THE EGYPTIAN PROBLEM
towards her people, sat on the fence. Palmerston, dreading to see the Sultan indebted to Russia alone for the preservation of his Empire, urged him to make his peace direct with Mehemet Ali, who himself was too much of a statesman to grasp at more than he could reasonably hope to hold. British advice carried the day. A convention signed at Kutahia stayed the Egyptian advance. The Imperial Firman of outlawry against Mehemet Ali was solemnly revoked, and another one, issued on May 6th, 1833, granted him anew the Pashalik of Egypt and added that of the whole of Syria, including even the doubtful province 6f Adana.
As it was, Mehemet Ali had overreached himself. Even victorious campaigns are costly, and in order to recoup himself he had to grind the last piastre not only out of his own people in Egypt, but out of his new subjects in Syria. His son Ibrahim, though less successful as an administrator than as a general, pleaded for moderation, but in vain. Risings began to take place, first amongst the unruly mountaineers of the Syrian Lebanon and Ante-Lebanon, and then in other parts of the country. They had never bent patiently under the yoke as the Egyptian fellaheen had been accustomed to do for centuries, and if the Turks had chastised them with rods, their Egyptian masters scourged them with scorpions. Even Ibrahim's well-meant attempts to restrain the Mahomedans and Christians of Syria from flying at each other's throats in accordance with time-honoured traditions told against him. The Sultan saw his chance of reversing the Convention of Kutahia, and in 1839 he declared war once more upon his formidable vassal. But with no better luck than before. Ibrahim displayed once more his splendid qualities in the field. He smote a large Turkish army hip and thigh at Nezib, though the Turkish Commander-in-Chief had on his staff, but despised the advice of, a young Prussian officer, von Moltke, who was afterwards to be Chief of the Staff to the victorious Prussian armies in the great wars of 1866 own interests in Egypt from Mehemet Ali's leaningse and strained the resources ofne to death in the streets of the capital. Egypt wasit in Egypt. Within the first year of the Occupation