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Full text of "The Egyptian Problem"

16
THE EGYPTIAN PROBLEM
find   their way   ultimately   down   the   £
Atlantic, or across the Sahara to  the   A
They failed to get beyond the Blue and th
but they reduced the Sudanese to subjectioi
Khartum, and deplorable as were the later
of Egyptian misrule, it must be counted
All's credit that he was the first to open u]
of the Dark Continent.   He no doubt squand
sums in organising large armies on a new u
the purchase or building of fleets which Egj
before possessed.   But he also spent   a   g
public  works  which  have  endured.    He
port of Alexandria by digging the Mahm
to connect with the Mle.   He realised  th<
for a large expansion of the cultivable area
means of extended irrigation works, and the \
on the Nile just below Cairo was built in his c
remained a magnificent failure till British ei
pleted it and  strengthened  it  after   the
The huge trading monopolies which he ere
arsenals and factories which he erected   a
at great cost were economically  unsotinc
gave the first great impetus to the commerce
which,  directed afterwards  into  wiser   ch
contributed in a large measure to the prese:
of Egypt.   A Mahomedan by birth, he live
life decently and soberly according  to    t]
customs of Islam, but rarely and  only   i
political stress was he tempted to appeal to
fanaticism.   He was fully alive to the value
civilisation and of European education.     ITr<
of view he was entirely uneducated, and h<
to read and write in middle age, but he saw th
of educating Egyptian youths for the publi
the country.   The first schools he started, wit
the French Dr. Clot Bey were medical -sch-
doctors for the army.   Other schools folio
bribed his people to send their sons to   th«time, if Mehemet Ali's exactions were at •times quite merciless, he did not spend the proceeds on sloth and luxury. He had the European's activity of mind and body. He liked sometimes to call himself a Macedonian, and it was in the true spirit of Alexander the Oreat that, quite early in his reign, he dispatched two of Ms sons to conquer the Sudan, bidding them if possibleurces ofne to death in the streets of the capital. Egypt wasit in Egypt.    Within the first year of the Occupation