xm EDUCATION 223
is likely to prove an even more formidable task than the provision of 8,000 school buildings.
But if we have sacrificed popular to higher education, what have we to show to our credit in regard to the latter ? In the broadest sense of the term, desperately little. We have concentrated our efforts on secondary schools and on the few higher colleges for law, medicine, engineering, and teaching, which existed for the most part before the Occupation, and we have done so mainly for the production-—still quite inadequate—of Government officials. Even in this limited field the schools and colleges are insufficiently equipped and staffed. Classes overgrown beyond all possibility of real efficiency are still not large enough, to satisfy the ever-increasing demand, for the Egyptian middle classes have been simply clamouring for education. In 1916 only 341 out of 619 youths who had passed the requisite examinations and were entitled to expect admission to the higher schools could be accommodated in them.
I will say nothing of the School of Law, as it is under the Ministry of Justice, nor of the more recently established School of Agriculture, which is under the Ministry of Agriculture. But the School of Medicine at Kasr-el-Aini in Cairo, the only one in Egypt—there is no School of Dentistry at all—is under the Ministry of Education. It is at the same time the only School of Pharmacy. Its diplomas are recognised in Europe, and it produces first-rate men. But its totally inadequate equipment only allows it to turn out fifty graduates a year, when the country requires hundreds. The average of annual applications for admission, all from young men with recognised educational qualifications, has been 149 for the last six years. For every applicant admitted four were turned back. For the School of Pharmacy the average was 38, and of these only one in four could find admission. Egypt meanwhile continues to be flooded with quack chemists of foreign nationality, who are free from all control or interference under cover of the Capitulations. Both Theyptians, jit