( 



^^'yjC J />i. 




MAP OF THE SEVEN PROVINCES OF THE DUTCH REPUBLIC. 

PIERRE HUSSON, F!RST HALF 18TH. CENTURY. 

PAPER, COLORED (CAT.NR. A. 2) 

LEIDEN, COLLECTION BODEL NIJENHUiS, BIBUOTHEEK DER RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT. 



• 8* 



^ . :- ; - from a book of 1777 by Laurens Pieter 
" ^ . T Iz'egel. And a poet of the some period, 
j T Simon Stijt maintains that 



^ "there is no other land where 

— ^ '^*Te rkh display their wealth with such little ostentation, 

■*»G "ne poor are ever cared for with such kind consideration. 
Q~ ■" 'e-e farmers else so rich, so well endowed with land, 

tr \-'Z ioilors so belov'd, 3s before the mast they stand, 

^|i ~'^ —erchant so respected and occorded such prestige, 

^-■z even the humblest vassal as happy as his tiege?" 



councils for debate and approval, and with the 
poor communications of those days this meant 
endless delay. As Adams wrote in despair: "ihey 

leJibercile and deiiberale and deliberciie." 



Wi 



sr; 



-. d not be difficult to quote a whole series of 

ymns of praise, and one might almost imag- 

■ratthey did not refer to the mouldering Dutch 

SD-C-lic, but to the emergent new world, that one 

ot reading conservative Dutch writers such 

.r.'ens Pieter von de Spiegel and Simon StijI 

^5 quoted above), but the panegyrists of Ame- 

Hector de St. John Crevecoeur and Philip 

er^ou.'^The reality was not so idyllic. To be sure, 

:e and industry were still often prosperous but 

e ,vas also much poverty and class differences 

s arge. The Dutch world was still a thoroughly 

is'-e^'ential society, where gentlemen were gentle- 

•■" and common people common. The govern- 

£*" was in the hands of a very select group of 

cents" in the towns and provinces, a bourgeols- 

ratic uppercrust that was a splendid exam- 

of oligarchy. There was loud and easy talk of 

tnje freedom everyone possessed because 

one was considered to be represented, but 

^ •'. 3s a medieval kind of representation, rather 

-;- -e lines of what the English liked to call virtual 

iKxesentation, a meaningless, hollow and empty 

Idea. 
ihe constitution of the Dutch Republic was highly 
zcmplex, so that it took even so astute and trained 
2^ obsen/er as John Adams a long time to com- 
srehend the reality hidden behind all that sem- 
isiance of representation and to see where the 
rje power lay. The dividend government was 
sosed on a totally unsuitable constitution, the old 
Lnion of Utrecht: a hereditan/ stadholdership, in 
some ways comparable in its powers to the Ame- 
^can presidency (at the Philadelphia convention of 
1787 Benjamin Franklin warned the assembly on 
po account to take the Dutch stadholdership as a 
^Bodel), was in perpetual rivalry with the regents, 
jwho possessed sovereignty in the town-councils, 
'e provincial States and the States-General. All 
ers of any importance under consideration 
to be sent bock by the States-General to the 
provincial States and by them in turn to the town 



A new element in this complicated situation in the 
eighteenth century was the rise and especially the 
growing self-consciousness of a middle class, com- 
posed mainly of businessmen and professionals, 
who were often dissenters in religion, opposed to 
the established Reformed Church. It wasthis middle 
class which, like everywhere In Europe at that time, 
began to yearn for power; they eagerly accepted 
the new ideas of Locke, Montesquieu and, later, 
Rousseau, and gradually developed into a politi- 
cal party. We must use this term cautiously, forthere 
was no question then of a party in the modern 
sense, with an executive and an organization. 
And yet, a clear trend was discernible. What now 
happened in the ■Netherlands was that this new 
group began to assume a role in the struggle 
between stad holder and regents. The stad holder 
had his own party, with its strength in the army, 
the established Church, and among the lower 
classes. The power of the regents was not based 
on their possession of a following, but on their 
position as a close-knit clan who held their offices 
in government by co-optation, not by election from 
below. A struggle for power developed between 
the three groups. At first the regents joined forces 
with the middle class in opposition to the House of 
Orange, and together they adorned themselves 
with the name of Patriots; but then a split developed 
between them, conservatives against progressives. 
New words were at this time coined In the Nether- 
lands, with the citizens denouncing the regents as 
"aristocrats," who in turn called the citizens "demo- 
crats". For a short while it looked as if the citizens 
would side with Orange against the regents; this 
would really have been a more logical develop- 
ment, but owing to a variety of circumstances it 
did not happen then. Very much later, after the 
French era, it did become possible, and by gradual 
stages the constitutional monarchy was establish- 
ed, which received Its constitution In 1848 and still 

exists today. 
However, in 1775 all parties were still implacably 
opposed to each other. The stadholder, William V 
{fig.nr. 21, was, unfortunately, a man of a weak 
character, of whom even his own wife despaired. 
Moreover he was so devoted to the British Court 
by his family ties, that he could and would not see 
the Americans as anything but evilminded rebels. 
There was no statesman strong enough to provide 
leadership; the Grand Pensionary (a kind of prime 
minister) Pieter von Bleiswijk was just as the Prince 



• 9 • 




STATE PORTRAIT OF PRINCE WILLIAM V. 

CANVAS, ATTRIBUTED TO J.G. ZiESENIS. (CAT.NR. A, 3) 

DELFT, ORANJE NASSAU MUSEUM. 

ON LOAN FROM DIENST VERSPREIDE 

RIJKSCOLLECTIES, THE HAGUE 



• 10* 



5ib!y even more indecisive. The stadhol- 
iccHjrt and the government had no concern or 
iv for the nev^ movement in America; they 
-' only too pro-English but also too norrov/- 
minded for that. 
' r^s in the Netherlands heard the shot fired 
\ : - lord, it could only hove been a nobleman, 
: z' Zwolle, in the eastern part of the countn/, 
' Z ork van der Capellen tot den Poll (fig.nr. 3), 
^~oer of the States of Overljssel (the house 
f^ he used to live in Zwolle is no longer stand- 
out on the new one in its place is a memorial 
given by the Holland Society of New York). 




PORTRAIT OF JOHAN DERK VAN DER CAPELLEN TOT DE POLL 

PRINT BY L.J. CATHELIN AFTER J.A. KALDENBACH. (CAT.NR. A. 5| 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION, 

r^ere is evidence of van der Capellen's commit- 
fe~ent to the American cause as early as 1775, when 
pr?g George III asked his cousin William Vto place 
*^e Scottish Brigade in the Dutch army at his dis- 
f-isol to use in America (such foreign volunteers 
^cd been sen/ing in the Dutch forces since the late 
S'^senth century). This was a matter the Prince 

ten though he was Commander in Chief of the 
ny) could not decide on his own. Approval had 
fe: be gotten first from all the States of the seven 
'-•jvinces. In the province of Overijssel van der 
-~pellen made an impassioned speech against 
rease of these troops to England, since, he said, 



It would violate Dutch neutrality. At the same time 
he took up the Americans' cause: they merited 
everyone's esteem "as brave folk who in a calm, 
courageous and Godfearing manner are defen- 
ding the rights granted to ihem as human beings, 
no1 by the Leglslaiiji^. In England, but by God 
himself." His protest met with response in other 
provinces and the result was that the troops were 
not released. However, with the war of American 
Independence being fought at sea as well as at 
land, neutrality was increasingly jeopardized. The 
Dutch, to earn money, remained neutral, and their 
neutrality implied recognition of the American re- 
bels as belligerents. Under pressure from Britain 
the States General did announce an embargo on 
all exports of arms and munitions to America, but 
this was as far as they were willing to go. Their 
trade with the colonies actually thrived as a result 
of the conflict. It was centered on the Dutch islands 
in the Caribbean, notably St Eustatius (fig.nr. 4), 
from which the American Congress received intel- 
ligence, correspondence and also a considerable 
quantity of arms. This was a thorn in the side of the 
British. They became even more annoyed when 
on November 16, 1776 the Dutch fort (fig.nr. 5) on 
the island fired a salute to the American ship 
Andrew Dona. It was possibly the first international 
honors paid to the new nation, even though the 
Danes on the Virgin Isles also claimed this distinc- 
tion and Johan de Graaff, governor of St. Eustatius 
in his subsequent defence of the incident declared 
that it was not intended as recognition of the rebels, 
but merely as a customan/ greeting extended to 
even/ merchantman. The affair caused quite a stir. 
Under English pressure de Graaff was recalled to 
Holland, where he was exonerated from all blame 
after his detailed defence had been heard. 
A few years later another Incident caused even 
more excitement. In the autumn of 1779 the Ameri- 
can privateer captain John Paul Jones (fig.nr. 61 
brought into the roads of Texel the British ship 
Serapis, which he had captured in a bloody 
combat. The British made a sharp protest, demand- 
ing that the Serapis be returned to them, but met 

with refusal. 
John Paul Jones became a kind of national hero in 
Holland; he was so popular that when he came 
to Amsterdam from Texel, he was received as a 
celebrity and cheered. Even now, two centuries 
later, children in Holland are taught a rhyme: 

Here comes Paul Jones, 

He is such a nice fellov/. 

His ship went down 

At England's end. 



I 




VIEW OF THE ISLAND OFST. EUSTATIUS. 

PRINT BY CF. BENDORP AFTER G.T. VAN PADDENBURG. (CAT.NR. A. 26) 
THE HAGUE, ALCEMEEN RIJKSARCHIEF. 



It became increasingly difficult for the Netherlands 
to keep out of the conflict, and the Dutch merchants, 
eager for profit, were not all that keen on neutrality. 
They hoped that America would free itself from the 
grip of English mercantilism and become a vast 
market for Dutch trade. While they had no desire 
to join in the fight, they very much wanted to pick 
the fruits of an American victory. That is why Am- 
sterdam instructed the banker Jean de Neufville 
to conclude a secret treaty (flg.nr. 7a +b) with the 
American envoy William Lee, who was travelling 
through Europe to seek support for the American 
cause. This strange document, a treaty between a 
city and an envoy both of whom lacked the au- 
thority to conclude it, remained a secret for two 
years. Then the Continental Congress sent a spe- 
cial envoy to Holland, Henn/ Laurens of South 
Carolina. He carried with him a copy of the treaty, 
so as to be able to re-establish contact with sym- 
pathizers in Amsterdam. However, Laurens's ship 
was intercepted on the Atlantic by an English ship; 
and the box containing the secretdocuments which 



PLAN OF FORT ORANGE ON THE ISLAND OF ST. EUSTATIUS. 

COLORED DRAWtNG BY J.W.W. VAN OVERMEER FISSCHER, 1787. {CAT.NR. A, 
THE HAGUE, ALGEMEEN RIJKSARCHIEF. 



he hurriedly threw overboard, rem^^ned afioatc 
was promptly recovered by the British. In Lone 
this discovery led to great though artificially 
flated Indignation. In sharply worded notes 
British Ambassador, Sir Joseph Yorke, demanc 
satisfaction from the Dutch Republic, repudia 
of the treaty and punishment of the guilty, 
demands were so absolute that the States gen 
could not accept them, but then this was preci 
what the British intended. They had something 
tirely different in mind, a pretext to declare ^ 
on Holland. The true reasons for the war lay e 
where. In the first place, Britain was determin 
put a stop to the smuggling trade via St. Eusta 
and one of the first acts of war was the cap' 
and complete devastation of the island. In 
second place, she wanted to prevent the Repu 
from joining the Alliance of Armed Neutrality, 
ranged by the Empress of Russia, which wit- 
defence of freedom of navigation posed a th 
to Britain's struggle against America, since it wi 
afford neutral trade (and smuggling) more so 



•12* 



r-^-^lCS*. 







. ^A' 




»•»*(»- ■«? -SW^E*!* 












:.-^'' Sl'WSlA^^^fU^^ 



li. -t-.f'tr-r C^riv^j- . 



-. ■ ^ ' ■ ■ ■ "■■ 



BJSTATIUS. 

" CAT.NR. A. 21 



I afloat a 
sh. In Lond 
artificially 
ied notes ti 
Ice, demand 
:, repudiati 
■'e guilty, h 
5 -'c:tes generi 
E was precise ^ 
I something e 
c declare wc 
e v/ar lay els: 
► determined ' 
ic St. Eustatiu 
bs the captui 
island. In \\ 
rtf the Republ' 
Neutrality, c 
'••.""ich with i- 
>Qsed a three 
, since it wou 
more scop 




I 



• 13* 







not made with an esthetic purpose and did 
reflect refined taste. That is probably why thj 
were hardly ever signed (as were the more artis 
prints of the period), and sometimes it is diffi( 
to determine their origin. But they were wic 
distributed, and specimens are still to be foi 
today at antique dealers. Perhaps they can 
be compared with the cartoons of the prese 



A. RECTO: CONCLUSION OF A COMMERCIAL TREATY BETWEEN NORTH AMER 

AND THE CITY OF AMERICA. B. VERSO 

MEDAL BY J,G. HOLTZHEY, 1782, [CAT.NR. A. 41} 

THE HAGUE, KONINKLIJK PENNINGKABiNET (ROYAL COLLECTION OF COIh 




JOHN PAUL JONES, DRAWN WHILE ATTENDING A PLAY IN THE AMSTERDAM 

THEATRE ON 9 OCTOBER 1779. 

PRINT BY S. FOKKE (?). (CAT.Nft. A. 29) 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 



Under the impact of these events, the Dutch began 
to take a growing interest in the American cause. 
It is extremely difficult to say how widespread 
sympathy for it was. If we are to believe an un- 
doubtedly biased man like Van der Capellen, at 
least four-fifths of the Dutch sympathized with the 
rebellion. More accurate figures are hard to find, 
and, in any case, the critical question is whether 
that sym pathy was inspired by com mercia I motives, 
or whether idealistic considerations also played 
a part. It may be that the numerous pamphlets 
and prints that started to appear in the years from 
1778 to 1780 are a measure of that interest. In those 
days these were the propaganda media for in- 
fluencing public opinion, and there are no better 
means of gleaning what emotions and sentiments 
were alive or, at least, were being awakened 
among the ordinary people. Prints were the tele- 
vison pictures of that time (fig.nr. 8). They certainly 
did not represent art of a high order. They were 










• 14* 



KNK STAATKIXDIGK KONSTPLAAT VAX'TJAAR 1780. 




T.-IIL/.K JiOrCH POI^I TIO T^K IC T OKSIl R-iI^£, I) K I.' - i \ A A /: .f7Sn. 



-.^01 



"GENERAL CONSTITUTIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE YEAR 1780" 

PRINT. (CAT. NR.;i. 20) 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 



-* "'en it has to be remembered that In the late 
' z"-eenth century real caricature drawing was 
" Its infancy. Only some years later, in the 
' -- zr\d of William Pitt the younger, did artists like 
''i-as Rowlandson and James Gillray really 
Jczethe cartoon into a distinctive and specialized 
r ~he caricatures of around 1780 were still bur- 
e-ed with excessive detail; they tried to say too 
^-i"' and often carried lenghty captions to ex- 
fc'n all the meanings. They are invaluable as a 
t.'ce of our knowledge of the period, although, 
ic;, used too little by historians. The prints in Hoi- 



I 



land devoted to the American revolution all have 
certain features in common. Most of them are vio- 
lently anti-British and express a fierce commercial 
jealousy. The British Empire is depicted as a cow 
being milked by a Dutch farmer, as a lion moaning 
or asleep, as a dog - the British Bulldog - sur- 
rounded by enemies, as a man caught with his 
pants down, or as a sick person being given an 
enema. 

According to the artists, Britain's position is hope- 
less; public funds ore exhausted, mice are gnawing 
at the last remaining banknotes, the King, seated 



• 15* 





.%i. 



^. J'tJnmriCi 



c- 



■ z-e, is robbed of his boots by a couple 
e- :ans while he calls to Lord North for help; 

- - .veil treaties (especially the Navigation 
: ■ //as hated by the Dutch! are trampled 
:5 toilet paper, the Bank of England, re- 

-: by a curious piece of furniture, sus- 

- ' mid-air from the horn of a unicorn, is 
" 2 and so forth. Britain's enemies are doing 
■-^:ce, personified by an elegant gentleman, 

.sjally recognisable by his plumed hat, 

: - : 3nd, a sturdy farmer or a merchant - all 

^"-ily attack Albion, proud but on the point of 

" and sweep in the winnings. In the back- 

: England is in flames, as Troy once was, 

IS are wrecked, but the merchants of hlol- 

- r enjoying the benefits of a favorable wind 

and full sails. 

- : :t America was a novel task, but there was 

;■ one example to go by. In the seventeenth 

T ghteenth centuries the allegoric presenta- 

: - *he four continents in atlases and paintings 

- .iaely distributed, and the personification 

T American continent which they hod used 

;e^ed as the model for the new nation. An 

" nis head adorned with feathers, sometimes 

-Z'own complexion, was the most common 

r; 2 ry f or the U n ited States. No dou bt, it reflected 

• eneration of the noble savage, so popular In 

e'ghteenth centun/. We see this clearly on the 

:"d print of the emaciated cow (fig.nr. 9). In 

background to the right there is an English 

: :e delegation appearing before the Conti- 

■j Congress, which consists of noble savages 

' : „ nded by allegorical figures depicting Justice, 

: ;3m and Prudence, standing under a canopy 

■-W, and flanked by the libeit/ hat on a spear, 

:. an idyllic palm tree. Celestial rays of light ploy 

-^e scene. All is symbolic but with plain reference 

•rolity. On the extreme right an American is 

_:aged In "barrelling goods for various destino- 

-i" as the accompanying text explains, and 

behind him rises a city of many towers. 
-e!y, America is depicted other than as a savage, 
-e ven/ primitive print Wages after Work (1780) 
appears neatly dressed. In the almost equally 
ze print of the man standing in his shirt, he 
. ■:s off with the Englishman's clothes over his arm. 
r-e Is even a rare print in which America Is re- 
rsented by a woman. The entire print, entitled 
e British Leopard Made To See Reason (fig.nr. 10), 
•a peculiar and so illuminating on the political 
.ation of 1780, that it merits further comment by 
erence to the detailed printed explanation. On 
: eft stands a pro-British Dutchman, named Cato- 
'avus (we do not know who is intended, except 




PORTRAIT OF JOHAN LUZAC. 

A. DELFOS. DRAWING. (CAT.NR, A. 6) 
LEIDEN, ACADEMISCH MUSEUM DER RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT. 

9 
THE ENGLISH COW WASTED TO A SHADOW, "YORKTOWN", 1778. 

PRINT. (CAT.NR. A. II) 
ROHERDAM, ATLAS VAN SfOLK FOUNDATION. 

10 
THE BRITISH LEOPARD BROUGHT TO HIS SENSES, 1780. 

HAND COLORED PRINT. (CAT.NR. A. 13) 
WASSENAAR, PRIVATE COLLECTION. 



that he was the author of pro-British squibs and of 
a printfeaturing The lion Attacked By Cunning And 
Violence, to which our print is a reaction); his pock- 
ets bulge with pound notes, and he points a finger 
at the names of Dutch colonies which, as the maker 
of the print makes him say, could better be gov- 
erned by Britain. 
* The Dutch lion (3) attacks the British leopard (2), 
but an Englishman (4) robs the lion of Neptune's 
trident. Lisbon is also chained to this Englishman, 
and a note above the lion gives the names of Dutch 
colonies captured by Britain, with New York 
heading the list. Next we see a Dutch merchant 
15) waving a paper displaying the names "that 
are anathema to the British", the names where they 
have suffered defeat, and those of Dutch Admirals 
who have beaten them. In a large hoop Empress 

f* The numbers refer to those on the print; see fig.nr. 10). 



• 17* 



Catharina II of Russia (6) holds togetherthe Alliance 
of Armed Neutrality, within which are featured the 
King of Sweden (7), the King of Denmark (8), the 
King of Prussia [91 and the Maid of hHollcnd (10). 
The British Ambassador (111 tries with a knife to cut 
the tie, but the French Ambassador (12) restrains 
him. Above this, beside two columns (the Straits of 
Gibraltar or Columns of Hercules), we see the King 
of Spain (13) who brandishes his dagger over 
Florida, and next to him the King of France (14) who 
places the victory hat of liberty on America's head 
(15). The explanation literally states that (15) repre- 
sents "Ameriko, depicted as a young female with 
a somewhat savage countenance (the artist has 
not succeeded ver/ well in doing this), seated on 
weapons and bales of merchandise, and clasping 
a cluster of thirteen arrows". It all looks rather crude 
and childish, but the political situation is nicely, if 
somewhat naively illustrated. Holland's hopes of 
protection bytheAlliance of Armed Neutrality were 
idle. And her expectations of flourishing trade fol- 
lowing the opening up of the American market 
were also much too optimistic. In reality, knowledge 
of the New World was just as uncertain and crude 
as the way in which the countn/ was depicted in 
the prints. True, a few travel accounts had been 



translated into Dutch, the first dispatches on 
American war were eagerly followed in Hollaj 
being published in excellent newspapers like 
Gazette deLeyde, on Internationa I ly famous pof 
published by Johan Luzac, a Dutchman of FrerS 
Huguenot origin (fig.nr. 11). But the picture presenif 
of America was far from clear, however much 
pros and cons of the American revolution were < 
cussed. Diplomotic relations were ruled out; f 
because the Court and the Government in 
Hague were too pro-English; second, becoi 
American attemps at establishing contact with 
countries of Europe were confused and ill-direct^ 
Lacking experience, the Congress dispatched s^ 
eral envoys, including Benjamin Franklin, but 
not get round to sending someone to Hoi 
until 1780 with, as we have seen, disastrous cor 
quences,with Henry Laurens locked up in theTo\ 
of London, and Holland involved in war. In 
tenuation of the Americans it must be said howf 
that it was far from easy to find an open doc 
Holla nd; anyway a representative of the rebellk 
colonies had been active in The Hague since 
to no avail. He was not an American, but a Frer 
speaking Swiss, Charles William Frederick Dur 
Through a chance meeting with Benjamin Franl 



THE LATIN SCHOOL ON THE SINGEL AT AMSTERDAM, 1820, 

CANVAS BY JACOB SMIES. (CAT.NR. A. 8) 

AMSTERDAM, KONINKLIJK OUDHEIDKUNDIG GENOOTSCHAP 

(ROYAL ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY), 



-i 




• 18* 



F 



XDtches on "|r- 
led in Hollc'lc. 
X3pers like 
rfamouspa 
Bman of Frer 
:!ure presen 
Fever much "cr 
ution werecf 
fuled out; f 
imment in 
Jond, beca 
pntact with '>.^ 
w\d ill-directei;-: 
kpatched se— 
anklin, but ccr 
le to HollG'.r ■ 
scstrous coni's". - 
puc 'ntheTov.-.^: 
war. In enc 
said howe\e'- 
open door ->; 
the rebel lie- : 
ue since 17 --; 
but a Fren 
cerick Dum 
l^^mln Frank ''j.-^ 





\ 



^-z^e the rebellion, he hod come face to 
■' the American question, and out of sheer 
:3n (for Dumas was typical of the eigh- 
;r"tun/ optimist) he offered his services as a 
c of American Interests in FHollond. The 
actually paid him something for this now 
: ::=in, though not enough at first to enable 
: ;v'e up his other jobs (he worked as a tutor 
- - - esters of wea Ithy families). He was on good 
'''"- the French Embassy, as well as with the 
-mericans who came to Holland. How- 
--- -e had too little authority to be of much Im- 
':-:e. The man who eventually really did 
; - :e the situation in the Netherlands was one 
~e great leaders of the American revolution, 
■ " - 3ams. Sent by the Congress to Paris in 1779 
~ "structions to assess the chances of peace 
~ i'^ain, he had had a quarrel with the French 
~ ;- minister, Vergennes, and he could not get 
-', well with Franklin either. He would have 
^ '3 of the latter's prudent diplomacy, but In 
-' nrtibited inexperience advocated a more 
I'essive approach to foreign problems, the 
c diplomacy" as he himself called it. In the 
>er of 1780 he was on such bad terms with 
■;ennes that he decided of his own accord to 
h's luck in Holland, on what he called a fishing 
ition. What he was after was obvious: Dutch 
•ey. He hoped to be able to secure loans to 
e the deplorable state of American finance, 
decreed that he should remain In Holland 
e" Laurens vanished from the scene, and on 
-.ary 1, 1781, the Congress officially appointed 
envoy. But envoy to whom or to what? In The 
j.e no one wanted to receive him, not even 
^TT- December 1780, when the war with Britain 
z<e out. People were afraid and coutious. He 
'-' z\d what has since become the classical tac- 
- :- a roving rebel in foreign parts: he sought 
"';ct with the restless elements in the countn/, 
: oubllcity for his cause through the press. He 
needed fairly well; he made many good friends 
-:-g the Patriots. Baron von der Capellen and 
r -msterdom burgomaster Hendrik Hooft, both 
r-^inent leaders of the parly, gave him a warm 
3 ;ome and helped him along. Luzac In Leiden 
ririme one of his best friends, and so he was 
; ^ ^o have the American dispatches and articles 
"ed in the Gazette de Leyde. Another acquain- 
" reship in Leiden, which was to lead to a lasting 
--3ship, was that with the Mennonlte vicar 
^ ' ;ois Adriaan van der Kemp, on ardent cham- 
: ' of the American cause. Van der Kemp, who, 
'^e commander of a Patriot volunteer corps, 
:.ed a leading port in the troubles that soon 




broke out, fled to America after the Prussian In- 
vasion of Holland in 1787, and lived thereto a ripe 
old age (he died in 1829) in the village of Barneveld 
(now called Trenton) near Utica, N.Y. He carried 
on with Adams an exiensive and tascinating cor- 
respondence. Also Important for Adams' relations 
with rhe press was the contact he established with 
the French journalist A.M. Cehsier, an enthusiastic 
freelancer who in 1780, on Adams' advice, started 
a special paper in support of Ihe American cause, 
again in the then customary French language: 
Le Politique Hollandals. 

What Adams did not manage atflrst was to obtain 
a loan from Amsterdam bankers. Though many of 
them sympathized with America, they kept a firm 
hand on the purse strings, Such prudence made 
Adams Impatient and angry. Originally he had 
come to Holland with great expectations and had 
written In glowing terms to his wife Abigail about 
the virtuous Dutch who like the Americans had 
fought for their freedom In a revolution. On 4 Sep- 
tember 1780 he reported from Amsterdam- "I ami 
vf! y [ji^u.j':j'j Willi r luiiuMLi. li ii. u ill igulor Oountry. 
It Is like no other. It is all the Effect of Industn/, and 
the Work of Art." (fig.nr. 13a+bl. And a couple 
of weeks later he added: "The Countn/ where I 
am is the greatest Curiosity In the World - This 
Nation is not known, anywhere not even by its 
Neighbours - The Dutch Language is spoken by 
none but themselves - Therefore They converse 
with nobody and nobody converses with them - 
The English are a great nation, and they despise 
the Dutch because they are smaller - The French 
are a greater Nation still, and therefore they 
despise the Dutch because they are still smaller in 
comparison to them. But 1 doubt much whether 
there is any Nation of Europe more estimable than 
the Dutch in Proportion.Theirlndustjy and Economy 
ought to be Examples to the World. They have 
less Ambition, 1 mean that of Conquest and militan/ 
Glory, than their Neighbours, but I don't perceive 

thotthev have more avarice." (fig.nr. 14a+bl. 
But after a more prolonged stay in Holland he was 
less flattering in his judgment, beginning to suspect 
that avarice dominated everything. Here, he wrote, 
they have but one God and that is Mammon. And 
In another letter to a friend (James Warren, 
9 December 1780): ::jucri o iNarion of Idolaters at 
the ^,,.-,, ' Mnmmon never existed. I believe, 

before." In fact, In the end he reached the conclu- 
sion that Holland was In a bod way, that all pros- 
perity and vlrtuousness was but an illusion, a cloak 
to conceal the sad reality. "This Countn/," he wrote 
to the Congress (16 May 17811, "Is indeed in a melon- 



•19 • 



1 



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2^H^-^^^^^Nc^^^x5^^ />^ 



i^: 



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4 '^i**' '^^^'^ 

^,f>^ ^ ^5W ^^ ^^^^^ ^^"""^ ^%^ ..^ M^XU^ 4, 



LETTER OF JOHN ADAMS TO ABIGAIL ADAMS, AMSTERDAM, SEPT. 4, 1780. 



•20* 



— / rf- 



T 







<..lui-t. 






-<M|. 



• 21* 






ji^ cAm^ (^^n^ 



^^^H -y^^^.^ ^Qf^^^^ ^ 



LETTER OF JOHN ADAMS TO ABIGAIL ADAMS, AMSTERDAM, SEPT. 15, 1780. 
BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

PHOTO GEORGE M. GUSHING. 



J 



•22 * 







1*^ /^ 



t^<~^. 



tV- A, «am/<- -^^^ .wS*"* A •«««. ,. ■ 

/uu^ _„ -JKw «• X^«,/^c^/^* <:^*^ /S^ »*<>.-£^ 



•23 • 



STREET RIOT AT ROTTERDAM [N 1781. 

COLORED DRAWING BY DIRK LANGENDIJK. (CAT.NR. A, 52) 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RUKSMUSEUM. 



choly sifuatiori; sunk in ease, devoted to the pursuits 
of gain, overshadowed on all sides by more power- 
ful neighbours, unanimai"ed by a love of military 
glory, or any aspiring spirit... encumbered with a 
complicated and perplexed constitution, divided 
among themselves In Interest and sentiment, they 
seem nfraid of everything." But Adams was not a 
man to be disheartened, however hopeless the 
situation. He realized that there would be no chan- 
ce of obtaining loans In the absence of a broader 
basis of confidence, that loans and diplomatic 
recognition went hand in hand, that if he was to 
succeed in Amsterdam, he would first have to make 
a go at things in The Hague. Early in 1781 he went 
Into action. He operated from Leiden, which was 

situated about ten miles from The Hague. 
He had housed his two sons there, and registered 
them at the University, although they were only 
thirteen and eleven years of age! Earlier they had 
attended the Latin School on the Singel in Amster- 
dam Iflg.nr. 12), where they had not been able to 
settle down and from which they had been remo- 
ved at the headmaster's request. But in Leiden 
things went better,- especially the older boy, John 
Quincy Iwho was to play a major role later on and 
I ike his father, occupy the White House), turned out 



to be a good student who followed a varlet 
courses in ancient languages and studied 
There was no such thing as a language prot 
for even/thing was in Latin! From Leiden 
Adams on April 19 travelled by foach and h( 
to The Hague In order to present to the 
General a Memorial in which he urged early r« 
nitlon. But it was not as easy as that. True, 
High Mightinesses, the States General, now 
they were at war with Britain, had become slit 
more favorably disposed towards the Amer 
cause, and they conferred In private as to 
they could best do if they were not to miss' 
American trade. But In the spring of 1781 they 
not yet prepared to consider recognition o 
United States. All through that summer Adams! 
to exercise patience, and this made him so 
perate (he suffered a few other setbacks as 
that In the autumn of 1781 he fell seriously ill 
vexation and misery. But it was then that th^ 
turned. The news of the capitulation at YorF< 
reached Holland, changed even/thing. Arr^ 
looked like a winner. Now the Dutch meres 
really began to worry that they would mi; 
boat. The Dutch democrats cheered and pre 
for recognition of the United States. One 



•24* 




G a variety :!^^ 
h rudied la 
iLcge proble 
Leiden Jo^ 
ich and horsT 
^o the Sto- 
aeorlyrecc 
ct. True, The 
dI, now th. 
:ome slight 
Hie Americc 
te as to wh: 
Dt to miss tl" 
781 they we' 
gnition of th 
B" Adams he : ' 
e him so de 
lacks as wel 
riously ill fro'~- 
(r --at the tic ^ 
r 3' Yorkto\A : 
I" "g. Americ 
ch merchan 
ould miss th 
and press 
. One of th 



nil 

thfcrc 
leife- " 

I 



ALMANAC [CALENDAR) FROM AMELAND. 

