THE EGYPTIAN PBOBLEM
the streets in various quarters, notably in the Musky, at Kasr-el-Nil, and in the neighbourhood of the Ministries, and did considerable damage to shops and public establishments. The offices of Al MoJcattam, a Syrian Anglophile paper, were sacked. Trains on the Heluan line were stoned and fierce onslaughts were made on tramway cars. For several hours the police tried to cope with the situation, but towards midday they called the military authorities to their assistance. Ultimately fire was opened on the crowd. There were several casualties and a large number of arrests.
Tuesday, the llth, saw a repetition of what had occurred on the previous day. But voices other than those of the streets were joining in the chorus of protest. A certain number of officials went on strike, and the native lawyers decided to do likewise. Meanwhile, uninterrupted meetings were being held in native circles. The house of Zaghlul Pasha had served for some months as the headquarters of the Party of Independence. When some of his friends called there on the evening of his arrest, his wife received them, and told them in a stirring speech that it was henceforth " the House of the Nation." It continued to be the centre of Nationalist activity. It was there that the Committee, now under the presidency of All Pasha Sharawi, received deputations of students, officials, lawyers, and notables from Cairo and the provinces, and held incessant meetings, of which the upshot was invariably " to protest by every means in our power.55 Deputations were sent round to the foreign Legations with petitions and protests, and emissaries dispatched to all parts of Egypt to intimate that the time had come to " display our feelings."
The leaders did nob, it is believed, intend such a grave upheaval as their action brought about. The wave oi madness which passed over the country was, in degree if not in kind, the work of fanatical incendiaries over whom they had far from absolute control. This is not to exonerate the Committee from the heavy responsibilityrs to any serioustry out of which it makes its living. Several of these communities arehave gone far to remove the sense of bitterness. After all the Syrian expedition would have been scarcely feasible without Egyptian labour and Egyptian supplies, and some expression of gratitude would not have marred its glory. But the saving word was never spoken ; and the payments due from the military authorities continued to lag for months behind, and the ugly past towns, the Central Government merely making certain