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i                            48                          THE EGYPTIAN  PROBLEM                      CH^
, ' M
: 11 j                            Protectorate,  when it  was  still a veiled   protectora
M                            and after it was openly proclaimed, I shall have occasi<
V< j                            to refer later on, as well as to the peculiar m^fc^°^ a*
j ; }                            agencies by which the Protectorate was exercised.    Durii
,;:ijj                            the first period of the Occupation our difficulties we
;  | j                            due to quite other causes.    They were due   "ko ^e u
; n 1                            certainty of our tenure both as to duration    ^nd tit!
.i I; f                            For so long as the British Government were not) 3?repar<
j M                            to remove that twofold uncertainty, they had  "to squa
HI                            their own responsibilities for the governance    of Egy
]    j                            after the Occupation with the international eng^tgemei)
;; ;j I                            into which the Egyptian Government had entered befo
r ;                            the Occupation.   That was no easy problem,   especial
' j                            during the first period of the Occupation, when, some
!                            the Great Powers were by no means yet reconciled even
I                            the temporary ascendancy which our military oecupati<
• *;!                            necessarily gave us, and the safety of Egypt even with
i                             her own frontiers was at times in serious   peril.   E
!                            the treaty rights of other Powers were very fa/r-reachi
;                             and gave them a formidable handle for unfriendly into
,                               ference even in the internal affairs of Egypt,   whilst t
'                   ;:;;                             whole   international  situation  was  pregnant    "with t
l             .     \., ;                             danger of foreign complications.
i.                     -\                                Only when one bears clearly in mind the    manifc
!                             restraints which were thus placed on our freedom
|                      ;                             action,  whether by foreign treaty rights in   Egypt
|                      '                             by considerations of general policy, can the  naiignitu
|                     ;?                             of the task which fell to Lord Cromer during   the fi
f.                   \;                             period of the Occupation, or the success with,   which
p                                                 accomplished it, be justly appraised.
|J                                                    The first danger point was the Sudan, artdL   it m
%•                   j|                             be well to recall what happened there, as it   sc^emn
I j                HI                             have   entirely   escaped  the   memory  of the    lEgypti
fi                f^il                             Nationalists,  who  deman.d our withdrawal from it
i|      *      , i :.;j!                             well as from Egypt.    One leading Nationalist   told]
ft               '! ;j;                             point blank that we had c< robbed " Egypt of tlao Sudi
§i':                              as if the Egyptians had not been driven headlong out
•i ;!'•*'                            the Sudanese themselves, who, but for us, woudd ha