PAINTED WOOD. (CAT.NR. A. 32) 
LEEUWARDEN, FRIES MUSEUM. 



T'5sting testimonies of the excitement a rou- 
: water-color by Dirk Langendijk, depicting 
2-- demonstration in Rotterdam (fig.nr. 15). 
: 'ed crowd is seen moving through the 
"sampling the Union Jack, they are bois- 
••/aving French, Dutch and American flags. 
~t' did not yet have stors; only the thirteen 
: - .Kite stripes, just like the merchant marine 
-t had been saluted in such a spectacular 
:* St. Eustatius. The emotion was general, 
■'9 of America was on every lip. And so it 
" I' a new democratic process was initiated, 
cetitions were presented to the authorities 
T citizens. In all provinces petitions came 
z :n: recognize America; that alone can save 
.enguishing trade. The government in The 
T was suddenly put under pressure, but it 
"ed. The Prince remained opposed to dea- 
rth the rebels. John Adams decided once 
*o bring pressure to bear. In January 1782 
: the audacity to proceed to The Hague to 
' and a categorical reply to this Memorial. 
" ^^ar/ 1782 the dams of resistance began to 
- :£s. The States of Friesland were the first to 
-.-'ze American independence (fig.nr. 16). In 

- and April the other provinces followed suit. 
-z-\\ 19 the States General proceeded to re- 
' "Dn, making the Dutch Republic the second 
^' in Europe, after France, to acknowledge 

- " >ed States as on independent nation accor- 
: 'z the law (fig.nr. 17). It was a solemn occasion 

"jch pomp and circumstrance, with a ban- 

2ven by the diplomatic corps in honor of 
■ "ow officol American colleague, with a recep- 

: / the Prince at FHuis ten Bosch, his modest 
: :e just outside The FJogue (fig.nr. 191, and with 

■ parties and celebrations elsewhere in the 
country as well. 

of course, as was customary in those times, 
.mber of splendid silver medals were struck 
■^emorating the event, with symbolic represen- 



WINE GLASS WITH THE COAT OF ARMS OF THE STATES GENERAL AND THE FLAG 
OF THE UNITED STATES, 1782. 

(CAT.NR. A. 37) 
AMSTERDAM, RUKSMUSEUM. 

tations: (fig.nr. 18a+b). The Maid of Holland 
greeting her free sister; the British unicorn struck 
down, merchandise stacked in abundance, Dame 
Liberty, in her right hand the cluster of arrows and 
the spear with the llberly hat, in her left the staff 
of Mercur/, blesses America and more of such 
exalted themes. .^^^ 

-mm- ■ 




• 25* 



- 1' "'ng figures appeared in prints. In 
-:e the treaty of 1778 was justified once 
; -- 20). it shows America as a young 

■' -eatlners on lier head and the liberty 

I" in her right hand, standing on top 

- I'tannio whose crown has fallen from 

-' -msterdam burgomaster presents her 

- Ti::ratory Plan (a fine-sounding name 
: t' 'he treaty of 1778). To the right stands 

:■ "ance with a grim expression, helping 
- : 'on. On the pedestal supporting Ameri- 
^^ -' e coats of arms of Amsterdam, America 
-i-ce. A short poem underlines the illustration: 
-.—erica tramples down angry Albion, 
*• - « -^e British crown is crushed by Bourbon, 
■c se«s itself by Holland, after the example of 

the citizens of Amsterdam, 

Acr-^ing to the preparatory plan, declared 

free in Adams. 




AMERICA TRAMPLES UPON HAVING ALBION. 

■^Js,- SYG. BROUWER AFTER P. WAGENAAR, 7 OCTOBER 1782. (CAT.NR. A. 31] 
-laal dtn j'?Oct.jy& ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 



k 



Another print (fig.nr. 21) from a book of Patriot 
origin shows two fair ladies, Holland and America, 
joyfully greeting each other; an angel locks their 
hands together; Dame Fortune with the horn of 
plenty floats above them; Albion lies crushed, the 
shackles and the yoke are broken; the Dutch lion 
wags his tail for joy; in the background trade and 
industn/ rise up over the stacked merchandise and 
a ship lies ready to soil. There was no lack of 

symbolism of high expectations. 
Whether they were justified remained to be seen. 
To be sure, the first loan materialized that summer, 
followed in the course of years by several more. 
And In October 1782 Adams rounded off his Dutch 
mission with a trade agreement. He had even/ 
reason to be satisfied, having made a success of 
a well-nigh impossible assigment in a brilliant man- 
ner. And he certainly was satisfied! He made no 
attemptto conceal his pride in the results achieved. 
To a friend he wrote with obvious content (Francis 

Dana, 17 Sept. 1782): . ,,,.. .,,.,.. ,-... ,,.....,: . ,; 

look down cverthe baltlements with pleasure upon 
Ihe stars and stripes wantoning in the wind at The 
" For many years to come Adams was to 
keep recalling his triumph. Asked by his friend 
Van der Kemp what had been the highlights of 
his life, he said that his stay in Holland certainly 
belonged to them. And in a letter written when he 
was nearly eighty-eight years old, he explained 
once again that Holland's role (and with it, of 
course, his own) had been decisive for the course 
of the American revolution. It makes me blush, he 
wrote,tothink how little we Americansappreciated 
all this at the time. '■ Holland's separaiion iiorn Lng- 
luiiu, uiiioi: vvltli France afd Spain and their Ireaty 
Willi us was the event which ullimately turned the 
scale of the American Revolutionary war and pro- 

' jced tl ■ 
For America everything worked out well in the end. 
But what about Holland? As it turned out, those 
who had warned against too much optimism were 
right. Quite soon the illusion cherished by so many 
Dutch merchants that America would remain an 
agrarian countn/ indefinitely, a market with little 
trade and industn/ of its own, proved entirely mis- 
taken. True, the Americans themselves had delibe- 
rately fostered that illusion. But after 1783 came the 
rude awakening. The energy of the Yankees could 
not be curbed, and what some people hod feared 
all along happened: American trade soon devel- 
oped into serious competition with the Dutch, 

notably in Asia. 
As for the political and spiritual implications of the 
American revolution, these were profound and 
strong in the Netherlands. Admittedly, there were 



• 27* 



J 




■'. 






" "iM li ' 



THL-I 





,>_ « • 




many Dutchmen who held upthe American 
to their fellow countn/men as an exam- 
Ike Luzac and Van der Kemp were ex- 
': at least in their writings. Their high ex- 
:'B, however, did undoubtedly contribute 
I'anges which followed in Holland. From 
C'ir Von der Kemp proclaimed: "In America 
cf Salvation has risen, which will also cast 
Dn us if we so wish: only America can 
" ow to counter the degeneration of the 
_'aracter, to curb the corruption of morals, 
- off bribery, to suffocate the seeds of tyranny 
'estore to health our dying freedom. The 



supreme Being has ordained that America shall 
be Holland's last preacher of repentance". Lan- 
guage like this met with response. Soon the trickle 
of enthusiasm became a torrent. Poets song of the 
heroic deeds of the Americans, applauding above 
all George Washington. Reformers went to Ame- 
rica in search of examples for a new constitution. 
Dutch translations of the constitutions of all thirteen 
states appeared as early as 1781. In the following 
year, the year of diplomatic recognition, a two- 
volume work was published, containing all kinds of 
tributes to America in prose and poetry. Its title was: 
A Commemorative Column on the occasion of the 



"RECOGNITION OF INDEPENDENCE". 

NUMBER FtVE OF THE SERIES: "NATIONAL CURIOSITIES IN THE CURIOUS YEAR 1782 

BY "ANONYMOUS". PRINTED ON THE ISLAND OF THE PATRIOTS, IN THE YEAR 1783, 

BY ANTI-ANGLOMANNUS"- 

PRINT. (CAT.NR. A, ii) 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 




op d e II It P e b a:" u a i' ij , 17S 




THE PRESENTATION OF TWO COLOURS TO THE AMSTERDAM MILITIA. 
COLORED PRINT BY NOACH VAN DER MEER JR. (CAT.NR. A. 57) 
AMSTERDAM, HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAN HET GEMEENTEARCHIEF 
(HISTORICAL-TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES}. 



declara1-ion of North America's freedom. In every 
part of the population people occupied themsel- 
ves with the new miracle in the West, the birth of 

a new notion. 
A young man who was later to play a leading 
part in the establishment of the constitutional mo- 
narchy in Holland, Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp, 
went to the United States in 1783 at the age of 
twenty. In order to see for himself how a state Is 
born. Another youngster, likewise predestined to 
become a central figure In Holland's histon/, Rutger 
Jon Schimmelpenninck, took his doctor's degree at 
Leiden In 1785 with a thesis on "The moderate po- 
pular government", in which he used John Adams' 
constitution of Massachusetts as o shining example. 
One can go even further than this. The entire strug- 
gle be^een Orangists and Patriots, all the unrest 



of the years from 1782-1787 Is really unthin< 
without the American example. A true Or 
like the scholar Adrlaan Klult recognised rnj 
the time, describing the "Evil of American Free; 
as "the origin and root of all subsequent disc; 
calamities and losses suffered by the Rep. 
The party strife did indeed lead to an Increcsi 
sharp division. The democratic Patriots went\ 
and further with their demands for populc- 
ence, thereby alienating the regents. The 
although anti-Orange, preferred the yoke 
Prince to that of the people and so they be^ 
seek rapprochement with him. The radical F; 
pinned their faith on another Amencon e> 
and started to arm. They were inspired c 
Ideal of popular resistance to the hated stc 
army. What was possible In America, wrc-d 



*30* 



:iellen, must also be possible in Holland. 

~9rs and townsmen had to unite In a militia, 

:' Sundays after church for drill, and thus 

:::out the reformation of the State. All over 

- ""^ volunteer corps were formed, with ex- 

-::nt names such as Pro Patna Libertate, Pro 

"ocis, and such like. Many contemporon/ 
-"owthem lined up and proudly drilling with 
■■-= flying and drums beating (fig.nrs. 22 and 
' 'n the end nothing came of all these efforts. 
: 'ovince of Holland the Patriots did seize po- 
' :: they also gained control in other regions, 
I'cing the Prince's family to take refuge in the 
' part of the countn/, but the Prince still hod 
. ne could depend upon. The allies, Britain 
T had been signed In 17841 and Prussia, 

. Ith displeasure how the Republic was drif- 
:'e and more towards France, and in 1787 
: Dk action. The immediate cause was that the 
; prevented Princess Wilhelmina, consort of 
"ce and sister of the King of Prussia, from 
"9 loThe Hague. She called on her brother's 



assistance and in the autumn the Prussians mar- 
ched into Holland. It then became evident that the 
volunteer corps were not worth much; they were 
no match for what was then considered to be the 
best army in Europe, and were routed. The old 
order was restored, the Prince returned to The 
Hague In triumph, and the leaders of the Patriots 
fled to France. But even this triumph was short-lived. 
The fate of the Netheria nds was increasingly deter- 
mined beyond its frontiers. Two years later the great 
revolution broke out In France, and in a violent 
expansion soon flooded across all European 
frontiers. In 1795 it was the Republic's turn. Across 
the frozen rivers the French invaded the countn/ 
(fig.nr. 241, driving out the Prince (who fled to En- 
gland) and the regents, and placing their friends, 
the Patriots, in charge. From then onward every- 
thing in the Netherlands was dominated by the 
French. America was still talked about, and under 
the tree of liberty erected in 1795 (fig.nr. 25) the 
American flag was flown side by side with the 
French and the Dutch. But In reality the Netherlands 



ENTRY OF THE FRENCH. 

DRAWING BY JACOB CATS. (CAT.NR. A. 71) 

AMSTERDAM, HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAM HET GEMEENTEARCHIEF 

(HISTORICAL-TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 



Y unthinka 
rue Oranc 

nlsed this 

:an Freed o 

lent disaste 

he Republ 

■» increasing* 

wentfurth 
XDpular inf 
Is. The latt' 
J yoke of tl 
ley began 
idical Patrlc'- 

;an examp 
red by ti- 
lted standir 
n, wrote Vc - 




soon became a French satellite, the American ex- 
ample fading away behind the horizon. 
For the time being the original friendship between 
the iwo nations, the Netherlands and the United 
States, was to be platonic, sincere but distant. In 
the nineteenth centun/ America was to the poor 
of many countries, including the NetheHands, the 
alluring countn/ of freedom in the West. Apart 
•••••*•••••••••*•• 



from this there was not much contact. Only \r 
twentieth centun/ was the relationship to becc 
closer once again. What John Adam had wa^ 
then, as he expressed in a letter to Secretar 
Foreign Affairs Robert" R. Livingston, Decembe- 
1782: "It is the United States of America whicl" 
save this Republic from ruin/' actually came a: 
in our own time. And thus the circle was comple- 
• •••■•••••••••••• 



REJOICING ON DAM SQUARE, MARCH 1795. 

HAND COLORED PRINT BY HERMANUS NUMAN. (CAT.NR. A. 70) 

AMSTERDAM, HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAN HET GEMEENTEARCHIEF 

(HISTORICAL-TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 



I 



iSi- « -ff Hi jwal^ 






*t5 K 




I 



II 



ct. Only i 
ship to b 
Mn had wi 
Id SecretG 

Decern 
riCG which 



came a 
^ascompl 
• • • 



.1', 




I 



i 



m^ 



*33*^ 



CITIES AND SCENERY THE REPUBLIC OUT OF DOq 

BYJ.W. NIEMEIJJ 



1775-1795 






"There Is no land that one con get to know better 
through pictures without having been there oneself 
than Holland. Her artists have painted everything, 
just the way it looks . . ." These are the words of the 
German painter Wilhelm Tischbein, after he had 
visited the Republic as a young man of 21 in 1772. 
What Tischbein says is quite accurate. An entire 
army of specialized painters and draftsman had 
been working continuously In Holland since the 17th 
centuiy on the pictorial representation of their 

country. 
Tischbein's remark moreover proves that a good 
deal of their output was also known beyond the 
frontiers of Holland. All those paintings, drawings 
and engravings of the United Provinces determined 
how the country would look to foreigners, who 

were mainly European at that time. 
Little is known of the "export" of Dutch topography 
-or the detailed depiction of places and regions- 
to America. It cannot have amounted to much, but 
we have to assume that quite a few works - espe- 
cially prints - found their way there, wherever the 
memon/ of Dutch traditions and/or Dutch origins 

was still alive. 
But exports were of secondary importance. Pro- 
duction was actually primarily intended to meet 
home demand, and that seemed insatiable. There 
was hardly an art collector that did not have a sec- 
tion for topography among his drawings and 
prints. There was hardly a picture gallery that did 
not have hanging among its portraits, interiors and 
still lifes, some paintings of Dutch towns and village 
scenes, or of the big or minor country seats which 
dotted the countryside. Naturally enough, in the 
course of time a certain number from that immense 
store of pictorial representations of "Dutch Cities 
and Scenen/" have been lost, but a lion's share has 
been presen/ed to this day. The main reason for 
this is that the Dutch taste for this type of art has 

never really declined. 
Overtime, the paintings acquired a place of honor 
in the hands of each new owner. Drawings and 
prints were stored with optimum care in the old- 
fashioned albums, protected from light and dirt. 
Admittedly, they became more dispersed after the 
great collections were split up. But later, when 
public institutions like museums, archives, etc., took 



over the role of the private collector, thousanc 
deed tens of thousands of topographical 
and drawings were gradually brought bac 
gether in centralized acommodation. Thus,j 
picture of the Republic in the days of John Ac 
has been visually preserved two centuries 
be enjoyed again by his countn/men in Ame^j 
The remarkable phenomenon of 18th century 
topographical production elicits all kinds of 
tlons. How could it have evolved? Who were 
people concerned ? What were the working 
ods of the artists? Are all those representai 
item for item, faithful refections of reality? Do 
as a whole, present an accurate picture otj 

Republic? 
To start with the last question: some scenes 
depicted more than others. Infinitely more rs 
sentations exist of the western provinces than > 
eastern, southern and northern provinces, 
phenomenon is a reflection of population d^ 
and the cultural level. There was a greater der 
for these artistic products in and around citi( 
Haarlem, Rotterdam, Utrecht and Amsterdanr 
in the more remote areas. Wealthy city o^i 
bought themselves beautiful countn/ mansion 
were very keen to see them memprallzed o" 
vas. They were also better prepared to pay 
purpose than the generally more frugal, cc 
gentry. This accounts for the lack of work repr 
ing more spacious and less specific tracts c'i 
In the Republic, namely the fens of Drent^-rJ 
pastures of Friesland, the ploughed fields c- 
nlngen or Zeeiand. The North Sea beache: 
became the focus of interest when a who^t 

stranded on them. 
But it was, in addition to economic ana 
factors, of course also a question of taste as*: 
was and wasn't produced. Artwork in the 
eenth century was geared to city scenes fi 
and bustle, prosperous villages with low - 
surrounding a church, the elegant gardf 
stately countn/ house, or sometimes the awt 
ring outline of an old castle, more so than to 
farmlands and lonely moors. Woods one 
- there were still quite a few In the Nether 
that time - were as a rule not chosen as :. 
by eighteenth centun/ painters and d'Zr> 



• 34* 



FDO( 
NIEMEI 



bacE 



T, fftousar 
raphlcal 
xjght 
Son. Thus, 
[rfJohn 
3^itun"es 
en in Am« 
I century i 

kinds of 
Who werei 
working 
resentot 

j'ity? Do 
p'cture of 



of^ 



5 scenes 
y more re: 
ices than 
Kovinces. 
ijiction der 
eater d em 
xjnd cities 
Bterdamj" 
f city offic . 
Hionsions c 
t zed on c;i 
'o pay for 
rugal, coui 
'ork rep res 
[tracts of b 
' Drenthe, n 

jids of G'i. 
iches o 

whale w 

and soc 
ste OS to wF ; 
in the eig^ 
nes full of 1:-^ 
I low houseB 
garden of : ~ 

awe-insp 
Kin to simp- - 

and foresi»e 
^erlands C : 
™ OS subjec 

draftsmer 



\ 



' ;'er, towards the end of our period, 

- z attitude to nature lead draftsmen to 

.- ::"d scenes. Butthelrnumber remained 

r -'aditional topography continued to 

flourish unabated. 

"tng question is then: the image of the 

by these thousands and thousands 

relatively onesided as its total may 

e in individual cases? Did that town, 

r that church or inn really look the way 

:~ows it to us? To answer the question 

i-^e must say: no. It only shows us how 

" <ed to view his subject. Or^ how he 

: ' <new his client or purchaser liked to see 

r same as with a portrait. It is indeed a 

but the model is transformed; to a greater 

extent, into an ideal of stylization - one 

which is fashionable for that age. 

graphical painters and draftsmen have 

more to that ideal than others. And any 

: '"missioned by a municipal council or 

: z country house to paint, or draw a town, 

; ~'k, understood very well that his task was 

e .'en/thing to the best possible advantage. 

I" "ectural research for the purpose of resto- 

~zs shown that generally speaking and 

:^2 it Is used with care - 18th centun/ topo- 

. does present a reliable picture and can 

: '9 be used in the unravelling of complicated 

" z histories. Draftsmen like Cornells Pronk, 

T Beyer and Hermanus Petrus Schouten have 

:ood reputation onthis point. Dirk Verrijkand 

:as Wicart were more concerned with a 

decorative overall result. 

did those many artist-topographers work, 

•w were their finished products distributed? 

books have survived from several of them 

Ii'nells Pronk, Abraham de Hoan, Johannes 

:e-t Prins, - and these show how each quickly 

I accurately developed his own shorthand 

od of recording the outlines of buildings and 

scapes. To this end they often made journeys 

h various regions, in the course of which 

■/thing that attracted their attention was re- 

:-^d. It was also not uncommon for such a jour- 

": bemadeinthecompany of an expert histo- 

-" :r local knowledgeable who knew what was 

worth recording. 
'"n^e sketchbooks and diaries of journeys sen/ed 
rase material and were carefully consen/ed. 
2".y time the draftsman could make an expand- 
er drawing or watercolor using one of his sketches 
; '3 basis. They constituted, so to speak, his stock 
'egatlves, from which prints or enlargements 
: . d be supplied atanytime. Cases exist of aslngle 





town or village captured in three or four different 
versions, van/ing only in format, color or refinement 

in the finish. 
Sometimes these versions span intervals of ten or 

twenty years. 
The artist not only sold his output to private indivi- 
duals, amateurs and collectors, but also to publis- 
hers who had whole runs of these topographical 
scenes engraved and published. One of these 
publishers was Isaac Tlrion, of Amsterdam, who 
had a series of 1000 topographical views printed 
around 1750-70. Our period saw the rise of Evert 
Maaskamp, who, around 1800, had acquired a 

near-monopoly In the field. 
Of the three groups, the makers, dealers and 
buyers, who played a part in the growth of topo- 
graphy, the first are the most important for us. As 
noted, artists in the latter part of the 17th, 18th, and at 
the beginning of the 19th centuries who concerned 
themselves with the pictorialization of the Nether- 
lands, together, made up a small army. 
Among those of the 18th century period, Cornells 
Pronk, born In 1691, was the foremost exponent. In 
the last quarter of the 18th centun/, his apprentices, 
Paul van Liender, GerritToorenburgh and Hendrik 
de Winter, continued his work in this field. They 
belonged, together with twenty-five others, to a 
group regarded as the foremost specialists in the 

field and in this period. 
An American may perhaps be surprised to learn 
that in a countn/ as tiny as the NetheHands, most of 
those artists chose to work within their own local 
areas. Cornells van Noorde specialized in Haar- 
lem atid the surrounding district, Hendrik Hoogers 
in the area around Nljmegen, and Jon Arends in 
7eeland. The La Fargues preferred to work in and 
around The Hague, the Van [lenders in the Utrecht 
area, Bernard Thler and the Jansons in Leiden. The 
capital, Amsterdam, was primarily the workplace 
of H.P. Schouten and Relnier Vinkeles. Jan Bulthuis, 
however, was more mobile and ranged throughout 

the Republic. 
In addition to these specialists - and dozens of 
amateur draftsmen who followed in their wake - 
there were the landscape painters and draftsmen. 
Even among these, there were very few who did 
not, from time to time, alternate their pastures and 
cattle, their river scenes, their decorative or arca- 
dian hillscapes with a realistic portrayal of a village 
view, a mill, a countr/ house, or a shipyard. Even 
in the studios for wall hangings, were until a short 
time previously classical-idyllic or mythological- 
allegorical landscapes had been the exclusive 
rule, Dutch topography now made its entrance. 
In many homes the walls of a town house were 



• 35* 






swept aside by prospects of a rural country man- 
sion, permitting the family to imagine itself bock In 
its holiday retreat, even during the winter months. 
"Dutch cities and scenery of 1775-1795". Through 
the many, many representations we get the picture 
of a prosperous land, clean and tidy, full of bustle 
and activity In the cities, yet peaceful and quiet in 
the country. In the sunny and fertile summers, cheer- 
ful country people tend their crops in the fields, 
fishermen lie in wait in their little boots for the bite of 
the perch, carriages roll along v^/ell-maintained 
roads, and young and old stroll happily along the 
shady canal walks. In the winter, sun and ice bring 
everybody to their feet and the cheerful clang of 
the ice sweepers rings out on the crowded city 

cana 
However unlikely it seems to us now, this idyll was 
more accurate than not. At the same time we must 
remember that the picture which has come down 
to us is one-sided. There were also bad summers, in 
which prolonged rain caused the grain harvest to 
fail, and plague halved the cattle population. And 



there were winters without cheerful ice, but with 
rible floods. Here indeed, the artists do help u^ 
correct the othenA'ise too flattering picture. Mc 
prints have survived of the floods of 1775, ITi* 
1784, and 1799, which held the whole of the V\'f^ 

ern Netherlands in their grip. 
Also let us not forget when we look at the unt-«=|^ 
bled seascapes of that period, the misery ot - 
fourth English war; and when we look at the pec 
ful city scenes, let us remember the riots and de: 
dations of 1787. Then when we look at the pic 
that the Dutch topographical artists hove har: 
down to us, we can sayi that was the picture c 
Republic before the French invasion of 1794. Th:^ 

how John Adams saw it. 
•••••••••••••••• 



ABBREVIATIONS 

Volkmann = Johonn Jakob Voikmann, Neueste Reisen durch • 

Vereinigten Niederlande Leipzig 1783. 

Watson = lEIkanah Watsonl, A tour in Holland in MDCCLXXX^ 
By an American. Worcester, Mass. 1790. 




ce, but with' 
i do help u3 
picture. M< 
of U75, IZ 
leoftheWi 

grip- 

at the untTi 
misery of 
k at the pec 
D*sand dec^ 
.at the pic, 
have han( 
J picture of' 
3^1794. The 

i. 

ir if ir 



*^'5ep durch dif 
'co. 
MDCaXXXI\ 



2i 

IZAAK OUWATER (AMSTERDAM 1750.1793 AMSTERDAM) 

THE WEIGH-HOUSE ON NIEUWMARKT IN AMSTERDAM 

CANVAS, 59 X 73, (CAT.NR. B. 37| 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSMUSEUM. 



: -adel-like building, which still stands today, is one of the 
;: forming part of a 15tfi century ring of defenses around 
At the time it was painted, it had already been in use for 
5 -'dries as a weigh house. On the upper story, painter and 
:= held their meetings. Paintings, such as Rembrandt s "Ana- 



tomy Lesson," hung there at the time. At the foot of the building elegant 
paintings, mirrors, and porcelain were sold. To the left of the picture, a 
dog is barking at a man loaded with household goods bound for ordi- 
nary families. Further away in the shadows stands a merchant in "sailors' 
and citizens' clothing" in front of his shop. 




-v«.^ 





PAULUS CONSTANTIJN LA FARGUE (THE HAGUE 1729-1782 THE HAGUE) 

A) MAN FROM FRIESLAND, 1775 B) GIRL FROM NORTH HOLLAND, 1775. 

COLORED DRAWING, APPROX. 14,5 x 10,3, (CAT.NR. B 23) 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 



e time of John Adams, it was still possible to see an unimaginable 
jf local costumes, In the rural areas especially, but also in the 
icial towns, they brought color animation to the street scene, 
smoking the long Gouda pipe, which was not uncommon fhrough- 
:nd, is an inhabitant of the Frisian village of Molkwerum, which was 



visited regulariy by foreign tourists - as eariy as 1669 by Coslmo de 
Medici. The girl with the exquisite lace and gold headdress probably 
comes from Zaonstreek, which is to the northwest of Amsterdam. This 
district hod achieved great prosperity through its many industrial mills at 
the time of John Adams mission in Holland. 



• 37* 



0U\ I 





■iif ^-^.ff/i*^ 






•38* 



23 

.ACOB VAN STRiJ [DORDRECHT 1756-1815 DORDRECHT). 
WINDMILL IN A POLDER LANDSCAPE NEAR DORDRECHT. 

COLORED DRAWING 23,2 x 42,8. {CAT.NR. B. 51) 
AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

1 ar water in the low-lying Netheriands was achieved by means of 

of wind mills. Jacob van Strij has depicted a medium-sized 

•Wch performed its function in the watery area of Smitshoek, 

: town of Dordrecht. It is a so-called post mill, a type in which 

esqifore superstaictgre, including the sail assembly, can be rotated 

•^e wind more fully. In larger examples, the substaicture incor- 

E X ^"^elling. The mill in the drawing probably had little more than one 

: 2 recess for a bedroom. The tail pole with the staircase served as a 

counterweight for the sails. 



29. 

HERMANUS NUMAN (EZINGE 1 74^-1820 AMSTERDAM) 

TROMPENBURGH COUNTRY HOUSE IN THE GOOl, 

COLORED PRINT, 22,8 x 26,5. |CAT.NR.-B, 35C) 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RUKSMUSEUM. 

Like many chateaux and country houses depicted by 18th century artists^ 
this house also dates from on eariier period. It had been built in 1680 by 
Admiral Cornells Tromp. The roof tenrace, very unusual ot that time in 
Holland, afforded him a splendid view over the surrounding - then still 

open — countryside. 
It was a later occupant who christened the house Trompenburgh after the 
man who built it. Between 1773-1795, it was the country estate of the 
Stroalmans, a Mennonite family, who considerably enlarged the estate. 
It is now the property of the state, but is still lived in by private individuals, 




' '^Jife'"** 




HERMANUS NUMAN (EZiNGE1744-1820 AMSTERDAM) 

SUMMER HOUSE ON THE AMSTEL, (DETAIL). 

COLORED PRINT, 20 x 25. [CAT.NR, B. 35A.| 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 



houses like this one, used for relaxation in fine weather, were 
along riverbanks in gardens and parks, and at the edges of wood- 
on hilltops. Their Dutch name is "Koepel". Some of them however 
«o?in the form of a cupola, but had pointed or even flat roofs, or they 
- especially towards 1800 - more like garden huts. The one in the 



drawing was barely four years old: built in 1790 for the owner of the country 
estate of Karssenhof on the Amstel. It is a fashionable pavillion, executed 
in fhe neo-classical style. Citizens of more modest standing spent their 
summer Sundays in their gardens outside of town, in much smaller, and 
more sober little summer houses. 



• 39* 



31. 

. : : C NSTANTIJN LA FARGUE (THE HAGUE 1729-1 782 THE HAGUE), 
THE VEGETABLE MARKET IN THE HAGUE, 1775. 
COLORED DRAWING, 26,5 x 37,5. [CAT NR. B. 24). 
AMSTERDAM, PRIVATE COLLEaiON. 

- : ;• frequently depicted parts of The Hague. La Fargue himself 
rclrayed it more than once in paintings and prints. 

: "le vegetable market, the drowing shows the tower of the 

■ . -ch of St. James's, and the City Hail, with its awning covering 

: The chapel on the right dates from the 14th century, but 

: " ecclesiastical buildings, secularized after the Reformation 

• i : as a meat market, as the drawing clearly shows. The belfry 

. : -less Tower houses the bells of the chiming mechanism. 

- ;-es and cathedrals hod carillons of this kind. A set of bells 

- ;:2n hanging in the little City Hall tower. The singing towers 
tI 2y many foreigners. Elkonoh Watson, an American traveller, 

~e Hague in about 1 785, wrote on the subject: n"here is some- 
:5:5edingly musical in the Dutch chimes, that I often stop in the 
: sfreet to listen to their shrill sounds. The bells hang, in great 
"..Tibers, in niches round the towers of the churches," 



32. 

JACOB CATS IALTONA174M799 AMSTERDAM] 

SKATING ON THE RIVER AMSTEL, IN THE CENTER OF AMSTERDAM, 1792. 

DRAWING, 35 x 44,5. (CAT.NR. B. 10). 

AMSTERDAM, HISTORISCH-TOPOGR AFISCHE ATLAS VAN HET GEMEENTEARCHIEF, 

In this apparently pure 1 7th-18th century townscape,two important elements 
of the Amsterdam medieval city wall are visible. In the distant background 
are the towers of St. Anthony's gate, later used as a weigh house (see 
fig.nr. 26), and on the left the "Swyg Utrecht" tower, which was demolished 
in about 1880. The latter was also drown by Rembrandt. The Doelenhotel 

now stands on this site. 
At times of prolonged frost when oil the canals were frozen over, the 
authorities had strict rules that holes in the ice were to be left open, primarily 
to ensure that water was available to fight any fires which might break out 

in the city. 

