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INTRODUCTION.                              5

Burgess, appeared in 1839, and to this work I shall fre-
quently refer in my thirteenth Chapter.

In 1862 Dr. Duchenne published two editions, in
folio and octavo, of his ' Mecanisme de la Physionomie
Humaine/ in which he analyses by means of electricity,
and illustrates by magnificent photographs, the move-
ments of .the facial muscles.   He has generously per-
mitted me to copy as many of his photographs as I de-
sired.   His works have been spoken lightly of, or quite
passed over, by some of his countrymen.   It is possible
that Dr. Duchenne may have exaggerated the impor-
tance of the contraction of single muscles in giving ex-
pression; for, owing to the intimate manner in whicli                         |(
the muscles are connected, as may be seen in Henle's                          }f
anatomical drawings 7—the best I believe ever published                           f
—it is difficult to believe in their separate action.   Never-                            |
theless, it is manifest that Dr. Duchenne clearly appre-                           |
hended this and other sources of error, and as it is known                           -"
that he was eminently successful   in   elucidating the                            ?
physiology of the muscles of the hand by the aid of elec-                            t
tricity, it is probable that he is generally in the right                            |
about the muscles of   the face.     In my opinion, Dr.                            |
Duchenne has greatly advanced the subject by his treat-                            *'
ment of it.   No one has more carefully studied the con-                            *
traction of each separate muscle, and the consequent                            ;
furrows produced on the skin.   He has also, and this is                           *
a very important service, shown which muscles are least                            ',
under the separate control of the will.   He enters very                           '(
little into theoretical considerations, and seldom at-                           i
tempts to explain why certain muscles and not others                           f
contract under the influence of certain emotions.                                        |

A distinguished French anatomist, Pierre Gratiolet,

7 ' Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomic des Men-                           I

schen.'   Band I.   Dritte Abtheilung, 1858.                                '                       1