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INTEODUCTION.                              H

in the dog be explained by acts of volition or necessary
instincts, any more than the beaming eyes and smiling
cheeks of a man when he meets an old friend. If Sir
0. Bell had been questioned about the expression of
affection in the dog, he would no doubt have answered
that this animal had been created with special instincts,,
adapting him for association with man, and that all
further enquiry on the subject was superfluous.

Although Gratiolet emphatically denies15 that any
muscle has been developed solely for the sake of ex-
pression, he seems never to have reflected on the prin-
ciple of evolution. He apparently looks at each species
as a separate creation. So it is with the other writers
on Expression. For instance, Dr. Duchenne, after
speaking of the movements of the limbs, refers to those
which give expression to the face, and remarks:1(t " Le
createur n'a done pas eu a se pr&occuper ici des besoins
de la mecanique; il a pu, selon sa sagesse, ou—que Ton
me pardonne cette maniere de parler—par une divine
fantaisie, mettre en action tel ou tel muscle, un seul ou
plusieurs muscles d la fois, lorsqu'il a voulu que les signes
caracteristiques des passions, m6me les plus fugaces, fus-
sent Merits passag^rement sur la face de 1'homme. Ce
langage de la physionomie une fois cr66, il lui a suffi,
pour le rendre universel et immuable, de donner d tout
£tre humain la facult6 instinctive d'exprimer toujours
ses sentiments par la contraction des m^mes muscles."

Many writers consider the whole subject of Expres-
sion as inexplicable. Thus the illustrious physiologist
Miiller, says,17 " The completely different expression of

15 ' Be la Physionomie,' pp. 12, 73.

M ' Mecanisme de la Plvysionoinie Humaine,' 8vo edit,
p. 31.

17 ' Elements of Physiology,' English translation, vol.
ii. p. 934,