The canals, as well as providing transport, also served as open sewers - 

with all the consequences one might expect - especially in the summer. 

"The air is strongly impregnated with noxious vapors, and the stench which 

rises from the canals," Elkanah Watson wrote in 1784. 





11 



JAN ARENDS (DORDRECHT 1738-1805 DORDRECHT) 

FLAT-BOTTOM BOATS ON STILLWATER. 

COLORED DRAWING, 27,4 x 39,5. (CAT.NR. B. 2). 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSFRENTENKABJNET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

A large proporation of both passengers and goods in the water rich Nether- 
lands was carried by ship and boat. On this wide stretch of water, possibly 
the Scheldt, Arends has pictured five inland waterway vessels. From left 
to right, they are: a Pleit, a freighter for wide inland woterways, but also 
suitable for smaller coastal trade; a Statiepoon which also plied the Zealand 
and South Holland rivers as a freighter; and in the foreground, a Poonschip, 
the simplest version of the Poon type; further into the background a small 
pleasure vessel, the Boeier; and finally again, a Poon, but this time a water 
bus with a saloon on the afterdeck to provide accommodation for the 
passengers. 



• 41* 







f^^plm^^ 




IZAAK OUWATER (AMSTERDAM 1 750-1 793 AMSTERDAM). 
ST. JOHN'S CHURCHYARD, UTRECHT,1779. 

CANVAS, 53 X 65. |CAT.NR. B. 36). 
THE NETHERLANDS, PRIVATE COLLECTION, 

This square, laid out on a former churchyard, was one of the most elegant 
in Utrecht. To the right is evident the monumental facade of the "States 
Chamber," the seat of the Provincial Government of Ulrecht; to the left, 
St. John's Church, where the very important city library was kept; and 
adjoining it, the main guard house of the Garrison. The elegont couple 
with whom the beggar is trying his luck, presumably lives in one of the 

patrician houses, above which the Cathedrol tower rises. 
Utrecht at this time was the scene of much political unrest, which was also 

noticeable to American visitors. 
"Party spirit runs high among the citizens, who ore arming and exercising 
every day in opposition to the Prince of Orange... The citizens are so in- 
veterate against the English, that it is almost dangerous for one to be seen 
in the streets". 
(Elkonah Watson, 1784.) 



• 42* 




JACOB VAN STRIJ (DORDRECHT 1756-1815 DORDRECHT). 
PASTURES WITH P01.LARD WILLOWS ALONC5 A DITCH. 

DRAWING, 25,5 s 22,5. (CAT.NR. B. 52). 
AMSTERDAM, RUKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

The elimination of eveiy detail of topogrcphical identification renders this 
impression of a landscape generally representative of a muchigreaterregion 
of the Nethieriands, than the river country around Dordrecht, where it is 
thought to have been drav/n. Even today the scene could be one of winter 

pastures anywhere in Holland. 
Before the industrial revolution, pasturelands were much more abundant. 
Foreigners, who spent long hours traveling through this scenery at the slow 
pace of the towboat, soon had their fill of looking at it. The American 
Elkanah Watson, previously quoted, found it very uniform and monotonous: 
"a continued marshy plain covered with cattle." 



•43^ 



r 



I 36. 

3»f, -A>JGENDIJK (ROTTERDAM 17i81805 ROHERDAM). 

rOUNTRY PEOPLE FLEEING BEFORE A FlOOD,1797. 

DRAWING, 13,5 X 20. (CAT.NR. B. 29). 

HAAKLEM, TEYLERS MUSEUM. 

i' ~ : ;5 this Febnjary flood scene, caused by a heavy storm and 

- ~" : : 3art of a 12 month cycle of pictures showing the life of the 

• i"> '.~2\\, local floods occurred far too frequently in Rotterdam. 

•i- ziTo-T of this kind occurred in the Netherlands in the winters of 

5, 1776, 1784, 1799, and also after 1800. In our own 

■ major inundations took place in 1916 and 1953. 



3B. 

JORDANUS HOORN (AMERSFOORT 1753-1833 AMERSFOORT]. 

FIOUR MILL NEAR A CITY GATE AT AMERSFOORT, 1780. 

DRAWING, U,7 x 20. (CAT.NR. B. 17). 

THE HAGUE, HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN OF THE NETHERLANDS. 

A stone platform mill ("steliingmolen"} divided internally info several stories, 
in which the groin was ground between two heavy round stones, in the 
background, the richly odomed tower of the Church of Our Lady, which 

still dominates the skyline of Amersfoort. 

The grovrth of trees around the mill seems somewhat strange. It was 

customa ry to take strict measures to ensure that n o such wind catchers should 

be allowed to interfere with the operation of the mill. 



*^*-^M 



i^y^ 



If 



^^^ 

m 



a-fcMOjj.. 



m'^^m- 



rir- 



Jt. 






m 



HENDRIK POTHOVEN (AMSTERDAM1725-1807 THE HAGUE). 

DEPARTURE OF THE PRINCESS OF ORANGE AFTER DIVINE SERVICE IN THE 

"KLOOSTERKERK" (CONVENT CHURCH) AT THE HAGUE (1787). 

PANEL, 30,5 X 42,5. (CAT.NR. B. 41). 

PARIS, FONDATION CUSTODIA (COLL. FRITS LUGT), INSTtTUT NEERLANDAfS. 

In a state coach drawn by six horses, preceded by a footman in red livery. 
Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia, wife of Strfdtholder William V, turns into 
the Kneuterdijk from the Voorliout. The Court gave to The hiague, the town 
in which the Sfadtholder resided, a more aristocratic air than the other 
Dutch towns. The church at the right, partly obscured by trees, was still 
called the "Kloosterkerk", or Convent Church, because it had originally been 
the chapel of a Dominican convent, even though it had long since passed 
into the hands of the Reformed Church. The goble-topped house, built at 
the beginning of the 1 7th century by the renowned Grand Pensionar/, Johan 
van Oldenbamevell, was occupied at this time by the Russian envoy. The 
imposing house beside it was known as the "Lodgment hlouse of the Five 
Towns", due to its use as accomodation for the representatives of the North- 
Holland towns of Hoorn, Edam, Monnikendam, Medemblik and Enkhuizen 
when they attended meetings In The Hague, which was then, as now, the 
seat of government. 



• 45* 




39. 

JAN ARENDS (DORDRECHT 1736-1803 DORDRECHT). 

THE YARD OF THE ZEELAND ADMrRALTY, FLUSHING, 1779. 

PRINT, 39 X 48,2. (CAT.NR. B. 5). 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

The maritime affairs of the Republic were governed by five admiralties. 
The admiralty of Zeeland was originally based at Veere, or Middelburg, 
but was later transferred to Flushing, owing to the greater no vigable depths 
there. The print only shows port of the extensive complex of shipyards. 
All kinds of timber sheds, workshops, a sawmill, a sail loff and stores were 

necessary for shipbuilding and maintenance. 

When the fourth naval war with England broke out, just one year after 

the print, the port of Flushing was in a state of neglect. Not until 1787 was 

a start made on wholesale modernization. 



5-. 




l^/f_L 2:..<n,r.6 ,-„/.>,, I/,-,-,., ..,.-,.,. y. .:;,j .r ,t J^.^f, , ^ 





\uo till Cli«jitioj' fio I'.Xtiiirts^ 

lit' "2^- c ill m' i' /i l^tf i'ilii ^- It i» , 



•fA^^^ A 



■ iliiililill^^ 



•46^ 




The general sense of regularity and tidiness which was so characteristic 
of the Netherlands in the 18th century, also found expression in the layout 
of parks and woods. It was in Adams' time that a trend set in under the 
influence of the English landscape style, to follow rather looser and more 
relaxed patterns here and there. Traditionally, everything in this area had 

been rigid and symmetrical. 

Large tracts of the old wood to the south of the town of Haarlem were 

newly planted in the 18fh century^ and the park was further extended. 

In 1788 the English banker John Hope built his luxurious country mansion 

"Welgelegen" there, now the seat of the Provincial Government. 



• 47* 



! 



41 

HENDRIK HOOGERS {NIJMEGEN 1 747-1814 NIJMEGEN). 

GROUP OF FISHERMEN ON THE RIVER VECHT NEAR THE VILLAGE OF ZUfLEN, 1790. 

DRAWING, 21,6 x 27. [CAT.NR. B. 16). 
AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RJJKSMUSEUM. 

Amsterdam gentlemen had been building fheircountry houses on fKe Vecht, 
a winding little river between Amsterdam and Utrecht^ since the 17th 
century. At the time of the drawing, there were more than a hundred, 
some very regal in appearance, while others were more simple holiday 

cottages. The house on the left is one of the medium-sized ones. 

In Zuilen there was - and still is - a chateau of the same name, where 

the famous 18th century authoress Belle van Zuylen (Mme. de Charriere) 

grew up. However, before John Adams' arrival in Holland, she had settled 

in Switzerland, 




•48* 




MONOGRAMMIST 'A.D." 

PASSENGERS OF THE PASSENGER BARGE PLYING BETWEEN HAARLEM AND 

AMSTERDAM. 

CANVAS, 36 X 47,5, (CAT.NR. B. 33). 

AMSTERDAM, AMSTERDAMS HISTORI5CH MUSEUM. 

Passenger barges were an important means of public transportation. They 
were used on canals; boats with sails were used on wider waterways. 

Road transport was much more expensive. 
This boat is painted with the bows facing us. A long towline runs from the 
deckhouse over the short mast to the horse which, quietly plodding along 
the towpath, pulls the boat along. In the background is "Swanenburg," 
then the seaf of the water drainage authority, now a sugar factory. A 
description of the interior of these boots has been left to us by a contem- 
porary (Volkmann, 1 783): 'The deckhouse is divided in two, with the larger 
part fore and the smaller, which is called the cabin, aft. The fore part 
contains three rows of benches; the window apertures can be covered by 
short leather sheets. This is for the ordinary passengers and the baggage, 
the seats here being cheaper than in the cabin. The latterhas double doors, 
and is a friendly room with a cushioned bench which can seat eight people. 
Il is usually painted green, with a glass window on either side and, opposite 
the entrance, a console table under a mirror; there ore wall brockets for 
illumination and one or two spittoons." 



• 49* 



1 



frwilf 



M 



I : 



DUTCH INTERIOR DECORATION AND APPLIED ART 



THE LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 



BYJ.R.TERMOLE 



In 1784 the American Elkanah Watson made a 
tour of Holland. His fascinating report on the trip, 
which was published shortly after his return, (A tour 
in Holland in MDCCLXXXIV by an American, 
Worcester (Mass.), 1790), mentions among other 
things a visit in The Hague to "the grand hotel 
belonging to the thirteen United States of America 
lately purchased by Mr. Adams for the residence 
of our future ambassadors. It is decently furnished, 
has o large library, and an elegant little garden". 
A surviving inventory of the embassy lists a large 
numberofchairs upholstered in damask and pieces 

of furniture in mahogany. 
A few days after his meeting with John Adams our 
American broke his iourney in the university city of 
Leiden, where the tomb of the famous physician 
Boerhaave in St. Peter's Church attracted his atten- 
tion Ifig.nr. 43). This monument is also mentioned 
by various other visitors and not without reason. 
It was described in detail in the Nederlandsche, 
Jaarboeken shortly after its completion in 1762 as 
consisting of eene marmeren Urno of Lykbusch 
(a marble vase or cinerary urn) surrounded by zes 
Hoofden met drappen/en of geplooide kieederen 
aan eikander schynende zaemgebonden (six 
heads seemingly joined together by draperies or 
garments In folds). The monument in vase form 
stands on a black marble plinth which bears a 
medallion portrait of the deceased hanging from 
a white garland, together with his motto. Simplex 
Sigillum Veri (Simplicity is the Mark of Truth). This 
tomb, which was designed by the scholar Tiberius 
Hemsterhuis and executed by thesculptorAnthonie 
Wapperon, Is undoubtedly to be considered as 
one of the earliest examples of Neo-Classicism in 

the Netherlands. 
Arevlvol of interest in Classical Antiquity,stimulated 
in part by successful excavations at Paestum and 
Herculaneum and by the publications of Winckel- 
mann, was to lead slowly but surely throughout 
Europe to a reaction against the Rococo or the 
style pittoresque. The first beginnings of this devel- 
opment were already discernible in Rome shortly 
before 1750 in the work of one or Iwo architects, 
including Le Geay, while in France in 1754 Le 
Lorrain was making furniture a la grecque for the 
collector Lalive de Jully. However, It was prints 
more than anything else that really prompted the 
international spread of Classical forms and motifs. 



Prints produced in France by J.F. de Neufforge 
the architect and designer J.C. de la Fosse \4 
made use of again and again in Dutch int' 
design, while there was even an edition of D 
Fosse's Nouvelle Iconologle published in Arrj 
dam. Also of great importance was Diverse 
niere d 'odornare i cammini (Various ways of d 
rating chimney-pieces), a series of prints of 176 
the Italian artist Giovanni BattistoPiranesi, who 
a great influence on the work of Robert Ada 
England. That Plronesi had already been in 
tact at on early stage with John Hope, a be 
who had settled in Amsterdam, is evinced b 
text accompanying one of the chimney-p 
designs: Le Cariatidi I'architrave e gli altn pe 
marmo sono avanzi di opere antiche dal Cava 
Piranesi uniti insieme a formare il presente con 
che si vede in Olonda nel gabinetto del G 
liere Giovanni Hope (The caryatids, the arch 
and other pieces of marble ore remains of Ar 
works of art put together by Mr. Piranesi to c 
the present chimney-piece which is to be s 
Holland inthecobinetofMrJohn Hope) (fig. r' 
This chimney-piece, in white marble, is now 
Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam (fig.nr. 45). Clci 
motifs of all kinds have been worked into its : 
ratton, olbett still in a somewhat overloaded 

ner. 
The character of the Dutch interior in the last c 
of the eighteenth century was to be entirely 
mined by Neo-Ciossicism, the origins of whic 
been briefly outlined above, it was the we - 
patricians of Amsterdam in particular wr : 
their town houses modernized in accordonc- 
the new taste, although fine Louis XVI interior; 
created in other cities such as Haarlem a-: 

Hague as well. 
The interior layout of town houses had by " 
of the seventeenth centun/ acquired a fixec : 
to which hardly any changes were made - 
periods. There is nearly always a long ca 
running through the whole house from front": 
and giving access to all the rooms, while : 
first floor there is usually a large receptic^ 
at the end of the corridor extending out ^- 
back garden. The houses of that period -zii 
two main types: narrow houses with all the 
on one side of the corridor and broad or 
fronted houses with rooms on both sid 



•50* 



EDA 



Neuffc _ 
ie :a Fosse 
in Dutch 
edition z 
ished ir -- 
fos Div 
Bways c" : 
Prints of'"' 
ranesl, v ^ . 
fe>bert A21 
ly been - 
"fope, Q cz 
evinced b* 
chimne 
^i altri pe 
edalCc, 
esente cc~ 
?tto de 
^the arch 
oins of Ar 
Tanesi to c 

to be see' 
;pe) (fig.nr, 

is now ir fr 
45). Class- 

into its d£2 
n'oaded rr 

j»""e lost que 

entirely dr 
t of which h 

le well-tc-: 
tr who ' 

>rdQnce . 
I interiors w 

'em and " 

id by the e 
I fixed pat*f' 
)de in Ic 
>ng corn 
front to b 
•vhile on 
:sption re:' 
out into " 
iod foil i- 
ill the roc 
or doub 
sides of 




TOMB OF THE PHYSICIAN HERMANUS BOERHAAVE IN ST. PETER'S CHURCH, LEIDEN. 

PRINT BY ABRAHAM DELFOS. 
lEIDEN, ACADEMISCH HISTORISCH MUSEUM DER RUKSUNIVERSFTEIT. 

Boerhaave's tomb, still in Leiden's church of St. Peter, was completed in 

1762 to a design by the classicist Tiberius Hemstertiuis and is to be 

considered as one of the earliest examples of neoclassicism in the 

Netherlands. 



• 51* 



I tun 



Many of the houses decorated and furnished in the 
Neo-Classical style were built in earlier periods 
and adapted by later occupants to the taste of 
their time. One of the earliest examples of a house 
built entirely in accordance with the concepts of 
the new style was that of AJ. van Brienen on 
Herengracht in Amsterdam, the designs for which, 
dating from 1772 and drawn by LF. Druck, have 
been presen/ed (fig.nr. 46). The decoration of the 
corridor usually consisted entirely of stucco work 
with Louis XVI ornament such as garlands and 
medallions hanging from knots of ribbon, in some 
coses combined with mythological or allegorical 
figures. In the rooms wainscoting, kept fairly low 
and sometimes decorated with a certain amount 
of ornamental can/ing, ran round the walls, the 
area above it being divided into rectangular 



CHIMNEr-PIECE DESIGN FROM THE SERIES "VARIOUS WAYS OF DECORATING 
CHIMNEY-PIECES", PUBLISHED IN 1769. 

PRINT BY GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESl. 

The text under the etching indicates that this "classical" mantelpiece 
was already in the house of the Amsterdam banker John Hope in 1769. 




panels by straight muntins. These panels were o^ 
hung with fabric which could sen/e as a b; 
ground for such things as paintings or a brc: 
clock (fig.nr. 47), but they were also frequently 
with painted wall hangings. Initially, arcadic 
Italianate scenes were chosen for this purpose 
towards the end of the century preference 
increasingly given to Dutch landscapes, the sc 
often being related in some way to the profe!^ 
or interests of the person who had commissi( 

them. 
The most important painter of wall hangings 
last quarter of the eighteenth century was und( 
ediy Jurriaan Andriessen. Not only have : 
extremely beautiful hangings by him been p^^ 
ved Ifig.nr. 48), but we also have a great mc 
his design drawings. As well as showing the s:^ 
to be depicted on the hangings, these usuall 
give on impression of the arrangement and 
ration of the rest of the wall space, togethe- 
the projected chimney-pieces, doorcases 
windows (fig.nr. 49). In addition to carved orn :^ 
over the doors, a regularly recurring feature] 




WHITE MARBLE CHIMNEY-PIECE 

DESIGNED BY G.B. PIRANESl. 
AMSTERDAM, RIJKSMUSEUM 

Made for John Hope (see fig.nr 44}, the chimney-piece w; 
installed in his Amsterdam house, but was later moved fc 
country house, "Paviljoen Welgelegen", built in 1788 in — - 
environs of Haarlem. 

overdoor painting in grisaille. An examp r 
a painting - also by J. Andriessen - Is c '^: 
tation of America, which has been presen ^ : 
with the original design Ifig.nr. 50), on the 
which the artist has written the followir; 
Phoebus of de Zon en Mercuur of de K . . 
beminnen beyde America (Phoebus orthe \ 
Mercup/ or Commerce both love Ame- : 
large number of artists working in this re : 



•52* 



f,ai 



m^^T~T-M^^m~i 






ingingsi 
rwas ur 
f hav< 
been 
itm< 
ithe; 
usuailyj 
it and 

>orcase; _ 

feature 



Pnotih Fnis SumL^ LiGNEj)i:MiLmv, 



K ' 



ce was origa 
to the fan 
J8 in the woo 



c-ple of sl: 
^s a represf- 
E^ervedolc: 
t' the bock - 
:.ving wore 
Koophonc-a 
I'theSun ori 
unerica). T*" 
field shovv 



"5re must certainly have been an enormous 

- - d for painted wall hangings at the end of 

■ pteenth centun/ in spite of the prices they 

^nded, which were generally high. The best 

' artists,apartfromAndriessen,areWybrand 

. 'ks, J.H. Troost van Groenendoelen, J. Rem- 

:nd H.W. Schweickhardt. A company called 

ierlcndsche Maatschappij set up in Hoorn 

^7 even started a wall hanging focton/ which, 

fcddition to painted hangings, also produced 

;'ngs printed on calico and paper. The devel- 

■ent of this much cheaper process soon led to 

e decline of the art of painted hangings. 

::s already been pointed out, wall panels were 

rurally covered with fabric when paintings were 

ce hung on them. An outstanding example of 

■:- an interior is to be seen In a painting by 

:-aen de Leiie, which depicts J. Glldemeester 

: .ving his art collection to a group of interested 

■zs Ifig.nr. 51). The walls of the two rooms from 

T .vainscotlng to the ceiling are almost com- 

r-ely covered with paintings, among which can 

i recognized works by Rembrandt, Rubens, Ruys- 

lel, Terborch and others. Although the art collec- 

"; was dispersed for good after Glldemeester's 



CROSS-SECTION OF A HOUSE FOR A.I. VAN BRIENEN, AMSTERDAM: 
"PROFIl PRIS SUR LA LIGNE DE MILIEU", 1772. 

DRAWING BY LUDWIG FRIEDRICH DRUCK. (CAT.NR C 6). 
AMSTERDAM, ROYAL ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY 

Dnjck, an architect, built a large house at 182 Herengracht for Van Brienen 
in 1772. This sectional drawing shows the interior design of houses of 
this kind. The front part of the house, with its long, richly ornamented 
corridor. Is separated from the rear of the house by a staircase surmounted 
by a skylight. The salon, with its painted wall hangings, is at the rear. 
Ttie pilasters, overdoors and other ornamentation in the corridor are m 
the classical style. 



death In 1799, the Interior remained intact (flg.nr. 
52). The doorcase in particular Is executed In a 
highly monumental style with a head of Mercun/ 
above in a classicot medallion supported by two 
putti and flanked by his attributes. A head of Apollo 
in a similar medallion and the attributes of poetn/ 
and painting crown the mirror frame above the 
white marble chimney-piece directly opposite the 
doorway. Obviously Glldemeester wanted by this 
symbolism to emphasize that the fine arts were the 
prime focus of his Interest, while commerce, the 
bringer of prosperity, provided him with ample 
resources to indulge his tastes. Although he had 
the arrangement and decoration of the walls com- 



•53 • 





Sim 1 1 



PORTRAIT OF A JEWELLER'S FAMILY, 1776. 

PAINTING BY LOUIS FRANCOIS GERARD VAN DER PUYL (CAT.NR. C 2] 

UTRECHT, CENTRAAL MUSEUM ON LOAN FROM THE DIENST 

VERSPREIDE RIJKSCOLLECTIES, THE HAGUE. 

This painting portrays not only a domestic Interior of the period, but also 
shows the kind of clothes worn by well-to-do couples and their children. 



48 

A ROOM IN NEOCLASSICAL STYLE, ORIGINALLY IN A HOUSE IN 

DOELENSTRAAT, AMSTERDAM. 

AMSTERDAM, GEMEENTE MUSEA VAN AMSTERDAM. 

This photograph shows how large landscape paintings were fitted into 
the wall paneling. Sometimes they depicted arcadian landscapes, but 
some also illustrated more typically Dutch scenes, such as this example 
painted by Juniaan Andriessen in 1778. The view of the river Vecht, 
where many wealthy Amsterdam families had country houses, may have 
reminded the occupants of the pleasures of the country life they led in 
the summer months. 



49 

DESIGN FOR A WALL WITH LANDSCAPE PAINTINGS. 

DRAWING BY JURRIAAN ANDRIESSEN. (COMPARE CAT.NR. C 5). 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

A large number of the preliminary sketches for paintings of this kind by 
Andriessen, who painted the room shown in fig.nr. 48 are still extant. In 
many of them the doors and chimney-pieces are also woriced out in detail. 



• 54 • 





*55* 



^ 



\f 




DESIGN FOR A PAINTED OVERDOOR. 

DRAWING BY JURRIAAN ANDRIESSEN. 
AMSTERDAM, COLLECTION CHR. P. VAN EEGHEN. 

A preliminary sketch for an overdoor, which is also still extont. The sub- 
ject, a glorification of America, is explained on the bock of the sketch as 
"Phoebus, or the Sun, and Mercury, or Commerce, pay Court to America." 



*56* 



r 




THE PICTURE CABJNET OF JAN GILDEMEESTER, 1794-1795. 

PAINTING BY ADRIAEN DE LELIE 
AMSTERDAM, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

; 3ze with pleasure at Jan Gildemeester's art collection. The owner 
3 at the centre of the painting. The numerous paintings hanging in 
:-oms decorated In the classical style include works by practically 
cjrated Dutch Masters. The collection was put up for auction in 
rtsr Gildemeester's death. The painting by Gerard Dou of a lady 
■sinet, portrayed at the extreme left, directly above the head of 
"ne seoted figure, is now in the Gould collection. New York 



r!y renovated, he leit untouched a ceiling pain- 
Df Diana and her attendants, which had been 
"ed a few decades previousiy by Jacob de 
" though the stucco work around it was 
— ged to garlands and wreoths of stiff leaves, 
ay be noted In this connection that in the Dutch 
rior - unlike the French - the wall merges into 
ceiling by way of a fairly unobtrusive coving, 
ead of the panelling being topped by a heavy 

wooden cornice, 
addition to the custom of covering wall panels 
fabrics or painted hangings, a new fashion 
ime in around 1790 under the Influence of interiors 
signed by the Scottish architect Robert Adam, 
lich Is to be seen In particular in the work of A. van 
5r Hart, the city architect of Amsterdam. Here the 
Is were painted in soft pastel colours and deco- 



rated with ornament In stucco work, which mostly 
consisted of graceful arabesques surrounding a 
candelabrum motif composed of vases and oval 
cameos with classical subjects. This style of deco- 
ration, which Adam in pa liicu la r frequently used, 
was inspired by Pompeian wall paintings and 
related prints by artists such as Plranesi and P.P. 

Basan. 
It goes without saying that stylistic development 
in the field of decorative art during the Neo-Clas- 
slcal period was not confined to the decoration of 
the interior Itself, but also brought In its train great 
changes In other areas such as furniture design. 
Fanciful curved contours gave way to straight pilas- 
ters, asymmetrical Rococo ornament was replaced 
by decoration composed of urns, garlands, medal- 
lions hanging from ribbons and trophies. As early 
as 1770 (new 

fashionable antique pier tablesl were being adver- 
tised in the iamsche Courani by Lambertus 
Bertin, these being small tables of the same height 
as the wainscoting, which were customarily placed 
under a mirror between the windows. However, 
an advertisement placed In the same newspaper 
nine years later by a cabinet-maker offering em- 
ployment to journeymen able to make old-fash- 



*57* 



i 

I 
I 

: \ 
^- 

" I" 

: ; 

I 
- I 

I 1 

i . 




• 'E 




i 



ioned dubbeld geboogen (serpentine) pieces as 
well as modern anticq work makes it abundantly 
clear that by no means even/one took to the new 
mode inspired by Classical Antiquity straightaway. 
Although a great ma ny patricians filled their houses 
with expensive French furniture and although for- 
eign chairs and other pieces were imported into 
Amsterdam in large quantities, officially their sale - 
other than at annual fairs - was prohibited. Since 
many firms got into financial difficulties as a result 
of this foreign competition, the Guild of St. Joseph 
promulgated new decrees to protect its members 
in 1771, but these measures were still not strong 
enough to halt the imports, most of which come 
from France. Thus it is not in the least surprising to 
find that a visitor to the house of the Hope family 
mentioned above described it as meuble a la 
francaise. 



INTERIOR OF A HOUSE AT 475 HERENGRACHT, AMSTERDAM. 

PHOTO FRITS GERRITSEN, AMSTERDAM. 

This photograph shows the two rooms which contained Gili 
art collection^ viewed from the spot from which De Leiie en 
painting (see fig.nr. 51), They are still much the same as ths. 
1790; the classical-style ornamentation above the doors one 
vfotk around the painted ceilings are exactly as depicted in rri- 



Despite the fact that the Dutch cabinet-mc 
on attempt to defeat this competition, imitc 
work of their French counterparts to a consiz: 
extent, Dutch furniture of that period did n- 
less take on a character of its own. Ore 
most typical features was the extensive 
mahogany, while the doors of more cos* 
of furniture were usually decorated v." 
panels of lacquer ortortoiseshetl,Wedgv.; 
ques with scenes inspired by Antiquity, or .i! 
ornament in marquetry of lighter wocc: 



• 58* 



iCTERDAM. 



Gildemees" 
u^e execufec 
as they were 
Bors and the sti-: 
i*ed in the painti 



»et-makers, 
imitated r~ 
jnsiderab ^ 
^id nonethr- 
One of t'- 
^^sive use : 
J costly iter 
d with smc 
cjgwood p : 
f, or Louis X 
«x>ds. Sincr^ 



T'e usually placed against the wainscoting 

":■ in use, they were sometimes - on the 

-odel - painted the same colour as the 

panelling. 

" :n, there are some types of furniture which 

: " / seem to have been produced in the 

::ids. These include the sideboard with a 

*Dp. Folded back, the top of the sideboard 

3 wall to which were hinged shelves for 

rre and a pewter water container could 

ed. Under the container a pewter basin 

-k into the working surface (fig.nr. 53). Side- 




I 



SIDEBOARD. 

DUTCH, LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. (COMPARE CAT.NR. C 10). 
AMSTERDAM, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

::;ly Dutch item of furniture dating from the end of the eighteenth 
A pewter water container could be affixed to the folding top. 
-a and glassware kept on the hinged shelves were washed in 
-•; sunk into the working surface. This particular example is beauti- 
fully decorated with marquetry in the Louis XVi style. 



rds of this type were usually bought as part 
Q set including a writing desk, decorated in an 

itical manner, the top door of which could be 
aown to provide a writing flap. Alongside these 

"new" pieces of furniture, the cabinet which 
:: mainly used for the storage of linen and the 
■a cabinet, in which it was customary to display 
r's valuable pieces, remained great favourites 
"^e Dutch interior of the late eighteenth centun/. 
" le in cabinets of this kind the bowed profile 
* ng from the Rococo period continued to prevail 

2 time in the lower doors or drawers, the upper 
re was immediately given a more controlled 
:ect in the New-Classical period by means of 
:ght pilasters at the corners, a cornice and 

appropriate ornament. 
zrge long-case clock was a permanent feature 

e corridor of almost ever/ opuelntly furnished 




LONG-CASE CLOCK 

DUTCH, LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOY/VIANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. PHOTO DICK WOlTERS. 

The mahogany case is decorated with fretwork and marquetry in the 
Louis XVI style. The metal dial is painted with angels playing instalments, 
seoted on clouds. The clockwork, made by Gruning in Amsterdam, 
indicates not only the time, but also the day and month of the year 
(allowance has even been made for leap year) and the phases of the 
moon. The chiming mechanism plays various melodies. 



• 59* 



house. The form of this piece of furniture had devel- 
oped in a characteristically Dutch way out of the 
straight seventeenth-century clock cases of the type 
also found in England and elsewhere. While the 
centre section retained Its original straight form 
more or less, the bottom part was widened and so 
was the top which housed the movement and 
which was usually crowned with figures in gilded 
wood. These often consisted of an Atlas flanked 
by two angels blowing trumpets. The metal face of 
a clock of this type was usually painted with alle- 
goricat mythological or Biblical scenes, while the 
decoration of the wooden case was determined 

by the prevailing style in furniture (fig.nr. 54). 
Silver^ porcelain and costly glassware had long 
formed part of the standard equipment of the 
houses of the well-to-do middle classes and nobi- 



lity. In studying Dutch silver in particular, which 
be accurately dated and localized by the ■ 
marks on it one is struck by thefact that by no rr r 
everyone quickly succumbed to the spell c- 
Neo-Classical. Magnificent pieces were still c- 
produced In a pure Rococo style around 
All this is undoubtedly a reflection of the ta;-- 
the Dutch public, which on occasion - for exc-; 
in the Amsterdam tobacco box illustrated - t 
wanted to see the two styles combined in a s ■ 
piece, hiere the Biblical scenes are containe; 
one side in cartouches with splendid Rococo : 
ment (fig.nr. 55), while on the other they or- 
rounded by severe medallions and frames 
Louis XVI ribbon knots (fig.nr. 56). It is a nc*: 
fact that the trend in styles as manifested in r j 
tant centres such as Amsterdam and The hr| 














W - 






: WOITERS. 




