THE EGYPTIAN PROBLEM
alone still sought occasionally to remind us that the Ottoman Sultan had not renounced either his suzerain rights or his underground methods of grfing trouble in Egypt. ,
Our veiled Protectorate did not even then receive any formal international sanction, but our hands were much more free, and we admitted frankly that we could set no definite term to the Occupation. Perhaps on that account we grew to be more careless of our trust when the great Proconsul left Egypt who had consistently preached and practised an exceptionally high standard of duty. A change too of policy took place, which, however well meant, resulted, to our own discredit, in strengthening the evil influence of the Khedive rather than in enlarging the liberties or quickening the political education of the people. During this later period Lord Kitchener's " Five Feddan Law " showed an almost solitary revival of the generous spirit of the earlier days, and whilst an Anglo-Egyptian bureaucracy, more centralised and more mechanical as it grew rapidly in numbers, was losing contact with the masses, the political restlessness of the new middle classes, largely due to Western education, and the Pan-Islamic reaction against the West prompted from Constantinople found common ground in the renascence of a fervid Nationalism directed against tutelage by an alien Power.
Nevertheless, until the Great War threw Egypt with the rest of the world into the melting-pot, we were able to assume, without fear of contradiction, the consent of the vast majority of the population to a Protectorate which, though still, if rather thinly, veiled, had acquired most of the elements of permanence. During the war we deemed it necessary to transform the veiled Protectorate into an openly proclaimed one, and in the Treaty of Versailles we secured for it an international sanction which the veiled Protectorate had always formally lacked. With a strange irony, it was just then that the Egyptians, who had remained quiet throughout the war and indeedted at rinse cmhe almost uninterrupted expansion of Egyptian revenue which has been going on since the early years of the