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Full text of "The Egyptian Problem"

i MEHEMET ALI: CREATOR OF MODERN EGYPT 7
an enfeebled Turkey almost to the breaking point. In 1821 an Egyptian force had saved Crete for the time being for the Sultan, and as his reward, Mehemet All was appointed titular Pasha of the island. In 1824 he was appointed Pasha of the Morea, but in this case the title had still to be made good by force of arms. Mehemet All selected his favourite son Ibrahim, the conqueror of the Wahabis, to proceed to Greece in command of a large military and naval expedition which showed to the astonished Western world what a formidable weapon thQ genius of a great ruler had already fashioned in the course of a lew years out of the almost unsuspected wealth of Egypt. Under Ibrahim's skilful but ruthless leadership the tide of victory turned steadily once more in Turkey's favour. The Greek leaders quarrelled amongst themselves. Missolonghi and Athens fell. Thousands of Greek women and children were shipped off as slaves to Egypt. But the cruelties which Ibrahim perpetrated at last exhausted the patience of Europe, and as a consequence of the London Convention of 1826 Great Britain, France, and Russia, in spite of Austrian opposition, dispatched their combined fleets to cruise off the coast of Greece. After some period of hesitation and abortive negotiation, the Turco-Egyptian fleet was sunk in the bay of Navarino on October 20th, 1827, and just a year later, under Admiral Codrington's threat to bombard Alexandria, Mehemet Ali at last issued orders for the prompt evacuation of the Morea. Ibrahim brought back to Egypt less than, half the forces with which he had embarked on his great adventure, but Mehemet Ali thought he had taken the measure both of Turkey and of Europe. His opportunity came when the Sultan made a further call upon him. Canning was dead and Turkey had as usual reckoned upon the jealousies of the European Powers to escape the consequences of Navarino and delay recognition, of 'Greek independence. Russia, taking the law into her own hands, sent her armies across the Danube and was threatening the Ottoman dominions in AsiaEurope and strained the resources ofne to death in the streets of the capital. Egypt wasit in Egypt.    Within the first year of the Occupation