SILVER BASKET WITH A LINER OF BLUE GLASS. 

t< CHi|3TOPH NICOLAAS WIEDEMAN, AMSTERDAM 1779. (CAT.NR. C 16). 
'^ NETHERLANDS, PRIVATE COLLECTION. PHOTO DICK WOLTERS. 

c pen-work basket resting on four clawed feet and containing a liner 
r«3ss. It is decorated with severe ornamental bands, over which 
"alls a heavy garland, looped up at the centre by a bow. 



^■enerally followed in the smaller provincial 
: in the northern and eastern ports of the 
^':ands after a time lag of several years and 
- '"uch less pure form. Nevertheless there too 
-rs were produced which were never or hardly 
-■ "ietwith intherestofthecountr/. For example, 
.er pomander, which was filled with fragrant 
r' petals to sweeten the air of rooms, was a 
: : ality of one or two towns in the area around 
"'ver IJssel, such as Zutphen and Arnhem, while 
:* of the surviving brandy-bowls bear Frisian 
Tiarks, although this form was also made in 
e- parts of the Netherlands, albeit in much smal- 
ler numbers. 
^ough the range of objects made of silver had 
ained fairly limited in the seventeenth centun/, 
as extended more and more throughout the 
^sequent period. Candlesticks, salvers, ink- 
ids, sweetmeatbaskets divided into compart- 
5nts with a flower sprig in the centre, sugar 
iters, kettles and tea and coffee pots acquired 
Diace in the interior. At mealtimes use was made 
sliver tureens and serving dishes, sauce boats, 
* cellars, mustard pots, ladles and slices. Also 
Y popular was the bread basket which, with 
': aid of a detachable centrepiece, could some- 
es also function as a cruet-stand. In the period 
; are concerned with here it became very 



fashionable to insert blue glass containers into 
openwork silver objects. This combination was 
mainly used for smaller objects such as salt cellars, 
but in some cases one also finds it in the much 
larger basket Ifig.nr. 571. Special items for the 
master of the house which were likewise made of 
silver were tobacco jars, braziers and tobacco 
and snuff boxes. The interests of his wife, on the 
other hand, focussed more on toilet sets, sewing 
implements, including needlecases, thread holders 
and scissors, and trinkets such as scent boxes. 
Silver toys or poppenqo'-- which had already 
reached a peak of popularity some decades pre- 
viously, were also still in favour at this time. 
There has never been ver/ much interest in objects 
made of gold orsilver-giltin the Netherlands, unlike 
France for example. Moreover, it should be 
remembered that gold clock-cases, of which a fair 
number were made in Amsterdam, were mostly 
produced by craftsmen of French origin, while the 
movements were actually imported from France. 
A limited number of gold rings, Bible clasps and 

chatelaines are also known from this period. 
Chinese porcelain, which was imported into F4ol- 
land by way of the East Indies, had already be- 
come a much coveted collector's item in the early 
seventeenth century. A demand soon grew up for 
porcelain with European as well as Oriental 
designs; family coats of arms, portraits and so on, 
which were copied in China from prints and dra- 
wings sent out for the purpose. Porcelain was also 
ordered undecorated and subsequently painted in 
the Netherlands. A late example of this is a tea 
caddy made to commemorate the sea-battle 
fought against the English off the Dogger Bank in 



• 61* 



► 






. 



\ 



k 



The scene of the Battle of Doggers Bankdepictedonthis Chinese porcelain 
tea caddy was probably painted in the Netherlands. In this clash between 
the Dutch and the English fleets, which took place on 5 August 1781, 
Correlis Zoutman, whose name is emblazoned on the flag held by a 
mermaid, played an important port. 

PORCELAIN TEA CADDY WITH A SILVER STOPPER. 

LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. (CAT.NR, C 55}. 
ROHERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. PHOTO DICK WOLTERS. 




1781 under the command of Rear-Admircl Zoutman 

(fig.nr. 58). 
In consequence of the extremely high prices that 
had to be paid for porcelain, which was greatly 
in demand even though it was expensive, cheaper 
imitations soon came on to the market. Thus the 
producers of the much less refined Delftware began 
to imitate Chinese forms and decorative motifs. It 
was not until the beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tur/ that the raw materials needed for the manu- 
facture of porcelain were discovered at Meissen. 
Although attempts were made to keep theformulae 
and production processes secret for as long as 
possible, porcelain factories were nonetheless soon 
set up in other parts of Europe. After the first Dutch 
porcelain factory at Weesp went bankrupt, the 
energetic Rev. J. de Mot tried to set up a facton/ 
at Oud-Loosdrecht. He finally succeeded in 1774, 
but unfortunately this firm too closed after barely 
ten years in business as a result of financial diffi- 
culties. Its production must nevertheless have been 
very comprehensive: it comprised not only all pos- 



sible types of tablewa re a nd other utensils, bu^ 
decorative objects such as small busts in bisci 
glazed bases. The painting in particular on L: 
cirecht porcelain is ven/ varied. It was some^' 
done in a characteristic purple colour and a 
sepia and polychrome. Favourite subjects are 
ming landscapes and riverviews, which are ir: 
highly romanticized and in part directly 
with the countr/side around Loosdrecht. 
motifs regularly used as decoration are 
(fig.nr. 59) flowers and the like. In Loosdrech*] 
celain one finds objects both In the Louis 
with asymmetrical Rococo ornament and 
Classical forms with appropriate decoration o* 
dallions and garlands. 




•62* 






TEAPOT. 

CUDER-AMSTEL PORCELAIN, LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. (CAT.NR. C 60), 
"ERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BELfNINGEN. PHOTO DICK WOLTERS. 

"cal in shape., the teapot is painted with a somewhat romanticised 
polychrome view of g Dutch river. 



- 'Ao\'s factory continued to operate for a few 

- :'3 after his death, but In 1784 it was transferred 

line of the joint owners to Ouder Amstel. That 
~ latter factory must simply be regarded as a 

tinuatlon of the former is clear not only from 
e fact that marks of both are to be found on 
me pieces, but also from the striking similarity in 

s and decoration. For the rest, the objects 
educed by the Amstel focton/ gradually took on 
-■rraighter and more cylindrical character Ifig.nr. 

60). 
DeMol'stime A. Lynckerhad already established 
porcelain factor/ in The Hague, which started 
/ merely painting undecorated porcelain, which 

s imported mainly from Ansbach and Tournai. 

e factory began the complete manufacture 

porcelain objects In about 1778. Thefinestexam- 

: es of Hague porcelain from this period Include 



a very extensive service which was supplied to 
Johannes de Roo, Lord of the Manor of Westmaas 
and Burgomaster of Dordrecht. The townscapes 
and landscapes painted by Lyncker and his as- 
sistants on this sen/ice, part of which was obtained 
from foreign factories, relate to places which 
played or had played an important part in De 

Roo's life. 
The fact that the Hague factor/ also had to close 
in 1790 shows thatthe Dutch porcelain Industry had 
not hod a ven/ easy existence. Since, generally 
speaking. Its quality can scarcely be faulted, one 
of the main causes of this must have been stiff 
competition. Not only was a great deal of porce- 
lain imported from other European centres, but the 
popularity of Wedgwood ware above all also 

Increased markedly during that period. 
The application of decoration to objects imported 
from abroad was practised with glass as well as 
porcelain in the Netherlands during the eighteenth 
centur/. The glass was mainly Imported from 
England, where very clear glass-of-lead was pro- 
duced/the most important form to have developed 
being the wine-glass on a tall baluster or facetted 



• 63* 



61 



WINE GLASS WITH STIPPIE-ENGRAVING. 

UTE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. (CAT-NR. C 15). 
, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. PHOTO DICK WOLTERS. 



«^BIb ^$$es with stipple, or diamond point, engraving were 
^^mm feigland and decorated in the NetheHands. The engraving 
::— ays a Dutch merchant and a boy personifying America, 
■ -erchandise of the kind shipped from the West indies to 
•• the Netheriands. 

' ■ - . ^oer of craftsmen working in the Nether- 
::5eded in achieving an exceptionoHy 

- of skill in techniques of gloss decoration. 
"iques were most commonly employed 
T was stipple-engraving, a development 
v-nond engraving which was so popular 

- enteenth century. No longer were lines 
T glass with the diamond, but instead the 

as built up from fine stipples (fig.nr. 611. 
olff was the most important of the crafts- 
King in this technique and glasses deco- 
"lis way are sometimes wrongly referred 
5 generic term "Wolff glasses" after him. 
-ss importance than stippling was wheel 
" g, in which the object to be decorated 
- :: against a rapidly rotating wheel. By this 
. "ne surface was given a more or less matt 
T depending on the extent to which it was 
-::. The best known wheel engraver was 
: Sang. Some exquisitely decorated glasses 
"" have survived. One of them shows the 
" D Overijssel which sailed with the first Dutch 
. ^otic mission to the United States In 1783 
(fig.nr. 621. 
* :ng the themes used to decorate Dutch glass 
T ate eighteenth century pride of place is taken 
■ ::se relating to the Welvaeren (Prosperity) of 
tt le-tain branch of trade or industn/, arable or 
fcirora! farming, newly wed couples, women in 
~ :aed or new-born babies. In addition there are 
rfous glasses bearing the coat of arms of a 
2 region or a family, as well as examples with 
5ns alluding to a political situation or comme- 
morating a friendship. 
"1 regard to the costume of the well-to-do mem- 
- '! of Dutch society, French fashion had long been 
" sidered to set the tone. Magazines such as the 
net van Mode en Smaak (Cabinet of Fashion 
: Taste), which first appeared In 1791, helped 
ensure that developments in this field quickly 
Tiame generally known. Men's suits, which were 
:de of the same material throughout, consisted 
■ a frock coat with a waistcoat underneath and 
'ee breeches. The frock coat, also referred to by 
~~ significant name of I'habit a la franc;aise, 
'=oched about asfar as the knees and was always 
Dm open at the front. Lace ruffles emerged from 
"9 sleeves and a jabot was worn at the neck of 
the waistcoat. 





WINE GLASS WITH WHEEL ENGRAVING. 

JACOB SANG 1783. (CAT.NR. C 14). 
ROHERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. PHOTO DfCK WOLTERS. 

The engraving is of a sailing ship leaving port, with a town (probably Amster- 
dom) in the background. Mercury, god of commerce, flies above the ship. 
The text reads "Good fortune and blessing attend the noble first envoys 
to America aboard the man-of-war 'Over-Yssel'. Anno 1783", The glass 
thus commemorates the first official Dutch mission to the United States in 
1783. The engravings on the reverse side include the coats of arms of the 
Dutch Republic, Van Berckel (who headed the mission) and Riemersma 
(the captain of the 'Over-Yssel'). 



I 



• 65* 



■Qir 




DUTCH, LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, (CAT.NR. C 53). 
ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. 

The fan is adorned with the portraits of Stadholder William V and his wife. 
Princess Wiihelmina of Prussia, their coats of arms^ a Dutch lion and an 
Orange tree, surrounded by graceful festoons, bows and other orna- 
mentation. 

Ladies usually wore a gown with sleeves^ which 
was open at the front to reveal a petticoat of some 
costly material. Women's costume in the Nether- 
lands in the late eighteenth century was actually 
fairly varied, this being in the main a consequence 
of the fact that various fashions remained in use 
here after they had been replaced by newer ones 
in France. One of the most popular accessories 
for women of virtually all walks of life was the fan. 
N^any people, mostly of French origin, were able 
to earn a living in Amsterdam and other cities as 
makers of or dealers in fans. They were usually 
sold in fancy goods shops or "French boutiques". 
The sticks were made of materials such as bone, 
Ivor/, mother-of-pearl and tortoiseshell, while in the 
Netherlands, in contrast to other countries, the 
decorations on the leaves were almost never prin- 
ted, but always painted. In addition to special 
wedding and church fans there were also exam- 
ples with political {fig.nr. 631 or mythological scenes 

or leaves imported from China. 
The decoration and furnishings of the Dutch interior 
as described above were the exclusive preserve 
of a small well-to-do upper stratum of society. The 
ordinary citlzenn/ and the peasants and fisher 



DRAWING OF THE INTERIOR OF THE ARTIST'S HOUSE, BY JACOB CAT 

(CAT.NR. C 63 A +B), 

AMSTERDAM, HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAFtSCHE ATLAS VAN NET GEMEENTE J 

The drowing shows a simple Dutch interior at the end of the el; 

century. Unlike the houses of the wealthy, whose decoration one 

con be dated fairly readily by their style, the interiors of the less v.= 

changed very little in the course of the years. 

folk could not afford such a luxurious and fcz-| 
conscious life style. They surrounded themsel\ r ; 
household goods of a far less costly variety, .n 
found a place In soberly arranged interiors, 
the floors were made of boards or flocr 
Iflg.nr. 64) and the whitewashed walls were "n 
with simple paintings, a wall clock and :ii 
such as decorations cut from paper, whi:- 
be described as folk art. In some areas It v. : 
custom to point scenes, flowers and other orr: 
on cupboards, folding tables and other f.~i 
Various of the utensils which were prod.:-- 
silver were also available to the less we -: 
pewter. It is noteworthy that developments 
form and decoration occurred in both r^- 
on identical manner, albeit rather more s : 
pewter. In contrast to other periods, v.-~ 
design of pewter objects still had a chc: 
its own, pewterers in the eighteenth ce"- 
creasingly became little more than Imitate- 
silversmiths. Thus tobacco jars (fig.nr 6c 
for roast chestnuts and countless oths' : 
were made in the Neo-Classical style, v.- : 
be related to virtually identical models - 
In some cases the pewter was "lacque^T: 



•66* 




^ v"?*^%»«^iiM<*fe^s 



In s\\ 



• 67* 



' "».' , 




PEWTER TOBACCO JAR. 

DUTCH, LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. [CAT.NR. C 81). 

ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. PHOTO DICK WOLTERS. 

Garlands from which were suspended medallions with portraits of Roman 

emperors were a favourite design for objects fashioned in the Louis XVI 

style. A remarkable feature of the pewter dating from this period is that the 

design and decoration were copied from similar objects in silver. 



and subsequently gilded or painted in var 

colours. 
The production of earthenware, which was 
only in use among the ordinary citlzenn/, but C! 
did duty in wealthier quarters as kitchenwc 
reached a peak, particularly in Delft, around 
thereafter to decline slowly but surely as a re 
among other things, of massive imports of Ent 
products. Apart from Delft, Makkum in Friesi 
ployed an important part in the majolica indi 
while in some other centres there were small fat 
like that of Arent Klos in Schiedam. Pa" 



nes 



decoration on potter/ consisted of Biblicc 
domestic scenes, landscapes, flowers, etc., wh 
Delft in particular Chinese and Japanese r: 
were used on the model of much more re- 
porcelain. However, the quality of the decor- 
fell off considerably during the course c 
eighteenth centun/ and it declined for the 
part into a kind of primitive folk art. Only o 
proportion of the "Orange pieces", plates 
other utensils painted with portraits of the :ii 
holder and his family or symbols relating *: 
House of Orange, were actually made '^ 
Netherlands. A large percentage of them cc 

of Leeds cream ware. 
Extensive use was mode in Dutch interiors c" 
the decoration of which was closely related ": 
of the ceramic products mentioned abet 
We may fittingly end with a hymn of praise s. - 
the Moid of Delft on the American Declarc" 
Independence (from A. Loosjes, Gedenkz. 
Gelegenheid der vrijverklaring van N 
America (Column to commemorate the 
American Declaration of Independence), A- 
dam, 1782): 

Mij dunkt, ik zie een blij tafreel, 
Daar Neerland Amerijk metzijne gunst verwc 
Door onvenmoeide kunst vervaardigd 
Geschilderd op een Delftsch plateel. 



Methinks I see a joyous scene, 
Where Holland bestows upon America its 
Expressed in undying art. 
Painted on a piece of Delftware. 



•68* 



I M m t 



m 



F 



:*69*: 



SOCIETIES AND THE SCIENCES BY AJ.F. GOGELB 



Rightly or wrongly, two centuries after the event, 
we considerthat only the progressive individuals of 
those turbulent times were capable of understan- 
ding the. spirit of the "Enlightenment". For the his- 
torian, there is much satisfaction to be derived 
from concentrating his attention on those very 
people whose contributions to the advance of civi- 
lization are most clearly visible. Even after ail this 
time, we can still find their broadminded, positive 
and optimistic attitude refreshing. This chapter will 
therefore deal with some of those people who fully 
measure up to the description "progressive". 



66 
ASSEMBLY ROOM OF A LITERARY SOCIETY IN LEIDEN. 

PAINTING BY PC. LA FARGUE (CAT.NR. D 14). 
LEIDEN, STEDELIJK MUSEUM "DE LAKENHAL". PHOTO A. DINGJAN. 

A typical example of the premises and collection of a literary dub. This 
society of philologists and poetry lovers bearing the name of "Art Through 
Effort" was set up in Leyden in 1766, and from 1770 onwards met for 
many years in this rectangular room. The cupboard against the back 
wall was known as the Pan PoeHcon Batavum because its drawers 
contained a collection of more than 300 portraits of Dutch poets. The 
walls are adorned with portraits, framed verses and a bust of Apollo. 



As early as the 17th centun/ (the Dutch Golden A; 
there was wide public interest in the Netherlanc; 
the arts and sciences. People spent their time, c^t 
as members of societies, pursuing such subjects 
theology, literature, painting and drawing, p^ 
sophy, or collecting books, art, or curiosities 
rn 66). These activities flourished in an atmosph 
of freedom of thought and expression, and \ 
stimulated by a simultaneous interest in the s: 
tific work being done at the universities. Rece- 
founded (Leiden in 1575, Groningen in 1614, 
Utrecht in 16361, these universities were ra: 
growing and capable of a wide range of pre: 
research. This may explain why in the 17th ce'-; 
Dutchmen felt little need to create elite "lee 
societies like those established in London ir 
(The Royal Society), in Paris in 1666 (Acace-- 
Royale des Sciences), and in Berlin In 1700 (So: 

Regia Scientiarum). 
It was not until 1752 that a similar society was- 
ded in Holland. It was called the "hlollar: 





♦ . 



^r*5chappij der Wetenschappen" (Dutch So- 

" for Sciences), hereafter referred to as the 

:ndsche Maatschappij, and was located in 

I' em. This example was followed in Flushing 

"68 ("Zeeuwsch Genootschap" or Zeeland 

: ety), in Rotterdam in 1769 ("Bataafsch Genoot- 

zo" or Batavian Society), and in Amsterdam in 

i"Felix Meritis" or "Rich through Achievements") 

(fig.nr. (S7\. 

"'^ organization of the Hollandsche Maatschap- 

:en/ed, to a large extent, as a model for others. 

t'6 were two different kinds of members: the 

"rctors, composed of those who were respon- 

:; e for administration and financial affaii's, and 

■*"e ordinary members or scholars (including ama- 

Meetings were held with lectures and 



^.-SJ 



^i 



' rTionstrotions, medals were awarded to the win- 
T-3 of competitions, and the societies often assem- 
sd handsome collections of the mostwidelydiver- 
:Tit objects. Many societies offered varied pro- 
".'^ms and were divided into sections. There were 



THE OPENING OF THE FELIX MERITIS BUILDING ON 31 OCTOBER 1788. 

PAINTING BY ADRIAAN DE LELIE. 

AMSTERDAM, AMSTERDAMS HISTORISCH MUSEUM. 



so many societies during this period that the 
Zeeuwsch Genootschap of Flushing even held a 
competition to determine the best way in which 
all the learned societies could work together to 
achieve a common goal without getting in each 

other's way. 
Often these societies had to be satisfied with 
borrowed housing from another institute (fig.nr. 681,- 
although one or Vho, such as the Hollandsche 
Maatschappij (fig.nr. 691, managed to afford their 
own impressive quarters with separate meeting 
and demonstration rooms, such as in the building 
of the Amsterdam society Felix Meritis (fig.nrs, 70, 

71,72,731. 
The greatest difference between the Dutch societies 
and those In other countries was that instead of a 
royal patron, the Dutch societies were established 



• 71* 



68 
MEETING HELD IN A ROOM IN HAARLEM, 1773. 

DRAWING BY VINCENT VAN DE VINNE. 
HAARLEM, GEMEINTE ARCHIEF (MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

te :' z meeting not held in a private home. This was the first meeting 

leionomio Branch" of the Hollondsche Maatschappij (Dutch 

'^- Sciences), held on 15 September 1778 in the assembly room 

-r:-iem almshouse. The "Oeconomia Branch" later became o 

:;dy and is still in existence as the Dutch Society for Industry 

and Commerce, 

69 
■JT BUtlDING OF THE HOLLANDSCHE MAATSCHAPPIJ IN HAARLEM. 
DRAWING 6YC. EKAMA 
HAARLEM, GEMEENTE ARCHIEF (MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

i -lembers met at the house of one of the directors. From 1778 
-ey had their own spacious premises and their natural history 
rscame one of the sights of Haarlem. The drawing is of the 
Ty bought in 1841, and still occupy. Itwasbuiltby the Amsterdam 

Abraham van der Hart in 1794 as a private house, Though of a 
ater date, the drawing shows the original architecture. 



,1 on the initiative of one or more well-to-do 
ell-educated members of the middle class. 
:ti century societies were primarily concerned 
t work that would benefit society. Accordingly 
ijch society ibunded in Edam in 1784 was 
bi the "Maatschappij tot Nut van 't Algemeen" 
5^ for Public Welfare). In 1767 the Maat- 
rcpij tot Redding van Drenkelingen (Society 
^e Rescuing of the Drowning! was founded in 
■erdam. The Batoafsch Genootschap In Rot- 
:am (1769), of which Benjamin Franklin became 
srresponding member soon after Its establish- 
was particularly interested in promoting 
■-ical development. Thanks to the activities of 
Drganization the steam engine was first used 
and reclamation in 1786. From this time on, 
steam engine, like the traditional windmill, 
'i^me a feature of the Dutch countn/side (fig.nr. 
74). 
leofthese societies still exist and have changed 
"^ over the centuries. In examining one of these 
; 2epth, it is interesting to note what was achieved 
KC hundred years ago when, inspired by the 
of the time and backed by adequate funding, 
"eties gave able and progressive members a 
-e hand to develop ideas In accordance with 
their own views. 
^=^-er Teyler van der Hulst (1702-1778) (fig.nr. 75) 
3 long considered establishing a new society 
:omplement the work of the Hollondsche Maat- 
bappij in FHaaHem. Teyler was of English descent. 
of his ancestors, Thomas Taylor, left England 
1580 for religious reasons. FHis descendants, 
5th merchants and manufacturers, later became 

members of the Mennonlte Sect. 
wssuming^ pious and humane, Pleter Teyler van 
FHulst was a wealthy silk manufacturer with 
reot interest in the issues of his time. Like others of 



of his day, he possessed a small collection of draw- 
ings, coins, books and natural curiosities. In 1756, 
lacking any heirs to his estate, Teyler began thin- 
king how he could dispose of his wealth for the 
benefit of the community. One thing he did was to 
found on almshouse for poor women, as did many 
of his contemporaries. But his greatest contribution 

lay In the making of an important will. 
In this will of 1756, Teyler stipulated that his wealth 
and possessions were to be used to endow a foun- 
dation, the aim of which was to promote religion, 
to encourage the arts and sciences, and to benefit 
the community. On his death In 1778, the "Teylers 
Stichting" (The Teyler's Foundation) was set up 
under a board of five directors (fig.nr. 76). Two 
societies were established by the Foundation: 
"Teyler's First Society" or "Theological Society", and 
"Teyler's Second Society", which concerned itself 
with the natural sciences of biology, physics and 
chemistn/, and also literature, histon/, art and 
numismatics or coin collecting. Each society was 
to have six members whose obligations were to 
include the organization of competitions. One rule 
required that the members of the First Society be 
joint adjudicators of the competitions held by the 

Second. 
The objective ofthe First Society was the promotion 
of the freedom and truth ofthe Christian religion. 
The question of what was meant by "freedom" is 
an interesting one. At this time in histon/, the Ame- 
ricans were fighting for the rights of life, liberty, 
and the pursuit of happiness, as the Declaration of 
Independence tells us. While in the same centun/, 
the French fought for liberty, equality, and frater- 
nity. Undoubtedly though, Teyler's definition of 
freedom clearly included religion, as two centuries 
previously, his ancestor, Thomas Taylor, left even/- 
thing behind him in order to enjoy the freedom of 

worship In the Netherlands. 
Because the established societies had tended to 
drift away from the more traditional concern of 
general or philosophical problems and give in- 
creasing attention to the natural sciences, Teyler 
hoped his two coordinated societies would strike a 
balance between the theological and the scientific. 
At the same time, the danger of freethinking and 
atheism could be averted as long as the theolo- 
gians had control of all the societies' competitions. 
The will therefore carefully laid down many condi- 
tions while leaving sufficient room for the directors 
and their assistants to work on their own initiative. 
Collections of all kinds were assembled In the 
Netherlands by private individuals and public In- 
stitutions. There ore a number of reasons why 
one collects, and among these is most definitely 



• 73* 






y 




.mm- 




•74* 




70,71,72,73 

FOUR ROOMS IN THE FELIX MERITIS BUILDING. 

PRINTS BY N. VAN DER MEER AND R, V[NKELES. (CATINR, 72). 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

A series of four prints of the interior, showing the music room, the lecture 
room, the physics room and the drawing room. The music room, in par- 
ticular, was in frequent use for many years. In the physics room an electro- 
static machine with glass discs is being demonstrated by Professor Jean 
Henry van Swinden. 



*75* 




The first steam pump in the Netherlands. The engine was ordered from 

Boulton & Watt in England by the directors of the Rotterdam Batavian 

Society. 




PORTRAIT OF PIETER TEYLER VAN DER HULST (1702-1778). 
PAINTING BYT.H. TELGERSMA. 
HAARLEM, TEYLERS MUSEU^A. 



the desire to acquire public prestige. Every town 
and village had a museum of art or natural objects 
and curiosities (fig.nrs. 66, 77 , 78) where people 
assembled to admire the exhibits. Some were 
called "art galleries" but they contained more than 
just objects of aesthetic value. They were collec- 
tions of extraordinan/ cultural and natural histon/ 
objects of educational value. One of the chief 
virtues of the museums was that they stimulated 
the visitor to reflect upon the wonder of God's 

universe. 
From as early as 1600, there was just such a collec- 
tion in Leiden at the Theatrum Anatomicum (the 
Anatomical Theatre), the first public university 
museum. Together with the Hortus Botanicus (the 
Botanical Garden) in Leiden, these two constituted 
collections well worth seeing. The Stadholders of 
Holland also possessed a large art collection and 
held exhibitions for the general public of the 18th 
centun/ In a beautiful hall in The Hague. Unfor- 



tunately, these public museums and art gall- 
no longer exist, nor does the Kabinet van Nz 
alien (the Museum of Natural History) of the - 

andsche Maatschopplj. 
So Teyler's Museum is the oldest public coller-:: 
still in existence. From the start, Teyler had dec :^ 
that the collections of books and objects shot : 
expanded. The directors therefore set uc 
museum in four separate sections apart fro~ 
libran/. These sections were devoted to drc' 
and paintings, coins and medals, fossils and ~ 
als, and scientific instruments. 





I 



:Hons with the HollandscheMaatschappij were 
leilent, thanks to a clear understanding between 

- "WO, and chiefly because the first curator of 

- "eyler Museum was atthetime also the curator 
"le Hollandsche Maatschappij's Museum of 

Natural History, 
"sr 1778, Teyler's home became the Fundatiehuis 
:.ndation house) Ifig.nrs. 78, 79, 801 in which 
Tetings were held. It also sensed as the residence 

■"le warden and curator of the art collections. 
::ording to the will, the warden and curator had 

De a practicing artist. The first warden of impor- 
":e was Wybrand Hendriks (1744-1831), a pain- 
" whose work is illustrated in the catalogue (fig. 
:. 40, 76, 80, 81 , 88, 89). The museum, designed 

the architect Leendert Viervant (1752-1801), was 
.-It behind the Fundatiehuis. The museum began 

one large room known as the Oval Hall with 
:.oden paneling decorated with can/ing and 



topped by a ceiling with beautiful stucco work. 
It was completed in 1784 (fig.nrs. 82, 83, 84, 85). 
Teyler's own collection of coins and drawings were 
ater expanded. The collection of drawings gained 
considerable importance in 1790 when two thou- 
sand drawings purchased in Italy and mainly from' 
theformercollectiorLof Queen Christine of Sweden, 
were added to the collection. Among these were 
works by Michelangelo, Rafeal, Goltzius, Lorrain, 
Rembrandt and many others. To a large extent, 
Teyler's Museum owes its reputation to these col- 
lections. 
The collection which Includes minerals and fossils 
was assembled just at a time when geology was 
becoming a modern science. Many collections 
were used to substantiate theories, and Teyler's 
Museum certainly accumulated much important 
material. For an understanding of the energetic 
way in which this section, as well as the section 
on natural histon/, was built up, we must focus 

our attention on the first curator. 
Martinus van Marum (1750-1837) (fig.nr. 87) was an 
extremely gifted man who grew up in Delftand later 
studied medicine at Groningen 117641 where he 
received his doctorate of philosophy and doctorate 
of medicine (1773). During his student years, he 
displayed not only a great interest in new develop- 
ments in the field of natural science, but he acquired 



•79* 



I 




THETEYLER FOUNDATION BUILDING IN HAARLEM. 
HAARLEM, TEYLERS MUSEUM. 

The house built in 1715 for Pieter Teyler von der Hulst became fhe seaf 

of the Foundation, where meetings were held and the art collection was 

kept. The house is in Damstroot, across the canal from the building of the 

hlollondsche Maatschappij. 



INTERIOR OF THE TEYLER FOUNDATION BUILDING. 
HAARLEM, TEYLERS MUSEUM, 

The omote interior forms an unexpected contrast with the plain facade 
of fhe building. 



] 




80 
COURTYARD OF THE TEYLER FOUNDATION BUILDING. 

PAINTING BY WYBRAND HENDRIKS. 
HAARLEM, TEYLERS MUSEUM. 

The assembly room on the ground floor. The roof in the backgrOL 
that of the museum's Oval Room. The tower-like structure on top 
observatory. 




a broad basic knowledge in, and showed z 
sitivity to, subjects which were entering an '~% 
tant phase of their development. And where 
there not achievements and discoveries zjy 
this period! Research was being cooductec - 
fields of anatomy, poleaontology, mine'c, 
plant physiology, chemistry, electricity one 

neerlng. 
With von Marum's 'knowledge of ianguc:-. 
had no difficulty in familiarizing himself v. 
fundamental research being undertaken '- 
countries like England, France, and Amerii 
was particularly interested in the scienti"^": 
of Benjamin Franklin. However, when Mart" 
Marum saw that there was no immediate . 
for him at Gronlngen as a professor, he se* 
1776 as a doctor in Haarlem. He imrre: 
joined enthusiastically in the scientific lifeth« 
soon was elected as a member of the Ho z-' 
Maatschappij. He was awarded a lectu'i-:" 
the town of Haarlem, in which capaci". 
summer courses on a wide variety of i.: 
When he later became a member c* 
Second Society and Director of Teyler's 
he at last found himself in the right environ^^ 
his further scientific development Ifig.nr. 3? 



w^ 



• 80* 



Marum made journeys abroad, come into 
ma I contact with many well-known scholars, 

4 at the same time acquired many important 
"5 for the collections, including the geologicol 
■'on (fig.nr. 891. He was also responsible for 
ling up the museum's library which he accom- 
led with vision and knowledge. Among other 
jitions to the scientific section, he acquired the 

ire series of publications of the Royal Society of 

idon. The Academie des Sciences of Paris, and 
Prussian Academy. Under van Marum's direc- 

1, the Teyler's Museum received a broad and 
healthy basis for on institution in Its infancy. 

addition, if one examines the records of van 

irum, it is apparent that he not only collected, 
inged and taught scientific information, but he 
actively embarked on a considerable amount 
^dependent research, thus enhancing the repu- 

fon of Teyler's Museum as an important labora- 
tory, 
previously stated, the foundation of the Hol- 

idsche Maatschappij in 1752 laid the basis for 

active participation of the middle class in scien- 

motters. Many of these people were receptive 

new and revolutionan/ Ideas such as those 

-na noting from France. They subjected these ideas 



THE OVAL ROOM OF THE TEYLER MUSEUM. 

