2 * INTRODUCTION. 1844 the third edition of his ' Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression/ * He may with justice be said, not only to have laid the foundations of the subject as a branch of science, but to have built up a noble structure. His work is in every way deeply interesting; it includes graphic descriptions of the various emotions, and is ad- mirably illustrated. It is generally admitted that his service consists chiefly in having shown the intimate rela- tion which exists between the movements of expression and those of respiration. One of the most important points, small as it may at first appear, is that the muscles round the eyes are involuntarily contracted during violent expiratory efforts, in order to protect these delicate or- gans from the pressure of the blood. This fact, which has been fully investigated for me with the greatest kind- ness by Professors Bonders of Utrecht, throws, as we shall hereafter see, a flood of light on several of the most im- portant expressions of the human countenance. The merits of Sir C. Bell's work have been undervalued or quite ignored by several foreign waiters, but have been fully admitted by some, for instance by M. Lcmoine,0 who with great justice says: .—" Le livre cle Ch. Bell devrait 6tre me"dite par quiconque essaye de faire parler le visage cle I'homme, par les philosophes aussi bien que par les artistes, car, sous une apparence plus leg£re et sous le pre"texte de 1'esthetique, c'est un des plus beaux monuments de la science des rapports du physique et du moral." From reasons which will presently be assigned, Sir * I always quote from the tliird edition, 1844, which was published after the death of Sir C. Bell, and contains his latest corrections. The first edition of 1806 is much inferior in merit, and does not include some of his more important views. 5 * De la Physionomie et de la Parole,' par Albert Le- moine, 1865, p. 101.