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INTRODUCTION.                              3

C3- Bell did not attempt to follow out his views as far as
they might have been carried, lie does not try to ex-
plain why dillorcnt muscles are brought into action
under dill'ercnt emotions; why, for instance., the inner
uiids of the eyebrows are raised, and the corners of the
nsouth depressed, by a person sulTering from grief or . .              if

anxiety.                                                                                               I

In 1807 M. Moreau edited an edition of   Lavater                          }'*

on Physiognomy,0 in which lie incorporated several of                          //

his own essays, containing excellent descriptions of the                          $

movements of the.facial muscles, together with many                          i1

valuable remarks.   He throws, however, very little light                          '*

on  the philosophy of the subject.     For instance, M.                          ?

Moreau, in speaking of the act of frowning, that is, of
the contraction of the muscle called by French writers                          ;

the   sourcilier (corrngator   s'liperciUi), remarks   with                         ;

truth :" Cette action des sourciliers est un des symp-

c * L'Art de les Homines,' <y,e., par (J. Lavater.

Tlie earliest edition of this work, referred to in the preface.                            |

to the edition of 1820 in ten volumes, as containing* the
observations of M. Moreau, is said to have been published
m 1807; and I have no doubt that this is correct, because                            ,

the * Notice stir Lavater ' at the commencement of volume                            >

i.  is dated April 13, 1800.    In some bibliographical works,                            f

however, the date of 18051.809 is given, but it seems im-
possible that 1805 can be correct. Dr. Duchenne remarks
(* Mecanisme de la Vhysionomie Humaine,' 8vo edit. 1SGJ2,
p. 5, and 'Archives Generates de Medeeine,' Jan. et Fev.                          \

1802)   that  M.  Aloreau   "   condone pour xon  <>nrra</c  un                                  ]

article important" &c., in the year 1805; and I find in vol-
ume i. of the edition of 1820 passages bearing the dates of
December 12, 1805, and another January 5, 1806, besides
that of April 13, 1800, above referred to. In consequence
of some of these passages having thus been composed in
1805, Dr. Dnchenne assigns to M. Moreau the priority over
Mir G. Bell, whose work, as we have seen, was published
in 1800. This is a very unusual manner of determining1
tlie priority of scientific works; but such questions are
erf extremely little importance in comparison with their
relative merits. The passages above quoted from M.
Moreau and from Le Brnn are taken in this and all other
eases from the edition of 1820 of Lavater, torn. iv. p. 228,

. torn. ix. p. 270.                                                                                        ,