PAINTING BY WYBRAMD HENDRIKS. 

HAARLEM, TEYLERS MUSEUM. 

The room as it was in 1801 or thereabouts. The electrostatic machine In 

its mahogany case is to be seen in the foreground. A new display cose 

for the mineral collection is in the centre. 



to experimental proof whenever possible. For in- 
stance, after experimenting on his own, van Marum 
became quickly convinced ofthetruth of Lavoisier's 
ideas. He therefore translated and published 
Lavoisier's theories in Dutch in 1787. Van Marum 
also designed the equipment with which to repro- 
duce Lavoisier's experiments. These famous instru- 
ments are still on display in Teyler's Museum, where 
inspired simplicity has received much praise Ifig. 

nr90L 
Stimulated by van Marum's lead, a scientific club 
called the FHoIlandsche Scheikundlgen (Dutch 
Chemists! was formed. The members conducted a 
number of ingenious and important experiments 
and published many of their findings. Fromthistime 
foPA^ard, the Dutch played an Important role in the 

world of chemisti^. 
Van Marum's interest in chemistry was strongly 
stimulated by the new theories of Lavoisier, the 
founder of modern chemistry, and his circle. When 



•81* 



van Marum visited Paris In 1785 he attended one 
of Lavoisier's lectures in the Academie des Sciences. 

In his diary he v/rote the following: 
'^M. Lavoisier read^ among other things, a memo- 
randum on the different kinds of air. But violent 
objections were raised against it, in consequence 
of which reading was repeatedly interrupted, and 
the simultaneous speaking of the Lecturer and his 
opponents allowed me to hear very little of it/' 
This shows how the modern Interpretation of che- 
mistry provoked fierce discussions at that time. As 
stated, van Marum worked energetically and 
precisely at his chemical experiments, and later 
gave lectures and demonstrations with his instru- 



ments. These lectures indicate the full advant:: 
of the museum as an institution for populoriz" 

modern science. 
Van Marum dit not, however, go to Paris prime 
to attend the lectures of Lavoisier. He wer 
publicize various experiments he had perfon 
in electricity. The close connection between ch 



82,83, 84,85 

ORNAMENTAL CEILING PANELS IN THE TEYLER MUSEUM. 

HAARLEM, TEYLERS MUSEUM. 



A few of the many representations on the ceiling of the Ova 
such as religion, music, sculpture, the natural sciences, and so o- 





lesses and electricity was already known. 
rs early as his student days In Groningen, 
'.'.arum conducted experiments to identify 
rties of electricity. These experiments had 
'nspired by such people as Benjamin Franklin. 
1 hod shown in his famous kite flights that 
"iQ was an ordinary but extended electrical 
He also discovered the lightning conductor 
•lorum conducted experiments with different 
of metal wire and discovered that copper 
''^os the best conductor. As a result, a regu- 
' was adopted that henceforth required light- 
conductors to be made from copper. The 
iment was frequently demonstrated (flg.nr. 



911. Friction machines with gloss cylinders or glass 
discs hod long been used for the production of elec- 
tricity In van Marum's time. Taking advantage of 
the opportunity which his position at the museum 
provided, van Marum harnessed the resources of 
the museum to develop the largest electrical gene- 
rator ever made In the world. The generator Itself 
was made by the skilled Instrument-maker John 
Cuthbertson, an Englishman who had been wor- 
king in Amsterdam for several years. It was orna- 
mented by the architect of the museum, Leendert 
Viervant, In a style corresponding to that of the 

OvalHall(fig.nrs.92,94). 
The interesting process of planning and construe- 




id' 



ting such an enormous machine is best described 

by von Marum himself: 
'The history of Electrical Science teaches us that 
progress in this science has been made in conjunc- 
tion with the use of ever larger electrical instruments 
giving a more powerful electrical force. Reflecting 
on this, there seemed to me to be ever/ ground 
for hoping that a still more powerful electrical force 
than used so far, if such could be produced, would 

lead to new discoveries." 
This quote comes from the text of on introduction 
to the "Description of a Very Large Electrical 
Machine" 11785), which was published in both 
Dutch and French. In this work, van Marum further 
discusses the reasons for using the biggest glass 
discs possible: "not only for producing a much 
stronger force, but also to find the highest degree 
of electrical power that could be obtained from 

instruments made of glass". 
These discs were actually 65 inches (c 165 cm) in 
diameter and were imported from France. Van 

Marum continues: 
"The size and cost of such an instrument gave me 
another reason for recommending its construction. 
An apparatus like this cannot very well be expected 
to be made by any physical scientist at his own 
expense, however great his zeal may be, because 
not only it is very costly, but it takes up more room 
than is generally available in any private house." 
The building of the friction machine marked the 
beginning of the museum's natural science section. 
Immediately thereafter, van Marum undertook a 
series of experiments with the machine, only a few 
of which are mentioned here. First, the power of 
the apparatus was tested and It appeared that a 
spark of two feet could be obtained. Van Marum 
carefully studied the form of this spark, with its fine 
branches, and drew It as carefully as possible 
(fig.nr. 93). Through the procedure, he was able 
to find supporting evidence for Benjamin Franklin's 
theon/ that electrical current traveled in one direc- 
tion. In this "one-fluid theon/", an electrical force Is 
in itself an Imbalance of an otherwise normally 
neutral state. A positive and a negative charge 
are conditions of the same single electrical matter 
(or 'fluid'). This theon/ was in opposition to an ear- 
lier two-fluid explanation in which a positive and 
a negative charge correspond with two different 
electrical fluids, In consequence of which these 
two fluids would travel in opposite directions, but 
theformofthespark produced by Van Marum was 

not consistent with a two-way movement. 
During his visit to Paris in 1785, van Marum took the 
opportunity of meeting Benjamin Franklin shortly 
before his return to America. He wrote in his dian/ 



on July 9th that at about seven o'clock in 
evening he was Introduced: 
"to this sage and humanitarian." 
"His countenance, in which his greatness could v« 
greatly be discerned, inspired me with a venerat 
such as I cannot remember ever having preview 
felt for any person. I briefly told him that I 
hastened, as soon as the description of my ele< 
experiments had been printed, to go to Porii 
order to have the pleasure of reporting on f-- 
to him before his departure. He thereupon rec. 
ted me to sit down by his side and looked a* 
illustration I pointed out to him. He seemed to ! 
with much pleasure to what I told him aboi 
great power of this machine. 1 also told him c- 
principal experiments I had carried out with it. A - 
had conversed with the great man for half an - : 
he expressed that he was particulaHy please: 
learn, before his departure from Europe, of the 
progress in the doctrine of electricity; and th : 
confessed that I had got very far in this field. Ft - 
more, he thanked me most courteously for the r: 

with which I presented him." 
Van Marum also wrote in o paper entitled i 
Theorie de Franklin" (Haarlem 18191, that 
Franklin saw the long forked spark he exc : - 



THE MUSEUM IN THE MIRROR 
HAARLEM, TEYLERS MUSEUM. 



• 84* 



It. 





PORTRAIT OF MARTINUS VAN MARUM (1750-1837), 

ATTRIBUTED TO JORDANUS HOORN. 

HAARLEM, FRANS HALS MUSEUM. PHOTO A. DINGJAN. 



is then proves my theory of a simple electrical 
Ih'd, and it Is now high time to reject the theoi"Y of 

two sorts of fluids." 
i the previously mentioned "Description of a Very 
:rge Electrical Machine", van Morum carefully 
ascribed his many experiments. He distinguished 
:etween charges which he felt In his fingers, his 
fist, and his elbow. At times, he wrote, n . 1 1- . ■ . r 

the whole of rr,y body.' Van Marum wrote: 
The prickly feeling on the head caused by the 
^pulsion of electric matter is so strong that most of 
rose whom I invited to experience this sensation 
could only endure It for a short while." 



He also used the other senses. During an experi- 
ment In which electrical charges were passed 
through hydrogen, he wrote, 'When transferring 
mis oir, we nonce-j 111^;! m ^.-d ■•; — ■■;— d a very 
strong smell." Van Marum had smelled ozone and 

described It for the first time. 
His experiments must hove been spectacular to 
witness. We can still appreciate this since much of 
the old atmosphere of Teyler's Museum has been 
preserved. For Instance, there is an extremely long 
iron wire coil, a hundredth of on inch In diameter, 
running the entire length of the gallen/ of the Oval 
Hall. As the great machine discharged three hun- 



•85* 




TWO DRAWINGS FROM THE SERIES, "VAN MARUM CARICATURES". 

DRAWINGS BY WYBRAND HENDRIKS. 
HAARLEM, TEYIERS MUSEUM. 

(88)"Martinus is appointed Director of the Teyler Museum" and (89}"The 
Doctor travels in distant countries, buying all kind of stones . . ." 



• 86* 







• 87* 



I 




WATER-MAKING APPARATUS (N THETEYLER MUSEUM. 
HAARLEM, TEYLERS MUSEUM. 

One of the various types of apparatus used for the numerous chemical 

experiments carried out in emulation of Lavoisier and others. They were 

remarkable for their simplicity and precision. 



• 88* 




"DONDER HUISJE" (THUNDER OR LIGHTNING HOUSE) 

(CAT.NR. D 5|. 
LEIDEN, MUSEUM BOERHAAVE. 

conductor rising from the roof is earthed a discharge has no effect; 
if it is not, the walls and roof collapse. 



dred times per minute the wire lit up with thousands 
of fine electrical rays, each about one inch long 
Ifig.nr. 93). Then in 1789, van Marum made use of 
large battery of Leiden jars which enabled him 
to accumulate powerfull charges. With some 225 
jars, the voltage must have reached as high as 
200 kv. He also conducted calcination, oroxidation 
experiments by discharging currentthrough various 
thin metal wires, and allowing them to oxidize. 
When the discharge was very powerful, the wires 
exploded, and sometimes the whole museum was 

filled with floating, fibrous grey flakes. 
For some years van Marum continued to make 
improvements on the machine, chiefly to eliminate 
leakage of the electrical charge. The result was a 
somewhat simpler looking machine. It is in this form, 
dating roughly from 1791, that the machine, now 
on display in Teyler's Museum, can be seen Ifig. 

nrs. 92,94). 
There were many reasons why the experiments 
ended. In the first place, political revolution in the 
Netherlands made it ven/ difficult for many people 
to concentrate on pure scientific research. In addi- 
tion, a change in the direction of research lead to 
emphasize being placed on the resolution of other 

scientific mysteries. 
In summary, then, the lively Interest of the Dutch 
middle classes In the arts and sciences gave rise to 
a number of different societies. One of these was 
Teyler's Stichting, conceived in 1756 and inaugura- 
ted in 1778. Because of adequate funding and 
intelligent direction, the society flourished as one 
of the most modern institutions of its time. 





THE VAN MARUM ELECTROSTATIC MACHINE. 

ICAT.NR. D2) 
HAARLEM, TEYLiRS MUSEUM. 



f 1 

— ^>/hile the 

"ernatiorM 
:'entific res 
■3 museun 

'le first a 

'ergeticU 

"3ndeur c 

alitative 

"d gaina 



The largest electrostatic generator ever built. Its two glass discs are 65 
inches in diameter^ and it could cause a 2-feet spork discharge between 
the large brass electrodes, it is shown here os it was originally installed in 
1784 in the Oval Room of the Teyler Museum, which its ornamentation 



was designed to match. At the left is part of the mahogany cover - 
protected the glass discs when the machine was not in use. Designer 
Martinus van Manjm (1750-1837), made by John Cuthbertson (1742-' 
and ornamented by the architect Leendert Viervant [1752-1801 



A LONG FORKED SPARK. 
HAARLEM, TEYLERS MUSEUM. 



"A ray with its curves and lateral branches is shown on the third Plate", 
wrote Van Manim. This is the illustration that Benjamin Franklin was shown 
in 1785. He wished to be assured that it was an accurate representation 
of the phenomenon observed. Van Morum dispelled his doubts and 
Franklin felt that this supported his "theory of a simple electric fluid". 



94 

THE VAN MARUM ELECTROSTATIC MACHINE. 

(CAT.Nfi, D 2] 

EINDHOVEN, PHILIPS PUBLICITY. 

The machine was installed in its present surroundings a hundred 
ago, when new rooms were added to the Teyler Museum, to the m-rs 
in its original form (see fig.nr. 92) was added a battery of Leiden jars 
and Von Marum effected various other improvements; it has reta'--: 
present form, however, since approximately 1791. 




A COIL EMITTING SPARKS. 



Van Marum attached a thin metal coil to his machine. With every dis- 
charge it emitted fine sparks approximately one inch in length which were 
numerous enough to illuminate it. 



• 90* 



1 



the society's collections quickly acquired principal creation, the largest electric machine 
jtlonol stature through intelligent purchages, ever made. This machine continued to be used 
--"c research was also being conducted, since for demonstrations for many years, even after its 
•.seum was also partly equipped as a labo- scientific purpose had ended. It is still an impressive 

raton/. 
'St curator, Martinus von Marum, was an 

rustic 18th centur/ scientist with an eye for the 
ceur of nature and a desire to discover its 

Blrative laws. He assembled many instruments 
gained considerable fame because of his 



sight today. 



ic -k ik it: 






il 



4^ 



lV~: 



\ 



\U 



u 



'~^4m^ 



^ssis>:\ 



^r:^.' 



-r 






£. 



m 



Vj 



-fl 



'sy^, - 



• 91* 



CONTENTS 



FOREWORD BY THE MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIR; 



OF THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS 



INTRODUCTION BYTHE CHAIRMAN OF THE NETHERLANDS 



BICENTENNIAL COMMI^EE 



JOHN ADAMS AND THE DUTCH REPUBLIC 



BYJ.W. SCHULTE NORDHOLT 



CITIES AND SCENERY THE REPUBLIC OUT OF DOOR 



1775-1795 



BYJ.W. NIEMEUER 



DUTCH INTERIOR DECORATION AND APPLIED ART 
THE LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY BY J.R.TER MOLEN 



SOCIETIES AND THE SCIENCES BY A.J.F. GOGELEIN 



CATALOGUE 



•92* 



CATALOGUE 



The Dutch Republic 

IN THE DAYS OF 




E 



:*93*z= 



JOHN ADAMS AND THE DUTCH REPUBLIC 



AT 
WALL MAP OF THE DUTCH REPUBLIC. 

'THE VII UNITED DUTCH PROVINCES, RENDERED ACCURATELY ACCORDING TO THE 

LATEST SURVEYS AND ENGRAVED BY CHRISTIAAN 5EPP & SON". 

CHRISTIAAN AND JOHAN CHRISTIAAN SEPP. AMSTERDAM 1773. 

PAPER, LINEN-MOUNTED, HAND-COLORED, 102,5 x 125. 

LEIDEN, COLLEaiON BODEl NIJENHUIS, BIBLIOTHEEK DER RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT. 

This map was originally printed in book form as a travel and pocket dtlas. 
John Adams had a copy in his possession. The various mops comprising 
such an atlas were sometimes pasted together on a piece of linen for use 
as a wail map, as in this instance. The 1773 edition was reprinted in 1793. 



A2 

MAP OF THE SEVEN PROVINCES OF THE DUTCH REPUBLIC. 

PIERRE HUSSON, FIRST HALF 18TH. CENTURY. 

PAPER, i9,9 X 57,7 COLORED. 

LEIDEN, COLLECTION BODEL NIJENHUIS, BIBLIOTHEEK DER RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT. 



(See ftg.nr. 1) 



A3 
STATE PORTRAIT OF THE STADHOLDER PRINCE WILLIAM V. 

J.G. ZIESENIS, |ATTR.) 

CANVAS, 113x91. 

DELFT, ORANJE NASSAU MUSEUM. ON LOAN FROM 

DIENST VERSPREIDE RIJKSCOLLECTIES, THE HAGUE, 

The Stadholder, though not a king, was yet, through his position as head 
of the army and first civil servant, the most important man in the Republic. 
William V, a cousin of King George III, was strongly pro-British, and re- 
sisted as long as possible the recognition of the United States. (See fig.nr. 2) 



A4 
PORTRAIT OF JOHN ADAMS. 

R. VINKELES. 

PRINT, 13,7x22,6. 

WASSENAAR, PRIVATE COLLEaiON. 



The Dutch engraver Reinier Vinkeles made this portrait of John Adams 
when he lived in Amsterdam. 



A5 

PORTRAIT OF JOHAN DERK VAN DER CAPELLEN TOT DE POLL 

L.J. CATHELIN AFTER J.A. KALDENBACH. 

PRINT, 39,5 X 29,8. 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

This nobleman from Overijssel was the foremost friend and champion of 
the American cause in the Netherlands. (See fig.nr. 3) 



A6 
PORTRAIT OF JOHAN LUZAC. 

A. DELFQ5. 

DRAWING, 30,2 x 20,5. 

LEIDEN, ACADEMISCH HISTORISCH MUSEUM DER RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT. 

John Luzac (1746-1807), editor of the Gazette de Leyde, which was widely 

read throughout Europe, and later professor of Greek and history at Leiden 

University, was one of John Adams' best friends in the Netherlands. 

(See fig.nr. 11) 



THE RESIDENCE OF THE VORSTERMAN-BIAUWPOT FAMILY AT 529 KEIZERSGRACHT. 

PHOTO AFTER THE ORIGINAL DRAWING OF CASPAR PHILIPS, c. 1767. 

John Adams lived here at the end of 1780, 



AS 

THE LATIN SCHOOL ON THE SINGEL AT AMSTERDAM, 1802. 

J. SMIES. 

CANVAS, 45 X 75. 

AMSTERDAM, KONINKLIJK OUDHEIDKUNDIG GENOOTSCHAP 

(ROYAL ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY) 

John Adams sent his two sons, John Quincy and Charles, to this school 

in September 1780, but removed them in December after a dispute with 

the headmaster. 

(See fig.nr. 1 2) 



A9 

VIEW OF THE ACADEMY AT LEIDEN, 1763. 

A. DELFOS AFTER J.J. BYLAARD. 

PRINT, 24,3 X 32,2, 

LEIDEN, COLLECTION BODEL NIJENHUIS, BIBLIOTHEEK DER RtJKSUNIVERSITEfr 

The main building of the university, as it looked when John Adams' f-»- 

sons were enrolled there. The two boys entered Leiden Universih n- 

January 1781. 



A 10 

"PHILADELPHIA", THE ENGLISH COW CAPTURED, 1778. 

PRINT, 21,5 X 28,5. 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

An anti-English print in which England is symbolised by a cow be 
milked by a Dutch farmer while a Frenchman and a Spaniard are e- 
presented w-ith a bowl of milk. An American, recognisable by his feat^ 
is sawing off the horns. In the distance, is Philadelphia, the Howe bro*- 
are seated at a table, slumped in despair. 



All 
THE ENGLISH COW WASTED TO A SHADOW, "YORKTOWN", 1778. 

PRINT, 21,5 X 28,5. 
ROHESDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

Sequel to the preceding print. The English cow is now completely - 
away, and the English treasury is empty. The sun shines on York:: 
where an English mission is making a lost vain attempt at reconcilia 
with a free America which, surrounded by Justice, Wisdom, etc 
embarking on trade and commerce of its own. (See fig.nr. 9) 

A 12 

THE ENGUSH KING AND LORD NORTH, 1778. 

PRINT, 27 X 38. 

ROHERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

The English king is being robbed of his boots by two Americans and c: 
help to Lord North, who comes to his aid on horseback. Young Engli: 
on their knees before a bust of Cromwell are struck by lightning wt 
by Avenging Justice. 

A 13 

"THE BRITISH LEOPARD BROUGHT TO HIS SENSES", 1780. 

PRINT, HAND COLORED, 26,8 x 35,6. 

WASSENAAR, PRIVATE COLLECTION. 

The leopard was a widely-used symbol for England. Here it is 
attacked by the Dutch lion. The print is described in d^ail in the 
logue. (See fig.nr. 10] 

A 14 

"THE DESPONDENT BRITISH AND THE CONTENTED AMERICANS", 178C 

PRINT, 28x45. 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

Grieving Englishmen, rejoicing Dutch and, in the distance, 
engaged in trading. This print commemorates the League of Arme>; 
trality, of which the Dutch had high hopes. 

A 15 

"UPS AND DOWNS; TIME TURNS THE WHEEL OF WAR", 1780. 

PRINT, 29,4 X 38- 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

Time turns the Wheel of Fortune. England, now on top, is pushe: 
by a Sponiard, a Frenchman and an American, while a Dutchman i 
reparation and a monk and a Protestant watch the downfall of i 
at the right. 

A 16 

"THE ENGLISHMAN IN EXTREMITY," 

PRINT, 18,3x27. 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

The strong Dutch aversion to the Navigation Acts underlies this : 
print of a Dutchman receiving the sick Englishman's vomit in the - 
he will bring up the Act. A doctor trying to help the Englishm- 
enema syringe is prevented from doing so by America, while -; 
Spain obstruct the entry of other doctors in the doorwc,. 



:*M* 



^A 



A17 

"THE LIBERATED DUTCHMAN, OR THE DOG COERCED," 1780. 

PRINT, 28 )t 37. 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VANSTOLK FOUNDATION. 

■--:h farmer on the bridge poinfs down below to where Cromwell's 

Navigation Act is being used as toilet paper, 
v^ch farmer at the right and the American ore warmly greeting 
:-ner. In the central background Empress Catherine 11 of Russia 
assistance to ihe Dutch lion, while a Frenchman forces the English 
13 has on a leash to drink the lion's urine. In the right background 
the British Empire collapses. 



A 18 

"THE MAN IN HIS SHIRTTAILS, OR PRIDE'S DOWNFALL" 

PRINT, 20x22. 

ROHERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

z-1 dad only in a shirt symbolizes England, under attack from all 
A Frenchman (7) places a fool's cap and bells on his head and a 
; and a Dane (4 and 5} hold him by the anns while a Russian (3) 
ins him with a dub. An American (2) makes off with his clothes and 
a Dutchman (6) shackles his legs. 






_ A 19 

6 3ANIC OF ENGLAND. SITUATION OF DIFFERENT POWERS IN THE PRESENTLY 
CONFUSED EUROPE," 
PRINT, 27 X 29. 
ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

: see of furniture suspended in the air represents the Bank of England. 

English gentleman ts being dragged off It by a Frenchman, while a 

rard watches. A small American pushes him down, while a Dutch 

in conversation with on Amsterdam merchant on his other side, 

keeps him in a precarious balance. 



A 20 

"GENERAL CONSTITUTIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE YEAR 1780." 

PRINT, 44 X 44. 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

se who couldn't afford large separate prints could buy one bearing 
eductions of a number of prints. The prints shown here in miniature 
include the nrs. A 10, A 13, A 15 and A 19. 
{See fig.nr. 8) 



A 21 

"THE EUROPEAN DILIGENCE." 

PRINT, 19x24. 

ng especially with the Dutch assistance to the American rebels through 
the smuggling on St. Eustatius. 
ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 



A 22 

PLAN OF ST. EUSTATIUS. 1742. 

COLORED DRAWING, 46 x 59. 

THE HAGUE, ALGEMEEN RIJKSARCHIEF. 



I island of St. Eustatius in the Caribbean was a Dutch possession since 
5. During the American Revolution it was the center of most of the 
smuggling of arms to the rebels. 



A 23 

MAP OF ST. EUSTATIUS. 

REINIER OTTENS, 1775. 

PRINT, 37x49. 

LEIDEN, BIBLIOTHEEK DER RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT. 



A 24 
PLAN OF FORT ORANGE ON THE ISLAND OF ST. EUSTATIUS. 

J.W.W. VAN OVERMEER FISSCHER, 1787. 

COLORED DRAWING, 38 x 54. 
THE HAGUE, ALGEMEEN RIJKSARCHIEF. 



(See fig.nr. 5} 



.-*!• 



A 25 

3POGRAPHICAL MAP OF THE ISLAND OF ST. EUSTATIUS BASED ON A SURVEY 
CONDUCTED BY A.H. BISSCHOP GHEVEUNK. 

AFER 1847. 

DRAWING, 48,4 x 60 

THE HAGUE, ALGEMEEN RIJKSARCHIEF. 



A 26 
VIEW OF THE ISLAND OF ST. EUSTATIUS. 

C.F. BENDORP AFTER G.T. VAN PADDENBURG. 

PRINT, 33,5x87. 

THE HAGUE, ALGEMEEN RIJKSARCHIEF. 



[See fig.nr. 4} 



A 27 

"REPRESENTATION OF THE MOUNTAIN AND THE BAY OF THE ISLAND 

ST. EUSTATIUS, FROM THE SOUTH SIDE." 

EMAUS? AFTER A. NOLSON? 

COLORED DRAWING, 43,2 x 64,5. 

THE HAGUE, ALGEMEEN RIJKSARCHIEF. 



A 28 

"REPRESENTATION OF THE MOUNTAIN AND THE BAY OF THE ISLAND 

ST. EUSTATIUS, FROM THE NORTH SIDE." 

EMAUS(?) AFTER A. NOLSON(?) 

COLORED DRAWING, 43,2 x 64,5. 

THE HAGUE, ALGEMEEN RIJKSARCHIEF. 



A 29 

JOHN PAUL JONES, DRAWN WHILE AHENDiNG A PLAY IN THE 

AMSTERDAM THEATRE ON 9 OCTOBER 1779. 

S. FOKKE(?). 

PRINT, 9,9x5,5. 

ROnERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

(See fig.nr. 6) 



A 30 
JOHN PAUL JONES, WHO LAY AT ANCHOR IN DUTCH WATERS ON 

4-5 OCTOBER 1779. 

AUGUSTINDUPRE, 1779. 

MEDAL, BRONZE, 5,6. 

THE HAGUE, KONINKLIJK PENNINGKABINET (ROYAL COLLECTION OF COINS). 

The arrival of John Paul Jones in the Texel roadstead with spoils taken from 
the English made a deep impression in the Netherlands. 



A 31 
AMERICATRAMPLES UPON RAVING ALBION. 

G. EROUWER AFTER P. W AGEN AAR, 7 OCTOBER 1782, 

PRINT, 23,2x14,8, 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

A print commemorating the secret treaty concluded between Amsterdam 

and America in 1778. At the left, on Amsterdam magistrate presents the 

Preparatory Plan to the Maiden personifying America; at the right, the 

French long is helping her to shatterthe English crown. Underneath is the text: 

"America tramples upon the raving Albion, 

While the British crown is crushed by Bourbon, 

And is by Holland, personified by Adams, after the example of Amsterdam, 

According to the Preparatory Plon, declared free." 

(See fig.nr. 20) 



A 32 

ALMANAC (CALENDAR) FROM AMELAND. 

PAINTED WOOD, 4 x 10, AND A BOX CONTAINING WOODEN NUMBERS AND NAMES 

OF THE MONTHS, li x 8,5x8. 

LEEUWARDEN, FRIES MUSEUM. 

A ship's captain from Ameland carved this board as an everlasting calendar. 

Numbers can be attached to the names of the days. His enthusiasm for 

the American cause is apparent from the American eagle, flanked by two 

female figures holding the stars and stripes. 

(See fig.nr. 16) 



A 33 

RATIFICATIONS AMERICA, 1782. 

THE HAGUE, ALGEMEEN RIJKSARCHIEF. 



On April 19 1782 the United States were officially recognized by the 
States-General, the highest authority in the Dutch Republic. 



-•95*= 



A- 



A 34 

-SOLEMNITIES ATTENDING THE FIRST AUDIENCE OF THE CIVIL ADMINISTRATION 

IN THE ORANGE HALL ON 3 OCTOBER 1732." 

C BOGERTS AFTER H. POTHOVEN. 

PRINT, 24,2 X 39,J. 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

There are no portrayals of John Adams' visit fo Huts ten Bosch Palace, 

where Sfadholder William V received him in audience. His arrival there, 

however, will have been similar to this scene at the same palace in the 

same year. {See fig.nr. 19) 



A 35 

"AU BON SUCCES DE I'UNION AVEC L'AMERIQUE". AN ALLEGORY {1782) 

PIETER LUYPEN, 

COLORED DRAWING, 12,9 x 30,8, 

DORDRECHT, MUSEUM MR. SIMON VAN GUN. 



A 36 
"ALLEGORY ON THE INDEPENDENCE OF AMERICA." 

SIMON FOKKE, 

PRINT, a,3x 9,5 

ROnERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

America, seated under a canopy, watches the Statue of Liberty, with a hat 
on the end of a spear, being erected. 



A 37 

WINE GLASS, 1782, WITH THE COAT OF ARMS OF THE STATES GENERAL 

AND THE FLAG OF THE UNITED STATES. 

GLASS, ENGRAVED, H. 18,5. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

The glass was probably made on the occasion of the recognition of the 

United States by the Dutch Republic on April 19th, 1782, or to celebrate 

the treaty of amity and commerce, which was concluded on October 8th., 

1782, (See fig.nr. 17] 



A 33 

THE RECOGNITION OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE UNITED STATES 

BY THE STATES GENERAL. 

J.G, HOLTZHEY, 1782. 

MEDAL, SILVER, 4,5. 

THE HAGUE, KONINKLIJK PENNINGKABINET (ROYAL COLLECTION OF COINS), 



A 39 

THE RECOGNITION OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE UNITED STATES BY 

THE STATES GENERAL 

J.M, LAGEMAN AND H. LAGEMAN, 1732. 

MEDAL, SILVER, a 3,4. 

THE HAGUE, KONINKLIJK PENNINGKABINET (ROYAL COLLECTION OF COINS), 



(See fig.nrs, I80 + b) 



A 40 

RESOLUTION OF THE STATES OF FRIESLAND TO ACCEPT JOHN ADAMS AS ENVOY 

OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND TO REJECT A SEPARATE PEACE 

SETTLEMENT WITH ENGLAND, 

B.C, V. CALKERF., 1782 

MEDAL, SILVER, 4,3, 

THE HAGUE, KONINKUJK PENNINGKABINET [ROYAL COLLECTION OF COINS). 



A 41 

CONCLUSION OF A COMMERCIAL TREATY BETWEEN NORTH AMERICA AND 

THE CITY OF AMSTERDAM 

J.G. HOLTZHEY, 1782, 

MEDAL, SILVER, m 4,5. 

THE HAGUE, KONINKLIJK PENNINGKABINET(ROYAL COLLEaiON OF COINS). 



(See fig.nrs, 7a + b) 



A 42 

PROCLAMATION OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 

J, VAN BAERLL, 1782. 

MEDAL, SILVER, 3,1, 

jHE HAGUE, KONINKLIJK PENNINGKABINET [ROYAL COLLEaiON OF COINS). 



A 43 

"FIRST HEARING ACCORDED TO ENVOY VAN BERCKEL IN AMERICA". 

(13 OCTOBER 1783) 

REINIER VINKELES AFTER JACOBUS BUYS. 

