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Full text of "The electrification of the Baltimore and Ohio tunnels in Baltimore / by Edward M. Wenner."

TH3 ELECTRIFICATION OF" TH3 BALTIMORE IND OHIO 
TUNNELS IN BALTIMO 

1 
HISTORY 

In the earl j of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad there was no direct rail connection betneen the 

In line nest of Baltimore and that east. This I 
that it was necessary to transfer all their t> en 

■ e two points bj means of ferry across nn nf the Pat- 
bco River. When railroads nere fir ilt there was 
but little traffic and freight was light, so this method 

oved to ; first, There was not a sreat 

deal of time lost in this of transfer sinc'e freight 
iid not travel v .by rail and it i Lso thou, 

js expensive t milding und t] 

city. " refore, all the traffic over the railroad 
taken around the city in t, ray until toward tne end of 
the nineteenth century, when the railroad c i y began to 
realize that this method was becoming entirely out of date, 
rhe great inc, in the amount of traffic durj tnis 
period, and the rate at which it was non travel! . .oned 

it they must secure a fasten means of 

transporting their trains t city of Baltimore. 

3o this led to t- ;, in ti 3 earl; .-unties, of what 
is known as the Belt Line, which is a direct rail connect- 
ion through the city between t in line east and tnat 



- .- 



t of the city. 

. of the re qui . '•■■"■ -rn- 

ing .itruction of thia line through the citj was t] 

as be I bj electri ■ Not onlj b) ' , >ut 

also the fact that 1 of bhi 

1 

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Fin. 2. Map, Triu-lc Chart, Profile, and Curirnture of the Bell Line, Baltimore, Mel. 



-3- 



Line 

extending from G the west '. I .. ''.... 

loc torer on the ea.. , . distance of 3.75 miles 

and lies entirely nithin the city limits of Baltim 

11 , which to 

forty eight per cent of the total distance. t of 

jse tunnejsl is the e between G It Low id Mount 

Royal S1 rrhich is 7,300 feet in length. This tunnel 

co; trio tracks while there are four tj betneen 

Mount Ro„ I Huntington fcvenue and then tno tracks from 

it to Waverly. 
rhe portion of the Belt Line over nnich tr re 

die I by electricity i3 entirely upgrade. The difference 

D ien St ^rly is 150 feet 

nhich gives ;e through grad ths per-ce 

Tnid is a " bant fact oi:;cu trains are handled 03 

means of the electric locon.otivss i L; dir- 

ection. ' ,j return light, traffic operate, 

oti Lrection, on account of { ade, i;ithout ^oTrer frcn. 

steam locomotive except foi 

POWER SUPPLY USD DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 

The direct current system is used on this line. 
oirer for the operation of the secti irst i.ed 

jctlj from a porter . . built for th? t purpose 
located it the western end of the zone. This st con- 



_4- 



sisted of five 500 K.W. 700 volt direct current generators 
which were direct c .. ted to tandem cc; _ i non-cond;r :...- 

ig Corliss e ss. These tsere the 1 fc direct comi< 

ed generators ever ins is tin.e. I sti 

battery substation lso i led ne e Mount, Royal 

ix station, one iles from the 

power house, obtain more m- 

ical iditions as well as to improve . ;e 

on the line. 67 5 volts nere to be id at the sub- 

statd bustoars iunt Royal. Now in order that this 

voltage could he maintaj ;e at 

e power house the booster system of control ich 

booster locate oner house. This per- 

mitted a reduction of the voltage to 550 volts 

so that current could be used for industrial . ss. The 

booster limited the power house output to 900 .'or 

traction purposes. This, with the bi sufficient to 

idle one freight train of 1600 t< sight, including 

electric locomotive, in. 

With this method of poner, is the original, 

the electric energy was supplied to the locomotives through 
- over tern of power distribution. The trolley or 

tact t .tor com f tno *Z* b . o arr 

to fcj.i box lj ructure nil let in the bottom. The 

collector shoe, attached to the locomotive 

allowed to slide in this overhead slot. The trollej n 



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_,orted outside of the tunnels from ; Oj c ry con- 
structio in the Is by direct hangers. 



LOCOMOTIVES FIRST USTSD 

ree electric locomotives nere ^v jd for trie 

peration of thJ .... These ed about 96 tows 
each, and nere designated as class LE-1. These three origi- 

Ohio electric locon.otives yrere e 
jearless motors; that is the armatures nere mounted 
direct 1 , the main driving axle, power being c Led 
to the drivj heel through a spider and rubber driving 
It is verj interesting to note that not until 
rly a quarter of a century la1 ■ ct current gearless 
motors c 

3000 volts nere 
decide! uj 'or 
the ;er l oco- 

. Lvea r.orr us 
on the Coast Divi- 
sion of the C o, 
Milwaukee and St. 
LB ' I 




Fig. 3. First Heavy Electric Locomotive Ever Built. Equipped with 
four 270-h.p. ^earless motors 



2 first 
tri- l trip was 

irith electric locomotive number 1 or, June 27, 1894, but 
the line nas sot opened for traffic uatil M y 1, The 



-6, 



three original locomotives rtsrs used for ^bout fifteen y< 
and then retire!. Or sserved is c;ood 

condition for exhibition purposes as being the first elect- 
ric locomotive used ier steal Lro?.d 

. 

