10 INTRODUCTION. All the authors who have written on Expression, with the exception of Mr. Spencerthe great expounder of the principle of Evolutionappear to have been firmly convinced that species, man of course included, came into existence in their present condition. Sir C. Bell, being thus convinced, maintains that many of our facial muscles are " purely instrumental in expres- sion;" or are "a special provision" for this sole ob- ject.12 But the simple fact that the anthropoid apes possess the same facial muscles as we do,13 renders it very improbable that these muscles in our case serve exclusively for expression; for no one, I presume, would be inclined to admit that monkeys have been endowed with special muscles solely for exhibiting their hideous grimaces. Distinct uses, independently of expression, can indeed be assigned with much probability for almost all the facial muscles. Sir C. Bell evidently wished to draw as broad a dis- tinction as possible between man and the lower animals; and he consequently asserts that with " the lower crea- tures there is no expression but what may be referred, more or less plainly, to their acts of volition or neces- sary instincts." He further maintains that their faces " seem chiefly capable of expressing rage and fear."14 But man himself cannot express love and humility by external signs, so plainly as does a dog, when with droop- ing ears, hanging lips, flexuous body, and wagging tail, he meets his beloved master. Isfor can these movements fP 13' Anatomy of Expression,' 3rd edit. pp. 98, 121, 131. I 18 Professor Owen expressly states (Proc. Zoolog. Soc. / 1830, p. 28) that this is the case with respect to the Orang, and specifies all the more important muscles which are » well known to serve with man for the expression of his feelings. See, also, a description of several of the facial muscles in the Chimpanzee, by Prof. Macalister, in * Annals I and Magazine of Natural History,' vol. vii. May, 1871, p. 342. r 14 * Anatomy of Expression,* pp. 121, 138.