PRINT, 18x11,2. 

ROHERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

The first Dutch Envoy was sent to America in 1783 and was receive: 
the Congress at Princeton. fHe was Pieter Johan van Berckel, Burgon^: 
of Rotterdam. 



A 44 
"RECOGNITION OF INDEPENDENCE." 

NUMBER FIVE OF THE SERIES: "NATIONAL CURIOSITIES IN THE CURIOUS YEAR 17 

BY "ANONYMUS", PRINTED ON THE ISLAND OF THE PATRIOTS, IN THE YEAR ITBi j 

BY ANTI-ANGLOMANNUS." 

PRINT, 16,5 X 10,5; book, 23 x 14. 

ROHERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

Holland and America greet one another. An angel joins their hands 
Fortune empties the hom of plenty over them. (See fig.nr. 21 j 



A 45 
LE POLITIQUE HOLLAND AIS. 

2 VOLUMES. 
AMSTERDAM 1761-1783, EDITED BY A.M. CERISIER. 
LEIDEN, BIBL10THEEK DER RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT. 

John Adams stimulated the French journalist A.M. Cerisier to start c 
American newspaper in the French language. On the title page there 
allegorical engraving showing "Congress" in classical garb and - 
headdress holding an American flag over a vanquished Brittannia. ^: 
wearing a robe ornamented with fleur-de-lis is coming to America • ; 
tance, beckoning Spain to accompany her. The Dutch Republic is wann 
in the distance. 



A 46 

"HISTORY OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND AMERICA' 

AMSTERDAM, 1782, 

THE HAGUE, KONINKLIJKE BIBUOTHEEK. 

This is a Dutch translation, with some added material, of the so-z 
"Novanglus Papers", which John Adams originally published in the hz 
Gazette in 1775 to justify American resistance to Great Brito'- 

A 47 

"COLLECTION OF THE CONSTITUTIONS OF THE UNITED INDEPENDENT STATS» 

AMERICA". 

DORDRECHT, 1781-1782 

THE HAGUE, KONINKLIJKE BIBHOTHEEK. 

■>■ 
This publication contains the translation of all the constitutions d 
thirteen original states. It proves the greot interest in American state-: . 
in the Dutch Republic. 

A 48 

TWENTY-SIX LETTERS UPON INTERESTING SUBJECTS. 

JOHN ADAMS. 1739, 

THE HAGUE, KONINKLIJKE BIBUOTHEEK. 

John Adams wrote these letters in respons to the questions askec a 
then famous Amsterdam lawyer, Mr. fHendrik Calkoen, about the A- 
Revolution. 

A 49 
A. 
A MEMORIAL TO THEIR HIGH MIGHTINESSES THE STATES GENERAL " 

B. 
MEMORIE AAN HUNNE HOOG-MOGENDEN, DE STATEN GENERAAL 
THE HAGUE, KONINKLIJKE BIBLIOTHEEK. 

These are the English and the Dutch version of the Memorial ».- 
Adams in 1781 presented to the Dutch government to ask for a -?■:: am 
of the United States. 

A 50 

"EERKROON OP DE HOOFDEN". 

17B2. 

LEIDEN, BIBLIOTHEEK DER RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT. 

A collection of poems edited by Pieter Blusse, dealing with rez-. 
in Dutch history and Dutch-American relations. 



•96*- 



A 51 
JOHAN LUZAC. 

ORATIO DE SOCRATE CIVE. 

LEIDEN, BIBUOTHEEK DER RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT! 

dams' best friend in Holland, Jean or Johan Luzoc, editor of the 
, de Leyde and later professor of Greek and fiistory at Leiden 
f/ dedicated this address, which he gave as rector of the university 
to his friend John Adams. 



A52 
STREET RIOT AT ROTTERDAM IN 1781. 

DIRKLANGENDtJK. 

COLORED DRAWING, 25,6 x 42. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABIN6T, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

nerican, French and Dutch flogs ore borne aloft in triumph by sailors, 
r.ile behind them the English flag is dragged through the mud. 
(Seefig.nr, 15) 



A 53 

FOUR PRINTS: 

1. GENERAL WASHINGTON'S MOUNTED GUARD. 

2. AMERICAN MILITIAMEN. 

3. FLAG OF THE 13 UNITED STATES. 

4. GENERAL WASHINGTON. 

D. BERGER AFTER D. CHODOWIECKI. 

COLORED PRINTS, C. 9 x 5,5. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

E-arints produced by the gplish artist, Daniel Chodowiecki, also became 
popular in the Netherlands. 



A 54 
PATRIOTS' UNIFORMS. 

CF. BEN DORP AFTER J.C. BENDORP. 

THREE COLORED PRINTS, 23 x 19,5 each. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

so-calied Patriots were the progressive pro- American party in the 
dands. It was the example of the American Revolution which induced 
them to form a kind of militia in most Dutch cities. 



A 55 
SPRESENTATION OF THE MANOEUVRES EXECUTED BY THE NOBLE MILITIA OF 

ST. GEORGE AND THE CORDON FORMED BY THE MILITIA OUTSIDE 

DORDRECHT ON 20 OCTOaER 17S3, DEDICATED TO THEIR NOBLE OFFICERS 

NDTHE OTHER MEMBERS OF THE TWO CORPS BY THEIR OBEDIENT SERVANTS 

H. WALPOT AND A. MEULEMANS". 

COLORED PRINT, 19x29,5. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 



AS6 

"EXERCISES OF AMSTERDAM BURGHERS IN THE PRESENCE OF 

BARON VAN DER CAPELLEN TOT DEN POLL, 1783." 

SIMON FGKKE. 

PRINT, 10,5 X 24,4- 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

an Derk van der Capellen tot den Poll a fer/ent supporter of the Ameri- 
can cause, was warmly welcomed to Amsterdam by the Patriots. 



A59 

"SPECTACLE OF THE COMPANY OF BATO'S DESCENDANTS DURING THE 

PRESENTATION OF THE COLOURS ON THEIR EXERCISE FIELD BEYOND THE 

LEIDEN GATE AT AMSTERDAM." ^6 JULY, 1786." 

J.E. GRAVE AFTER D. KERKHOFF. 

PRINT, 26,6 X 32,8. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 



A 60 

"THE PRO PATRIA MILITIA, AS THEY ASSEMBLED IN THE NEW CHURCH AT 

AMSTERDAM FOR THE PRESENTATION OF THE COLORS ON THE ELEVENTH 

OF FEBRUARY, 1786." 

JAN BULTHUIS. 

DRAWING, 24,7 x 35. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

The presentation of the colours was q ceremony to which the Patriot 
Militias attached great importance. (See fig.nr. 22} 



A 57 

THE PRESENTATION OF TWO COLORS TO THE AMSTERDAM MILITIA, 

NOACHVANDERMEERJR. 

COLORED PRINT, 46,4 x 34,7. _ 

.VISTERDAM, HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAN HET GEMEENTEARCHIEF 

iHlSTORtCAL-TOPOGRAPHlCAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

^ Patriots set up a kind of civic militia on the American model. The cere- 
onial presentation of the colors was a favourite activity. (See fig.nr. 23) 



A 58 

ANONYMOUS. 

COUNCIL WAR OF THE AMSTERDAM CIVIC MILITIA, C. 1785. 

COLORED DRAWING, 36,5 x 48,5. 
AMSTERDAM, AMSTERDAM3 HISTORISCH MUSEUM. 

he Amsterdam Militia enjoyed holding formal sessions of this kind. 



A 61 

"BANQUET HELD BY PATRIOTS IN THE GARNALEN DOELEN AT AMSTERDAM 

IN CELEBRATION OF THE ALUANCE WITH FRANCE." 

ON THE BACK: "BANQUET HELD BY PATRIOTS IN THE DOELEN, 1786." 

JACOeUS BUYS. 

DRAWING, 17,4x26,3. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

In addition to parades, the Patriots held numerous banquets. On this 
occasion they were celebrating the alliance with France. 



A62A 

DUTCH HISTORY GAME (A PATRIOT'S PARLOUR GAME PLAYED ON A BOARD), 

1787. 

J.C. BENDORP AFTER CF. BENDORP. 

PRINT, 50x60,9. 

DORDRECHT, MUSEUM MR. SIMON VAN GUN. 

This game contains a rather partisan survey of Dutch history. The recognition 

of the American Independence appears under nr. 71: '"t Vriiverklaaren der 

Amerikaanen (Ao. 1783) (The Recognition of Independence of the 

Americans (anno 1783)) 



A62B 

BENDORP'S DUTCH HISTORY GAME: BOOK OF RULES, 1787. 

DORDRECHT, MUSEUM MR. SIMON VAN GUN. 

Nr. 71: 't Vrijverklaaren der Amerikaanen (Ao. 1783). 

'The Recognition of independence of the Americans anno 1783. Player 
receives one chip from his fellow players as a token of the general joy 
over this memorable event, but he must put two chips on nr. 41 (Peace of 
Munster; the end of the Eighty Years War), as a tribute to the Dutch who 
preceded the Americans !n fighting for their freedom." 



A 63 

PORTRAIT OF PRINCE WILLIAM V, STANDING WITH A LEHER IN HIS HAND. 
THE DRAWING IS IN FOUR FOLDING SEaiONS; VIEWED FROM THE OTHER SIDE 
IT BECOMES THE DEVIL HOLDING FETTERS, TRAMPLING UPON CHARTERS AND 

PRIVILEGES. 

ANONYMUS. 

COLORED DRAWING, 13,5x12. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 



A 64. 

"TREACHEROUS ATTACK ON THEIR HONOURS THE DEPUTIES OF DORDRECHT AT 

THE HAGUE, THE 17TH OF MARCH, 1786." 

JAN BULTHUIS. 

DRAWING, 24,8x36,8. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

In 1786 the Stodholder was compelled to leave his residence in The Hague, 
and shortly afterwards two Potnot leaders from Dordrecht dared to dnve 
their coach through the Stadholder's Gate, a privilege reserved for the 
Prince of Orange. They were attacked by Orange supporters, but protect- 
ed by the police. One of them was Cornells de Gijselaer, a close friend 
of John Adams'- 



• 97*- 



A 65 

"THE TAKING OF KATTENBURG BRIDGE BY THE PATRIOTS ON 30 MAY 1787", 

JAN BULTHUIS. 

DRAWING, 23 x 35,7. 

AMSTERDAM, HISTORtSCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAN HETGEMEENTEARCHIEF. 

(HISTORICAUTOPOGRAPHtCAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES.) 

In the years 1781 ard 1787 strife between political factions brought the 

Republic to the verge of civil war, as may be seen from record of a battle 

in Amsterdam. 



A 66 

ENTRY OF THE PRUSSIAN TROOPS INTO AMSTERDAM. 

ANONYMOUS. 

0!L ON IRON, 54x71,5. 

AMSTERDAM, AMSTERDAMS HISTORISCH MUSEUM. 

In 1787 freedom and the internal strife in the Ketheriands both came to 

an end v/hen Parsslon troops occupied the country. The Patriots fled to 

France. 



A67 

"AMSTERDAM IN A DAM'D PREDICAMENT, 1787." 

J. GILLRAY, 

PRINT, HAND COLORED, 33,4 x 44,9. 

AMSTERDAM, HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAN HET GEMEENTEARCHIEF. 

(HISTORICAL-TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

Stadholder William V triumphs over his enemies, the Patriots, depicted here 

as frogs. At the left we see Princess Wilhelmino in a highly inelegant 

posture. In the orchestra pit King Frederick II of Prussia plays the flute, while 

the European monarchs watch from their boxes. 



A 68 

ARMING CITIZENS IN THE GOLDEN LION HALL AT HAARLEM, 1795. 

WYBRANDHENDRIKS. 

DRAWING, 23 k 35. 

HAARLEM, MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES. 

The hall of the former Citizens' Society in The Golden Lion on the 19th of 

Januaryl795, at daybreak, as th&citizens, having armed to their satisfaction, 

marched to the Market after the Revolution had begun, drawn to the life 

byW. Hendriks1795." 



A 69 

"HENDRIK HOOFT: HIJ LEEFT" ("HENDRIK HOOFT IS ALIVEl "),AUGUST 13, 1794. 

LA CLAESSENS AFTER J. KUYPER. 

PRINT, HAND COLORED, 54 x 41,2. 

AMSTERDAM, HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAN HET GEMEENTEARCHIff. 

(HISTORICAL-TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES . 

Hendrik Hooft Danielzoon, burgomaster of Amsterdam, was one of *^ 
principal leaders of the Patriots and a close friend of John Adams'. He v^ 3 
a very popular figure, and there are numerous portraits of him. ~-i 
memorial print shows an angel, pointing to the word Immortalitas, cc- 
forting the grief-stricken patroness of Amsterdam. 



A 70 

REJOICING ON DAM SQUARE - MARCH 4, 179S. 

H. NUMAN. 

PRINT. HAND COLORED, 44,3 x 49,4. 

AMSTERDAM, HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAN HET GEMEENTEARCH 

(HISTORICAL-TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES 

The French revolutionary troops were enthusiastically welcomed by 
Patriots when they conquered Holland in ^795 and public rejoicing . 
intended to mark the beginning of true liberty, (n reality, however, 
Netherlands became a French conquered territory and it was not . 
1813, with the fall of Napoleon, that the countr/ regained its freedom 
the establishment of the present Kingdom of the NetheHands. 
[See fig.nr. 25) 

A 71 
ENTRY OF THE FRENCH. 

JACOB CATS. 
DRAWING, 42,1 x 59,2. 
AMSTERDAM, HI5TORISCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAN HET GEMEENTEARC 
(HISTORICAL-TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES 

In 1795 the French revolutionary army invaded the Netherlands, drov= 
the Stadholder and restored to power the Patriots who had fled fro- 
Prussians in 1787, thus putting an end to the independent Dutch Rep.m 
In verso it reads; "The entry of the French troops through the Utrech-:: 
Poort, during the winter of 1795, as seen from the house of Jacob Cst 
(See fig.nr.24) 





•98^ 



'■im; 



B 



CITIES AND SCENERY 



ANDRiESSEN, JURRIAAN (AMSTERDAM 17i2-1819 AMSTERDAM) 

DIKE ON THE ZUIDER ZEE AT DIEMEN, 1785. 

COLORED DRAWING, U,5 Kia,5. 

AMSTERDAM, RUKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

: house on the dike was built in the eighteenth century. It wos the 
'the water control authorities, whose jurisdiction extended over a 
wide area. 



B2. 

ARENDS, JAN (DORDRECHT 1738-1805 DORDRECHT) 

FLAT-BOTTOM BOATS ON A STILLWATER. 

COLORED DRAWING, 27 k 39,5. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTEt^KABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

■ examples of the wide variety of boats used to transport passengers 
uoods on Holland's many inland wateways. Three cargo boats 
' be seen at the left, beside a boyer (small yacht) and, dt the right, 
kef-boat with a pavilion in the stem for the passengers {See fig.nr. 33) 



B3. 

ARENDS, JAN (DORDRECHT 1738-1B05 DORDRECHT) 

VILLAGE STREET, WESTCAPELLE, 177B. 

PRINT, 27,8 X 31,5. 

AMSTERDAM, RUKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

^een the double cart tracks stands the village pump, where a woman 

fi'fetching water, 
dipped linden trees indicate the high value attached by the villagers 
to order and neatness. 



B4. 

ARENDS, JAN (DORDRECHT 1738-1805 DORDRECHT) 

THE EAST INDIA COMPANY DOCKS AT MIDDELBURG, 1778. 

PRINT, 40 X 48. 

AMSTERDAM, RUKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

E Dutch East India Company was a powerful trading organisation with 
V in various towns of the Republic. But at this particular time it had 
hdy passed its peak. It ceased to function in 1795, and was fomnally 
wound up in 1800. 

B5. 

ARENDS, JAN (DORDRECHT 1738-1805 DORDRECHT) 

THE YARD OF THE ZEELAND ADMIRALTY, FLUSHING, 1779. 

PRINT, 39x48,2. 

AMSTERDAM, RUKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

s Admiralty of Zeeland was one of the five bodies which promoted the 

sea-going activities of the Republic. 
i print shows only part of the extensive complex of docks comprising 
fber storage sheds, workshops, □ sawmill, a sail factor/ and warehouses, 
[of which were necessary for the building and maintenance of ships: 
(See fig.nr. 39) 



B8. 



CATS, JACOB {ALTONA 1741-1799 AMSTERDAM) 

WINTER SCENE ON THE BOERENWETERING OUTSIDE AMSTERDAM, 1787. 

COLORED DRAWING, 14,5 x 22. 

AMSTERDAM, HtSTORISCH-TOPOGRAFlSCHE ATLAS VAN HET GEMEENTEARCHIEF 

(HISTORICAL TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OFTHE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

This part of Amsterdam is no longer so rural as in Adams' day, though the 
water is still there. The inn in the right foreground was one of the oldest 
in the immediate environs of Amsterdam. Behind it stands a powder mill. 
In the summer hundreds of market gardeners came by barge to the city to 
sell their produce. 



BOSCH, JOHANNES DE (AMSTERDAM 1713 1785 AMSTERDAM) 

A VILLAGE STREET IN THE RAIN, MUIDERBERG, 1732. 

COLORED DRAWING, 24,2 x 34,2. 

HAARLEM, R1JKSARCHIEF NOORD HOLLAND (PROVINCIALE ATLAS). 

any villages had remained virtually unchanged since the seventeenth 
century and the houses were still in the old style, 
house at the right, for example, has a seventeenth century cross-bar 
window, which is glazed only at the top, 



B7. 

BULTHUIS, JAN (GRONINGEN 1750-1301 AMSTERDAM] 

THE PORT OF HINDELOOPEN, 1789. 

DRAWING, 16 x:24. 

LEEUWARDEN, FRIES MUSEUM. 

rf]-going ships hod put out from this small northern coastal town as eariy 
tthe Middle Ages. The port shown here is of a later date and served the 
gger ships only as a temporary anchorage. The building with the bell 
weris the seventeenth century lockhouse. The 'tall stories bench' ogainst 
dating from 1785, was a favourite spot for fishermen to outdo one 
another with their tales of fabulous catches. It is still there^ 



B9. 

CATS, JACOB (ALTONA 1741-1799 AMSTERDAM) 

SHEPHERD IN THE GOOl UPLANDS, 1789. 

COLORED DRAWING, 19,8 s 29,3. 

AMSTERDAM, PRIVATE COLLECTION. 

The Gooi, a sandy, uplond region between the provinces of North Holland 
and Utrecht, and now a fashionable residential area for commuters, was in 
Adams' day siill an unspoilt nature area, dotted here and there with rye 
fields and meadows. Its picturesqueness was just then beginning to appeal 
to artists. 



CATS, JACOB (ALTONA 1741-1799 AMSTERDAM) 

WINTER SCENE ON THE AMSTEL RtVER, IN THE HEART OF AMSTERDAM, 1792. 

DRAWING, 30 X 44,5. 

AMSTERDAM, HI5TORISCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAN HET GEMEENTEARCHIEF 

(HISTORICAL TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

Sixteenth- and seventeenth century elements areintemningled herewith the 
remnants of the Middle Ages. St, Anthony's Gate (loterthe Weigh House, 
see cat.nr. B 37, fig.nr. 26) can be seen in the distance and, to the left, a 
tower foming part of the old defence walls, now the site of the Doeten 
Hotel. (See fig.nr. 32) 



B11. 

GRAVE, JAN EVERT [AMSTERDAM 1759 - 1805 AMSTERDAM) 

ANGLER BESIDE THE GEIN RIVER. 

PRINT, 27,3 X 37,1. 

AMSTERDAM, RUKSPRENTENKASfNET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

The road system in eighteenth-century Holland came in for much criticism 

from foreign travellers. Mud resulting from the frequent rains was often the 

cause of considerable delay. That is why people generally prefen-ed the 

passenger barge or the market boat. 



B12. 

IrlENDRIKS, WIJBRAND (AMSTERDAM 1744-1831 HAARLEM) 

RIVER TRAFFIC ON THE SPAARNE AT HAARLEM, 1778. 

COLORED DRAWING, 30 x 40,3. 

HAARLEM, GEMEENTE ARCHIEF (MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

The two towers protect St. Catherine's Bridge. At the left the newly-built 

almshouse (1771). The town is dominated by the Gothic Church of St. Bovo 

River traffic through Haarlem was heavy, for the Spaame was the principoi 

waterway linking Amsterdam with South Holland and Zeeland. 



B13. 

HOOGER5, HENDRIK {NIJMEGEN 1747-1814 NIJMEGEN) 

WINTER LANDSCAPE WITH FARM SHEDS BETWEEN EDE AND BENNEKOM. 

COLORED DRAWING, 25,4 x 39,7. 

LEtOEN, PRENTENKABINET DER RUKSUNIVERSITEIT, (COLLECTION A. WELCKER). 

The two villages were situated on the edge of the Veluwe, an extensive 
region of sand ground and heath. Ede, on the old coach road from 
Utrecht to Amhem, was the scene of violent Orangist demonstrations in 

1785. 



*99*E 



B 



B14. 

HOOGERS, HENDRIK (NIJMEGEN 1747-]ei4 NIJMEGEN| 

WINTER IN HAARLEM WOOD, 1794, 

COLORED DRAWING, 39,5 x 42. 

HAARLEM, GEMEENTE ARCHIEF (MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES), 

In the old forest to the south of the city of Haoriem, large tracts which 

were being reafforested in Adams' day, Henry Hope, the English banker, 

built a luxurious country house in 1788. it is now the seat of the Provincial 

Govennment of North Holland. (See fig.nr. 40) 



B15. 

HOOGERS, HENDRIK (NIJMEGEN 1747-1814 NIJMEGEN) 

VIEW OF THE RIVER WAAL NEAR THE CITY OF NIJMEGEN, FROM THE 

ARTIST'S STUDIO, 178S. 

COLORED DRAWING, 39,2 x 53,2. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

From the vantage point of the city, which is built on a hilt, we look across 
to the Betuwe, a low-lying, fertile region bounded by wide rivers. 



B16. 

HOOGERS, HENDRIK (NIJMEGEN 1747-1814 NIJMEGEN) 

GROUP OF FISHERMAN ON THE RIVER VECHT, NEAR THE VILLAGE OF ZUILEN, 1790. 

DRAWING, 21,6x27. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

This arcadian river was regarded as the loveliest stretch of water in fhe 
whole of the country. The renowned eighteenth-century writer. Belle van 
Zuylen (Madame de Charriere), grew up in nearby Zuilen Castle, which 
still stands today. She was living in Switzerland, however, when Adams 
was in the Netherlands. (See fig.nr. 41) 



B17. 

HOORN, JORDANUS (AMERSFOORT 1733-1833 AMERSFOORT) 

FLOUR MILL NEAR A CITY GATE AT AMERSFOORT, 1780. 

DRAWING, 14,7x20. 

THE HAGUE, HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN OF THE NETHERLANDS. 

A stone mill of the 'stage' type. The house wos divided into several com- 
partments, in one of which the grain was ground between heavy round 
stones. The elaborate steeple of the Church of Our Lady is visible in the 
background, dominating, then as now, the outline of the town. (See fig.nr. 38) 



B18. 

KOBELL, HENDRIK (ROTTERDAM 1751 1779 ROTTERDAM) 

SHIPS ON THE RIVER Y AT AMSTERDAM, 1776. 

COLORED DRAWING, 28,7 x 44,2, 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSMUSEUM NEDERLANDS SCHEEPVAART MUSEUM. 

On the wide stretch of water beside which lies Holland's most important 

commercial city, one of the great ships of the Dutch East India Company, 

surrounded by smaller craft, moves in stately progress. A richly ornamented 

State yacht has just crossed its bows. 



B19. 

LA FARGUE, JACO B ELI AS (VOORBU RG 1 735-1 776 UN KNOWN) 

MANSIONS ON THE KNEUTERDUK, THE HAGUE. 

COLORED DRAWING, 28,7 x 44,2. 

THE HAGUE, GEMEENTEARCHIEF (MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

Now a tramway passes through the street, and the trees have gone, but 
otherwise little has changed. The stately house at the right was occupied 
for some time by the English Ambassador, Sir Joseph Yorke. In the seven- 
teenth century it was owned by Johan de Witt, Holland's Grand Pensionary, 
and in 1813 William I, of the House of Orange, who hod just returned 
from exile, received the acclaim of the people of The Hague from the 
steps of this house. 



B20. 

LA FARGUE, JACOB ELIAS (VOORBURG 1735 1776 UNKNOWN) 

FOUR MILLS OUTSIDE THE HAGUE, c. 1780. 

DRAWING, 36,5 x 52,2. 

THE HAGUE, GEMEENTEARCHIEF [MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

These three mills, together with two others, stood in a row just outside the 
city. They were built high so as to catch the wind above the rooftops. 



B21, 

LA FARGUE, PAULUS CONST ANTIJN (THE HAGUE 1729-1782 THE HAGUE) 

THE FOOT OFTHETOWER OFTHE NEW CHURCH AND THE TOWN HALL 

AT AMSTERDAM, 1777. 

PANEL, 24,5 X 32,5. 

AMSTERDAM, AMSTERDAMS HISTORISCH MUSEUM. 



■I 



until I E 3< 



A throuqh-view of Amsterdam's centrally-situated Dam Square (see c 3.E ^„ ,l j 

r. r n -i-i I I r I I I I r I ^^ ® ouneE t 

cat.nr. B 55]. The tower planned tortnesub-sfructure at ttielett was neverb.tt. 

The coaches on runners, a conspicuous part of the street scene, were 

mode of transport in constant use up to the nineteeth century. A confe-^* 

porary comment: "One cannot imagine a vehicle more lamentabrs 

(Volkmann 1783). 



lafar:-.= 

AFIShJMC 



The I 



B22. 

LA FARGUE, PAULUS CONSTANTIJN [THE HAGUE 1729-1782 THE HAGUE) 

A SUMMER AFTERNOON IN THE COUNTRY. 

PANEL, 40 X 59. 

AMSTERDAM, PETER LUNSHOF, FINE PAINTINGS. 



An idyllic picture of Dutch country life, with the emphasis on dairy farmirc 
a peasant and his wife are engaged in milking their fine cows. Dutch en 
and their products, milk, butter and cheese were, indeed, famous, 3a 
there was another side to the coin too. The farmers were fhreatenec a 
terrible cattle plagues, to which 250,000 cows fell victim in the southerr, d 
of fhe province of Holland done between 1769 and 1779. 



B23.a. 
LA FARGUE, PAULUS CONSTANTIJN (THE HAGUE 1729-1782 THE HAGUE) 
MAN FROM FRIESLAND,1775. 
COLORED DRAWINGS, 14,5 x 10,3. 
AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

In the various parts of the Republic John Adams saw a great profus;:- a 
highly disparate regional costumes. This man, who is smoking the 
Goudo pipe used in all parts of the country, comes from Molkwen." 
village in Friesland which was so remarkable in many respects that it 
visited by numerous foreign visitors, such as Cosimo de Medici, who 
there in 1669. 

B23, b. 

LA FARGUE, PAULUS CONSTANTIJN (THE HAGUE 1729-1782 THE HAGUE 

A. MAN FROM FRIESLAND, 1775. 

B. GIRL FROM NORTH HOLLAND, 1775. 

COLORED DRAWING, 14,5 x 10,3. 

AMSTERDAM, RUKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

The girl, wearing golden head ornaments and costly lace, probably : 
from the Zaan region to the north-west of Amsterdam which, thank; 
many factory windmills, hod entered upon a period of great pros 
when John Adams was in the NefheHanos. 
(See fig.nr, 27] 



B24. 

LA FARGUE, PAULUS CONSTANTIJN (THE HAGUE 1729-1782 THE HAGUE 
THE VEGETABLE MARKET IN THE HAGUE, 1775. 
COLORED DRAWING, 26,5 x 37,5. 
AMSTERDAM, PRIVATE COLLECTION. 

This old part of the town got its name from the vegetables so!:: 
At the left, a poulterer seems to be selling ducks, while at the rig-- 
is being carried to the Meat Hall, a fourteenth-century chapel ■-: 
used for secular purposes after the Reformation. (See fig.nr. I 

B25. 

LA FARGUE, PAULUS CONSTANTIJN (THE HAGUE 1729 1782 THE HAGL: 

THE ROAD FROM OVERVEEN TO HAARLEM, 1775. 

DRAWING, 33,5x52. 

AMSTERDAM, PRIVATE COLLECTION. 

The area around Hoariem was famed throughout Europe for its :•: 
yam and cloth bleacheries. The meadows all around the counK 
white as our American fields after a snow storm' (Watson, 1 : 
drawing shows a group of women bringing washing from the tow ^ 
mills ore flour mills; the one on the right burned down in 1795. The! 
St, Bqvo is to be seen in the background and, to the right of it, th= : 
of the Zljl convent, which was demolished in 1820. 



LA FARG\JS 
SCHEVB 

THE^ 



■a old fishirc < 
ong straign- a 
jntry by rre 

rlliam V, se* i 



rspitoSs for ~<q 
;que and ie;;-3 
•i wall at tre r 



Jl locol irTj-«| 
jently. Mz'.-m 
5,1776,17=4 



.S rONDA-;OI 



J 



BUILOl 

AMSl 

■ Du-'Jdincs 3* i 



^r.3, 



FC-3CAI*, 






-^100*- 



ptItT— - 






B 




B26. 

- ^^RGUE, PAULUS CONST ANTIJN (THE HAGUE 1729-1782 THE HAGUE) 

- =ISHING BOAT BEING PULLED ASHORE AT SCHEVENINGEN, 1777. 

DRAWING, 24,3 x 35,3. 
THE HAGUE, GEMEiNTEARCHlEF (MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

T-d of the herring season the cumbrous fishing boats were hauled 
unes by horses to protect them from storm damage. It was not 
-itil 1880 that the horses were replaced by steam winches. 




B27. 

.i FARGUE, PAULUS CONSTANTIJN [THE HAGUE 1729-1782 THE HAGUE) 

SCHEVENIN6EN, A VILLAGE ON THE MORTH SEA COAST, 1760. 

DRAWING, 22,3 x 36. 

THE HAGUE, GEMEENTEARCHIEF (MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

■ad fishing village of Schevenlngen was connected to The Hague by 

= straight road mnning across the dunes. After the invasion of the 

"• by the French, it was from here that the Stad holder. Prince 

■_. ■in^ Icn V, set sail for England on a fishing boat on 18 January 1795. 

B28. 

_A FARGUE, PAULUS CONSTANTIJN (THE HAGUE 1729-1732 THE HAGUE) 

VIEW ALONG A CANAL NEAR THE HAGUE. 

PRINT, 26,3x40. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

p-^als for those afflicted with dreaded contagious diseases, like the 
M ond leprosy, were generally built at some distance from the towns, 
all at the right is part of the enclosure of (he Lepers' blouse on the 
town boundory, on the canal running to Delft. 



B29. 

LANGENDIJK, DIRK (ROTTERDAM 1748-1305 ROTTERDAM) 

COUNTRY PEOPLE FLEEING BEFORE A FLOOD, 1797. 

DRAWING, 13,5x20. 

HAARLEM, TEYLERS MUSEUM. 

local inundations occurred, if not every year, in any case much too 

R-ently. Major ffood disasters took place in the winters of 1717, 1740, 

1776, 1784, 1799, and also in the nineteenth century. (See fig.nr. 36) 



B30. 

LANGENDIJK, DIRK (ROTTERDAM 1748-1805 ROTTERDAM) 
WINTER SCENE, 1797. 
DRAWING, 35,5x52,2. 
i, FONDATIQN CUSTODIA (COLLECTION FRITS LUGT), INSTITUT NEERLANDAI5. 

small harbor sailing ships and a gunboat have been surprised by a 
snow storm. 