This system of overhead distribut:. id the type 

L3-1 locomotives nere used for about the first seven i 
eiefnt rs of operation. "Duv : ;-:riod the railro 

he overhead trollej nas causing n very 
srrc ense. In the first x>lace it w & s u ' r J as 

nould he expected from our present ledge of methods of 

coller nt. It Iso constantly in need of re- 

paid ice it corroded vji.. cklj lue to electroly;. 

I the action of locomotive gases in the tunnel. . re- 

fore, to cut down this high maintenance cost the overhead 
conductors nere replaced ird rail syste r the 

entire section. 

THIRD RAIL DISTRIBUTION 

in 190;. 
rt of it is still i vice. ution a 

1 form of protection had to | rovided at 

er t of the fl -action. 

Trouble ' met rrith the third rai] 

switches. I der to provide a co , ly of cur- 

t to the locomotj - ; e places where re 



-7- 



too t to be spanned by the third rail shoes, . scial 

gement of ] 1 to be used t . id 

the nece of over; iuctor , These were loc 

inside the cr '.racks and at such other re 

the standard tr.ird ril would be fouled bv trains using the 
crossing tracks. j consiste* of ^. structur::.l "T* iron, 

when in the operating position wei 

: I , at were otherwise lowered to the 
-:k rail 1 . • in the lowei position the ci 

tomatic ... Ls 

were controlled from the signal towers, properly 

interlock tch levers. ' Ls third r LI . tan 

is still j t toe I 

t ten 

j | :i 

t 

badly that it had to be 
cci slj renewed. 

this time a feu c 

s made i. to 




Fig. 3. Latest Type of Third-Rail Construction 
Adopted. This is now Standard. 



Lon and support of the rail to overcome certain faults 
the ori ;inal . This, as modified, has 1 i pted 

as a s1 rd ie 'or future re. 



-8- 



SECOND T. 9 LOCOMOTIVES 

. i rai] 

tributioi jcond 
lot of locomotives, 
a ted as class 
LB- 2, were purchased, 
jse locomotives 
I 
were des- 
igned exclusivelj 
for frei ervice. 
Three of then: it ere 




Fig. S. Three 80-ton Freight Locomotives, Type LE-1 and LE-2, each 
equipped with four GE-65 Motors hauling freight train 



built in 1903 nother one 

Now that a suit 

distribution of current in the third rail . .. bern, 

the nen type of locor.otives that had been purchased, ever„ - 

thing seemed to be going ve aoothlj 

corr-pany found th..„ . .r pro! e. Thj ., the 

one of poire] ... t increase in tr 

it of traffic Led a condition finally re- 

Led where err. of was to tall; 

adequate to rr.oet the dei Af 

ower coul 



i '. ;e central statio it would be ct- 



-9- 



froir. nrell as ftcoaomic t of view. 

"ore in c ' 

solidated G , Electric Light, C r- 

the form of 13,000 volt three e, 25 

ile current. V syachi ilt 

the railro the Mount Royal batterj tion 

for ii three 1000 K.W. 650 volt 3 

\rerters frith iccess ■ „ uxilj iriei , 

Fficiewt space for a ■ . . i ' ; e. 

Three such ■• lied ■ t- 

tery use system, 

L»ed S 




Fig. 7. Mt Roynl Substation of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 



■ 



of this 

i 

LRB Sll 

re dec Id 

occun 

; 
. 
I tel] the ien 
. 1 for power , sc- 

to carr, fili- 

ated. 

. thod of 
I, Ik 1914 to 

.lectrical .. ts nf for 

li osfts, and the old Mou. t 

Royal batte 

■j . At t K.W. 

ret ysta i- 

. 1 .... 
of gross tr jf 28 10 to 

DCOMOTIVES ) TRAFFIC 

! nen method of power supplj .1 lot of 

locoir.otiv sre built wej pproxi LOO tows ea< . 



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r this type were £ 
I ner- designate - OS-1 a»d OB-8. la se 

loc 
time tiro similar loco: 

as c CE-3. 







Fig. 6. One 100-ton Freight and Passenger Locomotive, Type OE-l and 
OE-2, equipped with four GE-209 Motors hauling passenger train 



. 




""""■•■-*" "' — m 


R^^i^s.--^^. ^"*«*iiz^ 



Fig. 7. Two 100-ton Freight and Passenger Locomotives, Type OE-l and 
OE-2, each equipped with four GE-209 Motors hauling freight train 



,se six loc are 

d o* boL . The service 

the zo srvice exce„ t the 






ce. of the electric 
locomotives are usei t are couple 

Oh account of the short... the 

Steam locomotives are hauled ;h the zone 
trains. -j electric locomotives return li ;ht, sis traffic 
e westbound, or dowi ie , direction nj 
:r from the steam locomotive. 




Two 12C-ton Freight Locomotives Delivered in 1923 



The pres< r freight t 

lleJ hie line is 2-450 tor... - the 

Steam locomotive it* bout 270 tc . . 03-1 or 

03-2 locomotives I ieed of 1. 

twice the speed mad« llet 
5 am loco. cor re. th full load- 

Present traffic co ts of 3 bout 
d ai : . 

Is electrification was the fia ork of its 



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kiad, the Baltimore s Ohio the First trusk rail- 
road to . electricity as r. 



Note: 

D a for the pre x 

article J. H. Davis, Chief E»gj er, Electric Traction, 

ltimore ' ' i, publi.. L» the Noren b , 

1914 ■ . C , 1 3 i3sues of the it I Electric 

Revien.