B3T. 

LIENDER, PAUL VAN (UTRECHT 1731-1797 UTRECHT) 

BUILDINGS OF THE KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN AT MONTFOORT, 1775. 

COLORED DRAWING, 20,6 x 26,2. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

s buildings at the left, including the chapel, were built by the Knights of 

I Order of St. John as a 'commandery' in 1544. When this drawing was 

ce, however, they were used for other purposes. The building with the 

tower is the Montfoort town hali. The woman selling vegetables at the 

right is standing by the house of a 'chirurgijn' or physician. 




B32. 

MEYER, CHRISTOFFEL (THE HAGUE 1776-1813 ROTTERDAM) 

ROTTERDAM STREET SCENE, 1790. 

DRAWING, 27x43,9. 

ROTTERDAM, GEMEENTEUJKE ARCHIEFDIENST (MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

|s shows a number of features typical of eighteenth-century towns. The 
■e mounted on the wall at the right is a 'Roman', one of the numerous 
ins, such as fascia and signboards, used to distinguish the houses and 
ips from one another (note the swan above the door on the other side 
le street). Fish was sold in the roofed market at the centre. The Lutheran 
ifch at the right was built in 1733; the cupola was added in Amdams' 
On the bridge, a troveli. .g showman has set up his peep show of 
prints, which he explains in song. 



B33. 

MONOGRAMMIST A.D.'. (ACTIVE ABOUT 1780/1790) 

PASSENGERS FOR THE PASSENGER BARGE PLYING BETWEEN HAARLEM AND 

AMSTERDAM. 

CANVAS, 36 X 47,5. 

AMSTERDAM, AMSTERDAMS HISTORISCH MUSEUM. 

Passenger barges were an important means of public transport. They were 
used on canals; boats with sails were used on wider waterways. Road 
transport was much more expensive. This boat is painted with the bows 
facing us. A long towline ran from the deckhouse over the short mast to the 
horse which, quietly plodding along the towpath, pulled the boat along. 
The large building in the centre is Swanenburg', then the seat of the 
water drainage authority, now a sugar factory, (See fig.nr. 42) 



B34. 

NOORDE, CORNELIS VAN (HAARLEM 1731-1795 HAARLEM) 

OX MARKET AT HAARLEM, T778. 

COLORED DRAWING, 37 x 54. 

HAARLEM, GEMEENTE ARCHIEF (MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

Cattle-markets - often held weekly - brought a lot of country folk into 
town: the men handled their cows or sheep, while their wives and 

daughters went shopping. 
In the stable on the left stands a gig or 'sjees', a graceful two wheeled cart. 
This is very probably what our American traveller Watson meant by 
'clumsy carriages - some of them capriciously made in form of triumphant 
cars'. He adds: 'The Dutch gentlemen seldom ride on horseback and 
never without being exposed to the ridicule of the rabble at such an 
uncommon sight'. 

B3S. 

NUMAN. HERMANUS jEZINGE 1744-1620 AMSTERDAM) 

FOUR DUTCH COUNTRY HOUSES. 

A. 'KARSSENHOF' 

B. 'OVER-HOLLAND' 

C. 'TROMPENBURGH' 

D. 'BOEKENRODE' 

HAND COLORED PRINTS, 20 x 25 each. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

Houses of this type, tranquilly situated on a river bank or near a wood, 
were the country homes of wealthy merchants and civic officials. In Adams' 
day most of the nobility still lived in their family castles. (See fig.nr. 29, 30) 



B3£.a. 

OUWATER, IZAAK (AMSTERDAM 1750-1793 AMSTERDAM) 

A. ST. JOHN'S CHURCHYARD, UTRECHT, T779. 

CANVAS, 53x65. 

AMSTERDAM, PRIVATE COLLECTION. 

At the left, built against the Church of St. John, is the guard-house of the 
gan-ison. The building at the right is the 'States Chamber', the seat of the 
provincial government. A row of gentlemen's houses is to be seen at the 
centre, with the cathedral tower behind. The figures represent a variety of 
social classes: aristocrats, a beggar, soldiers, housewives and a workman. 

B 36. b. 

OUWATER, IZAAK [AMSTERDAM 1750-1793 AMSTERDAM) 

THE TOWN HALL AND THE OUDE GRACHT, UTRECHT, 1779. 

CANVAS, 53x65. 

AMSTERDAM, PRIVATE COLLECTION. 

The row of houses at the left is largely mediaeval: 'Keyzemjk' house, on 
the corner, dates from ca. 1410. The revolving crane in front of it was used 
to load and unload ships. The building with the figure of Justice over the 
door and the guard in front wos the main entrance to the town hall complex. 
In the shadow at the right is a row of shops, with a printing establishment at 
the comer. (See fig.nr. 34) 



B 37. 

OUWATER, IZAAK (AMSTERDAM 1750-1793 AMSTERDAM) 

THE WEIGH HOUSE ON NIEUWMARKT, AMSTERDAM, 1778. 

CANVAS, 59x73. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

The fortress-like Weigh House was originally one of the town gates. The 

area around it was long used os a marketplace. Mirrors, paintings and 

porcelain are on sale here, while to the left a shopkeeper stands in the 

doorway of his clothing shop. (See fig.nr. 26) 



— •101i*r: 



B 



B38. 

OVERBEEK, LEENDERT (HAARLEM 1752-1815 HAARLEM) 

DUNES AND AN INN NEAR HAARLEM, 1791. 

PRINT, 28,9 X 33,4. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

The white sand, which becomes fluorescent in the sunlight, accounts for the 

name 'Shiner' given to these dunes. This was the site of a historic battle in 

1304. The steep slopes were - and still are - a favourite playground for 

children. The inn at the foot also has a centuries-old tradition. 



B39. 

OVERBEEK, LEENDERT (HAARLEM 1752-1815 HAARLEM) 

A POND BEHIND THE DUNES NEAR HAARLEM, 1792. 

PRINT, 29,2x33,4. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

This pond was dug by the numerous Haarlem brewers as a storage basin 
for the pure dune water used in making beer. 



B40. 

OVERBEEK, LEENDERT (HAARLEM 1752-1815 HAARLEM) 
A WHALE STRANDED ON A NORTH SEA BEACH, 1791. 

PRINT, 28x33. 
AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

From time to time these giants from more northerly waters were washed 
up on the Dutch coast, and the local population flocked to see them. 
Suddering with hon-or, they wotched the animal, emitting roars of pain, 
collapse under its own weight within the space of o few hours. It was 
still regarded at this time as a sign of God's wrath for the sins of mankind. 



8 41 

POTHOVEN,HENDRIK (AMSTERDAM 1752 1807 THE HAGUE) 

DEPARTURE OF THE PRINCESS OF ORANGE AFTER DIVINE SERVICE IN THE 

KLOOSTERKERK (CONVENT CHURCH) AT THE HAGUE, 1787. 

PANEL, 30,5x42,5. 

PARIS, FONDATION CUSTODIA (COLIECTION FRITS LUGT), 

INSTITUT NEERLANDAIS. 

The Court gave to The fHogue, the seat of the House of Orange, a more 
aristocratic air than the other Dutch towns. The KIcosterkerk derived its 
name from the fact that it had originally been the chapel of a Dominican 
convent, even though it had long since passed into the hands of the 
Reformed Church. The gable-topped house was the residence of the 
Russian Envoy. The imposing house beside it was used to accommodate 
the representatives of the North-fHoHond towns of Hoonri, Edam, Monniken- 
dom, Medemblik and Enkhuizen when they came to The Hague on official 
business, (see fig.nr. 37) 



B 42. 

POTHOVEN, HENDRIK [AMSTERDAM 1752-1807 THE HAGUE) 

VIEW OF THE RIVER AMSTEL AT AMSTERDAM, WITH THE HALVEMAANS BRIDGE. 

CANVAS, 69 X 102. 

AMSTERDAM, AMSTERDAMS HISTORISCH MUSEUM. 

When Pothoven painted this scene, it was still predominantly seventeenth 
century in character. The architecture at the left displays the severe and 
monumental style of the 1660"s; most of the buildings at the right, including 

the many small warehouses, are older and more varied in style. 
The Dutch towns, with their rivers and canals, needed many bridges. 
A relatively small town as Leiden, for instance, hod as many as 145, 

while Amsterdam had approximately 280 bridges. 

The ships shown here were propelled by means of oars or poles, for 

sailing was of course Impossible on the city's waterways. 



B43. 

SALLIETH, MATTHEUS DE (PRAGUE 1749-1/91 ROTTERDAM) 

FOUR FIGURES IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY GARB. 

HAND COLORED PRINTS, C 22 x U5. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

Etched after drawings by Jacques Kuyper and Johannes Huibert Prins. 

From left to right: a farm worker, a woman from Friesland, a cabin boy 

and a fish seller. 



B44. 

SALLIETH, MATTHEUS DE [PRAGUE 1749 1791 ROTTERDAM) 

THE PORTS OF BRIELLE, HOORN AND HELLEVOETSLUIS, C. 1780. 

PRINTS, C. 26 X 35. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

Hoorn and Brielle, once important navai ports, had lost most of thai ^^g^iy town 
significance by Adam's day. Hoorn, on the Zuyder Zee, had deterioro*- 
from an international trading centre to a fishing port, while Brielle had be 
obliged to relinquish its role as principal naval base to Hellevoeti . 
The print shows Brielle's mediaeval church with the beacon added *: 
tower in 1759. At the right sails an English two master. 



e countrysi 
the left wei 
luses. In frot 



B45. 

SCHOUTEN, HERMANUS PETRUS (AMSTERDAM 1747-1822 HAARLEM) 

VIEW THROUGH THE LEIDEN GATE AT AMSTERDAM, 1779. 

COLORED DRAWING, 30,3 x 29,7. 

AMSTERDAM, HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAN HETGEMEENTEARCI 

(HISTORICAL-TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES 

Together with the artist we are looking through the passage of the Le'i-s 
Gate at Amsterdam. It is being guarded by soldiers (who had their gi : - 
room downstairs, the top floor being used by artists as an acade 
Behind them on the wall are some posters of public sales of houses 

landed property of the kind still used today. 
The building on the left is the wooden Theatre of 1772-1774 (see nr. B j:"*] 



S- ^ptousandi^H 
^tlland. '^1 

'"■-^ ,-ichthee--^ 



B46. 

SCHOUTEN, HERMANUS PETRUS (AMSTERDAM 1747-1822 HAARLEM] 

INTERIOR OF THE NEW CHURCH, AMSTERDAM. 1780. 

COLORED DRAWING, 31,3 x 42,9. 

AMSTERDAM, COLLECTION CHR. P. VAN EEGHEN. 

Churches were generally open during the day and were semi:. 
premises in which people rested, strolled about or listened to the c: 
The interior of this church, originally Gothic, was destroyed by -■• 
1645. It was restored in a highly ornamental, but severely Protestan' ; 
Memorial shields bearing the coats of arms of the persons buried -« 
hang in the choir, as was the old practice. 

B47. 

SCHOUTEN, HERMANUS PETRUS (AMSTERDAM 1747-1822 HAARLEM) 

LUXIMBURGH, A COUNTRY HOUSE ON THE RIVER VECHT AT MAARSSEK 

COLORED DRAWING, 44,1 x 43,1, 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

This eighteenth-century mansion was one of the largest of the ma 
one hundred such houses built on both banks of the Vecht in the cc.-. 
the years. The park laid out around it contained no fewer than for^ 

statues, busts and sundials. Nothing now remains of either house c- : 

w 

B4S. 

SCHOUTEN, HERMANUS PETRUS (AMSTERDAM 1/47-1822 HAARLEM 

ENTRANCE GATE AND TEA HOUSE OF ELSRUK, A COUNTRY HOUSE NEAf 

AMSTERDAM. 

COLORED DRAV/ING, 24,8 x 38. 

AMSTERDAM, KONINKLIJK OUDHEIDKUNDIG GENOOTSCHAP. 

The extravagant style of the tea house is an example of the exo- : 
fashion at the time, in which foreign elements (Chinese, Turkish, Swii; 
often intermingled. The stone obelisk at the extreme left marks the c • 
line between the areas of jurisdiction of Amsterdam and Amsfj- 

B49 

SCHOUTEN, HERMANUS PETRUS (AMSTERDAM 1747-1822 HAARLEM 

THEATRE ON LEIDEN SQUARE, AMSTERDAM, 1788. 

DRAWING, 22,9 x 34. 

AMSTERDAM, HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAN MET GEMEENTHAI 

(HISTORICAL-TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHf.'a.J 

Play-going wos popular among all classes of the population. The 
shown here was rather new at the time: it had been built, in v: 
1772-74 on the site on which the present Municipal Theatre stii 
The building in the distance is the Leiden Gate, now demolisl-^ j 
Nr. B. 45). 



I 



e elimma'a 

andscape •% 

nund Dcrin 

!d be c-e 



*]02* 



•fTv 



B 




IZX-'M*'^ 



(rai 






B50. 

SPRANG, J. VAN DER, (ACTIVE C. 1790) 

*ASTORAL LANDSCAPE BEYOND THE TOWN GATES OF HAARLEM, T793. 

COLORED DRAWING, 40 x 66,5. 

HAARLEM, GEMEENTE ARCHIEF (MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

•owns were still surrounded by their mediaeval fortifications, and 

untryside began immediately outside the gates. The tea houses 

■i eft were the middle-class counterparts of the upper classes' country 

-I. In front of them, a tow boat is heading for Amsterdam; the municipal 

yacht at the right is probably carrying official guests, 

B51. 

STRIJ, JACOB VAN (DORDRECHT 1756-1815 DORDRECHT) 
WINDMILL IN A POLDER LANDSCAPE NEAR DORDRECHT. 

COLORED DRAWING, 28,2 x 42,8. 
AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

;-onds of watermills were needed to control the water level in watery 
"id. This mill is one of the variety known as the hollow post mill, of 
the entire superstructure, including the sails, could be turned to calch 
the wind. (See fig.nr. 28) 



B52. 

STRIJ, JACOB VAN (DORDRECHT 1756-1815 DORDRECHT) 
PASTURES WITH POLLARD WILLOWS ALONG A DITCH. 

DRAWING, 25,5x22,5. 
AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

elimination of specific topographical detail renders this impression of 

^dscape representative of a much greater region than the river country 

-id Dordrecht, which^tt is thought to portray. The scene, even today, 

be one of winter pastures anywhere in hlolland. (See fig.nr. 35) 



1^ 



ICt<*1IS8lllliy 




BS3. 

TAVENIER, HENDRIK (HAARLEM 1734-1807 HAARLEM) 

PROFILE OF ALKMAAR, 1787, 

DRAWING, 16,5x37,5 

HAARLEM, RIJKSARCHIEF NOORD HOLLAND (PROVINCIALE ATLAS). 

Most Dutch towns looked much like this from a distance: enclosed habita- 
tions in the flat landscape, surrounded by tree-lined conalsand with churches 
and towers rising above them. 



B54. 

THiER, BAREND HENDRIK (LUDINGHAUSEN C 1743-1614 LEIDEN} 

A. THE GARDEN WITH THE GOLDFISH POND SEEN FROM THE HOUSE 'AMECIKA'. 

COLORED DRAWING, 37 x 26,5. 

B. THE HOUSE 'AMERIKA' SEEN FROM THE GARDEN. 

COLORED DRAWING, 37 x 76,5 

LEIDEN, GEMEENTELIJKE ARCHIEFDIENST (MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

Small country houses of this kind were to be found in the environs of 
practically all towns. 'Amerika' was laid out by Isaac van Buren, a 
magistrate and art collector of Leiden. He obviously had a great deal of 
sympathy for the new State. We know that portraits in gilt frames of 
Washington, Franklin, Lee, Sullivan, Hopkins ond five other renowned 
Americans hung on his wads. Van Buren was not alone in calling his house 
'Amerika'. A house built around 1760 by Van Marken, the Burgomaster 
of Weesp, bore the same name. 



B5S. 

VINKELES, REINIER (AMSTERDAM 1741-1S16) 

DAM SQUARE AT AMSTERDAM WITH THE TOWN HALL AND THE WEIGH-HOUSE. 

COLORED DRAWING, 22,B x 34,5. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

Amsterdam's seventeenth-century town hall was used as such up to the 

beginning of the nineteenth century, when it became a royal palace, 

A burgomoster's coach stands waiting by the entrance. Goods are being 

weighed in the Weigh House at the right. 



^•]03^- 



DUTCH INTERIOR DECORATION AND APPLIED ART IN THE 

LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 



ci. 

PORTRAIT OF JACOB FEITAIWA AND HIS WIFE. 

WYBRANDHENDRIKS- 

CANVA5, 35,3 x 69,5. 

THE HAGUE, MAURITSHUIS. 

Jacob Feitama (1726-1797), an Amsterdam merchant, and his wife, 
Elisabeth de Haan (1735-1800) are portrayed in a richly appointed room 
in which pointings are fitted into the wall panelling. The austere Louis XVI 
table at which they are seated is beautifully ornamented with marquetry. 



C2. 
FAMILY GROUP, 1776. 

LOUIS FRANCOIS VAN DER PUYL. 

COPPER, 57 X 73. 

UTRECHT, CENTRAAL MUSEUM, ON LOAN FROM 

THE HAGUE, DIENST VERSPREIDE RUKSCOLLECTIES. 

An unknown jeweller's family. The living room, from which a garden with 
a large ornamental vase can be seen, is decorated in Louis XVI style. 
Under the gilt bracket clock on the wall hangs a sepia drawing of a land- 
scape with cows and sheep. 

(See fig.nr. 47) 



C3. 

THE MAIN GATE OF A COUNTRY HOUSE NEAR THE VECHT, 

LANDSCAPE PAINTING AS PART OF A WALL DECORATION, 1776. 

JURRIAANANDRIESSEN. 

CANVAS, 326x124. 

AMSTERDAM, AMSTERDAMS HISTORISCH MUSEUM. 



C4. 

LANDSCAPE NEAR THE RIVER VECHT, WITH A TOLL GATE. 

LANDSCAPE PAINTING AS PART OF A WALL DECORATION, 1776. 

JURRIAAivl ANDRIE5SEN. 

CANVAS, 327x117. 

AMSTERDAM, AMSTERDAMS HISTORISCH MUSEUM. 



C5. 

DESIGN FOR A WALL WITH PAINTINGS DEPICTING VIEWS OF 

ARNHEM AND NIJMEG6N. 

JURRIAAN AN DRI ESSEN. 

DRAWING, PEN AND COLORS, 21 x 31,5. 

AMSTERDAM, COLLECTION CHR. P. VAN EEGHEN. 

A large number of Andriessen's preliminary sketches for decorative 
paintings of this kind have come down fo us. In many of them the doors and 
mantelpieces are also worked out in detail. Paintings made to be fitted 
into the wall panelling of rooms usually related to the place of residence 
or the activities of the person commissioning them. These sketches showing 
views of Arnhem and Nijmegen are pasted over other sketches which 
may have been rejected by the person for whom they were made or 
which Andriessen may have made for another house. 
(See fig.nr. 49) 



C6. 

CROSS SECTION OF THE VAN BRIENEN HOUSE, 1772. 

LUDWIG FRIEDRICH DRUCK. 

DRAWING, 58,8 x 43,2. 

AMSTERDAM, KONINKLIJK OUDHEIDKUNDIG GENOOTSCHAP. 

(ROYAL ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY). 

In 1772 the architect L.f^. Druck drew up a series of plans of a house to be 
built for AJ. von Brienen on the Herengracht at Amsterdam. This "Profil Pris 
Sut- la Ligne de Milieu" gives a good idea of the dimensions and internal 
design of a canal-side house of this kind, the front and rear sections of which 
were divided by a staircase. The elaborate Louis XVI stucco ornamentation 
in the long downstairs corridor and the painted walls of the back drawing 
room ore clearly perceptible, 
(see fig.nr. 46) 



C7. 
SCENE FROM "DE VRIENDSCHAP" (THE FRIENDSHIP]; 9TH SCENE, 5TH ACT. 

NICOLAAS MUYS, 

DRAWING, PEN AND INK AND BRUSH WASH, 32 x 39. 

AMSTERDAM, HET TONEEIMUSEUM. 

Muys portrayed a number of scenes from plays. The one shown herj 
a scene from "The Friendship", was set in an elegant Louis XVI interio- 



C8. 
SILHOUEHE OF LOUIS METAYER AND HIS WIFE, 1790. 

JOSEPH ADOLF SCHMETTERLING. 

DRAWING AND CUT PAPER WORK. 19 x 24,3. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSPRENTENKABINET, RUKSMUSEUM. 

Louis Metayer, an Amsterdam art collector, and his wife at the tea tabit 
on which a Louis XVI tea urn is to be seen. 



WINE GLASS Wl 



RO^ 



Tie small boy a-Ts 

nerchandise of to 

ere is that of r"'e( 

wci a 



Sue glass bov 
"e late eighte 
irs and 



C9. 

A CABINET (LOUIS XVI}. 

LAST QUARTER 18TH CENTURY. 

MAHOGANY AND INTARSIA. 

240 X 164 X 58. 

THE HAGUE, DIENST VERSPREIDE RUKSCOLLECTIES. 



ECTIE5. ■ 



CIO. 

SIDEBOARD WITH FOLDING TOP, PEWTER WATER CONTAINER AND BASIN. 

WALNUT AND INTARSIA. 

36 X 108,5 X 53,2 (145 x 187 x 53,2 with top and Flaps out). 

HAARLEM, FRANS HALS MUSEUM. 



Sideboards of this kind, which were usually made with a mate- 
secretaire, are typically Dutch Sate eighteenth-century items of fumr.^ 
Folded back, the top of the sideboard formed a wall to which hi-od 
shelves for glassware and a pewter water container could be office 
Under the container a pewter basin was sunk into the woricing suri 
(Compare fig.nr. 53). 



Cll. 

TWO CHAIRS (LOUIS XVI}. 

WOOD. 

H 93x50x44. 

THE HAGUE, DIENST VERSPREIDE RUKSCOLLECTIES. 



■=a was still v=-y 
jason it wos z-'s 
ch caddies y.=--= 



C12. 
OVALTABLE (LOUIS XVI). 

MAHOGANY. 

57,5x73,5x113. 

THE HAGUE, DIENST VERSPREIDE RUKSCOLLECTIES. 



hindy bowls,] 
inated in 
eariy eigfi 
are usu 



C13A + B. 

TWO DUMMIES WITH LATE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY COSTUMES. 

A LADY: ROBE WITH MATCHING FRONT PANEL, YELLOW AND WHITE STRIPE 

AND FIGURED SILK, 1. 1775. 

A GENTLEMAN: COAT OF BLACK AND PURPLE STRIPED SILK; WAISTCOAT 0= 

CREAM COLORED SILK, EMBROIDERED IN MANY COLORS IN A FLORAL PATT&* 

BR6ECHER OF BLACK SATIN. 

THE HAGUE, HET NEDERLANDS KOSTUUMMUSEUM. 



J 



C14, 

WINEGLASS WITH WHEEL ENGRAVING, 1783. 

J, SANG 1783. 

H. 21,2. 

ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. 

The glass, commemmorating the voyage of the first Dutch missior 
United States, is engraved with a sailing ship in a cartouche, with Ws 
the god of corr.merce, flying above it. The text reads "Good fortu-- 
blessing attend the noble first envoy to America aboord the mar-r 
'Over-Yssel Anno 1783". ft is also engraved with the coats of cr 
the Dutch Republic, of Van Berckel, who headed the mission, 

Riemersma, the captain of the ship. 
The glass was decorated by means of the wheel engraving 
in which the surface to be decorated was given a mat texture by -■: 

it against a rapidly rotating wheel. 
(See fig.nr. 62) 



9 

I 

I 



•104* 



i 





CIS, 

' N E GLASS WITH STIPPLE ENGRAVING, SYMBOLIZING THE TRADE WITH 

THE WEST INDIES. 

LAST QUARTER 18TH CENTURY. 

H. 16. 

ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. 

- rl! boy arrayed in feathers symbolises America. He is showing the 
ndise of his continent to a Dutch gentleman. The technique used 
s that of stipple, or diamond point, engraving, in which the design 
was traced on the gloss with a diamond needle. 

C16. 

BASKET WITH A LINER OF BLUE GLASS. 

SILVER AND GLASS. 

13,4 X 37,6:^36,3, 

H.C.N. WIEDEMAN, AMSTERDAM 1779. 

THE NETHERLANDS, PRIVATE COLLECTION. 

glass bowls and dishes set in open work silver became popular in 
c'e eighteenth century. They were usually small articles such as salt 
■ and mustard pots; larger articles like this basket were more rare. 
(See fig.nr. 57) 

C17. 

OPEN-WORK CASE WITH THREE TEA CADDIES. 

SILVER. 

P.A. BRUYNE, AMSTERDAM 1735. 

1 3,5 X 24,5 X 1 3,5. 

AMSTERDAM, COLLECTION J.J. POST. 

lA^as still veryjiinuch a luxury in the eighteenth century, for which 
;n it was often kept in handsome silver caddies. Sometimes several 
caddies were kept in specially-made cases of silver or fine wood 
fitted with locks. 

C18. 

BOX, CONTAINING THREE TEA CADDfES. 

WOOD AND SILVER. 

J VAN NIEUCASTEEL, UTRECHT 1793. 

7,1 X 9,5 X 5,6 ond 7,3 X 9,5 x 5,7. 

UTRECHT, CENTRAAL MUSEUM PER GEMEENTE UTRECHT. 




C19. 

BRANDY BOWL. 

SILVER. 

L- OLING, LEEUWARDEN 1783. 

8,1 X 22,4; a 13,4. 

LEEUWARDEN, FRIES MUSEUM. 



p-dy bowls, from which brandy and raisins were eaten with a spoon, 
jnated in Friesland. Though most of them date from the seventeenth 
I early eighteenth centuries there are also later examples. The bowls 
are usually of chased silver, with cast handles soldered on. 



C20. 

BREAD BASKET. 

SILVER. 

M. VAN STAPELE, THE HAGUE 1774. 

H. 15; B 24,6. 

THE HAGUE, DIENST VERSPREIDE RIJKSCOLLECTIES. 



C23. 

CHOCOLATE JUG. 

SILVER. 

CJ VAN STRAATSBURG, UTRECHT 1787. 

H. 24,3, 15. 

UTRECHT, CENTRAAL MUSEUM DER GEMEENTE UTRECHT. 



C24. 

COFFEE POT AND MILK JUG. 

SILVER. 

G. LENNI5, MAASTRICHT 1739. 

H. 32,4; H. 17,4 

MAASTRICHT, BONNEFANTENMUSEUM. 



C25. 

FISHSLICE. 

SILVER. 

C.l VAN STRAATSBURG, UTRECHT 1785. 

L. 34,3. 

UTRECHT, CENTRAAL MUSEUM DER GEMEENTE UTRECHT. 

C26. 

FLUTE, WITH INSCRIPTION: "VIVAT OHANJE". 

SILVER. 

E JOOSTEN JR., THE HAGUE 1789. 

L. 45 

THE HAGUE, HAAGS GEMEENTEMUSEUM. 

C27. 
JUG. 
SILVER. 

R. SONDAGH, ROTTERDAM 1786. 

H. 31,2; B 10,7. 
AMSTERDAM, RUKSMUSEUM. 



C21. 

TWO CANDELABRA. 

SILVER. 

P. KERSBERGEN AND S. BUSARD, THE HAGUE 1779. 

H. 44. 

THE HAGUE, HAAGS GEMEENTEMUSEUM. 



C2a, 

"POTPOURRI" 

SILVER. 

J. ARNTZEN. ARNHEM 1775. 

10,5; 10,3. 

ARNHEM, GEMEENTEMUSEUM. 



Most of these silver bowls made in the second half of the eighteenth century 

originated in the Yssel region. Fitted with open-work lids, they contained 

aromatic flower petals which filled the air with a pleasant perfume. 



C29. 

"POTPOURRI" 

SILVER. 
W-C VAN MEURS, ZUTPHEN 1784. 

H. (WITHOUT LID) 6,4; 10,5. 
ZUTPHEN, STEDEUJK MUSEUM. 



C30. 
SALVER. 
SILVER. 

J.M. LENTZ, LEEUWARDEN 1776. 

27,5x27,5. 
LEEUWARDEN, FRIES MUSEUM. 



C22. 

TWO CANDLESTICKS WITH THE AMSTERDAM COAT OF ARMS. 

SILVER. 

AH. PAAP, AMSTERDAM 1787. 

H. 27,5. 

AMSTERDAM, AMSTERDAMS HISTORISCH MUSEUM, 



■ 



C31 
SWEETMEAT BASKET. 

SILVER. 

J. HARTSMAN, AMSTERDAM 1789. 

15,4x19,2, 

AMSTERDAM, RUKSMUSEUM. 



C32. 

TEA CADDY. 

SILVER. 

UTRECHT 1787. 

9,2 X 8,8 X 6. 

UTRECHT, CENTRAAL MUSEUM DER GEMEENTE UTRECHT. 



C33. 

TOBACCO BOX. 

SILVER. 

J. MORRISON, UTRECHT 1780. 

2,9 X 15,4 X 6,6. 

UTRECHT, CENTRAAL MUSEUM DER GEMEENTE UTRECHT. 



^•105* 



C34. 

COFFEE URN. 

SILVER. 

H. HUBERT, GRONINGEN 1785/1786. 

H. 36. 

GRONINGEN, GRONINGER MUSEUM. 



Urns were usually filled with coffee and set in the middle of the table. 

Made of silver, pewter or brass, they were generally fitted with one tap, 

though there are a few examples with three taps. 



C35. 

KETTLE AND STAND (BOUILLOIRE). 

SILVER. 

D. VAN DE GOORBERGH, DELFT 1778. 

(KETTLE) H, 27,5; (STAND) H. 11. 

DELFT, STEDEIIJK MUSEUM "HET RRINSENHOF". 

Up to the end of the eighteenth century tea was served from a pot 

containing a strong tea extroct which was diluted with hot water in the cup. 

The water was kept hot in a kettle mounted on a spirit lamp. 



C36. 
KETTLE AND STAND (BOUllLOIRE). 

SILVER. 

J, SMIT [ATTR.), AMSTERDAM 1783. 

H. 25 (INCLUDING STAND 36,2) 

LEIDEN, MUNICIPAL MUSEUM "DE LAKENHAL" 



C37. 

VINAIGRETTE IN THE FORM OF A CABINET. 

SILVER. 

A. SCHAAKE, AMSTERDAM 1793. 

3,9x3,4x2,1. 

THE HAGUE, COLLECTION B.W.G. WTTEWAALL 

Various kinds of small silver boxes for scent, peppermints or snuff were 
very popular in the Nelherlands in the second half of the eighteenth 
century. Vinaigrettes, containing a small sponge soaked in aromatic 
vinegar, were fashioned in a wide diversity of shapes, such as cabinets, 
urns or books. 



CSS. 

CREAM LADLE, WITH A REPRESENTATION OF A SHEPHERD. 

ON THE HANDLE A SQUIRREL. 

SILVER. 

KLAAS DJURREMA, DOKKUM c. 1780. 

L. 10. 

THE HAGUE, COLLECTION B.W.G. WTTEWAALL. 



C39. 
A CHATELAINE, WITH SEVERAL SMALL SILVER OBJECTS, SUCH AS A POMANDER, 
A PAIR OF SCISSORS, A PIN CUSHION, A THIMBLE, A NEEDLE-CASE, A BEIT CLASP. 

JAN LINGENAAR, AMSTERDAM 1773; ROELOFSNOEK, LEEU WARDEN 1775; 

CAROLUS TEN HAM, AMSTERDAM 1757 AND OTHERS. 

THE HAGUE, COLLECTION B.W.G. WTTEWAALL. 



C40. 

NEEDLE CASE WITH PORTRAIT AND THE NAME "ZOUTMAN". 

SILVER. 

DIRK HOEP,HOORN 1782. 

L. 9,5. 

THE HAGUE, COLLECTION B.W.G. WHEWAALL. 

Zoutman, the admiral whose name and portrait appear on this needle 

case, played an important part in the Battle of Dogger Bank (1781) and 

was revered as a national hero. 



C41. 

SNUFF BOX, SHOWING FOUR DIFFERENT EPISODES FROM THE PARABLE OF THE 

PRODIGAL SON. 

SILVER. 

D. GOEDHART, AMSTERDAM 1792 

3x3. 

THE HAGUE, COLLECTION B.W.G. WTTEWAALL. 



C42. 

SNUFF BOX IN THE FORM OF A BOOK, ENGRAVED WITH MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

SILVER. 

A. KUILENBURG, SCHOONHOVEN 1782, 

1,6 X 3,9 X 2,6. 

THE HAGUE, COLLECTION B.W.G. WTTEWAALL. 



C43. 

SNUFF BOX. ON THE LID A PEASANT WOMAN MILKING A COW. 

SILVER. 

P. GEiSKES, SCHOONHOVEN 1794. 

3 X 6,8 X 5. 

THE HAGUE, COLLECTION B.W.G. WTTEWAALL 

C44. 

OBLONG SNUFF BOX. ON THE SIDES FILIGREE, 

DECORATED WITH GARLANDS AND A MEDALLION. 

SILVER. 

HAARLEM 1780, 

3 X 6,8 X 5. 

THE HAGUE, COLLECTION B.W.G. WTTEWAALL, 

C45. 

OVAL SNUFF BOX WITH A PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM V. 

SILVER. 

J. MESMAN, SCHOONHOVEN 1786. 

2,7 X 7,5 X 4. 

THE HAGUE, COLLECTION B.W.G. WTTEWAALL. 

C46. 

SPOON WITH A PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM V. 

SILVER. 

J. RIENSTRA, SNEEICC1790. 

19,5; a 7 X 4,5. 

THE HAGUE, COLLECTION B.W.G. WTTEWAALL 

C47. 
SUGAR SIFTER. 
SILVER WITH EBONY HANDLE. 

C SOTH, LEEUWARDEN C. 1790. 

19; 8,7 X 7,0. 

THE HAGUE, COLLECTION B.W.G. WTTEWAALL 

C4a. 

TOBACCO BOX. 
SILVER, 

J, LINGENAAR, AMSTERDAM 1779. 

3,5x16,5x5,5, 

THE HAGUE, COLLECTION B.W.G. WTTEWAALL 

New fashions were not adopted by everyone, which accounts for the ■ 
that in a period in which neo-classicism had become firmly establis- 
the rococo style had not yet been abandoned. Examples of the s - 
taneous use of the Louis XV and XVI styles, as on this tobacco 
decorated with biblical scenes featuring Moses and Joseph, are, hows- 
extremely rare. 
(See fig.nrs. 55, 56) 

C49. 

CLASP FOR A NECKLACE. 

GOLD, MOUNTED WITH CRYSTALS. 

WILLEM KLiPPlNK, AMSTERDAM 1787, 

4,5 X 3,8. 

AMSTERDAM, THE CITROEN COLLECTION. 

C50. 

BEADED PURSE, WITH A GOLD CLASP. 

GOLD. 

J. SOMMER, AMSTERDAM 1778. 

(CLASP) 5 X 7,5. 
AMSTERDAM, RIJKSMUSEUM. 

CS1. 
WATCH. 
GOLD. 

HENRI LA PIERRE, AMSTERDAM 1792. 

4,4, 

HAARLEM, P.W. VOET. 

C52. 

FAN WITH MUSICAL COMPANY IN A GARDEN. 

IVORY AND PAINTED SILK. 

L. 27,5. 

ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. 




-•106^- 



C53. 
FAN WriH PORTRAITS OF THE STADHOLDER WILLIAM V AND HIS WIFE, 

PRINCESS WILHELMINA OF PRUSSIA. 
BONE AND PAINTED SILK. 

L. 23,2. 
ROHERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. 



fF-z, very popular with eighteenth-century women^ were available in a 
Kr range of materials and prices. This one is adorned with portraits of 

t holder William V and his wife, the Dutch lion and an orange tree 
symbolising the House of Orange. 
(See fig.nr. 63) 



C54. 

MEDALUON WITH A PORTRAIT OF THE STADHOLDER WILLIAM V. 
PLASTER. 

J.H. SCHEPP. 

HC. 8. 

AMSTERDAM, RIJKSMUSEUM. 




C 55. 

TEA CADDY WITH A SILVER STOPPER. 

PORCELAIN AND SILVER. 

LAST QUARTER IBth CENTURY. 

H. 12,2. 

ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. 

re scene of the Battle of Dogger Bank depicted on this Chinese porcelain 
caddy was probably painted in the Netherlands. Zoutman, whose 
ne is emblazoned on the flag, won renown for the heroic part he 
[played in this encouotsr between the Dutch and English fleet in 1781. 

(See fig.nr. 58) 

C56. 

BUST OF HUGO DE GROOT (GROTIUS). 

LOOSDRECHT PORCELAIN. 

BISCUIT WARE ON A GLAZED PEDESTAL. 

H. 22,3. 
LOOSDRECHT, MUSEUM 5YPESTEYN. 

Loosdrecht porcelain factory made busts in biscuit ware of a number 
celebrated seventeenth-century Dutchmen, usually mounted on a 
indrical glazed pedestal. In addition to the distinguished lawyer, Hugo 

tius (1584-1645), other subjects included Johan de Witt, Johan van 
Oldenbameveltand the admiral, Michiel de Ruyter. 



C57, 

EWER AND BASIN. 

LOOSDRECHT PORCELAIN. 

J. DE MOL, LAST QUARTER 18th CENTURY. 

H. 27. (EWER), 25 (BASIN). 

ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. 



I- 



C58. 

RECTANGULAR PLAQUE WITH A RURAL SCENE. 

LOOSDRECHT PORCELAIN. 

PAINTED BY CORNELIS BUYS. 

16,5 x 22,8. 

LOOSDRECHT, MUSEUM SYPESTEYN. 



[lis Loosdrecht porcelain plaque is painted with a scene of two hunters 
Jnd a giri resting in rural surroundings. The beautifully executed painting 
I signed with the initials 'CB', and is probably the work of the Amsterdam 
artist, Cornelis Buys. 

C59, 

OBLONG SALVER, DECORATED WITH BIRDS. 

POLYCHROME LOOSDRECHT PORCELAIN. 

46,5 X 34,5. 

LOOSDRECHT, MUSEUM SYPESTEYN. 

C60. 
TEA POT WITH A LANDSCAPE. 
OUDER-AMSTEL PORCELAIN. 

OUDER-AMSTEL, LAST QUARTER 18th CENTURY. 

;<. !2,S. 

ROHERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN 

2)is teapot painted with a romanticized river landscape was made in the 

^tjder-Amstel porcelain factory, which took over the factory of J. de Mo! in 

Loosdrecht when it closed down in 1784. 

[See fig.nr. 60) 



C61. 
TWO CUPS AND SAUCERS FROM A TEA SERVICE DECORATED WITH BUTTERFLIES 
AND OTHER INSECTS. 
LOOSDRECHT PORCELAIN- 
CUPS: H. 4; a 7,1. 
SAUCERS: 12. 
LEEUWARDEN, MUSEUM "HET PRINCESSEHOF", GENERAL CERAMICS STUDY CENTRE. 

C62. 

TWO CHESTNUT VASES WITH BIRDS. 

LOOSDRECHT PORCELAIN. 

J. DE MOL, LAST QUARTER 18TH CENTURY. 

H. 20. 

ROHERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. 

The vase, to which two lion masks are affixed, is painted with a polychrome 

scene of tropical birds in a landscape. The base is painted to suggest 

marble . 

(See fig.nr. 59] 



C 63 A+B. 
INTERIOR OF THE ARTISTS HOUSE. (A) 

JACOB CATS. 
DRAWING, 21,6 x 30,8. 

INTERIOR OF THE ARTIST'S HOUSE. [8} 

JACOB CATS. 

DRAWING, 21,5 k.30,5. 

AMSTERDAM, HISTORISCH-TOPOGRAFISCHE ATLAS VAN HET GEMEENTEARCHIEF 

[HISTORICAL TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OF THE MUNICIPAL ARCHIVES). 

The interior depicted is a simple one. A striking feature is the cramped 
dimension of the room serving as both living room and kitchen. In contrast 
to more offluant interiors, which can be dated fairly accurately by the 
furniture styles, household effects of the kind shown here remained much 
the same for many years. 
(See fig.nr. 64) 



C64. 

THE BREAKFAST. 

PIER JOHANNES DE VISSER. 

DRAWING, 32,3 x 23,5. 

AMSTERDAM, KONINKLUK OUDHEIDKUNDIG GENOOTSCHAP 

(ROYAL ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY], 



C65. 

TILE-PICTURE, REPRESENTING THE STADHOLDER WILLIAM V, 

AFTER P. TANJE, 

63 X 50. 

AMSTERDAM, KONINKLUK OUDHEIDKUNDIG GENOOTSCHAP 

(ROYAL ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY). 



C66. 

TILE-PICTURE. 

BLUE DELFT WARE, 18TH CENTURY. 

39x39. 

THE HAGUE, DIENST VERSPREIDE RIJKSCOLLECTIES. 

C67. 

"AN ORDINARY DUTCH INTERIOR ANNO 1780". 

ASSEMBLED FROM THE COLLECTION OF THE ZUIDERZEE MUSEUM. 

ENKHUtZEN, RIJKSMUSEUM "ZUIDERZEEMUSEUM". 

C 68 A-l-B. 

TWO DUMMIES WITH LATE EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY COSTUMES. 

AN ORDINARY DUTCHMAN: 

SHIRT WITH JABOT AND SLEEVE RUFFLES OF WHITE LINEN; 

COAT OF BEIGE WOOLLEN DAMASK; 

BREECHES OF BLACK SATIN. 

HIS WIFE: 

JACKET OF CHINTZ (HAND PAINTED COTTON, INDIA); 

SKIRT Of RED QUILTED SATIN; 

FICHU OF WHITE LINEN WITH EMBROIDERY. 

THE HAGUE, HET NEDERLANDS KOSTUUMMUSEUM. 



C69. 

BIRDCAGE. 

PAINTED WOOD. 

40x35x22. 

ENKHUIZEN, RUKSMUSEUM "ZUIDERZEEMUSEUM" 



:*107*- 



^ 



C70. 

TWO CHAIRS. 

PAINTED WOOD. 

115 X 66x55; 115x50)^40. 

ENKHUIZEN, RUKSMUSEUM "ZUIDERZEEMUSEUM " 



C71. 

FIRE SCREEN, WITH A PARROT. 

CAST IRON. 

45x65- 

6NKHUIZEN, RIJKSMUSEUM "ZUIDERZEEMUSEUM" 



C72. 

FIRE SCREEN, WITH INSCRIPTION "ABIGAEL ONTMOET (MEETS) DAVID" 

PAINTED WOOD. 

100 X 60- 

ENKHUIZEN, RIJKSMUSEUM "ZUIDERZEEMUSEUM". 

era. 

FOOT WARMER. 

WOOD WITH A BRASS HANDLE. 

23x21 xl8. 

ENKHUIZEN, RIJKSMUSEUM "ZUIDERZEEMUSEUM", 

C74. 
AN OVAL FOLDING-TABLE. 

WOOD. 

H. 74,5; 88x67. 

ENKHUIZEN, RIJKSMUSEUM "ZUIDERZEEMUSEUM". 



C75. 
PEAT BIN. 
WOOD. 

45,5 X 71,5 X 28- 
ENKHUIZEN, RIJKSMUSEUM "ZUIDERZEEMUSEUM" 



C. 76. 

BRANDY BOWL. 

PEWTER. 

JAN VAN BRINK, DEVENTER. 

H. 4,0 11. 

ARNHEM, NATIONAL OPEN AIR MUSEUM. 



C77. 

TWO CANDLESTICKS. 

PEWTER. 

NICOLAA3 SAS. 

H. 27. 

LEIDEN, MUNICIPAL MUSEUM "DE LAKENHAL" 



C78. 

PEPPERBOX. 

PEWTER. 

H 14. 

LAST QUARTER 18TH CENTURY. 

ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. 



C 83- 

TWO LATE EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY GOUDA PIPES. 

CLAY, L. 54. 

GOUDA, STEDELIJK MUSEUM "DE MORIAAN". 



- 



A large number of pipe factories was already in existence in Gouda in t^ 
the seventeenth century. Their products were exported far beyond t-* 
Dutch borders. In the late eighteenth century the industry was severe- 
hit by the economic recession then affecting the country and by fallh; 
tobacco imports. The term "long Gouda" is nevertheless still the gent' 
name for all white^ fireproof clay pipes of this kind. 



C84. 

TOBACCO BOX WITH A REPRESENTATION OF A PILE-DRIVER. 

BRASS. 

4,3 X 16. 
ARNHEM, NATIONAL OPEN AIR MUSEUM. 



CSS. 

TOBACCO BOX WITH ORANG1ST REPRESENTATION. 

BRASS. 

H. 3,5; L, 16,8. 

THE HAGUE, DIENST VERSPHEIDE RiJKSCOlLECTtES. 



PUTE WH 
EN« 



[eramlcs end 
ene ration in 
Texts, portroit 
iles, sets of ■ 
nem were mc 
liderable qucr 



ce6. 

TOBACCO JAR IN LOUIS XVI STYLE. 

PEWTER. 

H. 19,4; 13. 

ARNHEM, NATIONAL OPEN AIR MUSEUM. 



I 



orma4 



C87. 

SMALL TOBACCO JAR WITH LID. 

PAINTED PEWTER. 

H. 11. 
ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. 



X 



CBS, 

BUSTS OF WILLIAM IV AND ANNA. 

DELFT POLYCHROME FAIENCE, HIGH FIRE. 

(WILLIAM IV) H, 33; |ANNA) H. 32. 

DELFT, STEDELIJK MUSEUM "HET PRINSENHOF", 



C89. 

TWO CERAMIC COWS. 

PAINTED EARTHENWARE. 

ADAM SYBEL, MAKKUM 1778. 

8 xl6- 

FRANEKER, "'T DR. COOPMANSHUS" 



Like the province of Holland, where Delft was the nfioin centre, Friej 
established tile and art ceramics potteries at an early date. They - 
largely concentrated in Harlingen and Makkum. Adam Sylael, whose ic- 
nature appears on these two cows, lived in the latter town, where cer:-t) 
are still produced today. 



THE HAGUE, 

juild medoll 
lame of theov 
iid meetings v.- < 
ilver probably oa 
medallion of t'"e Bi 
ievice "We vcy-a 
ngraved wifr "k 



C79. 
PLATE. 

PEWTER. 

JOHANNES TEN HOEDT, NiJMEGEN 1793. 

24,5. 

ARNHEM, NATIONAL OPEN AIR MUSEUM. 



C80. 

SUGAR BOX. 

PEWTER, 

H. 10. LATE 18TH CENTURY. 

ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. 



C81. 

TOBACCO JAR. 

PEWTER. 

H, 21. LATE 18TH CENTURY. 
ROTTERDAM, MUSEUM BOYMANS-VAN BEUNINGEN. 

{See fig.nr. 65) 



C 82. 

TWO CHESTNUT VASES. 

PEWTER, 

H- 22,5; 11,5. 

THE HAGUE, DIENST VERSPREiDE RIJKSCOLLECTIES. 



1 



C90. 

TOBACCO JAR WITH LID. 

TIN-GLAZE EARTHENWARE. 

ADAM SYBEL, MAKKUM 1779. 

H. 19, s 13,5. 

LEEUWARDEN, MUSEUM "THE PRINCESSEHOF"; GENERAL CERAMICS STUDY < 

C91. 

EXTINGUISHER WITH INSCRIPTION "I A D P 1781" 

RED EARTHENWARE. 

H. 24, e 36. 

ARNHEM, NATIONAL OPEN AIR MUSEUM. 

C92. 

PiGGY BANK WITH INSCRIPTION: "TRIJNTJE CORNELIS 1790". 

WHITE EARTH EN WARE BODY WITH GREEN GLAZE. 

20 X 7 X 7. 

NEERLANGBROEK, COLLECTION H.J.E. VAN BEUNINGEN. 

C93. 

PLATE WITH INSCRIPTION. 

DELFT WARE, LAST QUARTER 18TH. CENTURY. 

22,7. 

THE HAGUE, DIENST VERSPREIDE RIJKSCOLLECTIES. 



•108 *■ 




— r-rrr 



C94. 

PLATE WITH THE PORTRAITS OF PRINCE WILLIAM V AND HIS WIFE. 

ENGLISH CREAMWARE, DECORATED IN HOLLAND. 

0lB,5. 

ARNHEM, NATIONAL OPEN AIR MUSEUM. 

C9S. 

PLATE WITH THE PORTRAITS OF PRINCE WILLIAM V AND HIS WIFE. 

LEEDS CREAMWARE, DECORATED IN HOLLAND. 

25. 

ARNHEM, NATIONAL OPEN AIR MUSEUM. 

^mics and metal objects were decorated in a way attesting to the 
-ation in which the Stadholder and the House of Orange were held. 
■s, portraits and symbols sitch as the orange tree are found on plates, 
sets of vases and utility articles like bowls and butter pots. Many of 
were manufactured in Delft, but in the late eighteenth century con- 
able quantities were also imported from England (Derby, Leeds). 



C96. 
PLATE WITH WILLIAM V AND HIS WIFE. 
POLYCHROME GLAZED EARTHENWARE. 

LATE leiH. CENTURY. 

22,5. 

THE HAGUE, DIENST VERSPREIDE RUKSCOLLECTIE5. 



k 



1 



C97. 
ORNAMENT OF A DRUM OF THE GUILD OF ST. GEORGE. 

SILVER. 

G. STEENBEEK, DORDRECHT C 1780. 

19x13,2. 

i&RDRECHT, MUSEUM MR. SIMON VAN GUN. 



3 

JrIc 



C98. 

MEDALLION OF THE BARGE-MASTERS' GUILD. 

SILVER. 

L. ENGELS KERKEN, DEN BOSCH 1789. 

7,8. 

E HAGUE, KONINKLIJK PENNINGKABINET (ROYAL COLLECTION OF COINS]. 



» ~ie;1£3Ii4 



sld medallions, fashioned from various kinds of material and bearing the 
e of the owner, wereo means of identification and control atceremonies 
:i meetings which all members were required to attend. Those mode of 
•sr probably belonged to the office-bearers, as was the case with this 
dallion of the Bois-le Due barge-masters' guild which, in addition to the 
:.'ice "We voyage o'er the ebbing tide" and the civic coat of arms, is 
graved with the words "Nicolaas -van Hooff, Master of the Barge- 
masters' Guild". 




C99, 

SHIELD OF THE ALEHOUSE-KEEPERS' GUILD. 

SILVER. 

G. STEENBEEK, DORDRECHT 1789. 

20,7 K 13. 

DORDRECHT, MUSEUM MR. SIMON VAN GUN. 



C 100. 

SHIELD OF THE MILITIA OF REEK (NOORD BRABANT). 

SILVER. 

1787. 

14,8 >:16,7. 

DEN BOSCH, NOORDBRABANTS MUSEUM. 



ClOl. 

SPOON OF THE BAKERS' GUILD. 

SILVER. 

H. DAUW, LEEUWARDEN 1783. 

L. 20,3. 
LEEUWARDEN, FRIES MUSEUM. 



C102. 

BAPTISMAL FONT. 

SILVER. 

B. STORM, LEEUWARDEN 1776. 

H. 29. 

BOLSWARD, DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH. 



C103A-HB. 

TWO BOXES WITH MOTHER-OF-PEARL UDS. 

SILVER AND MOTHER-OF-PEARL 

A. A. VERLOOVE, ROTTERDAM 1777. 

10,5 X 13,5 X 10. 

B. J. VERVOORT, ROTTERDAM 1782. 

4,5x13,7x6,7. 

THE NETHERLANDS, PRIVATE COLLECTION. 

The mother-of-pearl lids, depicting Mary and Joseph finding the boy Jesus 
teaching the Scribes in the Temple, are the work of the artist C. Lamotte. 



C104. 

CHALICE. 

SILVER, PARTLY SILVER-GILTED. 

J. BUrSSEN, AMSTERDAM 1781. 

H. 25,5, sl4. 

UTRECHT, A ARTSBISSCHOPPELIJK MUSEUM. 

A chalice such as is used in the celebration of the Mass in Roman Catholic 

churches. The priest consecrates the wine it contains, which is converted 

into the blood of Christ. 



C105. 
CHURCH BOOK WITH SILVER MOUNTING. 

J. RIENSTRA,SNEEK1793. 

15x8^4. 

LEEUWARDEN, FRIES MUSEUM. 



C 106 A-K. 

COMMUNION SET, CONSISTING OF 4 GOBLETS (A-D), 1 PUTE (E}, 

2 DECANTERS (F-G) AND 4 DISHES (H-i AND J-K). 

GOLD. [TWO DISHES SILVER GILT). 

R. VAN STAPELE, THE HAGUE 1788. 

A-D: H. 19, a 13; E: a 48; F-G: H. 31, a 13; HI: e 34; J-K: a 25,2. 

THE HAGUE, DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH. 



1 



• 109*: 



D 



D1. 

MODEL OF A SAW-MILL OF THE RATCHET-FEED ("PALTROK") TYPE. 

WOOD. 105 X 90x90. 

ZAANDIJK, VERENIGING "DE ZAANSCHE MOLEN". 

Model of a saw-mill of the ratchet-feed ("paltrok") type. This type of mill 
con turn freely to face the wind. The vertical saws can be seen under the 

open top. 
Windmills were used not only in water management and for milling grain 
but also in industry, and many industrial types were developed. In the 
Low Countries it was easy to use the power of the wind, and hundreds of 
wind-mills were turning there - saw-mills, husking mills for barley and rice, 

oil-mills, mustard-mills, paper-mills, chicory-mills, cocoa-mills, etc. 

In the eighteenth century a large industrial area grew up to the north of 

Amsterdam. 



D2. 

ELECTROSTATIC MACHINE. 

BRASS, WOOD, CAST GLASS 330 x 1 80 x 80 (GENERATOR); H.245 (ELECTRODE]; 

190x 145x30 (TABLE). 

EINDHOVEN, UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY. 

This replica incorporates the last improvements effected by Van Marum 
in 1791 or thereabouts. 



D3. 

ELECTRIC CANNON. 

WOOD AND BRASS. L. 29. 

LEIDEN, MUSEUM BOERHAAVE. 



A wooden cannon with brass electrodes. On discharge they ignite gun- 
powder and a cork is fired. 



D4. 

ELECTRIC CARILLON. 

IRON, BRASS AND WOOD, H. 30,5, 
LEIDEN, MUSEUM BOERHAAVE. 



Small metal balls are alternately attracted and repelled by charged 
electrodes and bells. 



D5, 
"DONDER HUISJE" (THUNDER OR LIGHTNING HOUSE). 

WOOD. 31 X 23,5x17,5. 
LEIDEN, MUSEUM BOERHAAVE. 

(See Fig.nr. 91} 



D6. 

DOLL'S HEAD. 
WOOD, NATURAL HAIR. H. 40. 
LEIDEN, MUSEUM BOERHAAVE. 

When the head is charged the hair stands on end. 



D 7. 

SET OF ELECTRIC MODELS. 
LEIDEN, MUSEUM BOERHAAVE. 



D8. 

THE PHYSICS ROOM IN THE BUILDING OFTHE FELIX MERITISSOCIETYIN AMSTERDA 

P. BARBIERS & J. KUyPER DEL, N. VAN DER MEER & R. VINKELES SCULP. 

PRINT, 44,5 X 55. 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

Professor Jean hlenry van Swinden giving a demonstration with a machi 
with glass discs for electrostatic experiments. Leyden jars are to be se 
on the table at the left. 
[See fig.nr. 73) 

D9. 

THE FIRST STEAM PUMP, INSTALLED NEAR ROTTERDAM, 1786/1 787. 

S.W. EVANS AFTER J.Z.S. PREY. 

PRINT, 37,5 X 26,5. 

ROTTERDAM, ATLAS VAN STOLK FOUNDATION. 

[See fig.nr. 74) 

D 10. 
DELLEBARRE MICROSCOPE WITH SLIDES. 

COPPER, H. 45,5. 
LEIDEN, MUSEUM BOERHAAVE. 

Little hjndamentai research was done by the societies, which insfe 
studied many known phenomena in order to admire the miracle of creati< 

D 11. 
NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTION IN A MINIATURE CABINET. 

ABRAHAM YPELAAR. 

41,5 X 27,5 X 15,5. 

LEIDEN, MUSEUM BOERHAAVE. 

D12. 

SPECIMENS OF ANIMALS: 

A. SKELETON OF A STARFISH. 

B. 'OSTRAKION QUADRICORNIS - BLOTZ' 

C. SAWFISH. 

LEIDEN, MUSEUM BOERHAAVE. 

D13. 
COLLECTION OF SEASHELLS IN SMALL TUBS. 

FROM THE COLLECTION OF C. VAN HOEY (1717-1 803) 
LEIDEN, MUSEUM BOERHAAVE. 

D14. 
ASSEMBLY ROOM OF A LITERARY SOCIETY IN LEIDEN. 

P.C. LAFARGUE. 
CANVAS, 59 X 73,5, 
LEIDEN, STEDELIJK MUSEUM "DE LAKENHAL". | 

(See fig.nr. 66] 



• 110*- 



INDEX OF ARTISTS 





ms, John / kAb,k 46, A 48, A 49, A 51 . 
Iidrjessen, Jurriaan / B 1 , C 3, C 4, C 5. 
Unds, Jan / B 2, B 3, B 4, B 5. 
-Jertzen, J. / C 28. 
,=-#erll, Johannes Man / A 42. 
JM>iers, Pieter / D 8. 

Iftdorp, Corel Frederik / A 26, A 54, A 62. 
— ~|ndorp, Johannes Christiaan / A 54, A 62. 
^ger, D. / A 53. 
techop Grevetinic, A.H. / A 25. 
issse, Pieter / A 50. 
agerts, C. / A 34. 
Isch, Johannes de / B 6. 
"Ink, J. van /C 76. 
J»«wer,G./A31. 
yyne,P.A. /C17. 

uis, Jan / A 60, A 64, A 65, B 7. 
trd,S/C21. 
i, Cornelis / C 58, 
i, Jacobus / A 43, A 61. 
lyssen, J. / C 1 04. 
4aard, JJ. / A 9. 

fleer, Borent Christiaan von / A 40. 
shelin, LJ. / A 5. 

^, Jacob / A/l, B 8, B 9, B 10, C 63 A + B. 
'«sier, A.H. / A 45 
ndowiecki, D. / A 53. 
Kssens, LA. / A 69. 
tow, H. /ClOl. 
ios, A. / A 6, A 9. 

ema, Klaas / C 38. 
«ek, Ludwig Friedrich / C6. 
»re, Augustin / A 30. 
cus (?) / A 27, A 28. 
lels Kerken, L / C 98. 
sns, S.W. / D 9. 
»ke, Simon / A 29, A 36, A 56. 
tskes, P. / C 43. 
Way, J. / A 67. 
ledhart,D./C41. 
irbergh, D. van de / C 35. 
_ e, Jon Evert /A 59, B 11. 
-w, Carolus Ten / C 39. 
iman, J. / C 31 . 

riks, Wijbrand / A 68, B 1 2, B 1 3, B 1 4, C 1 . 
It, Johannes ten / C 79. 
., Dirk / C 40. 

hey, Johan George / A 38, A 41 . 
jgers, Hendrik / B 1 5, B 16. 
vn, Jordonus / B 1 7. 
*ert, H. / C 34. 
eon, Pierre / A 2. 
^ten Jr., E. / C 26. 
ienbach, J.A. / A 5. 
thoff, Daniel / A 59. 
'i)ergen,P./C21. 
ipink, Willem / C 49. 
«H, Hendrik /B 18. 
«nburg, A. / C 42. 
per, J. / A 69, D 8. 
rgue,JaeobElias/B19,B20. 

srgue, Paulus Constantijn / B 21 , B 22, B 23, B 24, B 25, B 26, B 27, 
^an, Hendrik / A 3'/, 
tman, J.M. / A 39. 
totte, C. / C 103. 

jendiik. Dirk / A 52, B 29, B 30 
*is, G. / C 24. 
X, J.M. / C 30. 



Liender, Paul van / B 31 . 

Lingenaar, Jon / C 39, C 48. 

Luypen, Pieter / A 35, 

Luzoc, Johan / A 6, A 51 . 

Marum, Mortinus von / D 2. 

Moster"LB."/C107. 

Meer Jr., Noach von der / A 57, D 8. 

Mesman, J. / C 45. 

Meutemans, A. / A 55. 

Meurs, W.C. / C 29. 

Meyer, ChristoWel / B 32. 

Mol J. de /C 57, C 62. 

Monogrammist "A.D." / B 33. 

Morrison, J. / C 33. 

Muys, Nicolaas / C 7. 

Nieucasteel, J. van /CIS. 

Nolson, A. (?) / A 27, A 28. 

Noorde, Cornelis van / B 34. 

Numon, Hermanus / A 70, B 35. 

Oling,L/C19. 

Ottens, Reinier / A 23. 

Ou water, Izoak / B 36, B 37. 

Overbeek, Leendert / B 38, B 39, B 40 

Overmeer Fisscher, J.W.W. von / A 24. 

Poop, A.H. / C 22. 

Paddenburg, G.T. van / A 26. 

Philips, Caspar / A 7. 

Pierre, Henri La / C 51. 

Pothoven, Hendrik / A 34, B 41, B 42. 

Prey, J.Z.S. / D9. 

Puyl, Louis Francois Gerard van der / C 2. 

Rienstra,J./C46,C105. 

Solliefh, Ma«heus de / B 43, B 44. 

Sang, J./ C 14. 

Sas, Nicolaas / C 77. 

Schaake, A. / C 37. 

Schepp, J.H. / C 54. 

Schmetterling, Joseph Adolf / C 8 

Schouten, Hermanus Petrus / B 45, B 46, B 47, B 48, B 49 

Seppr Christiaan / A 1 . 

Sepp, Johan Christiaan / A 1 . 

Smies, Jacob / A 8. 

Smit, J. / C 36. 

Snoek, Roelof / C 39. 

Sommer, J. / C 50. 

Sondagh, R. / C 27. 

Soth, C. / C 47. 

Sprang, J, van der / B 50. 

Stapele, M. van / C 20. 

Stapele, R. van / C 1 06. 

Steenbeek, G. / C 97, C 99. 

Storm, B. / CI 02. 

Straatsburg, C.J. van / C 23, C 25. 

Sfrij, Jacob van / B 51, B 52. 

Sybel, Adam / C 89, C 90. 

Tanie, Pieter / C 65. 

Tavenier, Hendrik / B 53, 

Thier, Barent Hendrik / B 54. 

Verloove,J./C103a. 

Vervoort, J. / C 1 03b. 

Vinkeles, Reinier / A 4, A 43, B 55, D 8. 
B 23, D 1 4. Visser, Pier Johannes de / C 64, 

Vriiman,H./C108. 

Wagenaor, P./A31. 

Walpot, H. / A 55. 

Wiedemon, H.C.N. /C 16. 

Ypelaar, Abraham / D 11. 

Ziesenis, Johan Georg / A 3. 



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